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1

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. 177.870 Section 177.870 Transportation...Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire § 177.870 Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. (a) Vehicles transporting...

2013-10-01

2

49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger...

2013-10-01

3

49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger...

2012-10-01

4

49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

5

Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

1983-01-01

6

77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo Alto and Fremont...special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities...to the manufacturing of electric passenger vehicles and related...

2012-10-04

7

Service Quality in Private Passenger Automobile Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research on service quality in the private passenger automobile insurance industry by providing empirical evidence using an improved proxy for the value of service. The endogeneity of the value of service is recognized and treated statistically with the two-stage least squares approach. The empirical model also includes a number of control variables that affect the service

Robert E. Hoyt; Min He

2007-01-01

8

Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.  

PubMed

While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

2010-05-01

9

Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

1977-01-01

10

Compressed Natural Gas Passenger Vehicle Development - Issues and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development of automotive vehicle has always been influenced by the availability and the form of fuel. The oil reserves are depleting by the day. This will affect the automotive designs, research and development. particularly, the engine and transmission, fuel storage and the vehicle body. For passenger car, either an alternative fuel need to be sought and utilised

Barkawi Sahari; Yusoff Ali; Fakhru' l-Razi Ahmadun; Shahrir Abdullah; Masjuki Hj; Ishak Aris; Muhamad Adlan Abdullah; Fauzy Ahmad; V. Chelliah; Zahari Taha; T. G. Chuah; Norman Mariun; Ku Halim; Ku Hamid; V. R. Radhakrishnan

11

75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 AGENCY...SUMMARY: Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008...

2010-05-12

12

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-print Network

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

13

36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

2010-07-01

14

36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

2011-07-01

15

36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

2012-07-01

16

36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

2014-07-01

17

36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

2013-07-01

18

Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used

Christopher Severin; Stefan Pischinger; Jürgen Ogrzewalla

2005-01-01

19

Baseline tests of the Zagato Elcar electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Elcar vehicle performance test results are presented. The Elcar Model 2000 is a two-passenger vehicle with a reinforced fiberglass body. It is powered by eight 12-volt batteries. The batteries are connected to the motor through an arrangement of contactors operated from a foot pedal in conjunction with a hand-operated switch. These contactors change the voltage applied to the 2-kilowatt motor. Acceleration tests, operating characteristics, and instrumentation are described.

Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Slavick, R. J.; Soltis, R. F.

1977-01-01

20

Transportation Center Seminar........ "High-speed Railroad Passenger Services  

E-print Network

Transportation Center Seminar........ "High-speed Railroad Passenger Services: Ridership Abstract: High-speed railroad passenger services were introduced in Japan in the 1960s, in France of high-speed railroad services, based in part on the experience of Japan. We use the term `project

Bustamante, Fabián E.

21

The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ?67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

2013-04-01

22

49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles...374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate...

2010-10-01

23

49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles...374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate...

2011-10-01

24

77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA...regulation to increase the assumed average passenger weight value used for ballasting test buses from the...

2012-12-14

25

Carbody and Passengers in Rail Vehicle Dynamics  

E-print Network

Rail vehicle dynamics is a subject that is necessary to master for many rail vehicle engineers, with many practical problems to overcome. It is also a source of interesting problems for the theoretically interested. Working on this thesis I have made an effort to understand both the engineer’s and the theorist’s points of view, and I hope that both find something interesting to read here. The work is a part of the project SAMBA, an abbreviation for “SAMverkan fordon-BAna ” (Vehicle-track interaction) which was initiated jointly by the Swedish railway industry (Adtranz, SJ and Banverket) and KTH. The overall aim of the project is to deepen the knowledge of rail-vehicle dynamics to the benefit of railway industry. The present work addresses the issue of development of modelling and simulation techniques for the prediction of carbody vibrations and ride comfort. The financial support from Adtranz Sweden, SJ, Banverket and NUTEK (The Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development) is gratefully acknowledged. I owe a great Thank You to my supervisor Dr. Mats Berg for his continuous and reliable support. I thank Professor Evert Andersson for his enthusiastic and efficient advice. The

Pelle Carlbom; Pelle Carlbom

2000-01-01

26

Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

1977-01-01

27

THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL PASSENGER VEHICLES: A DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION APPROACH  

E-print Network

THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL PASSENGER VEHICLES: A DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION APPROACH UC ....................................................................23 3 MARKET DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES ............................ 26 3.1 SUPPLY OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES

Levinson, David M.

28

76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak...

2011-09-07

29

76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak...

2011-12-14

30

78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

2013-03-13

31

A unified framework for trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design of an active safety framework that performs trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios. The vehicle navigation ...

Anderson, Sterling J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

32

76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period...regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle weights. The purpose of this...

2011-05-19

33

Trip characteristics of vehicle crashes involving child passengers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the trip characteristics of vehicle crashes involving children, and to examine the effect of situational factors on front row seating or inappropriate restraint for young children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on children <16 years in crashes of insured vehicles in 15 US states, with data collected using insurance claims records and a telephone interview. A descriptive analysis of the characteristics of vehicle crashes involving children was performed. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify situational factors associated with inappropriate restraint or front row seating. Results: These data suggest that children were traveling in vehicles involved in crashes that occurred under usual driving circumstances—that is, closer to home (60%), on a local road (56%), during normal daytime hours (71%), within areas with relatively lower posted speed limits (76%). Compared with children involved in morning crashes, those in daytime crashes (RR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.49) or in night-time crashes (RR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.67) were more likely to be sitting in the front seat. Children involved in night-time crashes were more likely to be inappropriately restrained (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22) than those in daytime crashes. Children riding with two or more additional passengers were more likely to be inappropriately restrained (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27) than those with no other passengers. Conclusions: Educational initiatives should aim to increase the perception that parents have about the potential crash risk of everyday trips. Some situational characteristics of trips were associated with inappropriate restraint and front row seating behaviors for young children. PMID:16081750

Chen, I; Durbin, D; Elliott, M; Kallan, M; Winston, F

2005-01-01

34

76 FR 62144 - Environmental Impact Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ and Phoenix...to study the implementation of passenger rail service between Tucson, Arizona and Phoenix...build alternatives that provide intercity rail service. Identifying the...

2011-10-06

35

Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. Design and settings: The Pedestrian Crash Data Study, conducted from 1994 to 1998, provided a solid database upon which details and mechanism of pedestrian crashes can be investigated. Results: From 552 recorded cases in this database, 542 patients had complete injury related information, making a meaningful study of pedestrian crash characteristics possible. Pedestrians struck by LTVs had a higher risk (29%) of severe injuries (abbreviated injury scale ?4) compared with passenger vehicles (18%) (p = 0.02). After adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed, LTVs were associated with 3.0 times higher risk of severe injuries (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 7.29, p = 0.013). Mortality rate for pedestrians struck by LTVs (25%) was two times higher than that for passenger vehicles (12%) (p<0.001). Risk of death for LTV crashes after adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed was 3.4 times higher than that for passenger vehicles (95% CI 1.45 to 7.81, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Vehicle type strongly influences risk of severe injury and death to pedestrian. This may be due in part to the front end design of the vehicle. Hence vehicle front end design, especially for LTVs, should be considered in future motor vehicle safety standards. PMID:15178671

Roudsari, B; Mock, C; Kaufman, R; Grossman, D; Henary, B; Crandall, J

2004-01-01

36

Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods  

SciTech Connect

This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

2005-07-01

37

Ride Quality Evaluation in Ground Based Vehicles: Passenger Comfort Models for Buses and Trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a vehicle's environment on passenger comfort in intra-city buses and inter-city trains. Data were collected simultaneously on the physical characteristics of the environment and the passengers' comfort ratings in that environment. Roll rate was strongly related to judged comfort for busses, and noise and roll rate for trains. The results for

LARRY G. RICHARDS; IRA D. JACOBSON; RICHARD W. BARBER; RICHARD C. PEPLER

1978-01-01

38

A unified approach to semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios  

E-print Network

This paper describes the design of unified active safety framework that combines trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles into a single constrained-optimal-control-based ...

Iagnemma, Karl

39

36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...comply with permit terms and conditions is prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area...

2014-07-01

40

36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...comply with permit terms and conditions is prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area...

2012-07-01

41

36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...comply with permit terms and conditions is prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area...

2013-07-01

42

Cars on a diet : the material and energy impacts of passenger vehicle weight reduction in the U.S.  

E-print Network

Vehicle weight reduction is a known strategy to address growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and fuel use by passenger vehicles. We find that every 10% reduction in vehicle weight can cut fuel consumption by ...

Cheah, Lynette W. (Lynette Wan Ting)

2010-01-01

43

Are low-cost carrier passengers less likely to complain about service quality? Michael D. Wittmana,  

E-print Network

between airlines. Keywords: service quality, consumer complaints, low-cost carriers, Air Travel ConsumerAre low-cost carrier passengers less likely to complain about service quality? Michael D. Wittmana passengers of low-cost carriers. Through a fixed-effects regression, we find that passengers of low-cost

Entekhabi, Dara

44

Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

1977-01-01

45

Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles  

E-print Network

Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles Kai Loon Cheong, Perry Y. Li and Thomas R. Chase Abstract-- Hydraulic hybrid vehicles are inherently power dense. Power-split or hydro-mechanical transmissions (HMT) have advantages over series and parallel architectures

Li, Perry Y.

46

INFLUENCE OF OXYGENATED FUELS ON THE EMISSIONS FROM THREE PRE-1985 LIGHT-DUTY PASSENGER VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Tailpipe and evaporative emission from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on a oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. mission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 degrees F ...

47

78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operation of commercial vehicles, specifically `policies...operational safety of motor vehicles, including driver's hours of service and vehicle inspection and repair and...examined Capricorn's vehicles and drivers, showing...

2013-09-20

48

Improvement of Passengers Ride Comfort in Rail Vehicles Equipped with Air Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rail vehicles, air springs are very important isolating component, which guarantee good ride comfort for passengers during their trip. In the most new rail-vehicle models, developed by researchers, the thermo-dynamical effects of air springs are ignored and secondary suspension is modeled by simple springs and dampers. As the performance of suspension components have significant effects on rail-vehicle dynamics and

H. Sayyaadi; N. Shokouhi

2009-01-01

49

Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those component volumes. Therefore, the packaging utilizes rectangular catalyst bricks and integrates flow ducts into the heat exchangers. A concept is presented with a 25 l fuel processor volume including thermal isolation for a 3 kW el auxiliary power unit. The overall size of the system, i.e. including stack, air supply and auxiliaries can be estimated to 44 l.

Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

50

Accidental decapitation: an unusual injury to a passenger in a vehicle.  

PubMed

A case of decapitation of a vehicle passenger in an accident on a highway is reported. Evaluation of roadside evidence and the deceased's injuries revealed that the victim was partially ejected from a broken passenger-side window as the vehicle spun out of control, decapitation being due to the impact of his head against a barrier stanchion on the shoulder of the road. An unfastened seat-belt, high-speed driving and the construction of the road barrier were contributory factors. PMID:10087848

Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Honjyo, K; Tsunenari, S

1999-01-01

51

49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 39.91 Section...permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a...also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal food....

2010-10-01

52

49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 39.91 Section...permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a...also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal food....

2011-10-01

53

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2013-10-01

54

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2014-10-01

55

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2010-10-01

56

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2011-10-01

57

49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

2012-10-01

58

Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

O'Neill, Brian

2009-04-01

59

Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.  

PubMed

After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

2013-04-01

60

Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants’ Dilemma  

PubMed Central

After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

Damos, Diane L.; Boyett, Kimberly S.; Gibbs, Patt

2013-01-01

61

Control and response characteristics of a magnetorheological fluid damper for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents control characteristics of a semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper for a passenger vehicle. A cylindrical MR damper is devised and its governing equation is derived. After verifying that the damping force of the MR damper can be continuously tuned by the intensity of the magnetic field, PID controller is employed to achieve the desired damping force. The

Seung-Bok Choi; HwanSoo Lee; SungRyong Hong; ChaeCheon Cheong

2000-01-01

62

China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles: Rationale, policy process, and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the

Hongyan H. Oliver; Kelly Sims Gallagher; Donglian Tian; Jinhua Zhang

2009-01-01

63

Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

1977-01-01

64

75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the Cotton Belt Corridor...EIS) to study the implementation of rail passenger service on the 26-mile long...County, to the existing DART Red Line Light Rail Transit (LRT) corridor in the...

2010-07-08

65

Factors influencing the intentions of passengers regarding full service and low cost carriers: A note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates discrepancy in factors affecting passengers' intensions regarding using full service and low cost carriers. A conceptual model, that originally focused on the former, is adopted and slightly revised according to the service properties of low cost carriers. To validate the revised model, a questionnaire survey on passengers of Spring Airlines, the first low cost airline in China,

Yu-Chiun Chiou; Yen-Heng Chen

2010-01-01

66

Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio

M. Petrea; M. Kapernaum; C. Wahl

2009-01-01

67

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

1980-01-01

68

Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

Not Available

1980-10-01

69

Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

1978-01-01

70

Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

1979-01-01

71

Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

1977-01-01

72

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on unleaded, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% unleaded) or a mixture with ethanol's chemical properties. FFV's qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under the Energy Policy Act

Kirschner, Denise

73

Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

1995-06-01

74

Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

1992-11-01

75

Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

1995-12-31

76

Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

2007-01-01

77

Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

1985-01-01

78

Air time : another measure of the quality of passenger service  

E-print Network

The proposal of a new metric called "Air Time" and its various components, show the advantage of having a broader perspective of the travel process of airline passengers. Travel time is basically affected by three different ...

Blake Betancourt, Juan Jamie

2006-01-01

79

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2014-07-01

80

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2012-07-01

81

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2013-07-01

82

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2014-07-01

83

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2011-07-01

85

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2012-07-01

87

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2014-07-01

88

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2010-07-01

89

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2013-07-01

90

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2012-07-01

91

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2013-07-01

92

Teen drivers and the risk of injury to child passengers in motor vehicle crashes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The first aim was to examine the relationship between driver's age (novice teens, older teens, and adults) and child passenger's restraint status, front row seating, and injury risk. The second aim was to explore whether there was an excess injury risk to child passengers in teen crashes compared to those in adult crashes by examining the contributing factors. Methods: A cross sectional study involving telephone interviews with insured drivers in a probability sample of 12 163 crashes involving 19 111 children was conducted. Sequential logistic regressions were employed. Results: Among child passengers aged 4–8, appropriate restraint was <1% for novice teens, 4.5% for older teens, and 23.6% for adults. Front row seating for children <13 years was more common in the novice teen group (26.8%) than in the other two groups. Compared with children riding with adults, those with both teen groups experienced excess injury risk. After adjusting for crash severity, there was a 43% reduction in the odds ratio (OR) for novice teens (OR 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.19) and a 24% reduction for older teens (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.26). After adjusting for vehicle type, child's restraint status and front row seating, there was a further 19% reduction in the OR for novice teens (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.88) and a further 13% reduction for older teens (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.66). Conclusion: These findings suggest ways in which graduated driver licensing laws may be further enhanced to better protect child passengers from the excess injury risk associated with teen crashes. PMID:15691982

Chen, I; Elliott, M; Durbin, D; Winston, F

2005-01-01

93

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents  

E-print Network

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents 1. Policy 2. Procedures a. Vehicle Services Oversight b. Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection c. Authorized Drivers d. Responsibilities Back to Top (To download requirements for AUB's vehicles, the University has adopted a policy of centralizing these activities under one

Shihadeh, Alan

94

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

Not Available

1980-01-01

95

14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during...Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during...take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the...

2010-01-01

96

14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during...Operations § 125.333 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during...take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the...

2010-01-01

97

Preventing Passenger Vehicle Occupant Injuries by Vehicle Design—A Historical Perspective from IIHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure—designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to

Brian ONeill

2009-01-01

98

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety may prohibit or revoke a railroad's ability to utilize an...emergency window exits on the railroad's passenger cars properly...from separating in case of derailment. (9) All center castings...be maintained either in the railroad's files, the cab of...

2013-10-01

99

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Safety may prohibit or revoke a railroad's ability to utilize an...emergency window exits on the railroad's passenger cars properly...from separating in case of derailment. (9) All center castings...be maintained either in the railroad's files, the cab of...

2012-10-01

100

Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

1980-01-01

101

New Passenger Services in Railway Stations Based on Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Optical Fiber  

E-print Network

New Passenger Services in Railway Stations Based on Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Optical Fiber wide bandwidth and high communication capability, the optical fiber is more and more used for high data characteristics of optical fibers, performance of MGDM multiplexing technique, and the influence of the laser

Boyer, Edmond

102

Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

Khazzoom, J.D. [San Jose Univ., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

103

A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification  

E-print Network

A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle 15213, USA h i g h l i g h t s We analyze EV Li-ion NMC-G battery & pack designs and optimize thickness a b s t r a c t We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery

McGaughey, Alan

104

Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology. While BC emissions were 96% higher for the GDI technology. The GDI technology had a smaller effect on CO2 emissions with a 4% rise compared to the other emissions. Additional results will discuss the emission rates converted to reflect total yearly passenger vehicular emissions in the U.S. Overall, the results show increases of global warming emissions from GDI passenger vehicle technology.

Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

2013-12-01

105

TRANSPORT SERVICES DEPARTMENT MOTOR VEHICLE INCIDENT REPORT  

E-print Network

: ______________________ Speed limit: ___________________________ Road & Weather Conditions: Wet / Dry Street Lights: On / Off of the incident. Clearly indicate each vehicle involved. Show any road markings and anything else that youTRANSPORT SERVICES DEPARTMENT MOTOR VEHICLE INCIDENT REPORT PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY UNIV Ref

Glasgow, University of

106

Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

1980-01-01

107

40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2014-07-01

108

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2013-10-01

109

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2012-10-01

110

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2011-10-01

111

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2010-10-01

112

Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.  

PubMed

This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. PMID:24556585

Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

2014-05-01

113

Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices C and D, Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of tradeoff studies are presented in summary form. Various aspects of the overall vehicle design discussed include selection of the base vehicle, the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics. The drivetrain design and integration, power conditioning unit, battery subsystem, control system, environmental system are described. Specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures, and advanced technology components are included.

1979-01-01

114

The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

1977-01-01

115

Utilization of a teleoperated service vehicle for spacecraft servicing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential, commercially oriented European space missions are discussed in terms of the required capabilities, equipment, and applications. A trend toward heavier lift launch vehicles is foreseen, together with an interface with a long-life orbital base of operations and teleoperated service vehicles (TSV). On-orbit servicing of satellites is inevitable for improving the reliability, mission duration, and cost effectiveness of space utilization hardware. The TSV would operate out of a space station and be capable of orbital transfer, rendezvous, and servicing functions. It would place, retrieve, and repair satellites and provide space station logistic support. The TSV could also be either ground-based or expendable, and in any case would be controlled via relay satellite, unless interfacing with the Shuttle or functioning in proximity to the Space Station. Particularly frequent use would be made of the TSV in servicing space-based materials processing facilities.

Cougnet, C.; Berger, C.

1984-10-01

116

49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers. (1) A mechanical...

2012-10-01

117

49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers. (1) A mechanical...

2014-10-01

118

49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers. (1) A mechanical...

2013-10-01

119

49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers. (1) A mechanical...

2011-10-01

120

Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

1985-01-01

121

Geographic admission control for vehicle area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle area network (VAN) is a local area network deployed onboard a moving vehicle, e.g., a train, bus, or a private car, to provide high-speed Internet access to the passengers. A VAN may face temporary network disconnection when the vehicle passes through challenging radio environments, e.g., deep tunnels. Such disconnections disrupt the ongoing network services causing passenger dissatisfaction. Given

Mohammed Baseem Hassan; Mahbub Hassan

2009-01-01

122

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...time), or (3) declining to test a bus that exceeds its GAWR...determined that declining to test a vehicle whose GVW exceeds...120-27E, ``Aircraft Weight and Balance Control,'' June 10, 2005...structural integrity portions of the test. Grandfathering Similar...

2011-03-14

123

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

124

Quality of service in Plug-in Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrification of transportation is offering reduced vehicle emissions and operating costs in addition to increased energy-independence. Electric cars are anticipated to be adopted as passenger vehicles and in commercial fleets in the near future. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can drive on battery up to few hundred miles with the current battery technologies. Depleting PHEV batteries are charged from the

Melike Erol-Kantarci; Jahangir H. Sarker; Hussein T. Mouftah

2012-01-01

125

Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

Peak, S. C.

1982-09-01

126

46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...620, passenger vessels operating in oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; lakes...alternative requirement section or paragraph Oceans Coastwise Great Lakes Lakes, bays...variations in local conditions of geography, climate, and other similar factors; and...

2013-10-01

127

46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...620, passenger vessels operating in oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; lakes...alternative requirement section or paragraph Oceans Coastwise Great Lakes Lakes, bays...variations in local conditions of geography, climate, and other similar factors; and...

2011-10-01

128

46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...620, passenger vessels operating in oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; lakes...alternative requirement section or paragraph Oceans Coastwise Great Lakes Lakes, bays...variations in local conditions of geography, climate, and other similar factors; and...

2012-10-01

129

46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...620, passenger vessels operating in oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; lakes...alternative requirement section or paragraph Oceans Coastwise Great Lakes Lakes, bays...variations in local conditions of geography, climate, and other similar factors; and...

2014-10-01

130

46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...620, passenger vessels operating in oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; lakes...alternative requirement section or paragraph Oceans Coastwise Great Lakes Lakes, bays...variations in local conditions of geography, climate, and other similar factors; and...

2010-10-01

131

27 CFR 31.92 - Carriers not engaged in passenger service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2010-04-01 false Carriers not engaged in passenger...Section 31.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS...Locations § 31.92 Carriers not engaged in...

2010-04-01

132

Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.  

PubMed

In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation. PMID:17310696

Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

2007-01-15

133

Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.  

PubMed

In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

2013-11-01

134

Cost benefits and vehicle-to-grid regulation services of unidirectional charging of electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to show that with proper power-draw scheduling and dynamic pricing, a unidirectional charger can provide cost benefits and regulation services to the grid. In this work, power scheduling aspects of electric and plug- in hybrid vehicles are addressed. The use of electric vehicles (EVs) as demand response resources and unidirectional vehicle- to-grid benefits are

Mcdavis A. Fasugba; Philip T. Krein

2011-01-01

135

49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers. 173.5a Section 173.5a...service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers. (a) Oilfield service vehicles...highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers. (1) A mechanical...

2010-10-01

136

41 CFR 109-26.501-50 - Authority and allocations for the acquisition of passenger motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 109-26.501-50 Authority and allocations for the acquisition of passenger motor...

2010-07-01

137

Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ? 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (? 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

2014-02-18

138

Passengers' perceptions of low cost airlines andfull service carriers: A case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia andMalaysia Airlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct competition between full service airlines andno-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US andEuropean full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeatedin the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers of each type

John F. O'Connell; George Williams

139

Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: A case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct competition between full service airlines and no-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US and European full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeated in the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers

John F. O’Connell; George Williams

2005-01-01

140

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make...

2014-01-01

141

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make...

2010-01-01

142

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make...

2013-01-01

143

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make...

2012-01-01

144

Draft paper, June 2011 Traffic equilibrium between transit lines serviced by  

E-print Network

boarding zone only. The theory addresses waiting discipline ­ either priority queuing or mingled waiting vehicles: a route choice model with passenger waiting on platform Fabien Leurent (1 ) Université Paris Est of passenger waiting and route choice at a transit station where a set of lines serviced by vehicles of limited

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

2013-02-01

146

Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

1980-01-01

147

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2013-10-01

148

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2010-10-01

149

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2012-10-01

150

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2011-10-01

151

Vehicle Registration Card Use this form to register a vehicle with Parking Services. Complete this form and deliver to Parking Services along with a copy of  

E-print Network

Vehicle Registration Card Use this form to register a vehicle with Parking Services. Complete this form and deliver to Parking Services along with a copy of your DMV Vehicle Registration. Last First Name M.I. Mailing City State ZIP University ID Student Sta Faculty Other Vehicle License State Year

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

152

Vehicle Registration Card Use this form to register a vehicle with Parking Services. Complete this form and deliver to Parking Services along with a copy of  

E-print Network

Vehicle Registration Card Use this form to register a vehicle with Parking Services. Complete this form and deliver to Parking Services along with a copy of your DMV Vehicle Registration. Last First Name M.I. Mailing City State ZIP University ID Student Staff Faculty Other Vehicle License State Year

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

153

Asbestos Exposures of Mechanics Performing Clutch Service on Motor Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25–60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible

Howard J. Cohen; Drew R. Van Orden

2008-01-01

154

PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION IN AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the dust concentration in automobile passenger compartments was conducted to understand how driving conditions and a vehicle's ventilation system can affect cabin air quality. The results of this study are essential for designing appropriate cabin air filters and developing proper test procedures.The particle size distribution of atmospheric contaminants entering the vehicle's passenger compartment through air registers

T. J. PTAK; STEPHEN L. FALLON

1994-01-01

155

Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

Stallkamp, J. A.

1977-01-01

156

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2013-07-01

157

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2014-01-01

158

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2012-01-01

159

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2011-01-01

160

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2010-07-01

161

Vehicle routing and scheduling for the ultra short haul transportation system  

E-print Network

A method of vehicle routing and scheduling for an air based intraurban transportation system is developed. The maximization of level of service to passengers in a system operating under time varying demand is considered ...

Smith, Barry C.

1979-01-01

162

CO 2 emissions from passenger transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative analysis of the changes in energy use and CO2 emissions from passenger transport in nine OECD countries. Unlike most previous analyses, we base our analysis on a newly published international data set covering vehicle activity, passenger travel and fuel use by mode. We calculate how changes in activity, modal composition and the energy intensity of

Lynn Scholl; Lee Schipper; Nancy Kiang

1996-01-01

163

Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

Piccolo, R.

1979-01-01

164

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...behavior of rail vehicles. These models require...accurate knowledge of vehicle parameters, including...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with variations...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with...

2010-05-10

165

A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery and pack designs for electric vehicle applications. We develop models of power capability and manufacturing operations to identify the minimum cost cell and pack designs for a variety of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) requirements. We find that economies of scale in battery manufacturing are reached quickly at a production volume of ?200-300 MWh annually. Increased volume does little to reduce unit costs, except potentially indirectly through factors such as experience, learning, and innovation. We also find that vehicle applications with larger energy requirements are able to utilize cheaper cells due in part to the use of thicker electrodes. The effect on cost can be substantial. In our base case, we estimate pack-level battery production costs of ?545 kWh-1 for a PHEV with a 10 mile (16 km) all-electric range (PHEV10) and ?230 kWh-1 for a BEV with a 200 mile (320 km) all-electric range (BEV200). This 58% reduction, from 545 kWh-1 to 230 kWh-1, is a larger effect than the uncertainty represented by our optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Electrodes thicker than about 100 or 125 microns are not currently used in practice due to manufacturing and durability concerns, but relaxing this constraint could further lower the cost of larger capacity BEV200 packs by up to an additional 8%.

Sakti, Apurba; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Whitacre, Jay F.

2015-01-01

166

Particle number emission factors and volatile fraction of particles emitted from on-road gasoline direct injection passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle number emission factors, and the volatility of the particles, are measured on-road for five gasoline direct injection vehicles over a wide range of operating conditions including urban and highway driving conditions. Two condensation particle counters (CPC) were used to measure nascent and non-volatile (thermodenuded) particle concentrations for transient urban and highway tests. To measure the non-volatile concentration and also the volatility of the particles, a thermodenuder was employed to remove the semi-volatile material from the aerosol sample. Rapid accelerations were also studied in more detail by measuring the particle size distributions in real-time using a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). The ratio of semi-volatile particles to total particle number is generally higher during acceleration followed by the idle operating mode. The number emission factors (for particles larger than 2.5 nm) ranged between 5.46 × 1011-3.50 × 1012/km for freshly emitted (nascent) particles and between 2.87 × 1011-3.31 × 1012/km for non-volatile (thermodenuded) particles. More particles per kilometer are produced during acceleration compared to cruise conditions where the non-volatile particle number emission factor for acceleration is 2.3 and 1.8 times higher than vehicle cruise for urban and highway driving cycles, respectively. Particle number emission factor models are also presented in terms of particle emission rate as a function of vehicle tractive power and also as a function of vehicle specific power as defined for the US Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model.

Momenimovahed, A.; Handford, D.; Checkel, M. D.; Olfert, J. S.

2015-02-01

167

76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...crashes for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating...strength for driver and passenger...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...all types of vehicles, including multi-stage vehicle issues....

2011-03-22

168

Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Electric Vehicle Charging Service: Use Cases and Analysis  

E-print Network

Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Electric Vehicle Charging Service: Use Cases and Analysis Tien-Thinh Nguyen acknowledged that the key limitation to a raising market deployment of Electric Vehicles (EV) is correlated to the anxiety related to electric vehicle charging services (EVCS). From a user perspective, the electricity

Gesbert, David

169

Autonomous personal vehicle for the first- and last-mile transportation services  

E-print Network

This paper describes an autonomous vehicle testbed that aims at providing the first- and last- mile transportation services. The vehicle mainly operates in a crowded urban environment whose features can be extracted a ...

Chong, Z. J.

170

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2010-01-01

171

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2012-01-01

172

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2014-01-01

173

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2013-01-01

174

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2011-01-01

175

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2014-01-01

176

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2013-01-01

177

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2011-01-01

178

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2012-01-01

179

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2010-01-01

180

150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

2002-01-01

181

UM SERVICE VEHICLE PARKING PERMIT APPLICATION Return the completed application to Parking and Transportation Services, 1213 Kipke Dr., 2002, or fax  

E-print Network

UM SERVICE VEHICLE PARKING PERMIT APPLICATION Return the completed application to Parking vehicles that provide service as stated in the definition below qualify to receive this permit. DEFINITION A service vehicle is any licensed University vehicle, typically a truck or van, whose primary purpose

Kirschner, Denise

182

Assessment of flywheel system benefits in selected vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheel-equipped vehicles were compared with their non-flywheel counterparts (baseline systems) on the basis of energy utilization. To accomplish this, a computer-based vehicle simulation program was developed. This program determines the propulsion power required to negotiate each element of the driving cycle, and apportions this power between prime mover and storage device according to one or more selected operating strategies. The state of flywheel (and/or battery) charge is continuously tracked, along with the consumption of fuel or dissipation of battery energy. Energy flows associated with all major component processes are accounted for. Results are given for a four-passenger commuter vehicle with electric drive (range extension application of the flywheel system) and a six-passenger family car with conventional heat engine drive (fuel conservation application of the flywheel system). The six-passenger vehicle was also examined with respect to its use in urban taxi service.

Forrest, L.

1982-12-01

183

The consequences of an increase in heavy goods vehicles for passenger car drivers' mental workload and behaviour: a simulator study.  

PubMed

The effects of an increase in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) on merging behaviour and on mental workload of motorists during filtering in and out of traffic were studied. Participants drove in a driving simulator in a total of 12 conditions; twice in each of two weather conditions and in three traffic conditions. The weather conditions were clear weather and foggy weather. The traffic conditions were without HGVs (i.e. only private cars), the current mix of HGVs and private cars, and a condition with a 70% increase of HGVs leading to an HGV column in the slow lane. The focus of the study was on assessing effects on behaviour and mental workload during filtering into traffic, and during exiting from the motorway. During the experiment driving performance was registered, behaviour was observed, self reports were collected, and the participant's heart rate was recorded. The results showed that directly after filtering into traffic the variation in driving speed increased and the minimum time headway decreased with an increase in the proportion of HGVs. Joining motorway traffic was considered to involve greater effort and risk in the condition with a column of HGVs. The effects of the conditions on heart rate are less clear, although the moment when the participants joined the traffic is clearly visible. The effects of weather conditions were limited, drivers adapting their driving behaviour in adverse weather by reducing speed. To exit the motorway is not a difficult manoeuvre. For that reason the lane change from the left hand to the right hand lane that preceded the exit was analysed. Although increased mental effort was reported and the lane change was visible in the heart rate record, no critical changes as a result of increase in proportion of HGVs were found for this manoeuvre. However, in the condition with a column of HGVs, the exit that had to be taken was most frequently missed as HGVs obstructed the view of the exit signs. It is concluded that an increase in HGVs will make merging into traffic more mentally demanding and will decrease safety margins. PMID:18329437

de Waard, Dick; Kruizinga, Anje; Brookhuis, Karel A

2008-03-01

184

A unified framework for vehicle routing problems with stochastic travel and service times  

E-print Network

A unified framework for vehicle routing problems with stochastic travel and service times Andr´es G such as travel times and customer demands are known in advance. However, in a practical setting, more often than in the literature: the vehicle routing problems with stochastic travel and service times. The main contributions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Operations analysis (study 2.6). Volume 4: Computer specification; logistics of orbiting vehicle servicing (LOVES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The logistics of orbital vehicle servicing computer specifications was developed and a number of alternatives to improve utilization of the space shuttle and the tug were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that space servicing offers a potential for reducing future operational and program costs over ground refurbishment of satellites. A computer code which could be developed to simulate space servicing is presented.

1973-01-01

186

Mechatronic vehicle door assistant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Easy operation of vehicle functionality is an important distinguishing mark for competitiveness. Recently, several approaches are presented in order to assist the entry for passengers. In this paper a novel vehicle door is proposed that offers useful functionalities and increases the passengers' comfort. Based on a mechatronic door system, containing an environment sensor system, a semi-active actuator and a suitable

Jürgen Maas; Simon Kern

2007-01-01

187

Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

2008-01-01

188

Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a

Frank A. Drews; Monisha Pasupathi; David L. Strayer

2008-01-01

189

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

2014-01-01

190

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

2013-01-01

191

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

2012-01-01

192

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

2011-01-01

193

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

2010-01-01

194

Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles  

E-print Network

Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

2012-01-01

195

77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motor vehicles and motor vehicles equipment. S2. Purpose...transparency in motor vehicle windows for driver visibility, and to...being thrown through the vehicle windows in collisions...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

2012-06-21

196

MOTOR VEHICLE RECORD AUTHORIZATION This form authorizes Parking and Transportation (PTS) Fleet Services to conduct a motor vehicle record check to  

E-print Network

MOTOR VEHICLE RECORD AUTHORIZATION This form authorizes Parking and Transportation (PTS) ­ Fleet Services to conduct a motor vehicle record check to verify eligibility to operate University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles. Form Instructions: · Complete each section of the form · Print and fax

Kirschner, Denise

197

Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

2007-01-01

198

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2010-01-01

199

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2011-01-01

200

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2012-01-01

201

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2014-01-01

202

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2013-01-01

203

Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

Kuhlthau, A. R. (editor)

1976-01-01

204

77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...converters in U.S. vehicle exhaust systems...component of motor vehicles after the Rule's...seat belts. Dual driver and front passenger...are mandated for vehicles built after September...for all passenger vehicles manufactured after...obvious importance to vehicle safety. The...

2012-12-17

205

Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

1973-01-01

206

The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development. PMID:25683551

Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

2015-05-01

207

29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other... Floor and sides of any part of the vehicle to be...

2011-07-01

208

29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other... Floor and sides of any part of the vehicle to be...

2012-07-01

209

29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation...transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other... Floor and sides of any part of the vehicle to be...

2013-07-01

210

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of...

2011-01-01

211

TVA and the electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This brochure illustrates and describes the reliability testing carried out on electric vehicles. Seventeen vehicles including passenger car, station wagons, pick-up trucks, and mini-vans were tested under real-world conditions. Tests include vehicle reliability testing, vehicle performance testing, in-vehicle battery testing, battery charger testing, and EV support systems testing. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-01-01

212

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...Passenger Equipment § 238.305 Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...mechanical inspection at least once each calendar day that it is placed in service....

2013-10-01

213

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...Passenger Equipment § 238.305 Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...mechanical inspection at least once each calendar day that it is placed in service....

2012-10-01

214

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...Passenger Equipment § 238.305 Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...mechanical inspection at least once each calendar day that it is placed in service....

2010-10-01

215

49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...Passenger Equipment § 238.305 Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger...mechanical inspection at least once each calendar day that it is placed in service....

2011-10-01

216

Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Recreational Vehicle Service Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) in a recreational vehicle service training setting was studied. Cost-benefit issues were associated with the Onan Service School change from a field-based Recreational Vehicle Generator Set training program to a customer-delivered self-instructional training program. Actual costs and…

Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

217

POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

218

77 FR 65352 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...private motor vehicles for mobility- impaired drivers or passengers...into the vehicle. The transfer...Thus, for vehicles in which...three rows of vehicles, which among...ejection. Vehicle manufacturing...person in the driver's...

2012-10-26

219

Design and evaluation of passenger ferry routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a planning framework for improving and best utilizing existing water and ferry resources. It presents an analysis framework and formulation for designing and evaluating passenger ferry routes. The motivation for this work emanates from problems encountered by the ferry service in Hong Kong, including the continuous loss in ferry patronage. This loss is believed to be caused

Avishai Ceder; Majid Sarvi

2007-01-01

220

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust

S. G. Fritz

1994-01-01

221

Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: an experimental investigation using high definition film.  

PubMed

An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour. PMID:23746746

Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

2014-09-01

222

78 FR 48125 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...requirement for drivers of passenger- carrying vehicles to complete...passenger-carrying vehicles subject to FMCSA's...include reports of vehicle defects and...to identify vehicles in need of repair...evidence by a new driver of a vehicle that a...

2013-08-07

223

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

224

Autonomous Vehicle Following Using a Robotic Driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of autonomous control of a passenger vehicle for vehicle following using a robotic driver. The aim is to have a modular and transferable device that can autonomously control a standard passenger car. The robot controls the car in the same way as a human driver, by rotating the steering wheel and pushing the pedals. No

Nicholas Wong; Christopher Chambers; K. Stol; R. Halkyard

2008-01-01

225

Passenger Pigeons: Nomads Lost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson, developed by two scientists, is aimed at helping students understand the concept and implications of extinction using the example of the Passenger Pigeon, once an extremely abundant species that was completely eliminated by humans. Students will also discover that technologies that were seemingly unrelated to the loss of the bird were actually central to its extinction.

Science Netlinks;

2003-07-11

226

Supervising passenger land-transport systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a supervisory control approach, based on controlled automata concepts, for the planning for online service-operations control of a new class of passenger land-transport systems ( PLanTSs). A PLanTS belongs to a class of dynamic demand-responsive transportation systems. Rapid advances in information and communication technologies are providing a new infrastructural and communications basis upon which higher

Kiam Tian Seow; Michel Pasquier

2004-01-01

227

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...prior to a change in the assumed average weight per person standard that will become...

2011-05-19

228

Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

Greene, D.L.

2003-06-24

229

Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

2003-01-01

230

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

231

The Passenger Pigeon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The passenger pigeon no longer graces the North American skies, and for many this represents the disturbing ability that humans have to destroy a particular species. Fortunately, there is another "passenger pigeon" in existence, namely the official scholarly publication of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology. The Society is an organization of professional and non-professional ornithologists, and they are dedicated to the study of Wisconsin birds. The journal was first published in 1939, and it continues to feature original information about birds in the Badger State, along with season reports and such. Recently, the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections group saw fit to digitize all of the issues from January 1939 to Spring 2005. Visitors to the site can browse through the archive and also take a look at some of the other collections that deal with ecology and natural resources.

2007-01-01

232

Ultrafine Particles Deposition Inside Passenger Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although commuting time typically accounts for only 6% of the day for Americans, it has become a significant source of exposure to ultrafine particles (dp < 0.1 ?m) from vehicular emissions. Particle deposition onto surfaces, as an important particle loss mechanism, has been studied extensively in the indoor environments. However since air velocities, surface area to volume ratios and other

Longwen Gong; Bin Xu; Yifang Zhu

2009-01-01

233

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01

234

Self-tuning for disturbance transmission decoupling in active vehicle suspensions  

E-print Network

suspension design for vehicles is concerned primarily with the trade off between good vehicle handling while passenger comfort isolates vehicle passengers from road disturbances. Thus, there are two main sources of disturbance inputs to a vehicle suspension. One is a high frequency road disturbance due

Duffy, Ken

235

Six Axis Vehicle Vibration and its Effects on Comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration in vehicles has been measured in three translational axes and three rotational axes at the passenger\\/seat interface and on the floor beneath the seat.The level, frequency and direction of vehicle vibration was shown to depend upon vehicle type, vehicle speed and road condition. Vibration associated with vehicle suspension, engine and seat characteristics can be identified. Comparison of vehicle

KENNETH C. PARSONS; ELERI M. WHITHAM; MICHAEL J. GRIFFIN

1979-01-01

236

40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750...delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750...program. (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined...

2012-07-01

237

40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750...delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750...program. (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750...delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750...program. (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined...

2014-07-01

239

40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750...delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750...program. (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined...

2010-07-01

240

40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1999 and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750...delivery for sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750...program. (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined...

2013-07-01

241

75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that, in the case of a vehicle described in Sec. 1...8), the use of the vehicle conforms to the requirements...qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. In general, a working...is available to the driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a...

2010-05-19

242

Real-Time Monitoring System Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service) makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Sensor Service Grid (SSG) to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey, M.; Shibasaki, R.

2011-09-01

243

Danyi Wang and Dr. Lance Sherry 1 Trend Analysis of Airline Passenger Trip Delays  

E-print Network

Danyi Wang and Dr. Lance Sherry 1 Trend Analysis of Airline Passenger Trip Delays Danyi Wang (Ph. This paper describes an analysis of the trends in passenger trip time for 2004 and 2005. The analysis proven to be a significant factor in the service-profit chain that drives airline profitability

244

Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

2007-01-01

245

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

1983-01-01

246

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of §...

2010-07-01

247

What drives passenger loyalty to traditional and low-cost airlines? A formative partial least squares approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a case study involving passengers from Lufthansa, Croatia Airlines and Germanwings, we examine the determinants of passenger loyalty among users of traditional full-service airlines and of low-cost carriers. In particular, using formative modeling the study analyzes the effects of service quality and price on carrier choice and loyalty.

Josip Mikuli?; Darko Prebežac

2011-01-01

248

Vehicle Design Validation via Remote Vehicle Diagnosis: A feasibility study on battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, passenger vehicle product development faces great challenges to maintain high vehicle quality due to the proliferation of Electronics, Control and Software (ECS) features and the resultant system complexity. Quickly detecting and trouble-shooting faults of integrated vehicle systems during the validation stage in a key to enhancing vehicle quality. In this paper, we present a feasibilty study of

Yilu Zhang; Gary W. Gantt Jr; Mark Rychlinski; Ryan Edwards; John Correia; Calvin Wolf

2008-01-01

249

77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...multipurpose passenger vehicle other than a motor home with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...each lift-equipped vehicle with a GVWR of 4...requirements apply to vehicles with public use lifts...locations remote from the driver's seating...

2012-04-05

250

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2010-01-01

251

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2011-01-01

252

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2013-01-01

253

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2014-01-01

254

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2012-01-01

255

Intercity Passenger Rail Federal Funding presented by  

E-print Network

Intercity Passenger Rail ­ Federal Funding Process presented by: Minnesota Department of Transportation Passenger Rail Office #12;Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement (PRIIA) ·! Enacted October 2008 ·! Reauthorized Amtrak ·! Focused on current intercity passenger rail ­! Long distance routes

Minnesota, University of

256

Ventilation control for improved cabin air quality and vehicle safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a prime pollution source. In certain circumstances, the vehicle's exhaust may enter the vehicle cabin causing driver discomfort and adverse health effects. As a result, driver reflexes decrease and fatigue may be exhibited. Oxygen depletion due to vehicle occupant breathing can also threaten vehicle safety. Cabin air filters and ventilation control are capable of improving passenger comfort,

Kosmas Galatsis; W. Wlodarski; Yongxiang Li; K. Kalantar-zadeh

2001-01-01

257

Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. PMID:22633252

Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

2013-01-01

258

Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger

L. Y. Chan; Y. M. Liu

2001-01-01

259

78 FR 74225 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NHTSA-2013-0034 Nonconforming Vehicles: 2004 BMW 760i Passenger Cars Substantially Similar U.S. Certified Vehicles: 2004 BMW 760i Passenger Cars Notice of Petition Published...NHTSA-2013-0062 Nonconforming Vehicles: 2002 BMW R1100 S Motorcycles Substantially...

2013-12-10

260

Life cycle assessment of a catalytic converter for passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment of a typical ceramic three-way catalytic converter manufactured for a Swedish passenger car is performed. The environmental impacts occurring in the life cycle of a catalytic converter, encompassing the extraction of raw materials, production of a catalytic converter, use phase, etc. are assessed. They are compared with the environmental benefits assessed throughout an average service lifetime

Wathanyu Amatayakul; Olle Ramnäs

2001-01-01

261

Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory  

SciTech Connect

The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

2007-05-01

262

The seeing passenger car 'VaMoRs-P'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passenger car Mercedes 500 SEL has been equipped with vision in the framework of the EUREKA-project 'Pometheus III'. Road and object recognition is performed both in a look-ahead and in a look-back region; this allows an internal servo-maintained representation of the entire situation around the vehicle using the 4D approach to dynamic machine vision. Obstacles are detected and tracked

E. D. Dickmanns; R. Behringer; D. Dickmanns; T. Hildebrandt; M. Maurer; F. Thomanek; J. Schiehlen

1994-01-01

263

76 FR 56001 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...improvements. Construct terminal--passenger terminal building. Construct terminal--aircraft apron. Construct terminal--landside facilities. Construct terminal--airport service road. Brief Description of Disapproved Project: Runway 13/31...

2011-09-09

264

30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained...with sides and enclosures higher than the explosive material being transported or have...shall contain the explosive material (passenger areas shall not be considered...

2010-07-01

265

30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained...with sides and enclosures higher than the explosive material being transported or have...shall contain the explosive material (passenger areas shall not be considered...

2010-07-01

266

‘Calling Passengers’ — An Ethical Problem in the Design of Self-Service Web Sites Amongst Low-Cost Airlines in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethics on the Internet has been a widely debated topic in recent years covering issues that range from privacy to security\\u000a to fraud. Little, however, has been written on more subtle ethical questions such as the exploitation of Web technologies\\u000a to inhibit or avoid customer service. Increasingly, it would appear, some firms are using Web sites to create distance between

Chris Barry; Ann Torres

267

The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, passenger presence was associated with a greater number of vehicles before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and susceptibility to peer pressure, while fewer eye glances at hazards was linked to lower self-esteem. While the results of this study were mixed, they suggest that the presence of a teenage passenger can affect some aspects of teenage driver behavior even in the absence of overt pressure and distraction. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical concepts of social influence and social facilitation models. PMID:23727554

Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.

2014-01-01

268

The psychological impact of motor vehicle accidents on emergency service workers.  

PubMed

Emergency service workers continuously face situations where they are in charge of the lives of others, and this can be a risk factor for their mental health. This study aims to determine the psychological impact of exposure to current death and physical injury events in the context of motor vehicle accidents among emergency personnel and which variables better predict posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants were National Institute of Medical Emergency workers (nurses and medical doctors; n= 59) in the north of Portugal. They filled out a trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder scale (PTSD), a scale that assesses distress (General Health Questionnaire 12), a peritraumatic dissociation scale (Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire) and a coping scale (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). Participants reported high exposure to events evaluated as traumatic, but low prevalence of PTSD. When the relation between exposure, time in emergency, sex, distress symptoms, peritraumatic dissociation, and PTSD symptoms was examined, peritraumatic dissociation and distress were the only predictors of PTSD symptoms, but beyond their contribution direct coping explains PTSD variance. In conclusion, taking into account the contribution of distress and peritraumatic dissociation to predict psychopathological symptoms, and the contribution of coping to lower PTSD scores, education and training should help the professionals deal with these reactions and improve coping, and organizations should support professionals in the most disturbing situations. PMID:20827808

Maia, Angela Costa; Ribeiro, Eugénia

2010-10-01

269

Considerations on vehicle design criteria for space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transportation research committee of JRS (Japanese Rocket Society) has begun conceptual design of vertical takeoff and landing fully reusable SSTO (Single Stage to Orbit) rocket type vehicle as a standard vehicle model for space tourism. The design criteria of the vehicle have paid most attention to the requirements of service to meet space tour amusement. The standard vehicle, which has 22m body length and weighs about 550 tons at takeoff, can provide attractive tours of 24 hours maximum for 50 passengers into the low earth orbit with a variety of space flight pleasures such as experience of weightlessness and earth sightseeing. Within the reach of our near future rocket technology, the design utilizes MMC, CF/Epy and Ti/Mw advanced materials. The twelve LOX/LH2 engines consist of two nozzle types, which can be throttled and gimbaled during the whole mission time, perform vertical launch and tail-first reentry to final landing associated with aerodynamic control of body flaps within tolerable acceleration acting on passengers.

Isozaki, Kohki; Taniuchi, Akira; Yonemoto, Koichi; Kikukawa, Hiroshige; Maruyama, Tomoko

1995-10-01

270

Performance of EDCF MAC scheme for future multi-service DSRC based road-to-vehicle communication systems in ITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road-to-vehicle communication (RVC) system will support multiple services in future intelligent transportation systems (ITS). To meet different QoS requirements especially on delay, it is important to differentiate data frames of different applications. However the upcoming Northern American DSRC standard based on IEEE 802.11a specification uses legacy DCF MAC and it lacks support for different QoS which is crucial in future

Xin Xia; ZhiSheng Niu

2004-01-01

271

75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...varies from vehicle model to...complete vehicles by larger...chassis-cab vehicle is a moving truck. The driver of a chassis-cab...behind the driver and front...delivery vehicle. These specialized vehicles are...

2010-04-07

272

77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pedestrians struck by vehicles. As a result, the agency believes that vehicle designs with regard...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating of...at establishing vehicle design criteria that will result in vehicles with hoods and...

2012-11-29

273

75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...000 pounds and a vehicle capacity weight...modifications, these vehicles are unlikely to...likely that the vehicle's load-carrying...needs of handicapped drivers or passengers usually...to the unloaded vehicle weight of the vehicle...applies to used vehicles as well as new...

2010-04-29

274

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

275

14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing shall...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2010-01-01

276

14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing shall...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2013-01-01

277

14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing shall...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2012-01-01

278

14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing shall...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2011-01-01

279

14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2011-01-01

280

14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2012-01-01

281

14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2013-01-01

282

14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...have been orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2010-01-01

283

The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic  

E-print Network

The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic Regina R-speed passenger rail service is often argued as a potentially effective, lower-carbon substitute for intercity air travel. Previous studies on high-speed rail on air travel in Europe and Asia have primarily examined

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

284

Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

Rand, D. A. J.

1980-09-01

285

48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sedans, station wagons, and certain light trucks as specified by GSA, should...sedans, station wagons and certain types of light trucks shall be submitted through...7101-6. Requisitions for all other types of vehicles shall be submitted...

2010-10-01

286

PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

287

Corporate Reorganization and the Geography of Services: Evidence from the Motor Vehicle Aftermarket in the West Midlands Region of the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARSHALL J. N. (1989) Corporate reorganization and the geography of services: evidence from the motor vehicle aftermarket in the West Midlands region of the UK, Reg. Studies23, 139–150. Research suggests that a corporate complex of administrative managerial and technical staff in the hinterland of capital cities underpins the spatial centralization of service activities in the economy. There have been important

J. N. Marshall

1989-01-01

288

Light-Duty Vehicles in Tripped-Rollover Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

one year, rollover impacts accounted for 9 percent of multiple-vehicle accident fatalities while rollovers accounted for 51 percent of single-vehicle accident fatalities. Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, and sport-utility vehicles. Although much attention has been given to the study of vehicle rollover stability and to rollover-accident avoidance, research has yet to conclusively uncover an individual vehicle characteristic

Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Gary M. Hutter; Ralph L. Barnett; S. Carl Uzgiris; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Lucinda Fuller; Shelley Hamilton; Brian D. King; Jeffery W. Abendshien; Leslie A. Savage; James T. Semrau; Theodore Liber; Dolores Gildin; Dennis B. Brickman; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Claudine P. Giebs; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin Smith; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. King; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Denise Prokudowicz; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; Glenn Werner; Mary A. Misiewicz; Charles D'Eccliss; Alison Newberry; Anthony Provenzano; Robin Stone; Christina Timmins; Lynn Wallace-Mills; Thomas E. Zabinski

1995-01-01

289

Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

1991-01-01

290

Combined effect of noise and vibration on passenger acceptance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive research program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive model of passenger comfort response to combined noise and vibration environments has been completed. This model was developed for use in the prediction and/or assessment of vehicle ride quality and as a ride quality design tool. The model has the unique capability to transform individual elements of vehicle interior noise and vibration into subjective units and combining the subjective units to produce a total subjective discomfort index as well as the other useful subjective indices. This paper summarizes the basic approach used in the development of the NASA ride comfort model, presents some of the more fundamental results obtained, describes several application of the model to operational vehicles, and discusses a portable, self-contained ride quality meter system that is a direct hardware/software implementation of the NASA comfort algorithm.

Leatherwood, J. D.

1984-01-01

291

Fatigue life simulation of a rear tow hook assembly of a passenger car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between laboratory test data on fatigue crack nucleation in a rear tow hook pin assembly of passenger vehicle and a computational methodology using commercial package software is presented. Fatigue damage is determined using local material response, measured during experimental tests. Experiments were performed simulating the actual conditions in the customer environment. Stress and strain were experimentally measured by

C. L. Petracconi; S. E. Ferreira; E. S. Palma

2010-01-01

292

Modeling maglev passenger compartment static magnetic fields from linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger compartment magnetic field levels in a low-speed magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicle that uses linear Halbach permanent-magnet arrays for both levitation and propulsion are computed through superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. End effects due to the finite lengths of the arrays lead to fields that decay much less rapidly

James F. Hoburg

2004-01-01

293

Roof Strength and Injury Risk in Rollover Crashes of Passenger Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A 2009 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety found that midsize SUVs with stronger roofs, as measured in quasi-static tests, had lower risk of ejection and lower risk of injury for nonejected drivers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a similar association exists for other vehicle groups.Methods: Twelve small passenger cars were evaluated

Matthew L. Brumbelow; Eric R. Teoh

2009-01-01

294

A smart market for passenger road transport (SMPRT) congestion: An application of computational mechanism design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control and price negative externalities in passenger road transport, we develop an innovative and integrated computational agent-based economics (ACE) model to simulate a market oriented ‘cap’ and trade system. (i) First, there is a computational assessment of a digitized road network model of the real-world congestion hot spot to determine the ‘cap’ of the system in terms of vehicle

Sheri Markose; Amadeo Alentorn; Deddy Koesrindartoto; Peter Allen; Phil Blythe; Sergio Grosso

2007-01-01

295

76 FR 47078 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Head...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of available vehicle applications...of the TAS on vehicles, Bruno requested...to cover both driver and passenger...operated by a driver seated in a wheelchair...supplied with the vehicle for the driver; (ii) A motor vehicle is modified to...9)(i) For vehicles...

2011-08-04

296

A feasibility study of electrochromic windows in vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal comfort of passengers is essential when they enter a vehicle parked in the sun for an extended period. Quickly achieving this comfort level and reducing fuel consumption at the same time can be accomplished by using electrochromic (EC) glass. Keeping the interior of the car cooler by controlling EC windows increases the fuel economy, comforts passengers faster and protects

Nebojsa I. Jaksic; Cem Salahifar

2003-01-01

297

36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between...

2012-07-01

298

36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between...

2013-07-01

299

36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between...

2014-07-01

300

14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information...the certificate significantly understates the passenger's risk to the health of other persons on the flight. If the...

2012-01-01

301

14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information...the certificate significantly understates the passenger's risk to the health of other persons on the flight. If the...

2010-01-01

302

14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information...the certificate significantly understates the passenger's risk to the health of other persons on the flight. If the...

2014-01-01

303

14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information...the certificate significantly understates the passenger's risk to the health of other persons on the flight. If the...

2011-01-01

304

14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information...the certificate significantly understates the passenger's risk to the health of other persons on the flight. If the...

2013-01-01

305

Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard

2010-01-01

306

Crucial Issues in Logistic Planning for Electric Vehicle Battery Application Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a brief introduction of typical battery features, several crucial issues in logistic planning for Electric Vehicle (EV) battery applications are discussed in this paper. The obvious issues include the access of battery charging stations, the accessibility of emergence swapping, and the monitoring of batteries at charging stations on network. Standardization of the battery and energy exchange technology would

Haiming Wang; Haifeng Xu; A. K. Jones

2010-01-01

307

Interconnectable gadgets and web services usage in supervisory control of Unmanned Underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Underwater vehicles (UUVs) are routinely used for data collection during underwater research missions. UUV operators which perform advanced data collection are usually not qualified for data interpretation. On the fly adaptation of data collection methods based on interpreted data can increase data quality and lower the operator's effort. However, this requires the presence of an expert on site. In

Tomislav Lugaric; Antonio Vasilijevic; Sinisa Srbljic

2011-01-01

308

Optimal Aviation Security Screening Strategies With Dynamic Passenger Risk Updates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger screening is a critical component of aviation security systems. This paper introduces the multistage sequential passenger screening problem (MSPSP), which models passenger and carry-on baggage screening operations in an aviation security system with the capability of dynamically updating the perceived risk of passengers. The passenger screening operation at an airport terminal is subdivided into multiple screening stages, with decisions

Alexander G. Nikolaev; Adrian J. Lee; Sheldon H. Jacobson

2012-01-01

309

A New Vehicle 3D Model with 7 Degrees of Freedom for Vehicle Dynamical Response Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last decades offered significant technologic achievements regarding vehicle power, speed, and complexity. The full understanding\\u000a of vehicle characteristics and their influence on vehicle response behavior during maneuvers became essential for vehicle\\u000a quality as well as passenger safeness and comfort. On the other hand, due to high competitive and globalized economy, automotive\\u000a industries underline the necessity of reducing costs and time-to-market

Lúcio F. S. Patrício; Marcelo Becker; Jánes Landre; Clovis S. Barcellos

310

Simulation of LRT Travel Time Reduction Scenarios Based on Passenger Behavior Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical model of dwell time at transit stops for LRT is developed from observed behaviors of passengers at Kumamoto municipal transport in commercial operation and time component measurement experiments at depot for parameter identification. The developed model is able to express waiting queues of sequentially arriving and leaving passengers at the boarding and alighting doors for variety of LRV usages in detail. The model has realized precise comparison of low-floor vehicle introduction and door usage improvement scenarios in connection with fare transaction methods.

Hirasawa, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeki; Suda, Yoshihiro

311

The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect ‘the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat’ (Joy and Hartley 1953–54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle ‘feel’ accompanying

Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Mark S. Young

2006-01-01

312

46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10...72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters between adjacent watertight...

2010-10-01

313

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a)...

2013-10-01

314

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a)...

2012-10-01

315

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a)...

2010-10-01

316

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a)...

2011-10-01

317

Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1992-01-01

318

Application for certification, 1992 model-year light-duty vehicles - BMW of North America, Inc  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from BMW of North America, Inc. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1992-01-01

319

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2011-10-01

320

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2010-10-01

321

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2014-10-01

322

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2012-10-01

323

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2013-10-01

324

Vehicle Repair Policy Outline the policy regarding vehicle repair on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles.  

E-print Network

Vehicle Repair Policy Objective Outline the policy regarding vehicle repair on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles. Policy 1. All vehicle repairs performed on U-M vehicles must be coordinated facility to repair their fleet vehicles. 2. U-M vehicles leased through Fleet Services include routine

Kirschner, Denise

325

Transformation Education: A Vehicle for Structuring Group Care Organizations to Increase Service Quality and Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents how…

Ross, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

326

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation An Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria Pollutant Inventory of Rail and Air Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passenger transportation modes of rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of other components. Vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction and operation,

Arpad Horvath; Mikhail Chester

2008-01-01

327

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

2007-01-01

328

Simulating service reliability of a high frequency bus route using automatically collected data  

E-print Network

High frequency bus routes are subject to a variety of influences that can affect the quality of service provided to passengers. Since they have short headways and high passenger demand interaction between buses can easily ...

Milkovits, Martin Nicholas

2008-01-01

329

Service Reliability Measurement Using Automated Fare Card Data Application to the London Underground  

E-print Network

This paper explores the potential of using automated fare card data to quantify the reliability of service as experienced by passengers of rail transit systems. The distribution of individual passenger journey times can ...

Uniman, David L.

330

A sequential stochastic passenger screening problem for aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing effective aviation security systems has become a problem of national concern. Since September 11th, 2001 passenger screening systems have become an important component in the design and operation of aviation security systems. This paper introduces the Sequential Stochastic Passenger Screening Problem (SSPSP), which allows passengers to be optimally assigned (in real-time) to aviation security resources. Passengers are classified as

Laura A. McLay; Sheldon H. Jacobson; Alexander G. Nikolaev

2009-01-01

331

USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

2011-01-01

332

INCREASING SEAT BELT USE IN SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS WITH A GEARSHIFT DELAY  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of park. Unbelted participants experienced either a constant delay (8 s) or a variable delay (M ?=? 8 s). A 16-s delay was introduced for those U.S. drivers who did not show significant improvement. Seat belt use increased from 48% to 67% (a 40% increase) for U.S. drivers and from 54% to 74% (a 37% increase) for Canadian drivers. The fixed delay was more effective for U.S. drivers than the variable delay, but there was no difference between these two delay schedules for Canadian drivers. After the driver fastened his or her seat belt, it tended to remain fastened for the duration of the trip. PMID:21358899

Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard; Tenenbaum, Jeff

2010-01-01

333

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

Cooper, D. A.

334

The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

2013-01-01

335

The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

2013-01-01

336

Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world  

E-print Network

The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

Mercure, J -F

2014-01-01

337

49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which addresses brakes that become defective en route after a Class I or IA brake test...passenger service that becomes defective en route after a Class I or IA brake test...brakes or any other power brake defect while en route to another location after...

2011-10-01

338

49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which addresses brakes that become defective en route after a Class I or IA brake test...passenger service that becomes defective en route after a Class I or IA brake test...brakes or any other power brake defect while en route to another location after...

2010-10-01

339

Mobile Journey Planning for Bus Passengers Desmond Rainsford and William A Mackaness  

E-print Network

1 Mobile Journey Planning for Bus Passengers Desmond Rainsford and William A Mackaness Geography. Developments in mobile technology offer new ways of supporting mobile decision making. One application domain in the area of Location Based Services (LBS) is the delivery of journey plans to a mobile device. Few journey

340

Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Bus Stop Consolidation on Passenger Activity and Transit Operations  

E-print Network

Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Bus Stop Consolidation on Passenger Activity and Transit project at TriMet, the regional transit provider for the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. The study of the transit service planning process. Both the budgetary resources of the transit provider and the travel

Bertini, Robert L.

341

Parent Driver Characteristics Associated with SubOptimal Restraint of Child Passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To identify parent driver demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with the use of sub-optimal restraints for child passengers under nine years.Methods. Cross-sectional study using in-depth, validated telephone interviews with parent drivers in a probability sample of 3,818 vehicle crashes involving 5,146 children. Sub-optimal restraint was defined as use of forward-facing child safety seats for infants under one or weighing

Flaura K. Winston; Irene G. Chen; Rebecca Smith; Michael R. Elliott

2006-01-01

342

Optimal boarding method for airline passengers  

SciTech Connect

Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; ,

2008-02-01

343

46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of...710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow pulpits, swimming platforms and areas that do not have a solid deck, such...

2010-10-01

344

The Effect of Passengers and Risk-Taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/Near Crashes Among Novice Teenagers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The high crash rates of novice teenage drivers are thought to be due to inexperience and risky driving behavior, exacerbated by passengers, night, and other complex driving conditions. This research examined factors associated with crash/near crash and risky driving rates among novice teenagers, including night vs day, passenger presence and characteristics, and driver psychosocial factors. Method The vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with recording systems that collected data on driving performance and occupant characteristics during their first 18 months of licensure. Survey data were collected at four measurement times. Poisson regression with random effects was used to analyze crash/near crash and elevated g-force event rates (i.e., risky driving); incident rate ratios (IRRs) measured associations with covariates. Results Crash/near crash rates among novice teenagers were 75% lower in the presence of adult passengers and 96% higher among those with risky friends. Teenage risky driving was 67% lower with adult passengers, 18% lower with teenage passengers; 20% lower during early night than day; and 109% higher among teens with relatively more risky friends. Conclusions The low rate of risky driving in the presence of adult passengers suggests that teens can drive in less risky fashion. The higher rate of risky driving among those with risky friends suggests that risky driving may be socially influenced. PMID:22098768

Ouimet, Marie Claude; Zhang, Zhiwei; Klauer, Sheila E.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Wang, Jing; Chen, Rusan; Albert, Paul; Dingus, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

345

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

346

A cost engineered launch vehicle for space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper starts with a set of major requirements for a space tourism vehicle and discusses major vehicle options proposed for this purpose. It seems that the requirements can be met best with a Ballistic SSTO Vehicle which has the additional advantage of lowest development cost compared to other launch vehicle options — important for a commercial development venture. The BETA Ballistic Reusable Vehicle Concept is characterized by the plug nozzle cluster engine configuration where the plug nozzle serves also as base plate and re-entry heat shield. In this case no athmospheric turn maneuver is required (as in case-of the front-entry Delta-Clipper DC-Y concept). In our specific case for space tourism this mode has the avantage that the forces at launch and reentry are in exactly the same direction, easing passenger seating arrangements. The second basic advantage is the large available volume on top of the vehicle providing ample space for passenger accomodation, visibility and volume for zero-g experience (free floating), one of the major passenger mission requirements. An adequate passenger cabin design for 100 passengers is presented, as well as the modern BETA-STV Concept with its mass allocations.

Koelle, -Ing. Dietrich E., , Dr.

1999-09-01

347

Future Directions in the Design, Development, and Investigation of Technology as a Service Delivery Vehicle  

PubMed Central

Treatment outcome research with children and adolescents has progressed to such an extent that numerous handbooks have been devoted to reviewing and summarizing the evidence base. Ensuring that consumers of these advancements in state-of-the-field interventions have the opportunity to access, engage in, and benefit from this evidence-base, however, has been wrought with challenge. As such, much discussion exists about innovative strategies for overcoming the gap between research and practice; yet, no other potential solution that has received more attention in both the popular and academic press than technology. The promise of technology is not surprising given the fast-paced evolution in development and, in turn, a seemingly endless range of possibilities for novel service delivery platforms. Yet, this is precisely the most formidable challenge threatening to upset the very promise of this potential solution: The rate of emerging technologies is far outpacing the field’s capacity to demonstrate the conceptual or empirical benefits of such an approach. Accordingly, this paper aims to provide a series of recommendations that better situate empirical enquiry at the core of a collaborative development, testing, and deployment process that must define this line of work if the promise of mental health technologies is going to be a reality for front-line clinicians and the clients they serve. PMID:24400723

Jones, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

348

Maintaining and servicing a space-based Orbital Transfer vehicle (OTV) at the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A candidate space-based OTV (SBOTV) is described as well as the advantages inherent to space basing, the requirements for accommodating an SBOTV, candidate hangar/support equipment, turnaround operations options, selection and definition of the most economical turnaround operations at the Space Station and maintenance of an OTV at the Space Station (SS). OTV launching, servicing/maintenance, payload integration and retrieval comprise the various space operations to be performed. Alternative methods for performing the turnaround operations (i.e. EVA with teleoperations or teleoperations only) are investigated and it is shown that the 'teleoperation only' option fulfills the need for reducing the amount of EVA manhours while simultaneously reducing the total manhours for SBOTV turnaround at the Space Station. It is concluded that modularity, accessibility, standardization of interfaces, lightweight construction, and a proper balance between EVA and teleoperations/robotics activities are key to the successful performance of an OTV at the SS in the 1990s. Man's ability to react to unexpected situations, interpret results and modify operations in real time must also be taken advantage of.

Maloney, J. W.; Pena, L. R.

1986-09-01

349

49 CFR 1510.13 - Remittance of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.13 Remittance of security...

2014-10-01

350

49 CFR 1510.13 - Remittance of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.13 Remittance of security...

2012-10-01

351

49 CFR 1510.9 - Collection of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.9 Collection of security...

2012-10-01

352

49 CFR 1510.9 - Collection of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.9 Collection of security...

2011-10-01

353

49 CFR 1510.5 - Imposition of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.5 Imposition of security...

2013-10-01

354

49 CFR 1510.5 - Imposition of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.5 Imposition of security...

2012-10-01

355

49 CFR 1510.5 - Imposition of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.5 Imposition of security...

2014-10-01

356

49 CFR 1510.13 - Remittance of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.13 Remittance of security...

2013-10-01

357

49 CFR 1510.13 - Remittance of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.13 Remittance of security...

2011-10-01

358

49 CFR 1510.9 - Collection of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.9 Collection of security...

2014-10-01

359

49 CFR 1510.9 - Collection of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.9 Collection of security...

2013-10-01

360

49 CFR 1510.9 - Collection of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.9 Collection of security...

2010-10-01

361

49 CFR 1510.5 - Imposition of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.5 Imposition of security...

2010-10-01

362

49 CFR 1510.5 - Imposition of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.5 Imposition of security...

2011-10-01

363

Application for certification 1986 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1985-01-01

364

Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1993-01-01

365

Application for certification, 1990 model-year light-duty vehicles - BMW  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems or exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1992-01-01

366

Application for certification 1981 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW of North America, Inc  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1981-01-01

367

Application for certification, 1988 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission-control systems. Information is also provided on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1988-01-01

368

Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - BMW  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model-year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1991-01-01

369

Application for certification 1980 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW of North America, Inc  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1980-01-01

370

AIRLINE MARKET SEGMENTS AFTER LOW COST AIRLINES IN THAILAND: PASSENGER CLASSIFICATION USING NEURAL NETWORKS AND LOGIT MODEL WITH SELECTIVE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition in airline business is severe after an introduction of low cost airlines. In Thailand, three low cost airlines occupied one-third of domestic market at the end of 2005. Their growth rate, 47 percent, surpassed the industrial growth rate at the expense of full- service airlines. One million passengers of full-service airlines were lost to low cost airlines in 2005.

KOMSAN SURIYA

371

40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.232-94 ...fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a temperature less than or equal to 60 °F. For...certification testing, precondition vehicles at temperatures above 20 °F (?7 °C) and with...

2013-07-01

372

40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.232-94 ...fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a temperature less than or equal to 60 °F. For...certification testing, precondition vehicles at temperatures above 20 °F (?7 °C) and with...

2011-07-01

373

40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.232-94 ...fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a temperature less than or equal to 60 °F. For...certification testing, precondition vehicles at temperatures above 20 °F (?7 °C) and with...

2010-07-01

374

40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.232-94 ...fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a temperature less than or equal to 60 °F. For...certification testing, precondition vehicles at temperatures above 20 °F (?7 °C) and with...

2012-07-01

375

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION IN TEXAS  

E-print Network

conventional passenger cars in Texas, after recognizing the emissions and energy impacts of battery provisionAIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION IN TEXAS Brice G. Nichols Associate Planner Puget adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) may substantially reduce emissions of greenhouse gases while

Kockelman, Kara M.

376

78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier...emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium- duty...important source of exposure to air pollution both regionally and near roads...fuel efficiency standards for light-duty vehicles, as part...

2013-04-08

377

Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-05-01

378

Location Student Fac/Staff Disabled Special OLLI Reserved Electric Carpool Park and Pay 30 Minute Loading Maint/Service State Vehicle Motorcycle Control* S / L** P / T / LD*** Location Total Alumni House 1 1 17 D L P 19  

E-print Network

Location Student Fac/Staff Disabled Special OLLI Reserved Electric Carpool Park and Pay 30 Minute Loading Maint/Service State Vehicle Motorcycle Control* S / L** P / T / LD*** Location Total Alumni House

de Lijser, Peter

379

Master Thesis Proposal: Simulation of Vehicle  

E-print Network

of the engine or the battery in a hybrid electric vehicle determines how effective the components are used. · Possibly focus more on passenger cars or on heavy-duty-trucks. · Documentation and presentation of results for Volvo cars, Scania, and within SHC. Quilifications · Good knowledge in Matlab or equivalent. · Basic

Zhao, Yuxiao

380

An automated vehicle arrival notification system for paratransit customers at Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

For paratransit passengers, not knowing when their ride (the paratransit vehicle) will be arriving to pick them up is a major concern. The objectives of this research included designing, implementing, and evaluating a system for automatically...

Donovan, Rachel A

2012-06-07

381

Valuing innovative technology R&D as a real option : application to fuel cell vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to elucidate real option thinking and real option valuation techniques for innovative technology investment. Treating the fuel cell R&D investment as a real option for General Motor's light passenger vehicle ...

Tsui, Maggie

2005-01-01

382

Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.

1997-01-01

383

Structural-acoustic finite element analysis of the automobile passenger compartment: A review of current practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper contains a brief review of the formulation of the finite element method for structural-acoustic analysis of an enclosed cavity, and illustrations are given of the application of this analytical method at General Motors Corporation to investigate the acoustics of the automobile passenger compartment. Low frequency noise in the passenger compartment (in approximately the 20-200 Hz frequency range) is of primary interest, and particularly that noise which is generated by the structural vibration of the wall panels of the compartment. The topics which are covered in the paper include the computation of acoustic modes and resonant frequencies of the passenger compartment, the effect of flexible wall panels on the cavity acoustics, the methods of direct and modal coupling of the structural and acoustic vehicle systems, and forced vibration analysis illustrating the techniques for computing panel-excited noise and for identifying critical panels around the passenger compartment. The capabilities of the finite element method are illustrated by applications to the production automobile, and experimental verifications of the various techniques are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the method.

Nefske, D. J.; Wolf, J. A.; Howell, L. J.

1982-01-01

384

Vehicle Electrical System Power Budget Optimization using Ultra-capacitor Distributed Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average electrical burden in passenger vehicles, cars and light trucks, has escalated in recent years from 500 W to 700 W and higher. Recent studies reveal that increasing electrical content is adding 100 W to 150 W of load to the vehicle electrical power supply each year1. As electrical burden increases the vehicle electrical energy storage system in the

John M. Miller; Michael Everett

385

The man-loading high-temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first man-loading high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev test vehicle in the world was successfully developed on Dec. 31, 2000 in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Heretofore over 24 500 passengers took the vehicle, and it has been operating back and forth for about 400 km. The HTS Maglev vehicle provides inherent stability both in the vertical and

Suyu Wang; Jiasu Wang; Xiaorong Wang; Zhongyou Ren; Youwen Zeng; Changyan Deng; He Jiang; Min Zhu; Guobin Lin; Zhipei Xu; Degui Zhu; Honghai Song

2003-01-01

386

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world is reported. This vehicle was first tested successfully on December 31, 2000 in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Heretofore over 17,000 passengers took the vehicle, and it operates very well from beginning to now. The function of suspension is separated from one of propulsion. The

Jiasu Wang; Suyu Wang; Youwen Zeng; Haiyu Huang; Fang Luo; Zhipei Xu; Qixue Tang; Guobin Lin; Cuifang Zhang; Zhongyou Ren; Guomin Zhao; Degui Zhu; Shaohua Wang; He Jiang; Min Zhu; Changyan Deng; Pengfei Hu; Chaoyong Li; Fang Liu; Jisan Lian; Xiaorong Wang; Lianghui Wang; Xuming Shen; Xiaogang Dong

2002-01-01

387

Dilution Rates for Tailpipe Emissions: Effects of Vehicle Shape, Tailpipe Position, and Exhaust Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and

Victor W.-C. Chang; Lynn M. Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng

2009-01-01

388

MODELING, TESTING AND CORRELATION OF INTERLINKED AIR SUSPENSION SYSTEMS FOR PREMIUM VEHICLE PLATFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since a vehicle is actuated by road irregularities in many different ways the improvement of the passengers driving comfort is a major focus of automotive research and development work especially in the premium vehicle segment. Apart from the acoustic properties of a vehicle generally referred to as NVH (noise vibration harshness), the low- frequent and mechanical kind of vibrations mainly

Michael Frantzen

389

Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 2: Airport feeder vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airport Feeder vehicle is a VTOL, semi-buoyant ellipsoidal airship capable of transporting passengers or cargo to major CTOL hub terminals from suburban and downtown depots. Six tasks were reviewed: (1) vehicle design definition, (2) operational procedures analysis, (3) cost analysis, (4) comparison with alternate transportation modes, (5) mission/vehicle feasibility assessment, and (6) technology assessment.

1976-01-01

390

78 FR 41852 - Hours of Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Off-Duty Time AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...met in order for a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver to record...Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590, Telephone 202-366-4325...minimum standards for commercial motor vehicle safety. These...

2013-07-12

391

Injuries in special transport services--situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate and societal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incident-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record, two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as the continuing development of WTORS. PMID:19720552

Wretstrand, Anders; Bylund, Per-Olof; Petzäll, Jan; Falkmer, Torbjörn

2010-04-01

392

Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

1978-01-01

393

A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

. ........................................................... 2? Figure 3. Nissan Leaf? commercially available Electric Vehicle ................................. 4? Figure 4. Total passenger vehicle sales and HEV sales in the U. S. ............................... 5? Figure 5. Prius Plug... to that of conventional vehicles. The main disadvantages the electric vehicles are: limited travel range, long recharge time, and high price. Take Nissan Leaf for example, which is a commercially available Electric Vehicle in the North America automobile market...

Lai, Lin

2013-01-28

394

33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General...ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship may designate areas within...ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to...

2010-07-01

395

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

396

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

397

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

398

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

399

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2010-01-01

400

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2011-01-01

401

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2013-01-01

402

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2014-01-01

403

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2012-01-01

404

14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger...Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and...Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), Office of Airline...

2012-01-01

405

An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

Eriksen, S. E.

1978-01-01

406

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

407

Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

408

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2011-10-01

409

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2014-10-01

410

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2011-10-01

411

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2013-10-01

412

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2010-10-01

413

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2014-10-01

414

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

415

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

416

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2013-10-01

417

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2010-10-01

418

A Sequential Stochastic Multilevel Passenger Screening Problem for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing efiective aviation security systems has become a problem of national concern. Passenger screening is an important component of aviation security. Developing real-time pas- senger screening strategies can be quite challenging. This paper identifles a methodology that can be used in real-time to optimally assign passengers to aviation security resources for the Sequential Stochastic Multilevel Passenger Screening Problem (SSMPSP). In

Laura A. McLay; Sheldon H. Jacobson; Adrian J. Lee; John E. Kobza

419

Multilevel Passenger Screening Strategies for Aviation Security Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger prescreening is a critical component of aviation security. This paper intro- duces the Multilevel Allocation Problem (MAP), which models the screening of passen- gers and baggage in a multilevel aviation security system. A passenger is screened by one of several classes, each of which corresponds to a set of procedures using security screen- ing devices, where passengers are difierentiated

Laura A. McLay; Sheldon H. Jacobson; John E. Kobza

2005-01-01

420

78 FR 48817 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...vehicles hauling sand and water that is required by hydraulic fracturing (or ``fracking'') operations. Traditional production methods...exploration and the volume of traffic to and from fracking sites increased, State and local officials...

2013-08-12

421

Vehicle Fleet Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration  

E-print Network

Vehicle Fleet Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration Policy Contact, and established campus vehicle fleet service under Facilities Management operations. The purpose of the fleet vehicles. This policy is applicable to the entire Mines fleet, which includes department vehicles. 2

422

Studies on commuters' exposure to BTEX in passenger cars in Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

Commuters' exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) especially BTEX travelling in passenger cars in Kolkata, India were quantified in Phase I (2001-2002) and Phase II (2003-2004). Monitoring was made inside and in the immediate outside of passenger cars fitted with and without catalytic converters using different types of fuels, along two congested urban routes. During Phase I of the study, the benzene content in gasoline was 5% and the mean concentration of in-vehicle benzene in cars without catalytic converter was found to be as high as 721.2 microg/m3. In Phase II when the benzene content was reduced to <3% and with modified engine type, the mean in-vehicle benzene concentration was reduced to 112.4 microg/m3. The in-vehicle concentration varied with engine type and age of the vehicle. Roadside ambient mean concentration of benzene was 214.8 microg/m3 and 30.8 microg/m3 in Phase I and Phase II respectively. PMID:17113131

Som, D; Dutta, C; Chatterjee, A; Mallick, D; Jana, T K; Sen, S

2007-01-01

423

A genetic-based methodology for hybrid electric vehicles sizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As private transport concerns, the global challenge of this millennium is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from\\u000a passenger cars by improving fuel economy without sacrificing the vehicle performance. Hybrid electric vehicles powertrain,\\u000a combining electric motor with an auxiliary power unit, can improve effectively the vehicle performance and fuel economy, reducing\\u000a at the same time the effects of the use

Vincenzo Galdi; Lucio Ippolito; Antonio Piccolo; Alfredo Vaccaro

2001-01-01

424

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

425

Engine management for Flex Fuel plus compressed natural gas vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol has been used in Brazil as a passenger vehicle fuel since 1979. Until the year 2000, vehicles were made to run exclusively\\u000a with either gasoline or ethanol. The MultiFuel engine control module (ECM) was developed allowing vehicles to use fuels with\\u000a any ethanol percentage, relying only on the existing oxygen sensor as opposed to an add-on ethanol sensor for

O Volpato; F Theunissen; R Mazara; Erik Verhaeven

426

62 FR 67107 - Intelligent Vehicle Initiative; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...integration of proven systems using autonomous vehicle-based technology complemented...implementation of this service would be through autonomous in-vehicle systems. These systems...implementation of this service would be through autonomous in-vehicle systems. These...

1997-12-23

427

Vehicle systems design optimization study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

Gilmour, J. L.

1980-01-01

428

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

2008-01-01

429

Seat-belt use among drivers and front passengers: an observational study from the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Although seat-belts are the most effective means of preventing severe injuries and deaths from road accidents, drivers and passengers in many developing countries neglect to wear them. This study aimed to measure the rate of use of seat-belts and factors affecting their use in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. In direct observations of 7718 vehicles at randomly selected sites in Tehran, 77.9% of drivers and 43.7% of front passenger had seat-belts fastened. More women used seat-belts than did men while driving but fewer as front-seat passengers. Rates of seat-belt wearing among both drivers and front passengers of vans and pick-up vehicles was low. In a separate interview study of 666 citizens, 62.4% stated that they always wore seat-belts while driving. The most frequently reported reasons for using seat-belts were avoiding fines, fear of injuries and respecting the law. To improve seat-belt use, it is recommended that law enforcement accompanied by public education should be a priority. PMID:25150356

Sadeghnejad, F; Niknami, S; Hydarnia, A; Montazeri, A

2014-08-01

430

Investigating Variables : Passengers Supported by Lifeboats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short description This activity is a lab investigation where students develop an investigable inquiry question, construct a fleet of boats, collect data about how many passengers (pennies) each will hold before sinking, interpret their findings, and will share methods and results during a poster session.

431

14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flight attendants to notify them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts...to fasten their safety belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information...crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any...

2010-01-01

432

Passenger Vans: A Transportation Concern for Camps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, the National Transportation Safety Board reissued a cautionary warning about the high accident potential of 15-passenger vans; some states have prohibited their use for transporting children. Three camp directors discuss legal and cost considerations for camps, possible alternative transportation, additional staff training needs,…

Gentle, Don; Gordon, Harold; Schainman, Steve

2002-01-01

433

Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A Macroeconomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today's transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This article assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium model PACE?T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European

Sabine Jokisch; Tim Mennel

2009-01-01

434

Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan  

E-print Network

passenger-miles will be presented. These trends will show how the two modal use changed after the Var in Japan. CHAPTER II THE HISTORY OP PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION IN THE U. S. A. I'RON 1910 TO 1940 Pmil passengers increased prior to the early twenties... of Japanese post-war passenger transportation, a comparative study of the U. S. passenger transporta- ti. on development between 1910 and 1940 has been made. The growth rate of automobile ownership prior to the Great Depression is larger than the rate...

Horie, Teruhiko

1969-01-01

435

Architecture of a Framework for Providing Information Services for Public Transport  

PubMed Central

This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained. PMID:22778585

García, Carmelo R.; Pérez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Álvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayón, Francisco; Padrón, Gabino

2012-01-01

436

The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States  

E-print Network

Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

Karplus, Valerie

2012-07-31

437

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

438

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were presented.

Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

1987-12-01

439

Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

Roman, Harry T.

2014-01-01

440

78 FR 22363 - Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-Orlando Passenger Rail Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-- Orlando Passenger...service proposed by the private company, All Aboard Florida--Operations LLC (AAF...in the preparation of the EIS. To ensure all significant issues are identified and...

2013-04-15

441

Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics.  

PubMed

In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ?-0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G; Lee, Suzanne E; Dingus, Thomas A

2009-06-22

442

Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Summary In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ??0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Dingus, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

443

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

444

Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

IMPCO Technologies

1998-10-28

445

49 CFR 1510.11 - Handling of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.11...the costs of providing civil aviation security services described in 49...

2010-10-01

446

49 CFR 1510.11 - Handling of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.11...the costs of providing civil aviation security services described in 49...

2012-10-01

447

49 CFR 1510.11 - Handling of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.11...the costs of providing civil aviation security services described in 49...

2011-10-01

448

49 CFR 1510.11 - Handling of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.11...the costs of providing civil aviation security services described in 49...

2013-10-01

449

49 CFR 1510.11 - Handling of security service fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.11...the costs of providing civil aviation security services described in 49...

2014-10-01

450

Teaching car passenger safety to preschool children.  

PubMed

An educational curriculum entitled "Bucklebear" was designed to increase safety seat and seat belt use in young children enrolled in preschool programs (day care centers and nursery schools). Three basic concepts were emphasized: (1) "buckling up" is a good habit for everyone for every ride; (2) the back seat is the best seat; and (3) there are desirable passenger behaviors. The curriculum included training workshops with teachers, parent meetings, classroom lessons, sound filmstrip, puppet play, and many other activities. Six experimental programs and seven control programs with 402 and 427 enrolled children, respectively, participated. After their participation in the educational curriculum, children in the experimental program increased their use of a safety seat or seat belt from 21.9% to 44.3%. These children also increased their knowledge and simulated practice of car passenger safety. PMID:4034302

Chang, A; Dillman, A S; Leonard, E; English, P

1985-09-01

451

Personal Services Agreements Waivers  

E-print Network

- Equipment Maintenance/Repair Services in this category are used for all types of equipment maintenance and repair. Type of Service 1. Heating and Air-Conditioning: These services are necessary when any to perform these services. 3. Vehicle Maintenance: Services include maintenance of special use vehicles

452

Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

1977-01-01

453

Passenger comfort technology for system decision making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

Conner, D. W.

1980-01-01

454

Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A Macroeconomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today?s transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This working paper assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model PACE-T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost

Tim Mennel; Sabine Jokisch

2007-01-01

455

Vehicle Maintenance Policy Outline the policy regarding vehicle maintenance at University of Michigan (U-M).  

E-print Network

Vehicle Maintenance Policy Objective Outline the policy regarding vehicle maintenance at University of Michigan (U-M). Policy 1. All maintenance performed on U-M vehicles must be coordinated through Garage to repair their fleet vehicles. 2. U-M vehicles leased through Fleet Services include routine maintenance

Kirschner, Denise

456

Vehicle Signage Policy Outline the policy regarding signage on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles.  

E-print Network

Vehicle Signage Policy Objective Outline the policy regarding signage on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles. Policy 1. All vehicles owned by U-M will be identified by a vehicle number, U-M decal and special municipal license plate issued by Fleet Services. 2. All signage on vehicles owned by U-M must be approved

Kirschner, Denise

457

Understanding bus service reliability : a practical framework using AVL/APC data  

E-print Network

Service reliability on a transit system can have significant impacts on its provider and both existing and potential users. To passengers, unreliable service affects their perception of service quality and transit utility ...

Cham, Laura Cecilia

2006-01-01

458

CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... and/or weight requirements. View larger graphic Motor vehicle crash deaths have gone down in the past ... and seat belt use and reducing child motor vehicle injuries and deaths. Options for effective strategies include: ...

459

Indoor to outdoor air quality associations with self-pollution implications inside passenger car cabins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, in-vehicle and out-vehicle concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) are measured to assess commuter's exposure in a commercial residential area and on a highway, under three popular ventilation modes namely, one window half opened, air conditioning on fresh air intake, and air conditioning on recirculation and examine its relationship to scarcely studied parameters including self pollution, out-vehicle sample intake location and meteorological gradients. Self pollution is the intrusion of a vehicle's own engine fumes into the passenger's compartment. For this purpose, six car makes with different ages were instrumented to concomitantly monitor in- and out-vehicle PM2.5 and CO concentrations as well as meteorological parameters. Air pollution levels were unexpectedly higher in new cars compared to old cars, with in-cabin air quality most correlated to that of out-vehicle air near the front windshield. Self-pollution was observed at variable rates in three of the six tested cars. Significant correlations were identified between indoor to outdoor pressure difference and PM2.5 and CO In/Out (IO) ratios under air recirculation and window half opened ventilation modes whereas temperature and humidity difference affected CO IO ratios only under the air recirculation ventilation mode.

Abi-Esber, L.; El-Fadel, M.

2013-12-01

460

[Unruly passengers - resistance to requests by flight attendants].  

PubMed

Travelling by airplane is of increasing importance in modern society. Psychiatric disorders seldom cause incidents in aircrafts. Scandal sheets and serious newspapers as well report on disturbances of a flight by psychiatric patients. Up until now psychiatric research is not engaging in unruly flight passengers suffering from psychotic symptoms. We describe a passenger who became psychotic during an international flight. In addition, we provide an overview over publications dealing with unruly passengers due to psychosis and describe similar cases. PMID:11533897

Müller, J L; Hermann, H L; Cording, C; Klein, H E

2001-09-01

461

Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

2012-01-01

462

COMPARISON OF TEEN CELL PHONE AND PASSENGER CONVERSATION  

E-print Network

i COMPARISON OF TEEN CELL PHONE AND PASSENGER CONVERSATION by Susan T. Chrysler, Ph.D. Research .......................................................................... 9 Unique challenges with teens

463

Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

1976-01-01

464

MobTorrent: A Framework for Mobile Internet Access from Vehicles  

E-print Network

of getting Internet access is through the use of wireless wide- area network (WWAN), for example, GPRS, 3G which shared network access is provided to all passengers in the vehicle using IEEE 802.11. However a vehicle (with a 1.5Mbps-limit subscription plan) using a local commercial HSDPA network. Meanwhile, many

Chan, Mun Choon

465

A lidar Perception Scheme for Intelligent Vehicle Julien Moras, Veronique Cherfaoui and Phillipe Bonnifait  

E-print Network

A lidar Perception Scheme for Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Julien Moras, V´eronique Cherfaoui presents a lidar-based perception system for passenger-cars, able to do simultaneously mapping and moving of such a perception strategy. Index Terms--Intelligent Vehicles, Environmental Perception, Mapping, Mobile Object

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A NETWORK-BASED SHARED AUTOMATED VEHICLE MODEL IN AUSTIN, TEXAS  

E-print Network

with the transportation system. Google expects to introduce a self-driving vehicle by 2017 (O'Brien 2012), and multiple. Once this #12;occurs, vehicles will be able to drive themselves even without a passenger in the car the paradigms of short-term car rentals (as used with car sharing programs like Car2Go and ZipCar), and taxi

Kockelman, Kara M.

467

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2013-10-01

468

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2011-10-01

469

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2012-10-01

470

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2014-10-01

471

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2010-10-01

472

46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. ...PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

2011-10-01

473

46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. ...PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

2013-10-01

474

46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. ...PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

2012-10-01

475

49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific...223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses....

2013-10-01

476

49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific...223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses....

2012-10-01

477

49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific...223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses....

2011-10-01

478

49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific...223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses....

2010-10-01

479

75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects...for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. The Department of...

2010-04-01

480

46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. ...PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

2014-10-01

481

75 FR 42115 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advance Passenger Information System-APIS). This request for comment is being made...Advance Passenger Information System-APIS). OMB Number: 1651-0088. Form Number...Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) is an automated method in which...

2010-07-20

482

78 FR 73876 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advance Passenger Information System- APIS). This is a proposed extension of an...Advance Passenger Information System--APIS). OMB Number: 1651-0088. Form Number...Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) is an automated method in which...

2013-12-09

483

75 FR 57283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advance Passenger Information System- APIS). This is a proposed extension of an...Advance Passenger Information System-APIS). OMB Number: 1651-0088. Form Number...Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) is an automated method in which...

2010-09-20

484

14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? 382.133 Section 382...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for...

2014-01-01

485

14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? 382.133 Section 382...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for...

2011-01-01

486

14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? 382.133 Section 382...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for...

2012-01-01

487

14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? 382.133 Section 382...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for...

2010-01-01

488

14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? 382.133 Section 382...passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for...

2013-01-01

489

Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium: shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the defInition of the penetration criteria of the propellant and oxidizer tanks dome surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Poormon, Kevin; Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Greene, Nathanael; Rodriquez, Karen

2010-01-01

490

Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the definition of the penetration criteria of the propellant tanks surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Poormon, Kevin; Greene, Nathanel; Rodriquez, Karen

2010-01-01

491

Use of Solar Electricity in Near-Production Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a research project, supported by the EEC, possible applications of PV power in near production passenger cars were examined. Solar ventilation of parked cars lowers the heat build up in the sun by more than 50%. Solar assisted a.c. systems can be designed for lower power input at improved performance. Supplying the electrical power for the vehicle consumers from

E. Grundmann; A. König

1992-01-01

492

System for identification and control of arrival of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to develop an identification system for moving vehicles using radio frequency, with the aim of recording the times in which buses belonging to the urban transport system of passengers make their pass by a set of checkpoints located over their routes. The identification system was designed and implemented using XBee ® modules, which allows

Camilo Alexey Suarez Buitrago; Jhon Jairo Ramirez Echeverry

2011-01-01

493

Active electromagnetic suspension system for improved vehicle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers motivations for an active suspension system which provides for both additional stability and maneuverability by performing active roll and pitch control during cornering and braking as well as eliminating road irregularities, hence increasing both vehicle and passenger safety and drive comfort. Various technologies are compared to the proposed electromagnetic suspension system which uses a tubular permanent magnet

Bart L. J. Gysen; Johannes J. H. Paulides; Jeroen L. G. Janssen; Elena A. Lomonova

2008-01-01

494

Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and validation of passenger car emission factors, using real world operation data. In total, six passenger cars of different technologies were studied. The tested vehicles were operated under various driving conditions and over two different routes in the region of Lombardia, Italy. These routes were specifically defined in order to provide a range of driving conditions, including urban, rural and highway driving. Tailpipe emissions and exhaust gas flows were measured on-board the vehicle, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). In addition, all vehicles were tested over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) with the same PEMS equipment. The testing of gasoline vehicles showed that emissions are well below the emission standards and do not raise any concern. However, the testing of diesel vehicles both under real-world driving conditions and over the NEDC brought to the surface important concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern diesel vehicles, since they seem to comply with the corresponding emission standard over the type-approval cycle, but they constantly exceed the specified limit when tested under real-world driving conditions. Results from real-world operation revealed that there is a significant deviation from the NOx emission standard limit (especially for the newly introduced Euro 5 technology). These observations raise concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern vehicles and their impact on urban air-quality. The emission factors originally measured on the road are also compared to the corresponding COPERT average speed emission factors. In general, emissions of CO2, THC and CO correlate fairly well with COPERT, for all vehicles. In the case of NOx emissions, emission levels of the two tested Euro 5 diesel passenger cars are consistently higher in urban, rural, and highway driving compared to the corresponding COPERT emission factor. Thus, leading to the conclusion that more experimental data are necessary, especially for post-Euro 4 compliant diesel vehicles of different engine capacities particularly when it comes to NOx emissions from diesel vehicles.

Kousoulidou, Marina; Fontaras, Georgios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Bonnel, Pierre; Samaras, Zissis; Dilara, Panagiota

2013-01-01

495

On the steering of automated vehicles: Theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several facets of the automatic lateral control of individual ground vehicles are considered in detail. First, a path-dependent coordinate system for describing vehicle motion is defined, and the availability of motion quantities for control purposes is specified. Second, the lateral dynamics of a typical U.S. passenger sedan are empirically obtained and validated with data from full-scale studies. Third, various designs,

ROBERT E. FENTON; GRANT C. MELOCIK; KARL W. OLSON

1976-01-01

496

Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2)

B. H. Rowlett; R. Murry

1977-01-01

497

40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas...passenger vehicles. Manufacturers that qualify as a small business according to the requirements of § 86.1801-12(j)...

2010-07-01

498

Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

2014-11-01

499

Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks.  

PubMed

Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H; Ratti, Carlo

2014-09-16

500

Spending time, spending money: passenger segmentation in an international airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes within the air transport sector have required many European airports to either develop or expand their commercial activities. Strategies have included the expansion of retail space, a broadening of the tenant and merchandise mix and the development of a passenger segmentation strategy. This paper explores the efficacy of this approach by identifying the behaviour of different passenger segments while

Paul Freathy; Frank OConnell

2012-01-01