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1

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...mechanical inspections of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used...

2013-10-01

2

Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

1983-01-01

3

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...poisonous gas) materials on passenger-carrying vehicles. ...any amount, in or on any bus while engaged in the transportation of passengers; or any less dangerous...weight in or on any such bus. (g) Class 7...

2009-10-01

4

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...poisonous gas) materials on passenger-carrying vehicles. ...any amount, in or on any bus while engaged in the transportation of passengers; or any less dangerous...weight in or on any such bus. (g) Class 7...

2010-10-01

5

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

6

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles...PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements... § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered...

2010-10-01

7

77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo Alto and Fremont...special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities...to the manufacturing of electric passenger vehicles and related...

2012-10-04

8

49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance...Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.85 What...

2013-10-01

9

75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 AGENCY...SUMMARY: Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008...

2010-05-12

10

Planning for intercity rail passenger service at the state level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical feature:The major findings and recommendations developed by the Texas Transportation Inst. as part of an intercity rail passenger study are presented. A brief history of railroad construction and rail passenger service is surveyed. The causes of rail ridership decline are considered. The creation of Amtrak, a quasi-public corporation, reduced the total number of intercity passenger trains being operated by

1978-01-01

11

Compressed Natural Gas Passenger Vehicle Development - Issues and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development of automotive vehicle has always been influenced by the availability and the form of fuel. The oil reserves are depleting by the day. This will affect the automotive designs, research and development. particularly, the engine and transmission, fuel storage and the vehicle body. For passenger car, either an alternative fuel need to be sought and utilised

Barkawi Sahari; Yusoff Ali; Fakhru' l-Razi Ahmadun; Shahrir Abdullah; Masjuki Hj; Ishak Aris; Muhamad Adlan Abdullah; Fauzy Ahmad; V. Chelliah; Zahari Taha; T. G. Chuah; Norman Mariun; Ku Halim; Ku Hamid; V. R. Radhakrishnan

12

Deaths of teenagers as motor-vehicle passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of teenage motor-vehicle crashes and injuries have focussed on drivers. However, deaths of 13- to 19-year-olds as passengers are nearly as common as teenage driver deaths (2,131 vs. 2,355 in 1993), and teenage passenger death rates are much higher relative to rates for older people than is the case for driver deaths. The deaths of both teenage drivers

Allan F. Williams; JoAnn K. Wells

1995-01-01

13

A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

1982-01-01

14

Baseline Tests of the Epc Hummingbird Electric Passenger Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted ...

R. J. Slavik E. A. Maslowski N. B. Sargent A. Birchenough

1977-01-01

15

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF VEHICLE MODELS COUPLED WITH BIODYNAMIC PASSENGER MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates dynamic response of discrete passenger-seat models coupled with simplified models of ground vehicles. The relatively small dimension of the resulting mechanical model is counterweighted by the complexity introduced by the strongly nonlinear characteristics exhibited by the components of both the biodynamic and the car subsystems. This complexity is enhanced further by the possibility of loss of contact

C. Papalukopoulos; C. Theodosiou; S. Natsiavas

16

New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L\\/100 km. The Phase 3

Zhao Wang; Yuefu Jin; Michael Wang; Wu Wei

2010-01-01

17

New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO 2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7L\\/100km. The Phase 3 standard follows

Zhao Wang; Yuefu Jin; Michael Wang; Wu Wei

2010-01-01

18

The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ?67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

2013-04-01

19

Modelling Urban Bus Service and Passenger Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates some of the measures used to assess reliability of an urban bus network using a dynamic microsimulation model framework. The framework incorporates models of bus operation, passenger arrival and boarding for buses within a network model of general traffic. It therefore allows explicit modelling of the interactions among cars, buses and passengers and of their effect on

Ronghui Liu; Shalini Sinha

20

Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the "substructure method" employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

2011-07-01

21

Fleet scheduling and dispatching for demand-responsive passenger services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a software system designed to manage the deployment of a fleet of demand-responsive passenger vehicles such as taxis or variably routed buses. Multiple modes of operation are supported both for the fleet and for individual vehicles. Booking requests can be immediate (i.e. with zero notice) or in advance of travel. An initial implementation is chosen for each

Mark E. T. Horn

2002-01-01

22

76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak...

2011-09-07

23

76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak...

2011-12-14

24

Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

1977-01-01

25

78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

2013-03-13

26

Small Bus Program: Vehicle Operation Efficiency Report. Part I. Experimental Bus Program (15-20 Passenger Buses). Part II. Van Conversions for Dial-A-Ride Service (12 Passenger Buses).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation, Bureau of Urban and Public Transportation, has prepared the report describing operational experience with some 15 vehicles produced by a variety of manufacturers. The report consists of a serie...

P. B. Fletcher C. H. Hewitt C. V. Pellonpaa J. P. Woodford

1976-01-01

27

76 FR 62144 - Environmental Impact Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ and Phoenix...to study the implementation of passenger rail service between Tucson, Arizona and Phoenix...build alternatives that provide intercity rail service. Identifying the...

2011-10-06

28

Modeling Cost and Passenger Level of Service for Integrated Transit Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the United States, many transit agencies are considering integrating their demand-responsive service with traditional fixed-route\\u000a service. In some cases, it may be advantageous to the transit agency or to the passenger to coordinate traditional demand-responsive\\u000a transit service with fixed-route service. The demand-responsive service connects passengers from their origin to the fixed\\u000a route service and (or) from the fixed route

Mark Hickman; Kelly Blume

29

Trip characteristics of vehicle crashes involving child passengers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the trip characteristics of vehicle crashes involving children, and to examine the effect of situational factors on front row seating or inappropriate restraint for young children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on children <16 years in crashes of insured vehicles in 15 US states, with data collected using insurance claims records and a telephone interview. A descriptive analysis of the characteristics of vehicle crashes involving children was performed. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify situational factors associated with inappropriate restraint or front row seating. Results: These data suggest that children were traveling in vehicles involved in crashes that occurred under usual driving circumstances—that is, closer to home (60%), on a local road (56%), during normal daytime hours (71%), within areas with relatively lower posted speed limits (76%). Compared with children involved in morning crashes, those in daytime crashes (RR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.49) or in night-time crashes (RR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.67) were more likely to be sitting in the front seat. Children involved in night-time crashes were more likely to be inappropriately restrained (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22) than those in daytime crashes. Children riding with two or more additional passengers were more likely to be inappropriately restrained (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27) than those with no other passengers. Conclusions: Educational initiatives should aim to increase the perception that parents have about the potential crash risk of everyday trips. Some situational characteristics of trips were associated with inappropriate restraint and front row seating behaviors for young children.

Chen, I; Durbin, D; Elliott, M; Kallan, M; Winston, F

2005-01-01

30

Assessment of Crash-Reducing Effectiveness of Passenger Vehicle Daytime Running Lamps (DRLs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study estimates the effectiveness of passenger vehicle daytime running lights in reducing two-vehicle opposite direction crashes, pedestrian/bicycle crashes, and motorcycle crashes. The authors chose the generalized simple odds, a conventional statis...

2004-01-01

31

76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 332-523] U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector...No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector...likely impact of the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on the...

2011-02-02

32

Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. Design and settings: The Pedestrian Crash Data Study, conducted from 1994 to 1998, provided a solid database upon which details and mechanism of pedestrian crashes can be investigated. Results: From 552 recorded cases in this database, 542 patients had complete injury related information, making a meaningful study of pedestrian crash characteristics possible. Pedestrians struck by LTVs had a higher risk (29%) of severe injuries (abbreviated injury scale ?4) compared with passenger vehicles (18%) (p = 0.02). After adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed, LTVs were associated with 3.0 times higher risk of severe injuries (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 7.29, p = 0.013). Mortality rate for pedestrians struck by LTVs (25%) was two times higher than that for passenger vehicles (12%) (p<0.001). Risk of death for LTV crashes after adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed was 3.4 times higher than that for passenger vehicles (95% CI 1.45 to 7.81, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Vehicle type strongly influences risk of severe injury and death to pedestrian. This may be due in part to the front end design of the vehicle. Hence vehicle front end design, especially for LTVs, should be considered in future motor vehicle safety standards.

Roudsari, B; Mock, C; Kaufman, R; Grossman, D; Henary, B; Crandall, J

2004-01-01

33

Evaluating speed differences between passenger vehicles and heavy trucks for transportation-related emissions modeling.  

PubMed

Heavy-duty trucks make up only 3% of the on-road vehicle fleet, yet they account for > 7% of vehicle miles traveled in the United States. They also contribute a significant proportion of regulated ambient emissions. Heavy vehicles emit emissions at different rates than passenger vehicles. They may also behave differently on-road, yet may be treated similarly to passenger vehicles in emissions modeling. Input variables to the MOBILE software, such as average vehicle speed, are typically specified the same for heavy trucks as for passenger vehicles. Although not frequently considered in modeling emissions, speed differences between passenger vehicles and heavy trucks may influence emissions, because emission rates are correlated to average speed. Differences were evaluated by collecting average and spot speeds for heavy trucks and passenger vehicles on arterials and spot speeds on freeways in Des Moines, IA, and Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Speeds were compared by study site. Space mean speeds for heavy trucks were lower than passenger vehicle speeds for all of the arterials with differences ranging from 0.8 to 19 mph. Spot speeds for heavy trucks were also lower at all of the arterial and freeway locations with differences ranging from 0.8 to 6.1 mph. The impact that differences in on-road speeds had on emissions was also evaluated using MOBILE version 6.2. Misspecification of average truck speed is the most significant at lower and higher speed ranges. PMID:16295268

Hallmark, Shauna L; Isebrands, Hillary

2005-10-01

34

Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in

J. D. Salisbury; E. Behrin; M. K. Kong; D. J. Whisler

1980-01-01

35

49 CFR 39.43 - May PVOs impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services required...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...charges on passengers with a disability for providing services required...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination...charges on passengers with a disability for providing services...

2013-10-01

36

Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods  

SciTech Connect

This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

2005-07-01

37

49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each...

2013-10-01

38

Improved Transistorized AC Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive s...

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

39

Specific absorption rate evaluation for passengers using wireless communication devices inside vehicles with different handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations.  

PubMed

Radiation from mobile phones inside vehicles, which are semiopen metallic enclosures with irregular shapes and apertures, has been a major concern and has warranted investigation in past years. In this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in mobile phone users inside a vehicle was evaluated using different scenarios, including handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations. A computer simulation for SAR distributions in a human body was performed based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The SAR values in mobile phone users in free space were also compared to those inside a vehicle; results illustrated that the maximum SAR induced for mobile phone users in a vehicle is 5% higher than those in free space, but the SAR results showed no significant difference for the handedness. By comparing the SAR values between mobile phone users and nonusers inside a vehicle with a passenger count and seating locations, it was observed that the SAR values around the nonusers' body varied much in different situations, and were higher than those in free space, in some circumstances. PMID:22893364

Leung, Sai-Wing; Diao, Yinliang; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Siu, Yun-Ming; Wu, Yongle

2012-10-01

40

[An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].  

PubMed

A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

41

Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

1977-01-01

42

Baseline Tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 Electric Passenger Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated ...

E. F. Mcbrien N. B. Sargent R. Slavik

1977-01-01

43

INFLUENCE OF OXYGENATED FUELS ON THE EMISSIONS FROM THREE PRE-1985 LIGHT-DUTY PASSENGER VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Tailpipe and evaporative emission from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on a oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. mission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 degrees F ...

44

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2013-10-01

45

Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.  

PubMed

After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

2013-04-01

46

Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those component volumes. Therefore, the packaging utilizes rectangular catalyst bricks and integrates flow ducts into the heat exchangers. A concept is presented with a 25 l fuel processor volume including thermal isolation for a 3 kW el auxiliary power unit. The overall size of the system, i.e. including stack, air supply and auxiliaries can be estimated to 44 l.

Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

47

49 CFR 39.87 - What services are PVOs not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance...Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.87 What...

2013-10-01

48

75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the Cotton Belt Corridor...EIS) to study the implementation of rail passenger service on the 26-mile long...County, to the existing DART Red Line Light Rail Transit (LRT) corridor in the...

2010-07-08

49

Reducing Risks to Children in Vehicles With Passenger Airbags  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. This review examines the risk that pas- senger airbags pose for children and discusses behav- ioral and technologic measures aimed at protecting chil- dren from airbag deployment. Although airbags reduce fatal crash injuries among adult drivers and passengers, this safety technology increases mortality risk among children younger than age 12. The magnitude of the risk is multiplied when,children are

Ashley Simpson; Leo G. Woerner; John D. Graham; Sue J. Goldie; Maria Segui-Gomez; Kimberly M. Thompson

2010-01-01

50

14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 ...and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff,...

2014-01-01

51

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and...Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff,...

2014-01-01

52

The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors’ company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

53

Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

1980-02-01

54

Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

O'Neill, Brian

2009-04-01

55

Phase 1 of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control ...

P. Montalenti R. Piccolo

1979-01-01

56

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; ...

1980-01-01

57

A Unified Approach to SemiAutonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of unified active safety framework that combines trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles into a single constrained-optimal-control-based system. This framework allows for multiple actuation modes, diverse trajectory-planning objectives, and varying levels of autonomy. The vehicle navigation problem is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem with constraints bounding a navigable region

Sterling J. Anderson; Steven C. Peters; Tom E. Pilutti; Karl Iagnemma

2009-01-01

58

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

1980-01-01

59

Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

Not Available

1980-10-01

60

41 CFR 301-10.110 - May I use contract passenger transportation service for personal travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Use of Contract City-Pair Fares § 301-10.110 May I use contract passenger transportation service for personal travel?...

2013-07-01

61

Passenger Safety and Convenience Services in Automated Guideway Transit. Volume II. Guidebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current practices have been reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated for their effectiveness in accommodating Passenger Safety and Convenience Services (PS&CS) problems in AGT. These practices for providing PS&CS in both conventional and AGT have been assessed a...

R. L. Dauber

1979-01-01

62

The hybrid passenger vehicle--performance vs prediction  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid vehicle, a compromise between the IC and electric options, can offer the best of both petroleum and electric vehicle worlds. A Phase I study by General Electric was undertaken to advance the state of the art. This paper describes in some detail the hardware developed in the program. The drive train is outlined. The Test Bed Mule, with single-shaft drive, and another Hybrid Power Train Mule (a modified Oldsmobile) employing a two-shaft power drive, are tested. A simplified propulsion sequencing diagram and a heat engine feedback control block diagram are given. A hybrid and electric vehicle simulation program (HYVEC) schematic diagram was employed to perform second-by-second simulation of the operation, as shown. Finally, the comparison between predictions and test data is seen to be quite good, which indicates the probability of successful operation of the prototype hybrid.

Haller, T.R.

1982-06-01

63

49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for vehicles other than passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 6 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for vehicles other than passenger cars. 571.119 Section 571.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

2006-10-01

64

75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in Interstate Commerce AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2010-02-01

65

Baseline Tests of the GE-100 Centennial Electric Passenger Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The GE-100 Centennial electric vehicle is a one-of-a-kind prototype. Results of performance tests, speed, acceleration, gradeability, range, and efficiencies are presented. The GE-100 is powered by eighteen 6-volt lead-acid batteries driving a 16.3-kW d.c...

E. J. Dowgiallo I. R. Snellings W. H. Blake

1980-01-01

66

Fatigue damage analysis on body shell of a passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for design durability qualification of a vehicle body shell is presented. Field test data were used to produce an accelerated durability test that retains all of the damaging real time load histories present in the original test cycle. Fatigue analysis methods are used to access and compare the fatigue damage imposed during durability test and laboratory (torsion) experiments.

E. S. Palma; F. A. C. Vidal

2002-01-01

67

An analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of three electric-propulsion systems based on the Al-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE). In this comparison, the engine and fuel systems of a current five-passenger vehicle were conceptually replaced by three Al-air systems: (1) an Al-air battery-only system, (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling,

J. D. Salisbury; E. Behrin

1980-01-01

68

Fatigue damage analysis on body shell of a passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for design durability qualification of a vehicle body shell is presented. Field test data were used to produce an\\u000a accelerated durability test that retains all of the damaging real time load histories present in the original test cycle.\\u000a Fatigue analysis methods are used to access and compare the fatigue damage imposed during durability test and laboratory (torsion)\\u000a experiments.

E. S. Palma; F. A. C. Vidal

2002-01-01

69

Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

1977-01-01

70

A multiobjective model for passenger train services planning: application to Taiwan's high-speed rail line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a multiobjective programming model for the optimal allocation of passenger train services on an intercity high-speed rail line without branches. Minimizing the operator's total operating cost and minimizing the passenger's total travel time loss are the two planning objectives of the model. For a given many-to-many travel demand and a specified operating capacity, the model is solved

Yeong-Hwa Chang; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ching-Cheng Shen

2000-01-01

71

Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

1995-12-31

72

Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

1985-01-01

73

Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

2007-01-01

74

Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

Massey, Lee

2008-03-01

75

Ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide emissions from five passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

In this paper, three unregulated components, ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, emitted from five passenger vehicles are investigated. With focus upon emission factors from existing production technology, vehicles produced between 1989 and 1998 with considerable mileage (7000 to 280,000) are chosen. Among the five vehicles, four were sold in the European market, whereas one was sold in the US market. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer. An EU2000 Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a US Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) of the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) are used in the study. The regulated emissions are measured using a Horiba Mexa series. Unregulated emissions, ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are analysed by mass spectrometer, gas chromatography and CNT-NA, TIM315-74W method, respectively. Both the unregulated emissions and the regulated emissions show driving cycle dependency; and they are also improved with newer vehicle and emission control technology. However, a gasoline direct injection vehicle (relatively new technology in this study) has rather high regulated emissions, whereas the NH(3), N(2)O and HCN emissions are low. PMID:15504498

Karlsson, Hua Lu

2004-12-01

76

Passenger car collision fatalities--with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles.  

PubMed

Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 10(9)km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant deaths per 100,000 cars in car-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars. The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle's lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accounted for most of the fatal injuries. Multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles. An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for those who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2g/L. Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions. PMID:18215544

Björnstig, Ulf; Björnstig, Johanna; Eriksson, Anders

2008-01-01

77

Teen drivers and the risk of injury to child passengers in motor vehicle crashes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The first aim was to examine the relationship between driver's age (novice teens, older teens, and adults) and child passenger's restraint status, front row seating, and injury risk. The second aim was to explore whether there was an excess injury risk to child passengers in teen crashes compared to those in adult crashes by examining the contributing factors. Methods: A cross sectional study involving telephone interviews with insured drivers in a probability sample of 12 163 crashes involving 19 111 children was conducted. Sequential logistic regressions were employed. Results: Among child passengers aged 4–8, appropriate restraint was <1% for novice teens, 4.5% for older teens, and 23.6% for adults. Front row seating for children <13 years was more common in the novice teen group (26.8%) than in the other two groups. Compared with children riding with adults, those with both teen groups experienced excess injury risk. After adjusting for crash severity, there was a 43% reduction in the odds ratio (OR) for novice teens (OR 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.19) and a 24% reduction for older teens (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.26). After adjusting for vehicle type, child's restraint status and front row seating, there was a further 19% reduction in the OR for novice teens (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.88) and a further 13% reduction for older teens (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.66). Conclusion: These findings suggest ways in which graduated driver licensing laws may be further enhanced to better protect child passengers from the excess injury risk associated with teen crashes.

Chen, I; Elliott, M; Durbin, D; Winston, F

2005-01-01

78

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics...DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services must carriers...passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? As a carrier, you must provide...

2014-01-01

79

Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China.  

PubMed

A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were selected from a database of in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in Changsha-IVAC. The sampling criteria were defined as (1) the accident was a frontal impact that occurred between 2003 and 2009; (2) the pedestrian age was above 14; (3) the injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was 1+; (4) the accident involved passenger cars, SUVs, or MPVs; and (5) the vehicle impact speed can be determined. The selected IVAC data set, which included 104 pedestrian accident cases, was weighted based on the national traffic accident data. The logistical regression models of the risks for pedestrian fatalities and AIS 3+ injuries were developed in terms of vehicle impact speed using the unweighted and weighted data sets. A multiple logistic regression model on the risk of pedestrian AIS 3+ injury was developed considering the age and impact speed as two variables. It was found that the risk of pedestrian fatality is 26% at 50 km/h, 50% at 58 km/h, and 82% at 70 km/h. At an impact speed of 80 km/h, the pedestrian rarely survives. The weighted risk curves indicated that the risks of pedestrian fatality and injury in China were higher than that in other high-income countries, whereas the risks of pedestrian casualty was lower than in these countries 30 years ago. The findings could have a contribution to better understanding of the exposures of pedestrians in urban traffic in China, and provide background knowledge for the development of strategies for pedestrian protection. PMID:20441804

Kong, Chunyu; Yang, Jikuang

2010-07-01

80

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

Not Available

1980-10-01

81

Supramonopoly: Theory and Evidence from the US Air Passenger Service Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supramonopoly is the market structure of a homogeneous good that is priced higher than the monopoly level. We present evidence of supramonopoly in the US air passenger service. For four airline mergers during the period of 1993 to 2009, we identify routes that dropped fares for no other reason than the increase in market power due to merger. Therefore

Jin Luo

2010-01-01

82

Passenger Air Service Development Techniques. ACRP Report 18.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook should be of interest to airport managers and local government representatives interested in retaining existing and/or attracting new commercial air service in small communities. It provides information on the air service development (ASD) ...

S. C. Martin

2009-01-01

83

Improved transistorized ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive system, the investigation of a power level expansion to a family of horsepower and battery system voltages, and the investigation of the applicability of the ac controller for use as an on-board battery charger and for providing the function of motor reversal. Additional vehicle specifications, e.g., acceleration and pulling out of potholes, were added to the NASA vehicle specifications. Then, a vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The General Electric ac induction motor used in the drive is optimized to operate as a vehicle traction motor with a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter as a power source. The motor is nominally rated 20 hp and 41 hp peak. The power inverter design is a three-phase transistorized bridge configuration with feedback diodes. The transistors are a special design General Electric high-power Darlington transistor rated 450 volts and 200 amps. The battery system voltage chosen was 108 volts. The control strategy is a constant torque profile by PWM operation to base speed and a constant horsepower profile by square-wave operation to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. An advanced current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The primary feedback control is a motor angle control, with voltage and torque outer loop controls.

Peak, S.C.

1982-09-01

84

48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United States Government and Her Majesty's (HM) Customs and Excise, fuels and lubricants used by passenger vehicles (except taxis) in the performance of this contract will be exempt from customs duty and value added...

2009-10-01

85

48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United States Government and Her Majesty's (HM) Customs and Excise, fuels and lubricants used by passenger vehicles (except taxis) in the performance of this contract will be exempt from customs duty and value added...

2010-10-01

86

76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR...FTA-2011-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation...Period AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA...proposing to amend its bus testing procedures to...passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads....

2011-05-19

87

Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

1980-01-01

88

Deformations and intrusions of the passenger compartment as indicators of injury severity and triage in head-on collisions of non-airbag-carrying vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In motor vehicle collisions the mechanism of injury is important in determining severity as well as for triage decisions in the pre-hospital phase of patient management. This study correlates deformation of the basic structures of the passenger compartment [windscreen, control panel (dashboard) and steering wheel] with occupants’ injuries in passenger vehicle head-on collisions involving non-airbag-carrying vehicles, with or without compartment

N Stefanopoulos; C Vagianos; M Stavropoulos; E Panagiotopoulos; J Androulakis

2003-01-01

89

Spatial variations in broadband and air passenger service provision in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the resurgence of regions as key nodes in the global economy, there is a growing interest in better defining their competitive\\u000a advantages, particularly those accrued through infrastructure provision. Two important components of this competitive landscape\\u000a are information and communication technologies (ICTs) and commercial air passenger service. While the development of these\\u000a two networks is frequently cited as being a

Tony H. Grubesic

2010-01-01

90

MISSON LEVEL SYSTEM DESIGN FOR COCKPIT AND PASSENGERS AERONAUTICAL SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite based Air Traffic Management (ATM) and In-Flight Internet (IFI) services surely are among the most important ones that will be offered to airlines in the long term. In the design of any communication and security system, high performance must be paid for with high system costs. It is then clearly important, under the business case and technical perspective, to

Peter Unger; Lorenzo Battaglia

91

Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

Khazzoom, J.D. [San Jose Univ., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

92

Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

1980-01-01

93

Emissions of Particulate Trace Elements, Metals and Organic Species from Gasoline, Diesel, and Biodiesel Passenger Vehicles and Their Relation to Oxidative Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three light-duty passenger vehicles were tested in five configurations in a chassis dynamometer study to determine the chemical and oxidative potential of the particulate exhaust emissions. The first vehicle was a diesel Honda with a three-stage oxidation system. Its main catalyst was replaced with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and tested as a second configuration. The second vehicle was a

K. L. Cheung; L. Ntziachristos; T. Tzamkiozis; J. J. Schauer; Z. Samaras; K. F. Moore; C. Sioutas

2010-01-01

94

Steering wheel deformity and serious thoracic or abdominal injury among drivers and passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: There were 42,860 persons involved in motor vehicle crashes and seated in the driver or front passenger seat whose data were available for analysis. Five hundred fifty-four (1.3%) persons had serious thoracic injuries, and 169 (0.4%) persons had serious abdominal injuries. In multivariable logistic regression models that adjusted for important crash factors and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness

Craig D. Newgard; Roger J. Lewis; Jess F. Kraus

2005-01-01

95

Multi-agent infrastructure for distributed planning of demand-responsive passenger transportation service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand-responsive transport services are systems that assign users' specific transport requests to different vehicles enabled to fulfill the required service. In order to contain costs, maximize profits or get a higher service level, different planning algorithms have been described in literature. In our work we propose a multi-agent architecture, which adopts a mixed planning model. This model is an integration

Claudio Cubillos; Franco Guidi-polanco; Claudio Demartini

2004-01-01

96

Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.  

PubMed

Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked. PMID:22845727

Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

2012-01-01

97

Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

2010-02-01

98

Competitive tenders in passenger railway services: Looking into the theory and practice of different approaches in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 15 years competitive tenders have become a common procedure to procure and organise passenger railway services in European Union member countries. Different models have been developed in different countries, spanning from the British radical privatisation and franchising of the railway services to the more incremental processes in countries like Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany. The variety of

Gunnar Alexandersson; Staffan Hulten

2006-01-01

99

Performance Limits of Rail Passenger Vehicles: Stability/Curving Trade-Offs and Model Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamic performance capabilities of conventional and radial (both self and forced steering) passenger trucks are investigated with respect to lateral stability and curve negotiation. There always exists an inherent trade-off between good stability and...

1981-01-01

100

Study of Passenger Subjective Response to Ideal and Real-Vehicle Vibration Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality an...

R. H. Kirby P. J. Mikulka

1975-01-01

101

Ubiquitous connected train based on train-to-ground and intra-wagon communications capable of providing on trip customized digital services for passengers.  

PubMed

During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

2014-01-01

102

Ubiquitous Connected Train Based on Train-to-Ground and Intra-Wagon Communications Capable of Providing on Trip Customized Digital Services for Passengers  

PubMed Central

During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper.

Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, Jose Javier; Villadangos, Jesus

2014-01-01

103

Statistical Analysis of the New York - Washington, D.C. Rail Passenger Service, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report displays and discusses the socio-economic and attitudinal characteristics of Metroliner passengers. Analysis of socio-economic data indicates that Metroliner patrons more nearly resemble Northeast Corridor air passengers than Corridor conventio...

1971-01-01

104

Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents.  

PubMed

This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury, and fatal/disabling injury. The models are conditioned on driver gender and the number and type of vehicles involved in the accident. The conditional structure avoids bias caused by men and women's different reporting rates, choices of vehicle type, and their different rates of participation as drivers, which would affect a joint model of all crashes. We found variables that have opposite effects for the genders, such as striking a barrier or a guardrail, and crashing while starting a vehicle. The results suggest there are important behavioral and physiological differences between male and female drivers that must be explored further and addressed in vehicle and roadway design. PMID:14642869

Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Mannering, Fred L

2004-03-01

105

The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

1977-01-01

106

Effects of High-Speed Rail Service on the Shares of Intercity Passenger Ridership in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean Train Express (KTX), the South Korean high-speed rail system, began offering commercial service in 2004. Although actual ridership rates have been approximately half those originally estimated, the number of KTX users has steadily increased. In addition, introduction of KTX has created significant changes in South Korea’s intercity travel system. This paper describes changes in numbers of passenger trips for

Jang-Ho Lee; Justin S Chang

2006-01-01

107

Analysis of Colliding Vehicle Interactions for the Passenger Rail Train-To-Train Impact Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full-scale train-to-train impact test was performed in which a cab car-led passenger train traveling at 30 mph collided with a standing locomotive-led train. During the test, the lead cab car overrode the cab of the standing locomotive, sustaining appro...

P. Liana R. Rancatore R. Stringfellow

2004-01-01

108

Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.  

PubMed

The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

2009-05-01

109

Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) remote servicing kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the design and development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) progressing toward an early 1990 initial operating capability (IOC), a new era in remote space operations will evolve. The logical progression to OMV front end kits would make available in situ satellite servicing, repair, and consummables resupply to the satellite community. Several conceptual design study efforts are defining representative kits (propellant tanks, debris recovery, module servicers); additional focus must also be placed on an efficient combination module servicer and consummables resupply kit. A remote servicer kit of this type would be designed to perform many of the early maintenance/resupply tasks in both nominal and high inclination orbits. The kit would have the capability to exchange Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), exchange propellant tanks, and/or connect fluid transfer umbilicals. Necessary transportation system functions/support could be provided by interfaces with the OMV, Shuttle (STS), or Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). Specific remote servicer kit designs, as well as ground and flight demonstrations of servicer technology are necessary to prepare for the potential overwhelming need. Ground test plans should adhere to the component/system/breadboard test philosophy to assure maximum capability of one-g testing. The flight demonstration(s) would most likely be a short duration, Shuttle-bay experiment to validate servicer components requiring a micro-g environment.

Brown, Norman S.

1988-01-01

110

Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

1985-01-01

111

Design of Flight Service Vehicle Dispatching Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interphone is used to dispatch vehicle in flight service at many airports in China. Former service manners have the advantages of low speed, poor real time ability, etc., which make the manager can not acquire every vehicle's working state in time. Therefore, a powerful flight service vehicle dispatching management system becomes necessary. Firstly, the wireless local area networks (WLAN) around

Lei Deng; De-yuan Gao

2009-01-01

112

Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

113

Diving services and remotely operated vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses underwater construction activity, inspection and repair, deepwater technology, and current trends. Reports indicate that exploratory drilling off the coasts of over 60 countries around the world has created a demand for the Atmospheric Diving Systems (ADS) and the wide acceptance of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV's) predicts that diving services will likely grow only moderately through 1984, with major areas of activity in the North Sea, West Africa and Southeast Asia.

Wardwell, E.

1982-10-01

114

Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

1975-01-01

115

An exact algorithm for vehicle routing and scheduling problem of free pickup and delivery service in flight ticket sales companies based on set-partitioning model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a vehicle routing and scheduling problem arising in Flight Ticket Sales Companies for the service of\\u000a free pickup and delivery of airline passengers to the airport. The problem is formulated under the framework of Vehicle Routing\\u000a Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW), with the objective of minimizing the total operational costs, i.e. fixed start-up costs\\u000a and variable traveling

Gang Dong; Jiafu Tang; Kin Keung Lai; Yuan Kong

116

Passenger Safety and Convenience Services in Automated Guideway Transit. Volume I. Data Collection, Scenarios, and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objective was to produce a guidebook detailing the most effective methods and procedures for the accommodation of Systems Safety and Passenger Security. The primary intent of this document is to provide guidance associated with abnormal occurren...

R. L. Dauber

1979-01-01

117

Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

Jones, C.T. [Murray State Univ., KY (United States)

1993-12-31

118

Comparative Analysis of Aluminum-Air Battery Propulsion Systems for Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) vehicle. The analysis used projected battery characteristics extrapolated from laboratory measurements which were obtained i...

J. D. Salisbury E. Behrin M. K. Kong D. J. Whisler

1980-01-01

119

Cost Evaluation for Two Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards - FMVSS 113 Hood Latch - Passenger Cars - FMVSS 219 Windshield Zone Intrusion - Passenger Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a review of two existing Federal regulations to determine what action domestic and foreign passenger car manufacturers took to meet the standards and the resulting cost to the customer for such actions. The Standards are; FMVSS 113, Hood Latches-P...

T. N. McVetty A. J. Cross L. W. Parr

1982-01-01

120

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

Not Available

1980-10-01

121

Modeling the Impact of Rescinding Michigan's Primary and Secondary Seat Belt Laws on Death and Injury from Passenger Vehicle Crashes.  

PubMed

Background: Seat belts are the most effective method of decreasing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash injury. Advocacy groups have recently been successful in enacting repeals of mandatory motorcycle helmet laws in several states. In some states, this has prompted renewed efforts aimed at repealing mandatory seat belt laws. Purpose: To evaluate and quantify the potential impact of rescinding seat belt laws on annual crash-related fatalities, nonfatal injuries, and associated economic costs, using Michigan as a model, to inform the national debate. Methods: Proportional injury rates were calculated utilizing police-reported statewide passenger vehicle crash data from 1999 and 2002, where belt use rates approximate estimates associated with repeal of primary and secondary seat belt laws. Proportional rates were applied to the most recent year of crash data (2011) to estimate changes in statewide fatalities and nonfatal injuries. National cost estimates were applied to injury data to calculate associated economic costs. Results: Full repeal of the seat belt law is estimated to result in an additional 163 fatalities, 13,722 nonfatal injuries, and an associated societal cost of $1.6 billion annually. Repeal of the primary seat belt law only is estimated to result in an additional 95 fatalities, 9156 nonfatal injuries, and an associated societal cost of $1.0 billion annually. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that repealing the either the primary or full seat belt law would have a substantial and negative impact on public health, increasing motor vehicle crash related fatality, nonfatal injury, and associated economic costs. PMID:24245574

Carter, Patrick M; Flannagan, Carol A C; Bingham, C Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Rupp, Jonathan D

2014-10-01

122

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

123

A Small-Scale Microeconomic Model for Policy Evaluation - Evaluating Measures to Combat Global Warming in the Passenger Vehicle Sector (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate a method for constructing a small-scale policy evaluation model that is applicable to assessing actual policies. The approach adopted in the paper is to construct a perfectly consistent small-scale model adopting the user-friendly CES function, while maintaining the flexibility required for policy evaluation.Measures taken in the passenger vehicle sector to combat global

FUJIWARA Toru; HASUIKE Katsuhito; KANEMOTO Yoshitsugu

2004-01-01

124

Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

Kliman, G. B.

1982-01-01

125

Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

Peak, S. C.

1982-09-01

126

Customer Perception of Hot-Weather Driveability in 1977-1981 Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. conducted a program in Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate customer perception of hot-weather driveability problems in routine daily service as influenced by changes in gasoline volatility. Using established CRC drivin...

1985-01-01

127

Design and Development of an Optimal-Control-Based Framework for Trajectory Planning, Threat Assessment, and Semiautonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes the design of an optimal-control-based active safety framework that performs trajectory planning, threat\\u000a assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios. This framework allows for multiple\\u000a actuation modes, diverse trajectory-planning objectives, and varying levels of autonomy. A model predictive controller iteratively\\u000a plans a best-case vehicle trajectory through a navigable corridor as a constrained optimal

Sterling J. Anderson; Steven C. Peters; Tom E. Pilutti; Karl Iagnemma

128

The Period Vehicle Routing Problem with Service Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

he period vehicle routing problem (PVRP) is a variation of the classic vehicle routing problem in which delivery routes are constructed for a period of time (for example, multiple days). In this paper, we consider a variation of the PVRP in which service frequency is a decision of the model. We refer to this problem as the PVRP with service

Peter Francis; Karen R. Smilowitz; Michal Tzur

2006-01-01

129

Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

1983-01-01

130

A Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Crew and Vehicle Rescheduling of Railway Passenger Transportation and its Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for solving the crew rescheduling problem (CRP) and the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRP) based on the Lagrangian relaxation method. The CRP/VRP is formulated as an integer programming problem on the basis of a network flow modeling approach from which a Lagrangian relaxation problem is constructed by relaxing the constraint that links multiple resources. Using two procedures that generate the upper and lower bounds of the primal problem, both of which utilize an efficient shortest path algorithm for the directed acyclic graph (DAG), the proposed method gradually improves the gap between the upper and lower bounds while updating Lagrangian multipliers. Experimental results of real-world vehicle rescheduling data from Japanese railway lines indicated that the proposed method generated feasible solutions that were confirmed to be fairly close to the optimal solutions according to the gap between the upper and lower bounds, and also clarified the quality of the other method's solution by using the gap, which could lead to streamlining and sophisticating real-world rescheduling related activities.

Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tomiyama, Tomoe; Morita, Toyohisa; Murata, Tomohiro

131

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is proposing to amend its bus testing regulation to more...mandate of verifying that the bus can withstand the rigors of regular transit service, and testing a bus up to its GVWR but no...

2011-03-14

132

Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

Jones, W. J.

1982-01-01

133

Forecasting impact injuries of unrestrained occupants in railway vehicle passenger compartments.  

PubMed

Objective: In order to predict the injury parameters of the occupants corresponding to different experimental parameters and to determine impact injury indices conveniently and efficiently, a model forecasting occupant impact injury was established in this work. Methods: The work was based on finite experimental observation values obtained by numerical simulation. First, the various factors influencing the impact injuries caused by the interaction between unrestrained occupants and the compartment's internal structures were collated and the most vulnerable regions of the occupant's body were analyzed. Then, the forecast model was set up based on a genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) hybrid algorithm, which unified the individual characteristics of the back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the genetic algorithm (GA). The model was well suited to studies of occupant impact injuries and allowed multiple-parameter forecasts of the occupant impact injuries to be realized assuming values for various influencing factors. Finally, the forecast results for three types of secondary collision were analyzed using forecasting accuracy evaluation methods. Results: All of the results showed the ideal accuracy of the forecast model. When an occupant faced a table, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ±6.0 percent and the average relative error (ARE) values did not exceed 3.0 percent. When an occupant faced a seat, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ±5.2 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.1 percent. When the occupant faced another occupant, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ±6.3 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.8 percent. Conclusions: The injury forecast model established in this article reduced repeat experiment times and improved the design efficiency of the internal compartment's structure parameters, and it provided a new way for assessing the safety performance of the interior structural parameters in existing, and newly designed, railway vehicle compartments. PMID:24224566

Xie, Suchao; Zhou, Hui

2014-10-01

134

Fully Allocated Cost of Rail Passenger Service Between New York and Washington. Phase II. Metroliner and Conventional Passenger Trains During 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to determine the fully allocated cost of operating 51 conventional and 14 Metroliner trains between New York, N.Y. and Washington, D.C. during 1970. The study includes the development of techniques to analyze the costs of passenger stati...

1971-01-01

135

Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

Stallkamp, J. A.

1977-01-01

136

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2013-10-01

137

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2009-10-01

138

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2010-10-01

139

48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration. (a) New vehicles shall be...

2009-10-01

140

48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration. (a) New vehicles shall be...

2010-10-01

141

Airline Passengers: Are Their Consumer Rights Protected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air passenger complaints have increased substantially in recent years partly because passengers have come to expect high quality service from domestic airlines. While for the most part these expectations are met, occasionally problems do occur-baggage is ...

1978-01-01

142

Essential Air Service Changes in Passenger Traffic, Subsidy Levels, and Air Carrier Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over two decades have passed since the Congress phased out the federal government's control over airfares and service. Concerned that air service to some small communities would suffer in a deregulated environment, the Congress established the Essential A...

J. H. Anderson

2000-01-01

143

Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

1980-01-01

144

Passengers of Impaired Drivers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00vehicle ownership is a large impediment for PADs to act as designated drivers. We speculate that vehicle ownership may be a main reason for the less-than-expected success of the “designated driver” concept.

Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

2012-01-01

145

An investigation of service and refueling infrastructure for energy storage vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service infrastructure for energy storage vehicles (ESV's) is examined to determine barriers to the introduction of ESV's into the private transportation sector. Electrically rechargeable battery powered vehicles, aluminum\\/air fuel cell vehicles, and hydrogen powered vehicles are considered. Implications of infrastructure for hybrid vehicles are also discussed. Service delivery systems and refueling methods are identified. Refueling methods for electrically rechargeable

J. D. Wall

1980-01-01

146

Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shutdown when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine restart for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being ut...

J. Wishart M. Shirk

2012-01-01

147

Truck frontal underride protection – compatibility factors influencing passenger car safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal collisions between passenger cars and trucks are the severest vehicle-to-vehicle collisions observed in accident statistics. Regulation 93 was developed to reduce the risk of fatal injury by preventing passenger cars from underriding heavy truck structures. The regulation does not fully address the higher energy of content in these collisions where passenger car structures cannot be expected to have sufficient

Aleksandra Krusper; Robert Thomson

2012-01-01

148

Level of service design concept for airport passenger terminals—a European view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from the experiences of highway and pedestrian planning, the author suggests a method of improving the method of designing airport terminals. The improved technique would use the concept of level of service to indicate the interaction of time with space provision.

Norman Ashford

1988-01-01

149

CONSTELLATIONS' PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION FOR COCKPIT AND PASSENGERS AERONAUTICAL SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite based Air Traffic Management (ATM) and In-Flight Internet (IFI) services surely are among the most important ones that will be offered to airlines in the long term. In the design of any communication and security system, high performance must be paid for with high system costs. It is then clearly important, under the business case and technical perspective, to

Peter Unger; Lorenzo Battaglia

150

Preserving Freight and Passenger Rail Corridors and Service. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efforts to preserve rail corridors or restore rail service to dormant rail alignments across the United States are very uneven. A handful of states have aggressive, well-funded programs to support the preservation or reuse of rail alignments; more states ...

D. P. Simpson

2007-01-01

151

Effects of diesel/biodiesel blends on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a passenger vehicle operated over the European and the Athens driving cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions of a diesel passenger vehicle, operated with low sulphur automotive diesel and soy methyl ester blends. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted under real driving conditions (Athens Driving Cycle, ADC) and compared with those of a modified New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, equipped with an indirect injection diesel engine, fuelled with diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20% respectively. Unregulated emissions of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 nitro-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate matter were measured. Qualitative hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the SOF. Regulated emissions of NO x, CO, HC, CO 2, and PM were also measured over the two test cycles. It was established that some of the emissions measured over the (hot-start) NEDC differed from the real-world cycle. Significant differences were also observed in the vehicle's fuel consumption between the two test cycles. The addition of biodiesel reduced the regulated emissions of CO, HC and PM, while an increase in NO x was observed over the ADC. Carbonyl emissions, PAHs and nitro-PAHs were reduced with the addition of biodiesel over both driving cycles.

Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

152

NASA N+3 Subsonic Fixed Wing Silent Efficient Low-Emissions Commercial Transport (SELECT) Vehicle Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual commercial passenger transport study was performed to define a single vehicle for entry into service in the 2030 to 2035 timeframe, meeting customer demands as well as NASA goals for improved fuel economy, NOx emissions, noise, and operabilit...

C. Harris K. Rahrig L. Pho N. Caldwell P. Keding R. Wlezian S. Baber S. Bruner

2010-01-01

153

FMVSS 105 Brake Tests of the AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Braking performance tests were conducted on Experimental Safety Vehicles manufactured by AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries to assess compliance with FMVSS 105 (Hydraulic Service Brake, Emergency Brake, and Parking Brake Systems - Passenger Cars). The test...

1973-01-01

154

Electric Vehicle Operations in a Cold Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten electric vehicles began service at two locations in Wisconsin at the start of 1983. These vehicles are fiberglass-body and lighter than other electrically-powered passenger cars available. Initial experience shows a substantially lower fuel use as wel...

1983-01-01

155

Child passenger safety.  

PubMed

Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

Durbin, Dennis R

2011-04-01

156

A method of structuring communication data for in-vehicle information service  

Microsoft Academic Search

New in-vehicle information provision services have started according to the progress of data communication infrastructure surrounding vehicles, where the vehicles can connect to communication network outside. In such information services, a large amount of various data related to vehicles and\\/or drivers will be stored to the datacenter over the network in near future. Data and functions which are currently equipped

Keisuke OKAMOTO; Munehiko SASAJIMA; Naiwala P. CHANDRASIRI; Kazunari NAWA; Riichiro MIZOGUCHI

2010-01-01

157

Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real-world driving. The program test results provide information on the veracity of these claims.

Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

2012-12-01

158

Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

Collins, P.

2004-12-01

159

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-04...emissions from all gasoline-fueled otto cycle LDV/Ts and MDPVs must not exceed the...40% less than that existing in the grid cell where the vehicle is located;...

2012-07-01

160

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-04...emissions from all gasoline-fueled otto cycle LDV/Ts and MDPVs must not exceed the...40% less than that existing in the grid cell where the vehicle is located;...

2011-07-01

161

Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

Piccolo, R.

1979-01-01

162

Passenger seating position and the risk of passenger death in traffic crashes: a matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the association of passenger seating position with the risk of death for passengers in traffic crashes. Design, setting, participants Matched cohort analysis of data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System regarding 56?644 passengers in 23?308 passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles that crashed during 1990–2001. Main outcome measure The adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for death of a rear seat passenger compared with a front seat passenger within 30?days of a crash. Results The aRR for all passengers in the rear seat in a crash was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.82). This estimate varied by age, restraint use, and the presence of a front passenger airbag (p<0.001). For restrained passengers in cars with a front passenger airbag, the aRR was 0.62 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.81) for children 0–12?years, 0.96 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.06) for passengers 13–29?years, 1.03 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.15) for passengers 30–59?years, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.26) for passengers 60?years or older. The rear seat was associated with more protection in cars without front airbags and more protection for unrestrained passengers compared with restrained passengers. Conclusions Previous studies have reported that the rear seat was safer for persons of all ages; thus seating a young child in the rear has often meant that older children and adults had to assume an increased risk of death by sitting in the front. These results suggest that when front passenger airbags are present and passengers are restrained, putting adults in front and children in back enhances child safety without sacrificing adult safety.

Smith, K M; Cummings, P

2006-01-01

163

MARKET SHARES OF PASSENGER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CO2 EMISSIONS UP TO THE YEAR 2030  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist numerous options for reducing CO2 emissions from transport with regard to individual technical measures, alternative propulsion systems and fuels. In order to assess prospects of success and therefore future market shares and influence on CO2 emissions it is necessary taking into account the competitive situation with regard to established conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. Therefore, it is important to

Peter Mock

164

49 CFR 39.83 - What are PVOs' obligations for assisting passengers with a disability in getting on and off a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assisting passengers with a disability in getting on and off a passenger...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance...Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.83 What are...

2013-10-01

165

Sampling of Redistribution of Empty Vehicles for Personal Rapid Transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal rapid transit (PRT) system uses compact, computer-guided vehicles running on dedicated guideways to carry individuals or small groups directly between pairs of stations. PRT vehicles operate on demand when a passenger requests service at his or her origin station. Because the number of trips requested from a station need not equal the number of trips ending there, some

John D. Lees-Miller; R. Eddie Wilson

2012-01-01

166

Cross-layer design vehicle-aided handover scheme in VANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The requirement for in-vehicle passengers to access Internet multimedia services has risen recently. As a consequence, Vehicle Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) has gained much attention, and is regarded as a promising solution for providing in-vehicle Internet service through inter-vehicle and infrastructure communication. A new developed wireless network technique, termed WiMAX Mobile Multihop Relay (MMR), provides a good communication framework

Kuan-Lin Chiu; Ren-Hung Hwang; Yuh-Shyan Chen

2009-01-01

167

Assessment of flywheel system benefits in selected vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheel-equipped vehicles were compared with their non-flywheel counterparts (baseline systems) on the basis of energy utilization. To accomplish this, a computer-based vehicle simulation program was developed. This program determines the propulsion power required to negotiate each element of the driving cycle, and apportions this power between prime mover and storage device according to one or more selected operating strategies. The state of flywheel (and/or battery) charge is continuously tracked, along with the consumption of fuel or dissipation of battery energy. Energy flows associated with all major component processes are accounted for. Results are given for a four-passenger commuter vehicle with electric drive (range extension application of the flywheel system) and a six-passenger family car with conventional heat engine drive (fuel conservation application of the flywheel system). The six-passenger vehicle was also examined with respect to its use in urban taxi service.

Forrest, L.

1982-12-01

168

Operations analysis (study 2.6). Volume 4: Computer specification; logistics of orbiting vehicle servicing (LOVES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The logistics of orbital vehicle servicing computer specifications was developed and a number of alternatives to improve utilization of the space shuttle and the tug were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that space servicing offers a potential for reducing future operational and program costs over ground refurbishment of satellites. A computer code which could be developed to simulate space servicing is presented.

1973-01-01

169

FAA Regional Service Demand Study: Task B - Forecast of Passengers, Operations and Other Activities for Stewart International Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents comprehensive forecasts of aviation demand at Stewart International Airport for the years 2005 through 2015, 2020, and 2025. These forecasts were prepared as part of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regional Air Service Deman...

2007-01-01

170

Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

1972-01-01

171

A heuristic algorithm to vehicle routing problem with the consideration of customers' service preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Á With the intensification of market competition and fast development of science and technology, many enterprises have begun to realize the importance of logistic distribution vehicle routing problem under uncertainty environment, and begin to pay more attention to the research of this problem. In this paper, The traditional vehicle routing problem is expanded to the situation that the customers' service

Jian-yong Zhang; Jun Li

2011-01-01

172

Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a

Frank A. Drews; Monisha Pasupathi; David L. Strayer

2008-01-01

173

Bus Passenger Origin-Destination Estimation and Related Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the application of archived data from Automated Data Collection Systems (ADCS) to transport planning with a focus on bus passenger travel behavior, including Origin-Destination (OD) inference, using London as a case study. It demonstrates the feasibility and ease of applying trip-chaining to infer bus passenger OD from smart card transactions and Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data and

Wei Wang; John P Attanucci; Nigel H. M. Wilson

2011-01-01

174

Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

2007-01-01

175

49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take...passenger has a communicable disease or infection, unless one...e.g., the Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service...2). A passenger has a common cold. This condition...

2013-10-01

176

Who's in the car? Passengers as potential interveners in alcohol-involved fatal crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the promise of motor vehicle passengers as interveners to prevent drinking and driving. It describes data from the U.S. Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), which indicate that most alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers (70% of males, 66% of females) were not accompanied by “adult” passengers (16 or older), and alcohol involvement among those passengers present appears to be

Nancy E. Isaac; Bruce Kennedy; John D. Graham

1995-01-01

177

Passenger Car/Pedestrian Impact Protection System Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the specified contract effort the application of pedestrian protective front end designs were studied using four candidate vehicles representing the 1979 passenger car fleet. The models chosen were: Dodge Omni, Ford Fairmont, Chevrolet Malibu, and C...

R. McLean L. A. C. Barbarek O. J. Viergutz

1979-01-01

178

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test: Chevrolet Luv Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

179

SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several

Clemens Kaiser; Fredrik Sjöberg; Juan Manuel Delcura; Baard Eilertsen

2008-01-01

180

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

Bujold

1980-01-01

181

Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

NONE

1995-01-31

182

Near Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program, Phase 1. Appendices a and B. Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies Report, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of t...

1979-01-01

183

49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with a disability bring onto a passenger vessel? 39.93 Section 39.93 Transportation...INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance and Services to Passengers...with a disability bring onto a passenger vessel? (a) As a PVO subject to...

2013-10-01

184

Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

1979-01-01

185

Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

1973-01-01

186

Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Recreational Vehicle Service Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) in a recreational vehicle service training setting was studied. Cost-benefit issues were associated with the Onan Service School change from a field-based Recreational Vehicle Generator Set training program to a customer-delivered self-instructional training program. Actual costs and…

Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

187

An Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem With Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-up Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up (VRP-SDP) is a variant of the classical vehicle routing problem (VRP) where clients require simultaneous delivery and pick-up. Deliveries are supplied from a single depot at the beginning of the vehicle's service, while pick-up loads are taken to the same depot at the conclusion of the service. One important characteristic of

Erbao Cao; Mingyong Lai

2007-01-01

188

Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet—Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising

I. Meyer; S. Wessely

2009-01-01

189

Quantitative assessment of passenger flows in Europe and its implications for tracing contacts of infectious passengers.  

PubMed

In contrast to air travel, there are no recommendations on tracing ground transport passengers exposed to infectious pathogens. We analysed European statistics on passenger transport in different conveyances and conducted expert workshops to discuss environmental conditions in ground transport, indications and minimal datasets required for contact tracing. Transport performance in the 27 countries of the European Union increased from 5.3 x 10(12) passenger kilometres (pkm) in 1995 to 6.5 x 10(12) pkm in 2007. Each resident generated on average 13,092 pkm in 2007, of which 2,062 pkm were public ground transport and 1,155 pkm in air transport. In the same year in Germany the total passenger volume in all different conveyances was 67,937 million. Public ground transport accounted for a passenger volume of 11,387 million (16.8%) and air transport for 129 million (0.2%). High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration is frequently used in airplanes but not in ground transport vehicles. Therefore opportunities for disease transmission in public ground transport are not necessarily lower than in air travel. However, contact tracing is rarely conducted in these settings because of immense logistic challenges.Indication for contact tracing should be revisited, including all kinds of passenger transport. PMID:22720770

Askar, M A; Mohr, O; Eckmanns, T; Krause, G; Poggensee, G

2012-01-01

190

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

191

78 FR 22363 - Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-Orlando Passenger Rail Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aboard Florida Miami-- Orlando Passenger Rail Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...constructing and operating an intercity passenger rail service proposed by the private company...infrastructure improvements to existing rail corridor right-of- way between...

2013-04-15

192

Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: An experimental investigation using high definition film.  

PubMed

An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour. PMID:23746746

Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

2014-09-01

193

Real-time measurements of SO2, H2CO, and CH4 emissions from in-use curbside passenger buses in New York City using a chase vehicle.  

PubMed

The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory "chased" in-use curbside passenger buses operated by various operators in New York City. With the cooperation of New York State's Metropolitan Transit Authority, the relationships between the emissions of the several gas-phase species and particulate loadings were investigated across several bus technologies, bus types, and fuels (diesel, ultralow sulfur diesel, and compressed natural gas, CNG). The CNG buses followed did not employ an oxidation catalyst. The buses characterized were not prescreened in any fashion and were measured while deployed on their normal in-service routes. This paper focuses on the fuel-based mass emissions of SO2, H2CO, and CH4, measured using tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide emissions from buses known to be burning ultralow sulfur diesel (<30 ppm(m) S) were 16 times lower than those from buses burning normal commercial diesel fuel, nominally less than 300 ppm(m) sulfur. Emissions of formaldehyde and methane from in-use CNG buses were approximately 15 times greater than those from diesel powered buses. PMID:16295865

Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Wormhoudt, Joda; Nelson, David D; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

2005-10-15

194

77 FR 46640 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR...Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exceptions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-08-06

195

77 FR 57068 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-09-17

196

77 FR 33098 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR...Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-06-05

197

Construction and verification of a model of passenger response to STOL aircraft characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for evaluating passenger acceptance of a transportation system's environment has been developed. This includes a model of passenger reaction to the vehicle, as well as the relative satisfaction compared to other system attributes. The technique is applied to two commercial airline operations - a U.S. commuter, and the Canadian Airtransit STOL system. It is demonstrated that system convenience and aircraft interior seating can play a large role in satisfying the passenger.

Jacobson, I. D.

1976-01-01

198

Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

Stephens, D. G.

1977-01-01

199

Urban vehicle research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its convenience and efficiency to contemporary vehicles. (2) Build a light, aerodynamically clean vehicle body to package all the components plus four adults

1984-01-01

200

Passenger Car Fuel Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed information on the way passenger car fuel consumption is affected by how people drive and by the care taken to keep car engines and tires in proper running order was sought through highway test operations. Test operations included: (1) measuremen...

P. J. Claffey

1976-01-01

201

Integral aircraft passenger seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human-engineering approach was used to design integral seat which provides all the safety, comfort, and protective features that can possibly be afforded airline passengers. Results of dynamic impact testing indicated that seat can withstand and attenuate gravity loads of 21-g horizontal and 45-g vertical; by design, seat will withstand lateral g's as well.

Kubokawa, C. C.

1973-01-01

202

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

203

A Vibro-Acoustic Coupling Analysis of Bus Passenger Compartment Based on the Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the finite element method (FEM), this paper presented a technique for analyzing the vibro-acoustic coupling characteristics of bus passenger compartments. In view of sound quality of vehicle interior noises in the low frequency range, the acoustical, structural and coupled acoustic-structural FEM models of the passenger compartment of a sample bus are respectively established for modal, harmonic response analysis.

Wang Yansong; Liu Xintian; Li Yan

2010-01-01

204

Considerations for Passenger Transport by Advanced Spaceplanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the strongest incentives to space industry development in the 21st century is likely to be space tourism. At present the greatest handicaps to the exploitation of this opportunity are the prohibitive cost of access to space (few tourists could afford the ticket) and safety (astronautics remains an inherently dangerous occupation). This paper addresses both of these issues. First, the characteristics required of a vehicle suitable for carrying passengers into space are discussed in the context of the SKYLON spaceplane concept. Attention is focused on the design of the cabin module. Then the needs of the passengers are considered both from the perspectives of safety (the unique environmental hazards), health, and comfort. The paper concludes with a review of the key issues.

Scott-Scott, J. L.; Harrison, M.; Woodrow, A. D.

205

A NEW WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE FOR AN IFE SYSTEM IN A PASSENGERS' FLIGHT CABIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The passengers' communication needs are highly increasing due to the presence of newly internet and multimedia technologies. As a result, passengers are demanding more and more services during the flight. Nowadays, these services are provided by the In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) systems which provide movies, games, etc… during the flight. Due to their increasing complexity, these systems are looking for

Ahmed AKL

206

Bus passenger surveys in small cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research report:The results of on-board passenger surveys conducted in four U.S. cities are discussed. Annapolis, Hagerstown, and Salisbury, Md., and Winchester, Va., were surveyed to determine the quality and extent of public transport in these cities. The primary users of these services were the poor and the elderly. Primary reason for using transit systems was the need for transport to

H. S. Chadda; T. E. Mulinazzi

1977-01-01

207

Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers’ relative risk of fatal crash involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but

Marie Claude Ouimet; Bruce G. Simons-Morton; Paul L. Zador; Neil D. Lerner; Mark Freedman; Glen D. Duncan; Jing Wang

2010-01-01

208

Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint

Phyllis F Agran; Diane G Winn; Craig L Anderson

1995-01-01

209

An Investigation Into Aspects of Bus Design and Passenger Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two part investigation was undertaken by Leyland Vehicles Human Factors Group under contract to the Transport and Road Research Laboratory.Phase 1 of the project covered the physical capabilities of passengers and their design preferences, using a static wooden mock up of a bus floor layout and 200 elderly and disabled subjects. From a questionnaire on problems with bus usage,

B. M. BROOKS

1979-01-01

210

Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have

María Mendiluce; Lee Schipper

2011-01-01

211

Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as follows: 1. High passenger trip delays are disproportionately generated by cancelled flights and missed connections. Passengers scheduled on cancelled flights or missed connections represent 3 percent of total enplanements, but generated 45 percent of total passenger trip delay. On average, passengers scheduled on cancelled flights experienced 607 minutes delay, and passengers who missed the connections experienced 341 minutes delay in 2006. The heavily skewed distribution of passenger trip delay reveals the fact that a small proportion of passengers experience heavy delays, which can not be reflected by flight-based performance metrics. 2. Trend analysis for passenger trip delays from 2000 to 2006 shows the increase in flight operations slowed down and leveled off in 2006, while enplanements kept increasing. This is due to the continuous increase in load factor. Load factor has increased from 69% in 2003 to 80% in 2006. Passenger performance is very sensitive to changes in flight operations: annual total passenger trip delay was increased by 17% and 7% from 2004 to 2005, and from 2005 to 2006, while flight operations barely increased (0.5% from 2004 to 2005, and no increase from 2005 to 2006) during the same time period. 3. Passenger trip delay is shown to have an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay in terms of routes. Seventeen percent of the 1030 routes generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. An interesting observation is that routes between the New York metropolitan area and the Washington D.C. metropolitan area have the highest average passenger trip delays in the system. 4. In terms of airports, there is also an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay. Nine of the 35 busiest airports generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. Some airports, especially major hubs, impact the passenger trip delays significantly more than others. Recognition of this asymmetric performance can help reduce the total passenger trip delay propagation in the air transportation network by making changes primarily in major airports, such as Atla

Wang, Danyi

212

Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center  

SciTech Connect

Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

Wooley, R. J.

1994-11-01

213

78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...passenger vessels, other than ferries and tenders, permitted to carry more than 150 passengers...to carry more than 99 passengers; and tenders permitted to carry more than 59 passengers...passenger vessels, other than ferries and tenders, permitted to carry more than 150...

2013-06-25

214

14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flights. Scheduled Passenger/Cargo (Service Class F) is a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service...capacity elements applicable to the performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not...

2014-01-01

215

43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the operator and each front seat passenger is restrained by...Transportation standards, except that children, as defined by State law...vehicle operator and any front seat passenger. It also applies...a motor vehicle occupying a seat that was not originally...

2013-10-01

216

Assessing asymmetric response effect of behavioral intention to service quality in an integrated psychological decision-making process model of intercity bus passengers: a case of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces the concept of loss aversion to consumer behavioral intention at the personal psychological level to\\u000a develop an integrative structural equation model for analyzing traveler psychological decision making. In this model, the\\u000a relationship between behavioral intention and service quality is a non-smooth function based on the theory of loss aversion.\\u000a The expectation service quality in the SERVQUAL model

Jiun-Hung Lin; Tzong-Ru Lee; William Jen

2008-01-01

217

Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income.

Shreekar Pradhan; Bhakta Bahadur Ale; Vishwa Bhusan Amatya

2006-01-01

218

Vehicle Monitor System for Public Transport Management Based on Embedded Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a solution of monitor system of Public Transport operation vehicles is presented for realizing intelligent management of public transport. The system adopts ARM and embedded Linux operation system as the development platform, and integrates GPS (Global Position System) technology, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) technology and embedded technology and so on. The paper mainly completed the design of hardware circuit and transplantation of embedded Linux operating system on S3C2410 chip. The system realized location tracking, communication scheduling, stops broadcasting, video monitoring, and intelligent passenger counting of public transport vehicles. The result of experiment showed that the system could improve the operation efficiency of public transport vehicles.

Li, Guilin; Zhang, Deying; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Shaohua

219

Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

2007-01-01

220

NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

2012-01-01

221

Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

222

78 FR 74225 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nonconforming Vehicles: 2005, 2006, 2007 Alpine B5 Series Passenger Cars (Manufactured...certified version 2005, 2006, 2007 Alpine B5 Series Passenger Cars (Manufactured...NHTSA-2013-0064 Nonconforming Vehicles: 1988-1996 Alpine B10 Series Passenger Cars Because...

2013-12-10

223

System Model of Railway Passenger Transport Customer Relationship Management Based on SOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Railway Passenger Transport Customer Relationship Management System (RPTCRMS) is proposed to address the issue of diversity of data sources and development platform differences in Railway Passenger Transport information systems. By analyzing the requirements of RPTCRMS, describing its function and introducing the benefits of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), the model of RPTCRMS is constructed based on the thought of

Suozhu Wang; Nana He; Xiaojun Lv

2011-01-01

224

On the adequacy of 802.11p MAC protocols to support safety services in ITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of IEEE 802.11p for supporting intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enables enhancing the drive experience to provide vehicle users with useful information related to road efficiency and public safety. Safety services, such as collision or sudden hard braking warning, are used to improve passenger safety and reduce fatalities. Along with the delay-critical nature of those services, the highly dynamic

Nuno Ferreira; Jose A. Fonseca; J. Sales Gomes

2008-01-01

225

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

1983-01-01

226

Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

1983-01-01

227

A Vehicular Ultra-Wideband Channel Model for Future Wireless IntraVehicle Communications (IVC) Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future wireless intra-vehicle communications (IVC) systems adopting ultra-wideband (UWB) radio are proposed in this paper, which provide onboard passengers with high-speed duplex data exchange services. In this paper, a vehicular UWB channel model is first developed by modifying the IEEE 802.15.3a indoor model to fit into the vehicular environments with dense and concentrated clusters and rays. The main channel statistical

Weidong Xiang

2007-01-01

228

Bus management with improved passenger situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus passengers normally could be divided into those who are on the bus and those who are at the roadside bus-stop waiting for the bus. Both kinds of passengers should be at least in equal importance. This paper has described how to supply an improved environment to passengers at roadside, and how to estimate the passengers waiting at the bus

Baichuan Lu; Jost Viegas

2003-01-01

229

[Health surveillance and people-suitability to passenger and good haulage].  

PubMed

In Italy the transport of goods is done mainly by road and is complicated matter. Companies engaged in the passenger transport are state-controlled companies and little companies of taxi service. The work of the driver in public or private companies carrying people or goods shows a lot of similarities and remains one of the most difficult job. The analyzed job-risks are: vibration, noise, manual handling of loads by workers involved in loading /unloading the vehicle, exposure to chemical pollutants and the indoor environment of the cabin stress. The protocol for health surveillance should therefore be drawn up taking into account: current legislation, risk factors, most frequently occurring diseases and/or disease that may affect job that may affect job performance. PMID:23405651

Cosentino, F

2012-01-01

230

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2013-10-01

231

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2009-10-01

232

48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related...Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and...

2010-10-01

233

Are We Reaching Peak Travel? Trends in Passenger Transport in Eight Industrialized Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized countries typically show continued growth in vehicle ownership, vehicle use and overall travel demand. This growth represents a continuation of trends from the 1970s through the early 2000s. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of cross?national passenger transport trends in eight industrialized countries, providing evidence to suggest that these trends

Lee Schipper

2011-01-01

234

The operation of the metropolitan passenger transport authorities since 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the origins and development of the metropolitan county PTAs, and outlines differences in organization which have emerged in the six counties concerned. It explains the major changes which have taken place in the provision of passenger transport since the Transport Act 1985, which deregulated local bus services, and then focuses on the way in which accountability and

Howard Davis; Steve Leach

1991-01-01

235

Natural environmental service support to NASA vehicle, technology, and sensor development programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

1993-01-01

236

A Protective Passenger Smoke Hood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several recent jet transport accidents have focused the attention of the aviation industry upon smoke and toxic gases as causal factors of passenger incapacitation and failure to evacuate aircraft before fire and heat render the environment uninhabitable....

E. B. McFadden H. I. Reynolds G. E. Funkhouser

1967-01-01

237

Increased risk of driver fatality due to unrestrained rear-seat passengers in severe frontal crashes.  

PubMed

While belt usage among rear-seat passengers is disproportionately lower than their front-seat counterpart, this may have serious consequences in the event of a crash not only for the unbelted rear-seat passenger but also for the front-seat passengers as well. To quantify that effect, the objective of the study is to evaluate the increased likelihood of driver fatality in the presence of unrestrained rear-seat passengers in a severe frontal collision. U.S.-based census data from 2001 to 2009 fatal motor vehicle crashes was used to enroll frontal crashes which involved 1998 or later year vehicle models with belted drivers and at least one adult passenger in the rear left seat behind the driver. Results using multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of a belt restrained driver sustaining a fatal injury was 137% (95% CI=95%, 189%) higher when the passenger behind the driver was unbelted in comparison to a belted case while the effects of driver age, sex, speed limit, vehicle body type, airbag deployment and driver ejection were controlled in the model. The likelihood of driver fatality due to an unrestrained rear left passenger increased further (119-197%) in the presence of additional unrestrained rear seat passengers in the rear middle or right seats. The results from the study highlight the fact that future advances to front row passive safety systems (e.g. multi-stage airbag deployment) must be adapted to take into account the effect of unrestrained rear-seat passengers. PMID:23411155

Bose, Dipan; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff

2013-04-01

238

Using RSUs as delegates for pervasive access to services in vehicle ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular ad hoc networks, also known as VANETs, enable vehicles which are not necessarily within the same radio transmission range to communicate with each other. In addition to allowing direct communication between vehicles, VANETs also enable vehicles to connect to Roadside Units (RSUs) which are inexpensive infrastructure that have the capability of communicating with each others and with passing by

Khaleel Mershad; Hassan Artail

2010-01-01

239

Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle

Floyd A. Wyczalek

1996-01-01

240

Vehicle mismatch: injury patterns and severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light truck vehicles (LTV) are becoming more popular on US highways. This creates greater opportunity for collisions with passenger vehicles (PV). The mismatch in weight, stiffness, and height between LTV and PV has been surmised to result in increased fatalities among PV occupants when their vehicles collide with LTV. We reviewed cases of vehicle mismatch collisions in the Seattle Crash

S. Acierno; R. Kaufman; F. P. Rivara; D. C. Grossman; C. Mock

2004-01-01

241

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric\\/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric

1982-01-01

242

The seeing passenger car 'VaMoRs-P'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passenger car Mercedes 500 SEL has been equipped with vision in the framework of the EUREKA-project 'Pometheus III'. Road and object recognition is performed both in a look-ahead and in a look-back region; this allows an internal servo-maintained representation of the entire situation around the vehicle using the 4D approach to dynamic machine vision. Obstacles are detected and tracked

E. D. Dickmanns; R. Behringer; D. Dickmanns; T. Hildebrandt; M. Maurer; F. Thomanek; J. Schiehlen

1994-01-01

243

Reconnecting rural America: Report on rural intercity passenger transportation  

SciTech Connect

In 1987 a new effort to reconnect rural America began. It recognizes the local and intercity services offered by transportation providers throughout the nation in addressing the transportation needs of rural residents, and it emphasizes the importance of linking available services into a national system. Leadership in the effort has been provided by the United Bus Owners of America, UMTA, and the USDA Office of Transportation. This report presents the issues and concerns of those involved in rural intercity passenger transportation. It summarizes the 9 components key to the development of a national strategy for reconnecting rural America: public-private cooperation, mobilization of support, community participation, defined government roles, linking of services, market research and development, diversification of funding sources, resource management, and identification and elimination of barriers. The report demonstrates how service is currently being provided and reiterates the need for coordination and cooperation among all those involved in rural passenger transportation.

Stommes, E.S.

1989-07-01

244

Indices and Computational Strategy for Unmanned Ground Wheeled Vehicle Mobility Estimation and Enhancement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army began developing Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) in the early 1900's. Concurrently, researchers developed and enhanced passenger and commercial ground vehicles. Although significant progress has been made for improving vehicle mobili...

J. L. Overholt J. P. Gray V. V. Vantsevich

2013-01-01

245

An inpatient child passenger safety program.  

PubMed

Background. Our institution implemented an Inpatient Child Passenger Safety (CPS) program for hospitalized children to improve knowledge and compliance with the Massachusetts CPS law, requiring children less than 8 years old or 57 inches tall to be secured in a car seat when in a motor vehicle. Methods. After the Inpatient CPS Program was piloted on 3 units in 2009, the program was expanded to all inpatient units in 2010. A computerized nursing assessment tool identifies children in need of a CPS consult for education and/or car seat. Results. With the expanded Inpatient CPS Program, 3650 children have been assessed, 598 consults initiated, and 325 families have received CPS education. Car seats were distributed to 419 children; specialty car seats were loaned to 134 families. Conclusions. With a multidisciplinary approach, we implemented an Inpatient CPS Program for hospitalized children providing CPS education and car seats to families in need. PMID:24137036

Elliott, Lindsey Nichole; DiGirolamo, Barbara; McMahon, Maria; Damian, Frances; Brostoff, Marcie; Shermont, Herminia; Mooney, David Patrick; Lee, Lois Kaye

2013-11-01

246

FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF VIBRATION TRANSFER BETWEEN BRIDGE AND PASSING VEHICLES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the heavy vehicle with excitation system that can control its axle forces passed over a bridge associated with a cargo and a passenger's vehicle to evaluate the vibration transfer between the bridge and vehicles. As a result, it was found that when the bridge vibrates on some level at a frequency close to cargo's eigenfrequency, dominant frequencies corresponding to those found in the bridge vibration can be also found in the cargo vibration. As for the passenger's vehicle, its vibration behavior was complicated due to high sensitivity of road roughness and it was difficult to find the frequencies corresponding to the bridge vibration in the vibration of passenger's vehicle.

Oshima, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Sugiura, Kunitomo

247

Assessment of Candidate Vehicles for Advanced-Battery Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first-level assessment is provided of candidate vehicles which might be utilized for the purpose of demonstrating the performance capabilities of advanced battery propulsion systems. The demonstration vehicle design target was defined as a five-passenge...

L. Forrest W. B. Lee W. M. Smalley

1981-01-01

248

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

2013-10-01

249

Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger

Hong Huo; Zhiliang Yao; Kebin He; Xin Yu

2011-01-01

250

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-10-01

251

Regular Route Passenger Services in Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research conducted for this study included phone interviews with 31 carrier executives, 5 focus groups with local government officials, and historical analysis of operating trends using biennial data from annual reports submitted by carriers. Carriers hol...

M. J. Berndt J. M. Feige

1995-01-01

252

Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

Leschly, K. O.

1979-01-01

253

76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...airlines must pay to passengers bumped from flights; strengthening, codifying and clarifying...to provide passengers timely notice of flight status changes such as delays and cancellations...travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and delays, ensure...

2011-04-25

254

77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1; 2130-AC33] Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY...its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness. These...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association (ATDA... Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2012-06-27

255

US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than pas...

J. J. Morena G. Danby J. Powell

1996-01-01

256

Automated Bus Dispatching, Operations Control, and Service Reliability: The Initial Tri-Met Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents findings on initial changes in service reliability following Tri-Met’s deployment of a new bus dispatching system using automatic vehicle location and automatic passenger counter technology. Changes in on-time performance, headway variation, run time variation, and run times were determined with respect to pre-deployment levels. Changes in headway variation and run times were also used to estimate

James G. Strathman; Kenneth J. Dueker; Thomas Kimpel

1999-01-01

257

Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hybrid vehicles are increasingly common in the passenger car marketplace and in commercial applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. These hybrids are justifiable due to their increased fuel efficiency and the associated cost benefit. It is...

D. M. Rizzo

2012-01-01

258

Urban Vehicle Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its con...

W. C. Carl

1984-01-01

259

PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

260

Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy

F. A. Wyczalek

1999-01-01

261

Hybrid electric vehicles (EVS-13 Osaka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995,

Floyd A. Wyczalek

1996-01-01

262

Magnetic shielding for magnetically levitated vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic shielding required for magnetically levitated vehicles is discussed. Shielding is needed to protect passengers in a vehicle from stray dc magnetic fields coming from the superconducting dipoles carried by the vehicle. In addition, the superconducting dipoles must be shielded against various ac magnetic fields. Here we consider shielding of ac magnetic fields generated by the propulsion windings for

YUKIKAZU IWASA; Francis Bitter

1973-01-01

263

Combined effect of noise and vibration on passenger acceptance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive research program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive model of passenger comfort response to combined noise and vibration environments has been completed. This model was developed for use in the prediction and/or assessment of vehicle ride quality and as a ride quality design tool. The model has the unique capability to transform individual elements of vehicle interior noise and vibration into subjective units and combining the subjective units to produce a total subjective discomfort index as well as the other useful subjective indices. This paper summarizes the basic approach used in the development of the NASA ride comfort model, presents some of the more fundamental results obtained, describes several application of the model to operational vehicles, and discusses a portable, self-contained ride quality meter system that is a direct hardware/software implementation of the NASA comfort algorithm.

Leatherwood, J. D.

1984-01-01

264

19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS...operations involving the transport of both cargo and passengers...aircraft operating as an air ambulance in service... (xiv) International Air Transport Association...

2011-04-01

265

19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS...operations involving the transport of both cargo and passengers...aircraft operating as an air ambulance in service... (xiv) International Air Transport Association...

2013-04-01

266

Modeling maglev passenger compartment static magnetic fields from linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger compartment magnetic field levels in a low-speed magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicle that uses linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays for both levitation and propulsion are computed through superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. End effects due to the finite lengths of the arrays lead to fields that decay much less rapidly

James F. Hoburg

2004-01-01

267

From metal cutting to metal forming modern side-shafts for passenger cars: manufacturing aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

All passenger cars have at least two side-shafts (in all wheel driven vehicles there are four) which have to be made economically for the entire vehicle life (around 250.000 – 300.000 km) without failure.This paper presents a general comparison of various processes that are applied to current and new techniques for the manufacturing of modern side-shafts.These complex processes must consider

Ing. P. Amborn; Ing. H. Frielingsdorf; S. K. Ghosh; Ing K. Greulich

1995-01-01

268

Coordinated Optimization of Bus Headways for Passenger Corridors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger corridors carry high-density passenger volumes and they are intensive superposition sections of passenger OD demands in the transit network. In order to balance supply and demand distribution between different bus routes on the same passenger corridor, the optimization methodology of headways need be studied. This paper set up a bus coordination dispatching model for passenger corridors and then applied

Jing Teng; Xiaoguang Yang; Xuan Li; Ming Zhao

2009-01-01

269

An Intelligent Based Model for Urban Demand-Responsive Passenger Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent-based urban traffic service has been looked as an efficient tool for traffic services. However, the main problem is\\u000a how to build an agent-based model for it. This research presents a multi-agent based demand responsive passenger transport\\u000a services model, which adopts a multi-agents coordination approach for urban traffic services control. In this paper, we propose\\u000a a new demand responsive transportation

Xu Jin; Mhamed Itmi; Habib Abdulrab

270

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related... Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2013-10-01

271

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2010-10-01

272

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2009-10-01

273

Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

274

Light-Duty Vehicles in Tripped-Rollover Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

one year, rollover impacts accounted for 9 percent of multiple-vehicle accident fatalities while rollovers accounted for 51 percent of single-vehicle accident fatalities. Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, and sport-utility vehicles. Although much attention has been given to the study of vehicle rollover stability and to rollover-accident avoidance, research has yet to conclusively uncover an individual vehicle characteristic

Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Gary M. Hutter; Ralph L. Barnett; S. Carl Uzgiris; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Lucinda Fuller; Shelley Hamilton; Brian D. King; Jeffery W. Abendshien; Leslie A. Savage; James T. Semrau; Theodore Liber; Dolores Gildin; Dennis B. Brickman; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Claudine P. Giebs; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin Smith; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. King; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Denise Prokudowicz; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; Glenn Werner; Mary A. Misiewicz; Charles D'Eccliss; Alison Newberry; Anthony Provenzano; Robin Stone; Christina Timmins; Lynn Wallace-Mills; Thomas E. Zabinski

1995-01-01

275

Simulation of LRT Travel Time Reduction Scenarios Based on Passenger Behavior Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical model of dwell time at transit stops for LRT is developed from observed behaviors of passengers at Kumamoto municipal transport in commercial operation and time component measurement experiments at depot for parameter identification. The developed model is able to express waiting queues of sequentially arriving and leaving passengers at the boarding and alighting doors for variety of LRV usages in detail. The model has realized precise comparison of low-floor vehicle introduction and door usage improvement scenarios in connection with fare transaction methods.

Hirasawa, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeki; Suda, Yoshihiro

276

Transformation Education: A Vehicle for Structuring Group Care Organizations to Increase Service Quality and Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents how…

Ross, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

277

Teacher Development Program: A Vehicle for Assisting Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990 the Teacher Development Program was created by the Office of Professional Field Experiences at Southeastern Louisiana University to better the quality and improve the success rate of teacher candidates and student teachers. The fundamental principle behind the program was to provide assistance for pre-service teachers who need immediate…

Wood, Frances B.

2010-01-01

278

Vehicle yaw inertia and mass independent adaptive control for stability and trajectory tracking enhancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a vehicle stability control (VSC) system using a yaw inertia and mass independent adaptive control law. As a primary vehicle active control system, VSC can significantly improve vehicle driving safety for passenger cars and enhance trajectory tracking accuracy for other applications such as autonomous, surveillance, and wheeled mobile robot vehicles. For the designs of vehicle dynamic control

Junmin Wang; Ming Feng Hsieh

2009-01-01

279

A Bus Passengers' Seating Preference Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an agent-based model of a public bus where some passengers board and exit at every stop. Agents are the passengers characterized by their ethnicity, age group and cultural backgrounds and respective preferences for seats in the bus. Different scenarios are set up whereby the bus moves in various parts of the city, which maybe segregated residentially, university campuses,

Shah Jamal Alam; Bogdan Werth

280

Nonlinear biodynamics of passengers coupled with quarter car models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodynamic response of lumped parameter passenger-seat models coupled with simplified models of ground vehicles is investigated. The relatively small dimension of the resulting mechanical models is counterweighted by the complexity introduced by the strongly nonlinear characteristics exhibited by the components of both the biodynamic and the car subsystems. This complexity is enhanced further by the possibility of loss of contact allowed to take place between the wheel and the ground or the passenger and the seat, during strong excitation. After setting up the equations of motion, appropriate methodologies are developed, capturing the dynamic response of the coupled system to transient, harmonic and stochastic excitation, caused by road irregularities. Then, numerical results are presented, illustrating the effect of the excitation amplitude and frequency content on several response quantities related to the dynamic performance of the human and the vehicle components. Special emphasis is put on examining the influence of the seat suspension stiffness and damping characteristics. The results indicate that the nonlinear properties of the coupled model affect significantly its dynamics and can lead to large quantitative and qualitative deviations from the predictions of the corresponding linearized models. Among other things, complex motions are captured, even for harmonic excitation, when the forcing frequency lies between neighboring natural frequencies of the linearized system.

Papalukopoulos, C.; Natsiavas, S.

2007-07-01

281

Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.  

SciTech Connect

The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

2008-01-31

282

75 FR 57283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Passenger and Crew Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System...appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological techniques...Passenger and Crew Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System-APIS...Number: None. Abstract: The Advance Passenger Information...

2010-09-20

283

Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.  

PubMed

In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

2011-01-01

284

NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

Wells, Douglas P.

2011-01-01

285

Service Reliability and Optimal Running Time Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve reliability, transit routes have time points at which early vehicles are held. Holding reduces waiting time and the amount of time passengers have to budget for a trip. However, it also reduces operating speed and thus increases passenger riding time and, potentially, operating cost. A new approach is presented for quantifying the user costs associated with unreliability. User

Peter G. Furth; Theo H. J. Muller

2007-01-01

286

Engineering Model of Future Motor Vehicles. Volume II. Data Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engineering Model of Future Motor Vehicles, previously reported in February 1977 in DOT-HS-802209 provided the safety engineer with a computerized data base including passenger car information such as configuration, geometric, weight, performance, and...

H. W. Grove

1978-01-01

287

The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

2013-01-01

288

A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

Marriott, A.

1995-01-01

289

Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers' relative risk of fatal crash involvement.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15-20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger's age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System provided fatal motor vehicle crash data from 1999 to 2003 and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers' trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16-20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT=7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34-8.69; RR per 10 million VMT=9.94; 95% CI, 9.13-10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21-34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk. Additionally, as all imputation techniques are imperfect, a more accurate estimation of U.S. fatal crash risk per distance driven would require national surveys to collect data on non-household passenger characteristics. PMID:20159095

Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Zador, Paul L; Lerner, Neil D; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D; Wang, Jing

2010-03-01

290

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

291

Fuel and emission impacts of heavy hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid powertrains for certain heavy vehicles may improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. Of particular interest are commercial vehicles, typically in Classes 3-6, that travel in urban areas. Hybrid strategies and associated energy\\/emissions benefits for these classes of vehicles could be significantly different from those for passenger cars. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the energy and emissions

F. An; J. J. Eberhardt; F. Stodolsky

1999-01-01

292

Human Sensibility Ergonomics Approach to Vehicle Simulator Based on Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulators have been used to evaluate drivers' reactions to various transportation products. Most research, however, has concentrated on their technical performance. This paper considers driver's motion perception on a vehicle simulator through the analysis of human sensibility ergonomics. A sensibility ergonomic method is proposed in order to improve the reliability of vehicle simulators. A simulator in a passenger vehicle consists

Kwon Son; Kyung-Hyun Choi; Ji-Sup Yoon

2004-01-01

293

Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.  

PubMed

The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

Byrne, N J

1995-08-01

294

Chromosomal passengers and the (aurora) ABCs of mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal passengers are proteins that move from centromeres to the spindle midzone during mitosis. Recent experiments show that the passengers inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora-B kinase are in a macromolecular complex that might also contain a third passenger, survivin. The chromosomal passenger complex functions throughout mitosis in chromosome condensation and segregation, and at the end of mitosis, in the

Richard R. Adams; Mar Carmena; William C. Earnshaw

2001-01-01

295

33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...access area. (a) A ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access...for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is not a secure...

2013-07-01

296

Child motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian casualties before and after enactment of Child Restraint Seats Legislation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem. Prevention of injuries to child passengers is a significant public health priority, as motor vehicle-related injuries remain a leading cause of death for children in Japan. The purpose of compulsory child restraint seats legislation in April 2000 was to reduce the number of child passengers killed or injured in motor vehicle crashes.Methods. The objectives of this preliminary evaluation are

E. B. R. Desapriya; Nobutada Iwase; Ian Pike; Mariana Brussoni; Michael Papsdorf

2004-01-01

297

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

2007-01-01

298

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...position. A non-complying car may continue in passenger service pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, if the trap door can be secured by locking out the door for which it is used. (9) All vestibule steps are illuminated. A...

2009-10-01

299

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...position. A non-complying car may continue in passenger service pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, if the trap door can be secured by locking out the door for which it is used. (9) All vestibule steps are illuminated. A...

2010-10-01

300

LOS Classification for Urban Rail Transit Passages Based on Passenger Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of service (LOS) for pedestrian facilities are influenced by a lot of factors and different pedestrians have different perceptions on the LOS. Referring to the method of passengers' perceptions on pedestrian facilities in urban rail transit and the survey idea of stated preference, a questionnaire on the basis of the perception has been conducted to explore the LOS

Shouhua CAO; Zhenzhou YUAN; Chiqing ZHANG; Li ZHAO

2009-01-01

301

CAPTURING PASSENGERS' VOICES: THE APPLICATION OF KANO'S MODEL IN THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents how airline passenger service requirements can be analyzed by using Kano's model of quality element classification as well as discusses the potential benefits that can be achieved by applying this approach to make marketing strategy planning. According to Kano's model, quality elements can be classified into three categories, namely Must-be, One-dimensional and Attractive needs, depending on their

Yueh-Ling HSU; Chao-Che HSU; Pei-Chi BING

2007-01-01

302

RANKING OF A PUBLIC SECTOR PASSENGER BUS TRANSPORT COMPANY USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sector passenger transport has been crucial sector for transportation of people in developing countries like India. But there is less emphasis on customer expectations in this sector. This study aims at evaluating the customer expectations of this service sector in India. A questionnaire containing eighteen quality characteristics was administered to various customers of three bus depots of one

M. Vetrivel SEZHIAN; C. MURALIDHARAN; T. NAMBIRAJAN; S. G. DESHMUKH

2011-01-01

303

A Bayes network based model of stranded passengers transfering among transportation hubs in climate disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to the case of large number of people being stranded at the major transportation hubs (such as bus station, railway stations, airports, etc.) in climate disasters, we developed a model to describe passengers' delay and transfer among transportation hubs. The authors believe that the weather, traffic node status (open or closed), the service status (normal, delayed or canceled), estimated

Shen Yang; Luo Zhengjun

2010-01-01

304

An approach to the simulation of bus passenger journey times for the journey to work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus passenger journey times in the morning peak period are simulated. Using estimates of the distribution of journey times we measure service performance by the amount of slack time required to reach a destination by a particular time with given probability. The effects of two influences on performance are analysed; seasonal fluctuations in demand and changes resulting from de?regulation.It is

S. R. Pells

1989-01-01

305

Modal Split in the Japanese Passenger Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modal split in the Japanese long distance passenger transport as well as its reasons and impacts are examined. Especially the competition between automobile and train and between train and airplane is thouroughly analyzed because the competition in Ja...

D. Eberlein

1982-01-01

306

Transit Passenger Shelters: Basic Design Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the problem of passenger shelter design with the object of maximizing user welfare while contending with the constraints of environmental fit and cost. Each element of welfare (comfort, safety, convenience) is considered separately in ...

F. Ehrenthal

1973-01-01

307

Passenger Carrying Submersibles: System Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past few years, several private companies have been using passenger carrying submersibles to conduct underwater sightseeing tours for tourists. For submersible operations under U.S. jurisdiction, the Coast Guard is required by law to establish ...

S. H. Markos W. T. Hathaway

1989-01-01

308

Providing Ecotourism Excursions for Cruise Passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to argue that destinations can do more to offer coastal ecotourism experiences for cruise passengers, and in doing so they may secure a more sustainable product. An analysis of shore-side excursions currently available to P&O passengers in the Caribbean is presented. Excursions are classified against textbook tourism-type definitions. Time constraints imposed by cruise operators

David Johnson

2006-01-01

309

Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.  

PubMed

On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights. PMID:15313108

Lasher, Lara E; Ayers, Tracy L; Amornkul, Pauli N; Nakatab, Michele N; Effler, Paul V

2004-01-01

310

Spatial externality of railway service improvement - To understand the Japanese inter-regional transportation service improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal policy between railway and airlines is of importance in providing seamless transportation service to inter-regional passengers. However, it is difficult to make coordination among the railway and airline service suppliers, especially when they are fiercely competing for the share in passenger market in the target OD. Inter-regional transportation in Japan, fierce competitions are observed between Japan Railway companies and

Makoto Tsukai; Makoto Okumura

2005-01-01

311

Numerical simulations of the performance of steel guardrails under vehicle impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road side barriers are constructed to protect passengers and contain vehicles when a vehicle crashes into a barrier. In general,\\u000a full-scale crash testing needs to be carried out if a geometrically and structurally equivalent barrier has not previously\\u000a been proven to meet the requirements of containing the vehicle and dissipating sufficient impact energy for passenger protection.\\u000a As full-scale crash testing

Hong Hao; J. Andrew Deeks; Chengqing Wu

2008-01-01

312

Dynamic Stress Analysis of Vehicle Frame Using a Nonlinear Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural integrity of either a passenger car or a light truck is one of the basic requirements for a full vehicle engineering\\u000a and development program. The results of the vehicle product performance are measured in terms of durability, noise\\/vibration\\/harshness\\u000a (NVH), crashworthiness and passenger safety. The level of performance of a vehicle directly affects the marketability, profitability\\u000a and, most importantly, the

Gyu Ha Kim; Kyu Zong Cho; In Bum Chyun; Gi Seob Choi

2003-01-01

313

Effects of an adult passenger on young adult drivers' driving speed: Roles of an adult passenger's presence and driving tips from the passenger.  

PubMed

An adult passenger has been known to facilitate young drivers' safe driving. This study examined whether the adult passenger's effect is produced by the simple presence of an adult passenger or by the driving tips offered by the passenger. Further, we examined whether the effect would be transferred to when a young driver drives alone without the adult passenger in the following session. Three groups of participants drove on expressway in a driving simulator, either alone, with a silent adult passenger, or with an adult passenger who gave advice on driving safety. After a break, participants in all three conditions drove on the same expressway alone. Results showed that participants who drove with an adult passenger providing driving tips drove more safely than the other groups, and the effect was transferred to even when they drove alone afterwards. PMID:24594361

Chung, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Byongho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jae In; Sohn, Young Woo

2014-06-01

314

Predictors of Hazardous Child Seating Behavior in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: 1990 to 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children ages 5 to 14. Children seated in the front seats of vehicles are at increased risk of death and injury in crashes, particularly in vehicles with passenger-side air bags. This study identifies fac- tors associated with the seating of children in the front seats of vehicles involved in

Eve Wittenberg; Sue J. Goldie; John D. Graham

2010-01-01

315

Modeling and analysis about vehicle's longitudinal dynamic performance while sliding on level road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliding is a common behavior used by driver on level road during vehicle operation. So it has practical significance to analyze the variation discipline of sliding vehicle's longitudinal dynamic parameters, such as sliding speed, deceleration rate, coasting resistance (including rolling resistance and air drag) in order to operate vehicle properly and reasonably. Taking some diesel passenger vehicle as experimental object

Lin Hongliang; Cui Xuanmeng; Yu Qiang; Wang Yaping

2011-01-01

316

Partners for child passenger safety: a unique child-specific crash surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insurance claims data were combined with telephone survey and on-site crash investigation data to create the first large scale, child-focused motor vehicle crash surveillance system in the US. Novel data management and transfer techniques were used to create a nearly real-time data collection system. In the first year of this on-going project, known as Partners for Child Passenger Safety, over

Dennis R. Durbin; Esha Bhatia; John H. Holmes; Kathy N. Shaw; John V. Werner; Wayne Sorenson; Flaura K. Winston

2001-01-01

317

The Employment of Airships for the Transport of Passengers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was a conclusion of this detailed study of the practicality of using airships for carrying passengers that, although slow, airships are capable of carrying useful loads over long distances. However, it is noted that there is a certain limit to the advantages of large cubature. Beyond a certain point, the maximum altitude of the airship goes on decreasing, in spite of the fact that the range of action in the horizontal plane and the useful load go on increasing. The possibility of rapid climb is an essential factor of security in aerial navigation in the case of storms, as is velocity. To rise above and run ahead of storms are ways of avoiding them. However, high altitude and high speed are antithetical. This investigation concluded that a maximum velocity of 120 km/h is as far as we ought to go. This figure can only be exceeded by excessive reduction of the altitude of ceiling, range of flight, and useful load. The essential requisites of a public transport service are discussed, as are flight security, regularity of service, competition with other forms of passenger transportation, and the choice between rigid and semi-rigid airships.

Nobile, Umberto

1921-01-01

318

The Effect of Passengers and Risk-Taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/Near Crashes Among Novice Teenagers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The high crash rates of novice teenage drivers are thought to be due to inexperience and risky driving behavior, exacerbated by passengers, night, and other complex driving conditions. This research examined factors associated with crash/near crash and risky driving rates among novice teenagers, including night vs day, passenger presence and characteristics, and driver psychosocial factors. Method The vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with recording systems that collected data on driving performance and occupant characteristics during their first 18 months of licensure. Survey data were collected at four measurement times. Poisson regression with random effects was used to analyze crash/near crash and elevated g-force event rates (i.e., risky driving); incident rate ratios (IRRs) measured associations with covariates. Results Crash/near crash rates among novice teenagers were 75% lower in the presence of adult passengers and 96% higher among those with risky friends. Teenage risky driving was 67% lower with adult passengers, 18% lower with teenage passengers; 20% lower during early night than day; and 109% higher among teens with relatively more risky friends. Conclusions The low rate of risky driving in the presence of adult passengers suggests that teens can drive in less risky fashion. The higher rate of risky driving among those with risky friends suggests that risky driving may be socially influenced.

Ouimet, Marie Claude; Zhang, Zhiwei; Klauer, Sheila E.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Wang, Jing; Chen, Rusan; Albert, Paul; Dingus, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

319

Road passenger transport and deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transport Act 1985 has had a major impact on the provision of local transport through the deregulation and privatization of local bus services in Great Britain (outside London). This article reviews the subsequent changes which have taken place in the services provided, the performance of the bus industry, public expenditure and the role of public authorities. Although unit operating

Peter White

1993-01-01

320

Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.  

PubMed

The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation. PMID:23763307

Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

2013-07-16

321

Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban-urban, urban-suburban and urban-rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3 ppm, respectively. The average concentration level difference between air-conditioned buses (1.8 ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9 ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban-suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban-urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban-rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel. The average CO exposure of a commuter in tunnel can be 2-3 times higher than that at the other roads. The CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Hong Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed.

Chan, L. Y.; Liu, Y. M.

322

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cylinder secured against shifting while in transit and not exceeding 113 kg (250 pounds...paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus while engaged in the transportation of...pounds) gross weight in or on any such bus. (g) Class 7 (radioactive)...

2013-10-01

323

System for measuring passenger reaction to transportation-vehicle vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equipment is capable of measuring frequencies from 0 to 50 Hz and is portable, light, inexpensive, and easily adaptable to field operations. System could be used in situations where it is necessary to record simultaneously subject response to other types of physical measurement or stimuli, such as temperature, noise, or pressure.

Clevenson, S. A.; Dibble, A. C.; Lusby, T. K., Jr.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.

1974-01-01

324

49 CFR 238.17 - Movement of passenger equipment with other than power brake defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger equipment with other than power brake defects. 238.17 Section 238.17...passenger equipment with other than power brake defects. Beginning on January...passenger equipment with other than a power brake defect. (Passenger cars and...

2013-10-01

325

Passenger well-being in airplanes.  

PubMed

Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort. PMID:16962384

Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

2006-10-30

326

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

327

77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in egress from a passenger train after an accident. The requirements...organizations involved in passenger train operations for purposes of...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association (ATDA...Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2012-01-03

328

78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parts 238 and 239 Passenger Train Emergency Systems II; Final...RIN 2130-AC22 Passenger Train Emergency Systems II AGENCY...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association (ATDA...Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2013-11-29

329

46 CFR 15.905 - Uninspected passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Uninspected passenger vessels. 15.905 Section 15.905 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Equivalents § 15.905 Uninspected passenger vessels....

2013-10-01

330

46 CFR 178.215 - Weight of passengers and crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Stability Instructions for Operating Personnel § 178.215 Weight of passengers and crew. (a) This...

2013-10-01

331

19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.156 Release of passengers. No passengers arriving from Cuba by aircraft will be released...

2013-04-01

332

Improved Passenger Counter and Classifier System for Transit Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project developed and tested a foot pressure generated, mat type, passenger sensor and interface system for real-time passenger counting, classification and transit ridership data. The system was assembled and, after laboratory tests, was installed o...

E. Greneker K. Murphy B. Johnson E. O. Rausch

1996-01-01

333

Development of Crashworthy Passenger Seats for General-Aviation Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and flo...

A. E. Tanner, M. J. Reilly

1979-01-01

334

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

335

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

336

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

337

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

338

14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger...Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and...Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), Office of Airline...

2012-01-01

339

Intercity Passenger Rail: Implications for Urban, Regional and National Mobility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent policy and regulatory actions by the U.S. government have revived interest in intercity passenger rail among transportation planners, policymakers, and the general public. As part of a fully integrated multimodal intercity corridor, passenger rail ...

B. R. Sperry C. A. Morgan

2011-01-01

340

77 FR 33315 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Alternative for the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4% or 40,000 ppm in the passenger breathing zone. 2. Vehicle manufacturers (i...and the ceiling limit of 4% in the breathing zone. 3. The use of CO 2 in MVAC...locating the driver's and passengers' breathing zone consistent with the head and...

2012-06-06

341

An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

Eriksen, S. E.

1978-01-01

342

Speed-dependent representative emission factors for catalyst passenger cars and influencing parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents speed-dependent hot emission factors for passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalyst. The emission factors were developed using emission data from in-use vehicles based on chassis dynamometer tests conducted over real-world driving cycles. The variability of the emission data and the use of cycles with different characteristics resulted in a low correlation between emission factors and mean travelling speed. Analysis of the data identified differences in vehicle emission performance as the main source of variability. The potential for decreasing emission variability by classifying vehicles according to their engine capacity and mileage was studied by means of an analysis of variance test. Results showed that CO, NO x and HC emissions were dependent on mileage but not on engine size. Emissions of CO 2 were found to be strongly dependent on engine size, but insensitive to vehicle mileage.

Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

343

Application for certification 1981 model year light-duty vehicles - Joguar Rover Triumph, Inc. (British Leyland)  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1981-01-01

344

Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Rover Group  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1993-01-01

345

49 CFR 39.29 - May PVOs limit the number of passengers with a disability on a passenger vessel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination...limit the number of passengers with a disability other than individuals with a mobility disability on your vessel. However, if in...

2013-10-01

346

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

347

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2011-10-01

348

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2010-10-01

349

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2010-10-01

350

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2011-10-01

351

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

352

An airport passenger terminal simulator: A planning and design tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent airport capacity studies have indicated that there is an imbalance in passenger terminal, airfield and airspace planning at many major airports. Traditionally, the emphasis has been on airfield and airspace development and analysis. Not much emphasis has been made on passenger terminal design. Therefore, there are many cases around the world exhibiting congestion problems at the airport passenger terminal

King Jim Hee; Yun Chang Zeph

1998-01-01

353

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2013-10-01

354

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2013-10-01

355

An Index For Rating the Total Secondary Safety of Vehicles from Real World Crash Data  

PubMed Central

This study proposes a total secondary safety index for light passenger vehicles that rates the relative performance of vehicles in protecting both their own occupants and other road users in the full range of real world crash circumstances. The index estimates the risk of death or serious injury to key road users in crashes involving light passenger vehicles across the full range of crash types. The proposed index has been estimated from real world crash data from Australasia and was able to identify vehicles that have superior or inferior total secondary safety characteristics compared with the average vehicle.

Newstead, S.; Watson, L.; Cameron, M.

2007-01-01

356

Wireless Adhoc Networks for Inter-Vehicle Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future enhancements in automobile technology will cope - besides tradi- tional aspects, like security and driving conditions or comfort aspects of passengers - especially with the ability of vehicles to communicate. The aspirated enhance- ments in the ability of communication of vehicles should not only focus on the use of existing wireless (cellular) networks, but should also concentrate on totally

Michael Meincke; Peter Tondl; María Dolores Pérez Guirao; Klaus Jobmann

2002-01-01

357

Development of aluminum body for the most fuel efficient vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of most essential factors to develop the highest gas mileage vehicle in the world is weight reduction of the vehicle body. Therefore, we replaced the traditional steel material for body in white (BIW) with aluminum. In order to apply aluminum to the BIW of a passenger car, the serious issues are cost as well as the technical challenges of

Masaaki Saito; Shuuichiro Iwatsuki; Kunihiro Yasunaga; Kimitaka Andoh

2000-01-01

358

Ac Propulsion System for an Electric Vehicle, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ...

J. M. Slicker

1983-01-01

359

Measuring performance of airport passenger terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of an airport passenger terminal generally has something to do with moving travelers and their bags between aircraft and ground transportation, but airport operators, travelers, airlines, and other users of the terminal have a range of concerns about comfort, convenience, costs, and ambiance that should accompany this movement and will assess performance in terms of such factors. Statistics are

Andrew C. Lemer

1992-01-01

360

Passenger Vans: A Transportation Concern for Camps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, the National Transportation Safety Board reissued a cautionary warning about the high accident potential of 15-passenger vans; some states have prohibited their use for transporting children. Three camp directors discuss legal and cost considerations for camps, possible alternative transportation, additional staff training needs,…

Gentle, Don; Gordon, Harold; Schainman, Steve

2002-01-01

361

NEMO route optimization for aeronautical passenger communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

IETF has developed the NEtwork MObility Basic Support (NEMO BS) protocol to handle mobility of an entire mobile network. When used in Aeronautical Passenger Communications (APC), the NEMO BS and the existing route optimization (RO) schemes face some problems such as end-to-end delay, high signaling overhead or high load of the home agent. This paper presents a scheme named APCRO

Yue Liu; Jinglin Li; Hai Zhang

2011-01-01

362

Decentralized resource allocation for road passenger transportation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-urban road passenger transportation requires the al- location of drivers and buses to transport people. In such allocation process, several constraints on driving time are being imposed by the governments in order to assure citizens safety. Such constraints, how- ever, are posing a lot of di-culties to the allocation process, usually generated by human operators. In this paper we formalize

Beatriz Lopez; Pere Urra

363

Location Optimization of Urban Passenger Transportation Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a lot of relevant researches about location of urban passenger transportation terminal at home and abroad, but the traditional location models are often rarely considered the influence which urban transportation terminal location to bus-sharing ratio and generalized cost of transportation terminal sitting. The paper, basing on user equilibrium theory, studies the interaction between the traffic flow of private

Zhou Xuemei; Di Di; Yang Xiaoguang; Wu Di

2010-01-01

364

Air Rail Intermodality from Passenger Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and rail are not only competing modes. Due to their different capabilities and characteristics the two modes fulfil the essential requirement of the market. The High-Speed Train inter-modal connection is inevitable to European airports in particular as a response to passenger needs. There are numerous advantages to this proposal, principally that it re- leases runway and ATC resources, offers

A. Cokasovaa

365

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were presented.

Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

1987-12-01

366

Architecture of a Framework for Providing Information Services for Public Transport  

PubMed Central

This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained.

Garcia, Carmelo R.; Perez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayon, Francisco; Padron, Gabino

2012-01-01

367

Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-05-01

368

Application for Certification 1983 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Mitsubishi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1982-01-01

369

Application for Certification 1982 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Mitsubishi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1982-01-01

370

Application for Certification 1986 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicles/Engines - Mitsubishi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1986-01-01

371

Application for Certification 1980 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Mitsubishi Motors Corp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1980-01-01

372

Application for Certification 1987 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Land Rover Ltd.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1987-01-01

373

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Rover Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

374

Application for Certification 1991 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - American Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineer...

1992-01-01

375

Application for Certification 1982 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1982-01-01

376

Application for Certification 1985 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda Motor Company, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1985-01-01

377

Application for Certification 1990 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineer...

1992-01-01

378

Application for Certification 1992 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1992-01-01

379

49 CFR 390.33 - Commercial motor vehicles used for purposes other than defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial motor vehicle other than a bus is used to perform the functions normally performed by a bus, the regulations pertaining to buses and to the transportation of passengers shall apply to that commercial...

2013-10-01

380

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Harley Davidson.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

381

Driving Patterns for Different-Sized Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was concerned with examining driver patterns for three different sized vehicles (small cars, family cars, trucks and buses) through an intersection controlled by a traffic signal. Observations were made morning, noon and afternoon, when there was precipitation and no precipitation. Records were also kept as to whether the drivers wore alone or with passengers and whether the drivers

Jane E. James; Morton Goldman

1971-01-01

382

Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.

1997-01-01

383

Exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria while commuting in passenger cars and public buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examined airborne microbe levels inside and outside passenger cars and public buses during two seasons (winter and summer). The prevalence level of individual fungal genera depended on the fungi and agar type, whereas a constant higher prevalence (>90%) was found for the total bacteria and total fungi. The four most prevalent fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria in a descending order. The major parameters associated with the airborne microbe measurements included agar type, vehicle type, and seasonal variation. When compared to the malt extract agar (MEA), the dichloran glycerol 18 agar (DG-18) was found to produce better counts for the target fungi. The summer in-vehicle bacterial concentrations were significantly higher for public buses than for the passenger cars, whereas the reverse was true for summer in-vehicle total fungal concentrations. This pattern was also consistent with summer outdoor results. In contrast, the winter in-vehicle and outdoor airborne microbe levels were similar for cars and buses. Meanwhile, summer was generally found to have higher in-vehicle fungal concentrations than winter. The current in-vehicle airborne microbe concentrations were found to be similar to residential indoor values from other reports, such as bacterial values between 10 and 10 3 CFU m -3 and total fungal aerosol concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 3 CFU m -3. It was suggested that motor vehicles in which many individuals spend a certain percentage of their day or week for travel are also a potential microenvironment for individual exposure to airborne microbes.

Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

384

IEEE 1472: an open-source communications protocol for railway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Railway vehicles are complex systems that are an essential component of any national transportation infrastructure. But railway vehicles are also mission-critical systems that must support the comfort and safety of passengers. It is therefore essential that these systems be the epitome of fault-tolerant control technology. The Rail Transit Vehicle Interface (RTVI) standards committee of the IEEE's Vehicular Technology Society developed

P. A. Laplante; F. C. Woolsey

2003-01-01

385

Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 2: Airport feeder vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airport Feeder vehicle is a VTOL, semi-buoyant ellipsoidal airship capable of transporting passengers or cargo to major CTOL hub terminals from suburban and downtown depots. Six tasks were reviewed: (1) vehicle design definition, (2) operational procedures analysis, (3) cost analysis, (4) comparison with alternate transportation modes, (5) mission/vehicle feasibility assessment, and (6) technology assessment.

1976-01-01

386

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world is reported. This vehicle was first tested successfully on December 31, 2000 in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Heretofore over 17,000 passengers took the vehicle, and it operates very well from beginning to now. The function of suspension is separated from one of propulsion. The

Jiasu Wang; Suyu Wang; Youwen Zeng; Haiyu Huang; Fang Luo; Zhipei Xu; Qixue Tang; Guobin Lin; Cuifang Zhang; Zhongyou Ren; Guomin Zhao; Degui Zhu; Shaohua Wang; He Jiang; Min Zhu; Changyan Deng; Pengfei Hu; Chaoyong Li; Fang Liu; Jisan Lian; Xiaorong Wang; Lianghui Wang; Xuming Shen; Xiaogang Dong

2002-01-01

387

The man-loading high-temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first man-loading high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev test vehicle in the world was successfully developed on Dec. 31, 2000 in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Heretofore over 24 500 passengers took the vehicle, and it has been operating back and forth for about 400 km. The HTS Maglev vehicle provides inherent stability both in the vertical and

Suyu Wang; Jiasu Wang; Xiaorong Wang; Zhongyou Ren; Youwen Zeng; Changyan Deng; He Jiang; Min Zhu; Guobin Lin; Zhipei Xu; Degui Zhu; Honghai Song

2003-01-01

388

77 FR 23320 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; Annual Insurer Report on Motor Vehicle Theft for the 2006...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...detection and prosecution of motor vehicle theft (Pub...a new Title VI to the Motor Vehicle Information and...major parts of certain high-theft lines of passenger...other actions to reduce motor vehicle theft, such...trafficking in stolen parts and development of ways to...

2012-04-18

389

Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insight obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles.

Bent Sørensen

2007-01-01

390

Children with Special Physical Health Care Needs: Restraint Use and Injury Risk in Motor Vehicle Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical disabilities may affect a child passenger’s fit within a conventional motor vehicle restraint. The aim of this study\\u000a is to describe and compare injury risk in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) among children with and without special physical health\\u000a care needs (SPHCN). This analysis, conducted in 2007–2008, utilizes data collected between December 1998 and November 2002\\u000a in a cross-sectional study

Patty HuangMichael; Michael J. Kallan; Joseph O’Neil; Marilyn J. Bull; Nathan J. Blum; Dennis R. Durbin

391

The application of Six Sigma methodology for check-in service in airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Check-in service is that passengers need experience flow in airport, and decides the first impression given passengers, so it plays an important role on the ground service quality. Based on the DMAIC model of Six Sigma, this paper applied DMAIC to improve check-in service performance in Hang Zhou Xiao Shan airport. According to DMAIC process, this paper systematically defines five

Ren Xinhui

2011-01-01

392

Biomechanics of under ride motor vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the biomechanical aspects of injuries sustained by occupants of passenger cars during collisions with the trailer portion of a tractor/trailer rig. In such collisions, the occupants of the passenger car often sustain serious injuries when the passenger car passes beneath the trailer. This process by which the car "underrides" the trailer occurs due to the mismatch in height between the lowermost edge of the trailer and the crash mitigation structures in the vehicle. The study outlines a car-to-trailer crash testing methodology used to determine the effectiveness of one potential trailer underride guard in preventing serious injuries to occupants of passenger cars. The results from initial crash tests suggest that occupants of cars that collide with the unguarded sides of trailers are at a high risk of serious injury to the head, neck, and chest due the large intrusion of the roof and roof support structures into the occupant compartment. Testing of a trailer fitted with an underride guard showed that occupants of vehicles that collide with the sides of trailers that have been modified to engage the energy absorbing structures of passenger cars are exposed to a smaller risk of injury. PMID:17487053

Kumar, Sri; Sances, Anthony; Enz, Bruce; Frieder, Russell

2007-01-01

393

Ecology profile of the german high-speed rail passenger transport system, ICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intention, Goal, Scope, Background, Objectives  Environmental effects caused by the railway transport services have rarely been investigated in depth from a systemic point\\u000a of view. A screening LCA, called ecology profile, of the German high-speed passenger train system, the ICE, is presented here,\\u000a based on a study conducted by the University of Halle and the Deutsche Bahn AG, the major German

Christian von Rozycki; Heinz Koeser; Henning Schwarz

2003-01-01

394

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

2008-01-01

395

Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

1978-01-01

396

Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

397

Driver Mortality in Paired Side Impact Collisions Due to Incompatible Vehicle Types  

PubMed Central

Using a matched case control design, this study measured the mortality associated with paired passenger car-sport utility vehicle side impact (‘T-bone’) collisions using FARS data. Survival versus fatal outcome within the matched crash pairs was measured with matched pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression adjusted for multiple effects. Overall, passenger car drivers experienced greater mortality than did SUV drivers, regardless if they were in the struck or striking vehicle (odds ratio: 10.0; 95% confidence interval: 7.9, 12.5). Differential mortality persisted after adjustment for confounders. Efforts should be sought to improve passenger car side impact crashworthiness and to reduce SUV aggressivity.

Crandall, C.S.

2003-01-01

398

Operations Research in Passenger Railway Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give an overview of state-of-the-art OperationsResearch models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical,well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we

Dennis Huisman; Leo G. Kroon; Ramon M. Lentink; Michiel J. C. M. Vromans

2005-01-01

399

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) for Wisconsin: Youth Newspaper Delivery Assistant Dies in Motor Vehicle Collision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 17-year-old male newspaper delivery assistant (the victim) was a passenger in an automobile that burst into fire after it was struck from behind by another vehicle. The victim was seated in the front passenger seat of the auto driven by an newspaper car...

2001-01-01

400

Vehicle/engine integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

1984-04-01

401

Short-term exposure to PM 10, PM 2.5, ultrafine particles and CO 2 for passengers at an intercity bus terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taipei Bus Station is the main transportation hub for over 50 bus routes to eastern, central, and southern Taiwan. Daily traffic volume at this station is about 2500 vehicles, serving over 45,000 passengers daily. The station is a massive 24-story building housing a bus terminal, a business hotel, a shopping mall, several cinemas, offices, private residential suites, and over

Yu-Hsiang Cheng; Hsiao-Peng Chang; Cheng-Ju Hsieh

2011-01-01

402

Motor Vehicle Mismatch-Related Spinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most prevalent etiology of SCI. Few studies have defined SCI risk factors. Vehicle mismatch occurs in 2-vehicle MVCs in which there are significant differences in vehicle weight, stiffness, and height. This study examined SCI risk and vehicle mismatch. Methods: A matched case-control study using the 1995 to 2003 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Study subjects were identified from 2-vehicle MVCs. Cases were occupants who had suffered a cervical, thoracic, or lumbar SCI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: There were 101,682 cases of SCI matched to 805,091 controls. Occupants of passenger vehicles involved in MVCs with a light truck or van (LTV) were at increased risk for SCI (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07–3.24) and this risk was greatest for thoracic SCI (OR = 5.09, 95% CI = 2.33–11.13). In addition, occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with passenger vehicles were at significant increased risk for cervical (OR = 1.39) and lumbar (OR = 2.65) SCI; and occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with other LTVs were at increased risk of any SCI (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.52–2.69). For these subjects, significant increased risks were seen for all spine regions: cervical (OR = 1.41), thoracic (OR = 2.86), and lumbar (OR = 2.38). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that occupants of passenger vehicles are at increased SCI risk when involved in 2-vehicle MVCs with LTVs; and that occupants of LTVs are at increased SCI risk, regardless.

Cobb, Jason D; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse S; Rue, Loring W

2005-01-01

403

Engine management for Flex Fuel plus compressed natural gas vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol has been used in Brazil as a passenger vehicle fuel since 1979. Until the year 2000, vehicles were made to run exclusively\\u000a with either gasoline or ethanol. The MultiFuel engine control module (ECM) was developed allowing vehicles to use fuels with\\u000a any ethanol percentage, relying only on the existing oxygen sensor as opposed to an add-on ethanol sensor for

O Volpato; F Theunissen; R Mazara; Erik Verhaeven

404

Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2

W. L. Kelledes

1984-01-01

405

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

406

Projected energy demand for the passenger-transportation sector for Nebraska. Projection energy report No. 60  

SciTech Connect

Passenger transportation is highly dependent upon portable fuels, particularly gasoline. Passenger travel, both within and between Nebraska cities, is nearly totally reliant upon the automobile as the travel mode. These two facts are not projected to change during the forecasting period (1980 to 2000). In all projections, consumption is expected to decline for the state. In the high projection, it is assumed that personal miles traveled and the state's population will increase in a substantial fashion. In the moderate projection, it is assumed that personal miles traveled will remain constant over time and the state's population will increase slightly. In the low projection, it is assumed that personal miles will decrease substantially and the state's population will increase slightly initially and begin to decline during the 1990's. In all cases it is assumed that US Department of Transportation motor vehicle fleet efficiencies averages will be obtained. The critical determinant resulting in the total consumption decline in all cases is the ever improving motor vehicle fleet efficiencies created by federally mandated minimum efficiency standards for new motor vehicles. The forecasting methodology is simple and well documented. Fundamental changes in trends associated with any of the independent variables could alter the estimated consumption levels significantly.

Macke, D.W.

1980-09-23

407

THE IMPACT OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVES ON ROAD TRAFFIC DISABILITY AND DEATHS COMPARED TO PASSENGER CARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of injuries resulting from road traffic crashes involving four wheel drives (4WD) vehicles and passenger cars in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Al-Ain and Tawam Hospital, UAE, during a period from 1st January to 31st December 2000. Patients and Methods: A

Abdulbari Bener; A. Ghaffar; Abu Azab; M. Sankaran-Kutty; F. Toth; G. Lovasz

408

Aircraft sound quality for passenger comfort and enhanced product image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passenger cabin noise requirements for commercial airplanes are being expanded beyond the traditional focus on noise annoyance and speech intelligibility. There is increasing recognition that the passenger response to the cabin soundscape is much more complex; affecting perceptions of product quality, and impacting fatigue and comfort. Tailoring the soundscape for a preferred cabin environment requires the development of metrics that capture a range of passenger responses. In a preliminary exploration of potential metrics, a series of experiments were undertaken to investigate passenger preference for several classes of stationary and transient sounds within the passenger cabin. The design, implementation, and data analysis for these experiments is discussed, along with the application of results to enhance cabin comfort and to convey product quality. Key findings confirm what has been found in sound quality studies in other industries: sound level alone does not fully account for passenger preference.

Wakefield, Gregory H.; Bultemeier, Eric J.; West, Erik; Angerer, James R.; Bhat, Waman V.

2005-09-01

409

Injury prevention: role of the hospital-based Child Passenger Safety Program (CPSP).  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death for people 3 to 34 years of age. Despite evidence that child safety seats (CSS) reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71% for infants (< 1 year of age) and by 54% for toddlers (1-4 years of age) in passenger cars, 48% of the 23 Arkansas children under age 16 that died in 2007 were unrestrained. We review the goals of a hospital-based CPSP, briefly review one American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Statement, describe how one CPSP functions, and provide resources to those interested in program development. PMID:21197870

Palmer, Kristine G; Mowery, Betsey

2010-12-01

410

Multi-modal and demand-responsive passenger transport systems: a modelling framework with embedded control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LITRES-2 modelling system provides a framework for investigating the performance of urban passenger transport systems, with particular attention to demand-responsive transport modes and traveller information technologies. The modes covered include conventional timetabled services (buses, trains etc.), taxis (both single- and multiple-hire), and other demand-responsive services. Tables of estimated aggregate demand are disaggregated so as to produce a stream of

M. E. T. Horn

2002-01-01

411

Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

1976-01-01

412

Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the definition of the penetration criteria of the propellant tanks surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Poormon, Kevin; Greene, Nathanel; Rodriquez, Karen

2010-01-01

413

Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium: shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the defInition of the penetration criteria of the propellant and oxidizer tanks dome surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Poormon, Kevin; Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Greene, Nathanael; Rodriquez, Karen

2010-01-01

414

New Capabilities to Achieve Future Major Astrophysical Goals in Space: In-Space Servicing and the Ares V Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astronomy community, NASA Centers, and the National Academy of Sciences are beginning the processes to design, assess, and advocate a generation of very large, very capable astronomical observatories for the post-JWST time period; that is, about 2020 and beyond. Simultaneously, commercial companies and entrepreneurs, as well as NASA's human spaceflight program, are investing in capabilities that may be adapted - and, indeed, may be necessary - to enable the most ambitious science missions in space. In this presentation, we describe the history of and recent progress in space robotics, notably DARPA's Orbital Express program, which demonstrated in Spring, 2007 effective in-space acquisition, rendezvous, docking, and instrument transfer. We also will summarize recent concepts for modest augmentation of the Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle that would permit astronaut and/or robotic servicing of the science community's most valuable space assets. Finally, we will outline our proposed study of the Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle, which has the potential to put a 8 m monolithic telescope - or even larger segmented/deployable optic - into the Sun-Earth L2 orbit.

Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Postman, M.; Stahl, P.; Lester, D.; Lillie, C.; Moe, R.; Schweitzer, A.; Varsi, G.; Espero, T.

2007-12-01

415

Application for Certification 1987 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicles/Engines - Mercedes-Benz Truck Company, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1987-01-01

416

Assessing efficiency of transit service  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades, the market share of bus passengers has declined, while many transit services have expanded. Furthermore, wage rates and other costs of labor such as benefits have been increasing, and regulations relating to the environment and Americans with disabilities have been enacted. This has fueled a systemic decline in productivity of agencies providing bus service. With

Yuko J. Nakanishi; John R. Norsworthy

2000-01-01

417

Braking - Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a method of evaluating the brake systems of tracked vehicles. Covers brake holding ability, stopping distance, steering brake performance, wet and freezing effects, braking potential, service brake efficiency, fade and recovery tests, brake syste...

1977-01-01

418

Conestoga launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major applications for commercial and government markets have developed recently which will make use of small satellites. A launch vehicle designed specifically for small satellites brings many attendant benefits. Space Services Incorporated has developed the Conestoga family of launch vehicles to meet the needs of five major markets: low orbiting communication satellites, positioning satellites, earth sensing satellites, space manufacturing

Mark H. Daniels; James E. Davidson

1988-01-01

419

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

420

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2013-10-01

421

14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.313 Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers...carrying passengers during flight, nor may any person manipulate the controls while carrying passengers during flight, unless that...

2014-01-01

422

77 FR 43141 - Air Carrier Hazardous Materials Passenger Notification Requirements: Acceptable Means of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Air Carrier Hazardous Materials Passenger Notification...will conduct a public meeting to discuss Air Carrier Hazardous Materials Passenger Notification...the meeting, copies of documents for the Air Carrier Hazardous Materials Passenger...

2012-07-23

423

75 FR 63714 - Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA87 Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain...moving security zones around passenger vessels in the Sector Southeastern New England...maximum 100-yard radius of any passenger vessel anchored, moored, or in the...

2010-10-18

424

76 FR 58227 - Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Nonperformance of Transportation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-16] RIN 3072-AC45 Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements...regarding the establishment of passenger vessel financial responsibility for nonperformance...coverage required for smaller passenger vessel operators by providing for...

2011-09-20

425

49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

2013-10-01

426

76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects...FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) program. The funding...

2011-03-16

427

75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects...for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. The Department of...

2010-04-01

428

75 FR 38365 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...individual high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects available under the Transportation...of High-Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail Appendix 2: Additional Information...

2010-07-01

429

Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

1976-01-01

430

A method to estimate the lateral tire force and the sideslip angle of a vehicle: Experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of a vehicle is governed by the forces generated between the tires and the road. Knowledge of these dynamic variables is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle stability and passenger safety. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain these data because of technical and economic reasons, therefore, they must be estimated. This study introduces a

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2010-01-01

431

Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome and Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The authors reviewed the passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) that has appeared after transplantation. The definition, mechanism, serological, clinical features, and treatment for PLS after solid organ transplantation, especially liver transplantation, are described. The PLS refers to the clinical phenomenon of alloimmune hemolysis resulting from the adoptive transfer of viable lymphocytes from donor during solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Sometimes, it is very severe and may cause “unexplained” hemolysis during the postoperative period. The authors reviewed literature about the PLS in liver transplantation.

Audet, Maxime; Panaro, Fabrizio; Piardi, Tullio; Huang, Ping; Cag, Murat; Cinqualbre, Jacques; Wolf, Philippe

2008-01-01

432

Applying Kano Model into the Service Quality of Taiwan Railway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is aimed to find out expectations and needs of passengers while taking the trip by Taiwan Railway, so the PZB way and Kano two-dimensional quality model are proposed to construct the service quality into five consciousness dimensions to assess the cognition impression degree of passengers. This research reviews the domestic and international scholar's relevant literatures at first and

Yun-Chang Jung; Shih-Yuan Wang; Chih-Hung Hsu; Chien-Yueh Liao

433

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14

434

78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...Solicitation of Project Proposals for the Passenger Ferry Grant...

2013-08-21

435

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

436

Shuttle passenger couch. [design and performance of engineering model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual design and fabrication of a full scale shuttle passenger couch engineering model are reported. The model was utilized to verify anthropometric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/egress, couch operation, storage space, restraint locations, and crew acceptability. These data were then incorported in the design of the passenger couch verification model that underwent performance tests.

Rosener, A. A.; Stephenson, M. L.

1974-01-01

437

Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

1977-01-01

438

Improved Passenger Equipment Evaluation Program: Train System Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of new passenger train systems have been developed throughout the world and are now, or soon will be, available. They represent technology that is available for possible use in the United States. Starting in early 1977, the Improved Passenger Equ...

J. A. Bachman J. W. Marchetti H. C. Meacham R. A. Uher R. B. Watson

1978-01-01

439

Design Data on Suspension Systems of Selected Rail Passenger Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an effort to compile data for the U.S. fleet of railroad passenger cars, and to describe the different passenger car truck designs and design features used in the United States. The report provides a detailed discussion...

A. J. Bing S. R. Berry H. B. Henderson

1996-01-01

440

Aircraft sound quality for passenger comfort and enhanced product image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger cabin noise requirements for commercial airplanes are being expanded beyond the traditional focus on noise annoyance and speech intelligibility. There is increasing recognition that the passenger response to the cabin soundscape is much more complex; affecting perceptions of product quality, and impacting fatigue and comfort. Tailoring the soundscape for a preferred cabin environment requires the development of metrics that

Gregory H. Wakefield; Eric J. Bultemeier; Erik West; James R. Angerer; Waman V. Bhat

2005-01-01

441

Predicting passenger trips for future energy and transportation investment planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aPassenger Transportation is one of the two major components of transportation sector (the other being freight) and it is one of the major factors affecting the energy demand and the need for transportation infrastructure investments. Specifically, 12% of energy consumption and almost 17% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are attributed to passenger transportation, while the energy

Aikaterini Rentziou

2010-01-01

442

ASPS: American Suborbital Passenger System 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the evaporation of funding support for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), realization of a single stage to orbit flight system has been deferred. With the resource down sizing of the NASP management and technical team, development of the NASP concept appears to be delayed beyond the year 2030. To fill this gap for shorter flight times to remote destinations over 8,000 km, it is now proposed to convert the existing NASA shuttle to a passenger configuration and air launch horizontally from a Boeing 747 aircraft as the first stage carrier after climb to launch altitude. This US Shuttle concept may permit the transport of 100 passengers to destinations 10,000 km distant during a flight duration of 90 minutes, and during flight durations of about 120 minutes to any commercial destination on the planet Earth. This long distance system takes advantage of the existing shuttle and Boeing 747 airframe and propulsion technology, and can be implemented within the next decade.

Wyczalek, Floyd A.

1994-11-01

443

Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events.

Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

2013-01-01

444

High-speed transpacific passenger flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design task of high-speed passenger flight across the Pacific Ocean was addressed by four design teams of eight students each. Two teams examined hypersonic flight (Mach greater than 5) and two teams studied supersonic flight (Mach = 3). The specific task of the aircraft was to transport at least 250 passengers 6500 nautical miles while operating from airport runways of 15,000 feet. Four design concepts evolved; the supersonic designs--one a variable-sweep oblique wing and the other a cranked-arrow wing--use conventional turbine engines and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The two hypersonic configurations, one with a variable-sweep wing and the other with a fixed, swept-wing planform, employ methane fueled, variable-cycle turbojet/ramjet propulsion systems. Both supersonic aircraft weigh less than 700,000 lbs at takeoff, while the variable-geometry hypersonic airplane is the heaviest at 1,100,000 lbs and weighs 170,000 lbs more than the fixed-wing hypersonic design. All the conceptual designs are shown to perform the transport mission, although development and operating cost estimates favor the supersonic designs over the hypersonic configurations.

1988-01-01

445

Cardiovascular emergencies in cruise ship passengers.  

PubMed

More than 10 million people, many elderly and likely to harbor cardiovascular (CV) disease, embark on cruise ship travel worldwide every year. The clinical presentation and outcome of CV emergencies presenting during cruise ship travel remain largely unknown. Our department provides contracted cardiology consultations to several large cruise lines. We prospectively maintained a registry of all such consultations during a 2-year period. One hundred consecutive patients were identified (age 66 +/- 14 years, range 18 to 90, 76% men). The most common symptom was chest pain (50%). The most common diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome (58%; ST elevation in 21% and non-ST elevation in 37%). On-board mortality was 3%. Overall, 73% of patients required hospital triage. Of the 25 patients triaged to our institution, 17 underwent a revascularization procedure. One patient died. Ten percent of patients had cardiac symptoms in the days or weeks before boarding; all required hospital triage. Access to a baseline electrocardiogram would have been clinically useful in 23% of cases. In conclusion, CV emergencies, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, are not uncommon on cruise ships. They are often serious, requiring hospital triage and coronary revascularization. A pretravel medical evaluation is recommended for passengers with a cardiac history or a high-risk profile. Passengers should be encouraged to bring a copy of their electrocardiogram on board if abnormal. Cruise lines should establish mechanisms for prompt consultation and triage. PMID:20102910

Novaro, Gian M; Bush, Howard S; Fromkin, Kenneth R; Shen, Michael Y; Helguera, Marcelo; Pinski, Sergio L; Asher, Craig R

2010-01-15

446

Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

1977-01-01

447

System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

Arnzen, H. E.

1971-01-01

448

Fractional-order PI?D? control and optimization for vehicle active steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active steering is a newly developed technology for passenger cars to enhance vehicle stability and handling performance. A fractional-order PIlambdaDmu control strategy is applied on active steering vehicle based on a multi-body vehicle dynamic model in this paper and the active control is expressed as a sum of PIlambda and PDmu control. The multi-body vehicle dynamic model using ADAMS can

Jie Zhang; Yunqing Zhang

2008-01-01

449

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28

450

Motion sickness in public road transport: the effect of driver, route and vehicle.  

PubMed

Relationships between vehicle motion and passenger sickness have been investigated in a survey of 3256 passengers travelling on 56 mainland UK bus or coach journeys. Vehicle motion was measured throughout all journeys, yielding over 110 h of six-axis coach motion data from five types of coach and 17 different drivers. Overall, 28.4% of passengers reported feelings of illness, 12.8% reported nausea and 1.7% reported vomiting during coach travel. Passenger nausea and illness ratings increased with increased exposure to lateral coach motion at low frequencies (< 0.5 Hz). Motion in other axes correlated less well with sickness, although there were some intercorrelations between the motions in the different axes. Sickness levels among passengers were greater with drivers who drove to produce higher average magnitudes of fore-and-aft and lateral vehicle motion. Nausea occurrence was greater on routes classified as being predominantly cross-country where magnitudes of lateral vehicle motion were significantly higher. Lateral motion and motion sickness increased from the front to the rear of each vehicle. No significant differences in sickness were found between the five different vehicle types used in the study. The applicability of a motion sickness dose model to these data is discussed. PMID:10643406

Turner, M; Griffin, M J

1999-12-01

451

Study: ED providers could be doing more to prevent injuries, deaths related to improperly restrained child passengers.  

PubMed

Researchers from the University of Michigan's CS Mott Children's Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, report that both general and pediatric-trained emergency providers are missing opportunities to get critical information about the proper use of child restraints out to the families of children when they are brought to the ED following motor vehicle crashes. In a survey sent to a random sample of 1200 emergency physicians across the country, fewer than one-half of the responding physicians indicated that the parents of a 2-year-old being discharged from their ED following a motor vehicle crash would be supplied with discharge instructions that include advice about the proper use of car seats. The study notes that 20% of 1 to 3-year-olds and about one-half of 4 to 7-year-olds are typically not restrained in the recommended restraint for their age. Child passenger injuries in crashes are the leading cause of death for children who are older than age 3 years in the United States, and they are the second leading cause of death among children aged 1 to 4. Researchers recommend that resources on child passenger safety be highlighted in discharge instructions, and that emergency providers tap into their own experiences when speaking with families about the importance of properly restraining child passengers. PMID:23828968

2013-07-01

452

Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of suborbital passenger vehicles such as bloon, Spaceplane as well as SpaceShipTwo (which is British-owned) this is clearly the appropriate time for the EC or other competent institutions to issue regulations regarding suborbital passenger flight. Rules and regulations regarding suborbital passenger transport such as liability and waivers to protect third parties, governments, and operators, need to be addressed by the European Union (EU) as a whole or at least by national or regional governments wishing to attract suborbital passenger flights to their territory. After all, it would be in Europe's financial and other interests to create and foster a favorable legal and commercial environment for the aerospace business within the borders of the EU.

Schoenmaker, Annelie

2014-07-01

453

Protecting Military Perimeters from Approaching Human and Vehicle Using Biologically Realistic Dynamic Synapse Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to detect and classify approaching human threats or vehicles, e.g. suicide bombers nearing a secured zone such as military bases. More specifically, this research is focused on (i) developing a vibration recognition system that can detect systematic vibration events; the entity might be a medium, human, animal, or a passenger vehicle, and (ii) discriminating

Hyung O Park; A. A. Dibazar; T. W. Berger

2008-01-01

454

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

455

Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the

Qingyu Zhang; Weili Tian; Yingyue Zheng; Lili Zhang

2010-01-01

456

75 FR 59674 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Side...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...right front seat passenger seating positions...achieve the maximum safety benefit of the...compatible with adaptive seating currently...motor vehicle safety standard. Second...standards (e.g., materials specifications...organized the material to suit the public's...Motor vehicle safety, Motor...

2010-09-28

457

Formulation of lower phosphorus passenger car oils  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a research program to evaluate the effect of lowering zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) content on engine oil performance. The automative industry is concerned that engine oil composition may have an adverse effect on exhaust catalytic converter efficiency and has therefore called for more research to develop engine oils that will promote catlyst/engine oil compatibility. An apparently simple solution is to reduce ZDDP content to a level that allows satisfactory catalyst efficiency. The effects of lowering the ZDDP content have been evaluated in terms of wear, oxidation and bearing corrosion performance. It has been demonstrated that in laboratory engines and rig tests by quantifying the influence of lubricant composition on performance, engine oils can be formulated at lower phosphorous levels (0.08% wt) to meet the performance needs of modern passenger cars in the United States, Europe and Japan.

Burrows, A.L.; Korosec, P.S.; Malfer, D.J.; Yatsunami, K.

1986-01-01

458

46 CFR 116.427 - Fire load of accommodation and service spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire load of accommodation and service spaces. 116...THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.427 Fire load of accommodation and service spaces....

2013-10-01

459

Braking performance of heavy U. S. vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a synthesis of the information available describing the braking performance of heavy (on-highway) vehicles in the U.S. and contrasts the braking performance of heavy vehicles with that of passenger cars. It discusses the unique demands that are placed on heavy vehicle brake systems and shows that it is difficult to optimize braking performance for all operating conditions without adding complexity to the system. As designed, U.S. heavy vehicles do not perform as well as cars. In addition, heavy vehicle brake performance can degrade significantly from the design-intent level if proper maintenance is not performed. The brake maintenance situation in the U.S. leaves something to be desired.

Radlinski, R.W.

1987-01-01

460

Northeast Corridor Passenger Transportation Data Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen measures of performance are recommended for use in Northeast Corridor rail system evaluation and multimodal comparisons. These include performance measures in the categories of system configuration (e.g., daily available-seat miles by vehicle and...

1976-01-01

461

Effectiveness of Automatic Shoulder Belt Systems in Motor Vehicle Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Approximately 10 million cars with automatic shoulder belt systems are cur- rently in use in the United States. However, reports on the effectiveness of such re- straints have yielded conflicting results. Objective To determine the effectiveness of automatic shoulder belt systems in re- ducing the risk of injury and death among front-seat passenger vehicle occupants. Design, Setting, and Subjects

Frederick P. Rivara; Thomas D. Koepsell; David C. Grossman; Charles Mock

2000-01-01

462

COMPUTER SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE VEHICLE IMPACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the vehicle rear impact and its consequences and analyzes the research developed in this field. In road traffic, especially in urban traffic, numerous rear collisions have taken place, resulting in serious injuries for passengers. The numerous studies that have been carried out lead to today's internationally recognized demand on the car driver's head restraint adjustment for an

DANIEL TRUSCA; ADRIAN SOICA; BOGDAN BENEA; STELIAN TARULESCU

2009-01-01

463

Neural network structure optimization and its application for passenger flow predicting of comprehensive transportation between cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling and predicting for passenger flow of comprehensive transportation between cities are studied Passenger flow for different transportation mode is concerned with both social and economic characteristics of passengers, and also concerned with personal preference of every passenger. This is a modeling and predicting problem for complex systems. First, a 3-layer neural network is structured according to Kolmogorov theorem,

Chen Senfa; Tang Changbao

2007-01-01

464

Are older drivers actually at higher risk of involvement in collisions resulting in deaths or non-fatal injuries among their passengers and other road users?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: With more older drivers on the road, public concern has been expressed about their impact on traffic safety. This study revisited the question of driver age in relation to the risks of older drivers and others sharing the road with them, including pedestrians, passengers in the same vehicle, and occupants of other vehicles. Methods: Using United States federal data on fatal and non-fatal crashes, injury rates per driver were calculated for different types of road users. In addition, using data supplied by nine insurers, insurance claims per insured vehicle year were examined by driver age. The reference drivers were aged 30–59. Results: For fatal crashes, older drivers' major impact on road users other than themselves was an increase in death rates among their passengers, who also tended to be elderly and thus more vulnerable to injuries (rate ratio (RR) for drivers aged 75+ 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.39 to 2.66). For non-fatal crashes, drivers aged 75+ had a RR of 1.10 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.24) for involvement in collisions resulting in injuries to other passenger vehicles' occupants compared with 30–59 year old drivers. The oldest drivers (aged 85+) had significant increases in insurance claims for injuries to other road users in crashes in which they were deemed at fault (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 1.89). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the oldest drivers, a group with low average annual mileage, do pose some increased risks to occupants of other vehicles, and pose the most serious risks to themselves and their passengers.

Braver, E; Trempel, R

2004-01-01

465

Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 7: Study recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and analysis tasks to alleviate negative impacts, to augment positive impacts, or to better understand the impacts produced by the potential introduction of the alternate transportation technologies are identified. The project team's recommendations on research and analysis efforts which have resulted from the technology assessment are provided. Many of the recommendations apply to the future supply of intercity passenger transportation services, categorized by mode. Other recommendations pertain to broad issues in intercity transportation--e.g., finance, regulation, traveler values--that will affect all modes.

1976-01-01

466

Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria air pollutants, life-cycle components often dominate total emissions and can be a magnitude larger than operational counterparts. Per passenger mile traveled, total SO2 emissions (between 350 and 460 mg) are 19-27 times larger than operational emissions as a result of electricity generation in vehicle manufacturing, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. NOx emissions increase 50-73% for automobiles, 24% for buses, 13-1300% for rail, and 19-24% for aircraft. Non-tailpipe VOCs are 27-40% of total automobile, 71-95% of rail, and 51-81% of air total emissions. Infrastructure and parking construction are major components of total PM10 emissions resulting in total emissions over three times larger than operational emissions for autos and even larger for many rail systems and aircraft (the major contributor being emissions from hot-mix asphalt plants and concrete production). Infrastructure construction and operation as well as vehicle manufacturing increase total CO emissions by 5-17 times from tailpipe performance for rail and 3-9 times for air. A case study comparing the environmental performance of metropolitan regions is presented as an application of the inventory results. The San Francisco Bay Area, Chicago, and New York City are evaluated capturing passenger transportation life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emissions. The regions are compared between off-peak and peak travel as well as personal and public transit. Additionally, healthcare externalities are computed from vehicle emissions. It is estimated that life-cycle energy varies from 6.3 MJ/PMT in the Bay Area to 5.7 MJ/PMT in Chicago and 5.3 MJ/PMT in New York for an average trip. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 480 g CO2e/PMT in the Bay Area to 440 g CO2e/PMT for Chicago and 410 g CO 2e/PMT in New York. CAP emissions vary depending on the pollutant with differences as large as 25% between regions. Life-cycle CAP emissions are between 11% and 380% larger than their operational counterparts. Peak travel, with typical higher riderships, does not necessarily

Chester, Mikhail Vin

467

Assessment of candidate vehicles for advanced-battery demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first-level assessment is provided of candidate vehicles which might be utilized for the purpose of demonstrating the performance capabilities of advanced battery propulsion systems. The demonstration vehicle design target was defined as a five-passenger automobile with an all-electric drive system incorporating (1) advanced batteries, and (2) advanced technology powertrain elements. The battery systems selected for examination were lithium\\/iron sulfide,

L. Forrest; W. B. Lee; W. M. Smalley

1981-01-01

468

On the steering of automated vehicles: Theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several facets of the automatic lateral control of individual ground vehicles are considered in detail. First, a path-dependent coordinate system for describing vehicle motion is defined, and the availability of motion quantities for control purposes is specified. Second, the lateral dynamics of a typical U.S. passenger sedan are empirically obtained and validated with data from full-scale studies. Third, various designs,

ROBERT E. FENTON; GRANT C. MELOCIK; KARL W. OLSON

1976-01-01

469

Electric versus conventional vehicles: Social Costs and Benefits in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the social costs of electric vehicles with those of conventional, thermal vehicles for typical passenger use in the Ile-de-France region (Greater Paris), a case of particular interest because nearly 80% of the electricity is generated by nuclear power plants. A four-seat electric car is compared to a new conventional car of the same make and model; for

1999-01-01

470

Electric versus conventional vehicles: social costs and benefits in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the social costs of electric vehicles with those of conventional, thermal vehicles for typical passenger use in the Ile-de-France region (Greater Paris), a case of particular interest because nearly 80% of the electricity is generated by nuclear power plants. A four-seat electric car is compared to a new conventional car of the same make and model; for

Karina Funk; Ari Rabl

1999-01-01

471

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted

J. M. Slicker

1983-01-01

472

Vehicle Propulsion Systems: Introduction to Modeling and Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this book the longitudinal behavior of road vehicles is analyzed. The main emphasis is on the analysis and minimization of the fuel and energy consumption. Most approaches to this problem enhance the complexity of the vehicle system by adding components such as electrical motors or storage devices. Such a complex system can only be designed by means of mathematical models. This text gives an introduction to the modeling and optimization problems typically encountered when designing new propulsion systems for passenger cars.

Guzzella, Lino; Sciarretta, Antonio

473

Operational factors of air service to small communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

1975-01-01

474

40 CFR 1036.140 - Primary intended service class.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial delivery, passenger service, agriculture...include school buses, straight trucks...dual rear axles, city tractors, and...haul and intra-city delivery and pickup...trucks, and buses used in inter-city, long-haul...

2013-07-01

475

Exploring the structure of the U.S. intercity passenger air transportation network: a weighted complex network approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. airline network is one of the most advanced transportation infrastructures in the world. It is a complex geospatial\\u000a structure that sustains a variety of dynamics including commercial, public, and military operations and services. We study\\u000a the U.S. domestic intercity passenger air transportation network using a weighted complex network methodology, in which vertices\\u000a represent cities and edges represent intercity

Zengwang Xu; Robert Harriss

2008-01-01

476

On-road assessment of in-vehicle driving workload for older drivers: Design guidelines for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been recent interest in intelligent vehicle technologies, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) or\\u000a in-vehicle information systems (IVISs), that offer a significant enhancement of safety and convenience to drivers and passengers.\\u000a However, the use of ADAS- and IVIS-based information devices may increase driver distraction and workload, which in turn can\\u000a increase the chance of traffic accidents. The

M. H. Kim; J. Son

2011-01-01

477

Northeast Corridor High-Speed Rail Passenger Improvement Project, Task 14 Model Intermodal Terminal, Union Station, Phase II: Alternative Concepts Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study constitutes the second phase of Task 14 of the Northeast Corridor High-Speed Rail Passenger Service Improvement Project and has been prepared for the Northeast Corridor Project Office of the Federal Railroad Administration. The purpose of Task 1...

1976-01-01

478

Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior About Child Passenger Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because automobile accidents are a major killer and crippler of young children in this country, Tennessee passed a child passenger protection law requiring restraint of children under four years of age in family automobiles. Passage of this law facilitate...

J. L. Cunningham E. C. Hughes J. W. Philpot C. A. Pentz

1981-01-01

479

Design, Development and Trials of an Airline Passenger Telephone System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and trials of a satellite telephone system for airline passengers is described. The requirements for ground and space infrastructure are discussed and the aeronautical system is described. Design criteria for the antennas and avion...

J. Schoenenberger R. McKinlay

1988-01-01

480

53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER 75 IN BACKGROUND LEFT, AND BOOM SPEEDER 59 IN BACKGROUND RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

481

1. VIEW OF FORMER PASSENGER CANOPY EXTENDING FROM SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF FORMER PASSENGER CANOPY EXTENDING FROM SIDE OF STATION DOWN ALL SAINTS STREET. (4' x 5' negative) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Frederick Station, Southeast Corner of Market & All Saints Streets, Frederick, Frederick County, MD

482

Background, Criteria, and Usage of the Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intermodal connections, the links that allow passengers to switch from one mode to another to complete a trip, have been an important element of federal transportation policy since passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (I...

B. Goldberg

2009-01-01

483

36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING EAST - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

484

31. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY PASSENGER CONCOURSE, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY PASSENGER CONCOURSE, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

485

Targeting of passenger protein domains to multiple intracellular membranes.  

PubMed Central

The role of passenger domains in protein targeting was examined by fusing previously characterized targeting motifs to different protein sequences. To compare the targeting requirements for a variety of subcellular compartments, targeting of the fusion proteins was examined for endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and peroxisomes in vitro and in yeast. Although most passenger domains were only partially passive to translocation, motif-dependent targeting via motifs positioned at either end of one passenger domain (gPA) was demonstrated for all of the subcellular compartments tested. The data presented extend earlier suggestions that translocation competence is an intrinsic property of the passenger protein. However, the properties that determine protein targeting are not mutually exclusive for the compartments tested. Therefore, although the primary determinant of specificity is the targeting motif, our results suggest that translocation competence of the targeted protein augments the fidelity of transport. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Janiak, F; Glover, J R; Leber, B; Rachubinski, R A; Andrews, D W

1994-01-01

486

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test; Chevrolet LUV Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

487

Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

Popinski, Z.

1984-01-01

488

Technical reliability of the Greek coastal passenger fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship reliability is a vital component of quality in passenger shipping, since serious shipboard equipment failures hinder ship seaworthiness and inevitably lead to delays with apparent detrimental effects upon the “value-of-time” and “just-in-time” properties of this transportation system. Throughout the history of modern Greece, the Greek coastal passenger system constituted the most vital mode of transport for the national economy

Ernestos S. Tzannatos

2005-01-01

489

Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

1979-01-01

490

Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally, there is a need for an institution to judge alleged cases of employees not handing over demanded revenues to their employer. Conclusions The causes of WPV lie in problems regarding money, behavior, environment, organization and crime. Suggestions for prevention include education, control to avoid critical situations, and a judicial system to assess malpractices. Further research in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique and similar settings is warranted.

2011-01-01

491

Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.  

PubMed

Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal. PMID:20093000

Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

2010-07-01

492

Animal Technical Services- Bethesda  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Courier Services Weekly courier service is available for local shipments on Tuesdays and Thursdays; animals are transported in a temperature-controlled vehicle. Contact Holly Wastler, hwastler@ncifcrf.gov

493

Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

2011-01-01

494

Effect of passive RF exposure from mobile phones on passengers inside an elevator: Comparison between adult and child passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the effect of passive rf exposure on the specific absorption rate and absorbed power of an adult and a child passenger without phones inside an elevator when several other passengers are using their mobile phones simultaneously. The absorbed power and SAR were calculated using finite-difference time-domain. The mobile phones were modeled as half-wavelength dipole antenna placed at

A. Y. Simba; Soichi Watanabe; Takashi Hikage; Toshio Nojima

2009-01-01

495

Development and review of Euro 5 passenger car emission factors based on experimental results over various driving cycles.  

PubMed

The emissions of CO2 and regulated pollutants (NOx, HC, CO, PM) of thirteen Euro 5 compliant passenger cars (seven gasoline, six Diesel) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were driven repeatedly over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) and the more dynamic WMTC and CADC driving cycles. Distance-specific emission factors were derived for each pollutant and sub-cycle, and these were subsequently compared to the corresponding emission factors provided by the reference European models used for vehicle emission inventory compilation (COPERT and HBEFA) and put in context with the applicable European emission limits. The measured emissions stayed below the legal emission limits when the type-approval cycle (NEDC) was used. Over the more dynamic cycles (considered more representative of real-world driving) the emissions were consistently higher but in most cases remained below the type-approval limit. The high NOx emissions of Diesel vehicles under real-world driving conditions remain the main cause for environmental concern regarding the emission profile of Euro 5 passenger cars. Measured emissions of NOx exceeded the type-approval limits (up to 5 times in extreme cases) and presented significantly increased average values (0.35 g/km for urban driving and 0.56 g/km for motorway driving). The comparison with the reference models showed good correlation in all cases, a positive finding considering the importance of these tools in emission monitoring and policy-making processes. PMID:24095966

Fontaras, Georgios; Franco, Vicente; Dilara, Panagiota; Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano

2014-01-15

496

The impact of service contact type and demographic characteristics on service quality perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to develop and test a service-based demographic framework for studying service quality perceptions. Specifically, the effect of level of service contact and key demographic variables of age, gender and income on service quality perceptions is examined. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 224 customers of high- and low-contact passenger transport services were surveyed using a self-administered

Cheryl Ganesan-Lim; Rebekah Russell-Bennett; Tracey Dagger

2008-01-01

497

Introducing heterogeneous users and vehicles into models and algorithms for the dial-a-ride problem  

PubMed Central

Dial-a-ride problems deal with the transportation of people between pickup and delivery locations. Given the fact that people are subject to transportation, constraints related to quality of service are usually present, such as time windows and maximum user ride time limits. In many real world applications, different types of users exist. In the field of patient and disabled people transportation, up to four different transportation modes can be distinguished. In this article we consider staff seats, patient seats, stretchers and wheelchair places. Furthermore, most companies involved in the transportation of the disabled or ill dispose of different types of vehicles. We introduce both aspects into state-of-the-art formulations and branch-and-cut algorithms for the standard dial-a-ride problem. Also a recent metaheuristic method is adapted to this new problem. In addition, a further service quality related issue is analyzed: vehicle waiting time with passengers aboard. Instances with up to 40 requests are solved to optimality. High quality solutions are obtained with the heuristic method.

Parragh, Sophie N.

2011-01-01

498

49 CFR 39.55 - Must information and reservation services of PVOs be accessible to individuals with hearing or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services of PVOs be accessible to individuals with hearing or vision impairments...Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Information...services of PVOs be accessible to individuals with hearing or vision...

2013-10-01

499

NASA N+3 Subsonic Fixed Wing Silent Efficient Low-Emissions Commercial Transport (SELECT) Vehicle Study. Revision A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual commercial passenger transport study was performed to define a single vehicle for entry into service in the 2030 to 2035 timeframe, meeting customer demands as well as NASA goals for improved fuel economy, NOx emissions, noise, and operability into smaller airports. A study of future market and operational scenarios was used to guide the design of an advanced tube-and-wing configuration that utilized advanced material and structural concepts, an advanced three-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine, natural laminar flow technology, and a suite of other advanced technologies. This configuration was found to meet the goals for NOx emissions, noise, and field length. A 64 percent improvement in fuel economy compared to a current state-of-the-art airliner was achieved, which fell slightly short of the desired 70 percent goal. Technology maturation plans for the technologies used in the design were developed to help guide future research and development activities.

Bruner, Sam; Baber, Scott; Harris,Chris; Caldwell, Nicholas; Keding, Peter; Rahrig, Kyle; Pho, Luck; Wlezian, Richard

2010-01-01

500

Aircraft Management Studies Air Tour Passengers Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public Law 100-91, the National Parks Overflight Act, directed the National Park Service to establish a research program to determine the impacts and benefits of aircraft flying over units of the National Park System. As part of the National Park Service'...

1994-01-01