Science.gov

Sample records for vehicle passenger service

  1. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  2. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  3. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality. PMID:26839755

  4. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  5. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  6. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  7. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  8. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  9. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  11. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger...

  12. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  13. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  14. Market penetration of electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Froker, D.

    1983-01-01

    The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for future personal transportation needs is described. The results forecast an approximate total market share of EVs sold in the passenger vehicle market to be 10% for 1990 and 20% for the year 2000. The sensitivity analysis disclosed that the parameters mainly responsible for changes of EV market share were range, purchase price, year purchased, and to some extent, the maximum cruising speed, in order of importance. Surprisingly, fuel prices, whether for electricity or gasoline, did not have much effect on market share even when considering much greater increases than we have seen in the past 10 years. As might be expected with fuel prices having negligible effects, changes in the efficiencies of EVs and ICVs also altered our expected market share very little. (LCL)

  15. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

  16. REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

  17. Toll road crashes of commercial and passenger motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Solomon, Mark G; Preusser, David F

    2002-05-01

    Revenue-collection data from toll roads allow for accurate estimates of miles driven by vehicle type and, when combined with crash data, valid estimates of crash involvements per mile driven. Data on vehicle-miles traveled and collisions were obtained from toll road authorities in Florida. Kansas, and New York. In addition, state crash files and published vehicle-miles of travel were obtained for toll roads in Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Large commercial motor vehicles were significantly underinvolved in single-vehicle crashes on all state toll roads. In five states, commercial motor vehicles were significantly overinvolved in multiple-vehicle crashes relative to passenger vehicles; the exceptions were Kansas, where they had significantly lower multiple-vehicle involvement rates, and Indiana. where there were no significant differences in multiple-vehicle involvements by vehicle type. The risk of commercial motor vehicle involvement in multiple-vehicle crashes resulting in deaths or serious injuries was double that of passenger vehicles in the two states (Ohio and Pennsylvania) that identified serious injuries. Whether crash rates, on toll roads of commercial motor vehicles are higher or lower than those of passenger vehicles appears to depend on the type of crash, specific toll road. and traffic density. PMID:11939358

  18. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... employee and a student. (7) Single-passenger commuter vehicle means a motor-driven vehicle with four...

  20. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  1. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  4. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  5. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  6. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the..., the number required to be inscribed or affixed by paragraph (a) shall be the VIN of the passenger motor vehicle. (2) In place of the VIN, manufacturers who were marking engines and/or transmissions...

  7. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the..., the number required to be inscribed or affixed by paragraph (a) shall be the VIN of the passenger motor vehicle. (2) In place of the VIN, manufacturers who were marking engines and/or transmissions...

  8. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the..., the number required to be inscribed or affixed by paragraph (a) shall be the VIN of the passenger motor vehicle. (2) In place of the VIN, manufacturers who were marking engines and/or transmissions...

  9. Baseline tests of the Zagato Elcar electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Slavick, R. J.; Soltis, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The Elcar vehicle performance test results are presented. The Elcar Model 2000 is a two-passenger vehicle with a reinforced fiberglass body. It is powered by eight 12-volt batteries. The batteries are connected to the motor through an arrangement of contactors operated from a foot pedal in conjunction with a hand-operated switch. These contactors change the voltage applied to the 2-kilowatt motor. Acceleration tests, operating characteristics, and instrumentation are described.

  10. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  11. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  12. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  13. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  14. 49 CFR 583.7 - Procedure for determining major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.7 Section 583.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) Each manufacturer, except as specified in § 583.5(f) and (g), shall determine the countries, if any, which are major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment...

  15. 49 CFR 583.7 - Procedure for determining major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.7 Section 583.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) Each manufacturer, except as specified in § 583.5(f) and (g), shall determine the countries, if any, which are major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment...

  16. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  17. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  18. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  19. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  20. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  1. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  2. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  3. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  5. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  6. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  7. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  8. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  9. Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

    2005-01-01

    Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings. PMID:16435701

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  12. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  14. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the "substructure method" employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  15. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  16. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in a passenger train as required by this section or as... components or equipment in lieu of the requirements of this section. Any alternative interval must be based... implementation and compliance with any alternative interval adopted. FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety...

  17. Child Passengers Injured in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction—During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Method—Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. Results—We found about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal were significantly higher. Practical Applications—The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. PMID:25662876

  18. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  19. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  20. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  1. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  2. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  3. Scarce metals in conventional passenger vehicles and end-of-life vehicle shredder output.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Rolf; Du, Xiaoyue; Haag, Olaf; Restrepo, Eliette; Wäger, Patrick A

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent with the demand for cleaner, lighter, and more efficient vehicles, many scarce metals (SMs) are used in passenger vehicles because of their unique physical and chemical properties. To explore the recycling potential of these metals, it is important to understand their distribution in the vehicles as well as their fate at the vehicles' end-of-life. However, this information remains very scattered and sparse. In this paper, we present a study investigating the distribution of 31 SMs in selected electrical and electronic (EE) components of conventional passenger vehicles and in the end-of-life vehicle shredder fractions from a shredder plant in Switzerland. The results of the chemical analyses show that the mass fractions of Co, Sn, Sr, Ta, Y, and Zr were dominant with >20,000 g/t in the selected EE components and Ag, Ga, Mo, Sb, Sn, Sr, and Zr with >50 g/t in the analyzed shredder fractions. The largest masses of 17 SMs were found in the shredder light fraction, which is incinerated in municipal waste treatment plants mainly in Switzerland; thus, these SMs are currently not recovered. The SM mass fractions in both the EE components and the shredder fractions were projected to their total masses in 100 hypothetical midrange passenger vehicles. The resulting mass balance showed a mismatch of >50% for 23 metals, which indicates other important SM sources such as alloys. PMID:25719501

  4. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Transportation by a motor vehicle licensed as a commercial vehicle, or of commercial type, will be presumed to be... representative. (4) Transportation will not be deemed commercial for the sole reason that the motor vehicle is... legal title, of a motor vehicle by which passengers may be transported, and includes a registered...

  5. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Transportation by a motor vehicle licensed as a commercial vehicle, or of commercial type, will be presumed to be... representative. (4) Transportation will not be deemed commercial for the sole reason that the motor vehicle is... legal title, of a motor vehicle by which passengers may be transported, and includes a registered...

  6. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Transportation by a motor vehicle licensed as a commercial vehicle, or of commercial type, will be presumed to be... representative. (4) Transportation will not be deemed commercial for the sole reason that the motor vehicle is... legal title, of a motor vehicle by which passengers may be transported, and includes a registered...

  7. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  8. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... measuring the performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with... notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 10983) requesting comments on the Proposed Metrics and Standards... Federal Railroad Administration Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under...

  9. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... kg (496 pounds). This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used....

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... kg (496 pounds). This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used....

  11. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  12. Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrea, M.; Kapernaum, M.; Wahl, C.

    2009-04-01

    In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio fuels as alternative fuels for petroleum-based ones has increased constantly in the last years. The advantages of the bio fuels usage is given by their similar proprieties, characteristics of renew ability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on the exhaust emission. The study involved measurements on a roller test facility of a reference passenger car representing new technologies (emission standards, injection system). The vehicle operated by use of reference gasoline and reference gasoline blended (10 and 20%) with bio-ethanol (EtOH). The measurements used different driving cycles: ARTEMIS cycle, real world driving cycle, NEDC cycle, the standard European driving cycle and additionally, a driving cycle consisting in Idle, 30, 50, 90 km/h. The sampling positions were before and after the catalyst and in the exhaust pipe. The detailed speciation of NMVOC' (non methane volatile organic compounds) was completed by use of active carbon tubes, DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) tubes and cold traps. The particles were monitored by use of an on-line EEPS (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer). CO2, NO, NO2 and NOX (NO +NO2) were continuously monitored by use of an on- line FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy)- MEXA system. The investigations reveal that among the carbonylic compounds 15 oxygenated species were found in engine out exhaust and only 3 in tailpipe emissions, namely formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acroleine. These are of great interest due to their impacts on human health. The hydrocarbons emissions decrease by increased of EtOH content. New compounds were observed. The nitro-compounds found in the after engine position by increased EtOH were no more found in the exhaust gas. The results show that total particle concentration, mass and diameter decreased substantially after catalyst and filter by increased ethanol blend.

  13. [An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, M

    1990-08-01

    A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

  14. Specific absorption rate evaluation for passengers using wireless communication devices inside vehicles with different handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sai-Wing; Diao, Yinliang; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Siu, Yun-Ming; Wu, Yongle

    2012-10-01

    Radiation from mobile phones inside vehicles, which are semiopen metallic enclosures with irregular shapes and apertures, has been a major concern and has warranted investigation in past years. In this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in mobile phone users inside a vehicle was evaluated using different scenarios, including handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations. A computer simulation for SAR distributions in a human body was performed based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The SAR values in mobile phone users in free space were also compared to those inside a vehicle; results illustrated that the maximum SAR induced for mobile phone users in a vehicle is 5% higher than those in free space, but the SAR results showed no significant difference for the handedness. By comparing the SAR values between mobile phone users and nonusers inside a vehicle with a passenger count and seating locations, it was observed that the SAR values around the nonusers' body varied much in different situations, and were higher than those in free space, in some circumstances. PMID:22893364

  15. Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

  16. INFLUENCE OF OXYGENATED FUELS ON THE EMISSIONS FROM THREE PRE-1985 LIGHT-DUTY PASSENGER VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tailpipe and evaporative emission from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on a oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. mission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 degrees F ...

  17. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the sensitivity of: (1) mission analysis results to the boundary values given for number of passenger cars and average annual vehicle miles traveled per car; (2) vehicle characteristics and performance to specifications; and (3) tradeoff study results to the expected parameters.

  18. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those component volumes. Therefore, the packaging utilizes rectangular catalyst bricks and integrates flow ducts into the heat exchangers. A concept is presented with a 25 l fuel processor volume including thermal isolation for a 3 kW el auxiliary power unit. The overall size of the system, i.e. including stack, air supply and auxiliaries can be estimated to 44 l.

  19. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the... panel (passenger cars). (15) Right-side assembly (MPVs). (16) Left-side assembly (MPVs). (17) Pickup box...— (A) Cause the label to self-destruct by tearing or rendering the number on the label illegible,...

  20. Commercial launch vehicle services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, K. E.

    1983-09-01

    Plans to discontinue the use of expendable launch vehicles have been reevaluated in view of the growing number of communications satellite payloads. A White House directive of May 16, 1983, makes space hardware, services, and facilities available to private sector users. Whereas the customer must bear all costs, the government will absorb the sunk costs of research and development. The five primary launch vehicles available to commercial users are described. When mated with the payload-assisted module D (PAM-D), the Delta 3920 can carry a 1200 kg payload into transfer orbit at a cost of $18.5 million. Ariane 2/3 can carry a payload weighing as much as 2600 kg, with a launch cost of $25-30 million. The Titan 34D, mated with the IUS, can deliver a payload of about 2500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit. It is noted that a second Atlas class is being developed which will be able to deliver 5200 kg to orbit. Costs for the Space Shuttle will continue to range from $14 million to $20 million until 1988. After that, however, the costs may rise by as much as 70 percent.

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  5. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

  6. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger drivers. PMID:24761827

  7. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants’ Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Diane L.; Boyett, Kimberly S.; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-01-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  8. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-04-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  9. Use of nonlinear asymmetrical shock absorber to improve comfort on passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M.; Pontes, B. R.; Balthazar, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this study the behaviour of two different types of shock absorbers, symmetrical (linear) and asymmetrical (nonlinear) is compared for use on passenger vehicles. The analyses use different standard road inputs and include variation of the severity parameter, the asymmetry ratio and the velocity of the vehicle. Performance indices and acceleration values are used to assess the efficacy of the asymmetrical systems. The comparisons show that the asymmetrical system, with nonlinear characteristics, tends to have a smoother and more progressive performance, both for vertical and angular movements. The half-car front asymmetrical system was introduced, and the simulation results show that the use of the asymmetrical system only at the front of the vehicle can further diminish the angular oscillations. As lower levels of acceleration are essential for improved ride comfort, the use of asymmetrical systems for vibrations and impact absorption can be a more advantageous choice for passenger vehicles.

  10. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  11. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  12. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly to... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly to... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  15. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly to... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly to... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  17. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  18. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  19. Experimental and numerical study on the effect due to passengers on flexural vibrations in railway vehicle carbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Takigami, Tadao

    2015-05-01

    The effects of passengers on vertical flexural vibrations of railway vehicle carbodies have been investigated experimentally and numerically. The primary focus is the damping effect caused by passengers. Vibration measurement tests, including stationary excitation tests and a running test on a commercial line, were conducted on three different types of actual railway vehicles for varying the numbers, postures and distributions of passengers. The measurement results showed that the peak frequencies in the measured FRF (frequency response function) and acceleration PSD (power spectral density) in response to excitation force or acceleration changed only a little; in contrast large reduction of the peak values was observed when passengers were aboard. These results show that passengers behave not as additional mass but as damping elements upon the carbody flexural vibrations. The damping effect by passengers appeared over several flexural modes and was significantly induced even by few passengers. Numerical studies were also carried out to develop analytical models for representing the measured results of the vibrations of carbody with passengers. It was shown that the change of the carbody FRF due to passengers could be simulated well by using a simple one-degree-of-freedom passenger model comprising a mass-spring-dashpot with a large damping ratio.

  20. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  1. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  2. Ride comfort for various passenger positions in a railway vehicle - simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardas-Cinal, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of ride comfort of a railway vehicle based on the results of numerical simulations for a model of a passenger car moving along a tangent track with random geometric irregularities. The lateral and vertical rms accelerations in 1/3 octave frequency bands as well as the weighted rms accelerations are calculated at several positions within the car body for two track sections with different track condition and for various vehicle velocities. The obtained accelerations are compared with the comfort and decreased fatigue boundaries according to the ISO 2631-1 and PN-91/S-04100 standards.

  3. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  4. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    .... Mark Werner, Rail Division, Texas Department of Transportation, 125 E. 11th Street, Austin, TX 78701... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service...

  5. Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F. |; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  16. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  17. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  18. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  19. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  20. 75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Vehicles Used in Interstate Commerce, 66 FR 2767, 2769 (Jan... would support a different view as to the reach of the statute. Background On August 12, 2003 (68 FR... Commercial Motor Vehicle, 64 FR 48510, 48514 (Sept. 3, 1999) (IFR). The Agency stated in that IFR that...

  1. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... for Safety, adopt and comply with alternative periodic mechanical inspection intervals for specific... upon a documented reliability assessment conducted under a system safety plan subject to periodic...

  2. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... for Safety, adopt and comply with alternative periodic mechanical inspection intervals for specific... upon a documented reliability assessment conducted under a system safety plan subject to periodic...

  3. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... for Safety, adopt and comply with alternative periodic mechanical inspection intervals for specific... upon a documented reliability assessment conducted under a system safety plan subject to periodic...

  4. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... the features inspected. (2) A railroad may, upon written notification to FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety, adopt and comply with alternative periodic mechanical inspection intervals for...

  5. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  6. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  7. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to...

  8. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to...

  9. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to...

  10. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to...

  11. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to...

  12. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... also determined that such action shall be in effect for a period of 3 years. Specifically, I...

  13. Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

  14. Kinematics and Shoulder Belt Position of Child Rear Seat Passengers during Vehicle Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2011-01-01

    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the childs lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the childs shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 412, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems. PMID:22105379

  15. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  16. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  17. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  18. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  19. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  20. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  1. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  2. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  3. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. 75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA), as the Federal lead agency, and the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) intend to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to study the implementation of rail passenger service on the 26-mile long Cotton Belt Corridor from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFWIA) in Tarrant County, Texas, through a large portion of northwest Dallas County,......

  5. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  6. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  7. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger....122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any...

  8. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage...

  9. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply. PMID:22074174

  10. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology. While BC emissions were 96% higher for the GDI technology. The GDI technology had a smaller effect on CO2 emissions with a 4% rise compared to the other emissions. Additional results will discuss the emission rates converted to reflect total yearly passenger vehicular emissions in the U.S. Overall, the results show increases of global warming emissions from GDI passenger vehicle technology.

  11. Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

  12. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  13. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  14. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  15. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  16. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  17. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  18. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  19. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  20. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  1. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-07

    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  2. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 51083) that incorporated brake performance and emissions tests into FTA's bus... Weight Per Person (See, ``Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements: Final Rule, 75 FR... Transportation (44 FR 11032). Executive Order 12866 requires agencies to regulate in the ``most...

  3. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

  4. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  5. Ubiquitous Connected Train Based on Train-to-Ground and Intra-Wagon Communications Capable of Providing on Trip Customized Digital Services for Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

  6. Ubiquitous connected train based on train-to-ground and intra-wagon communications capable of providing on trip customized digital services for passengers.

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

  7. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices C and D, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of tradeoff studies are presented in summary form. Various aspects of the overall vehicle design discussed include selection of the base vehicle, the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics. The drivetrain design and integration, power conditioning unit, battery subsystem, control system, environmental system are described. Specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures, and advanced technology components are included.

  8. Influence of fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of in-service passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan

    The composition of exhaust emissions from eight in-service passenger cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and unleaded petrol (ULP) were measured on a chassis dynamometer at two driving speeds (60 and 80 km h -1) with the aims of evaluating their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and investigating the effects of the type of fuel on vehicle performance, ambient air quality and associated health risks. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most prominent PAHs emitted by both ULP and LPG powered cars. The total emission factors of PAHs from LPG cars were generally lower than (but statistically comparable with) those of ULP cars. Similarly, the total BAP eq of the PAHs emitted by LPG cars were lower than those from ULP cars. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods showed that cars powered by LPG fuel performed better than those powered by ULP fuel in term of PAH levels. The implications of these observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using ULP and LPG fuels are discussed.

  9. Diving services and remotely operated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wardwell, E.

    1982-10-01

    This article discusses underwater construction activity, inspection and repair, deepwater technology, and current trends. Reports indicate that exploratory drilling off the coasts of over 60 countries around the world has created a demand for the Atmospheric Diving Systems (ADS) and the wide acceptance of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV's) predicts that diving services will likely grow only moderately through 1984, with major areas of activity in the North Sea, West Africa and Southeast Asia.

  10. Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapou, Ashley E. M.; Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Xiong, Youyou; Meng, Qingyu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2013-11-01

    In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health concern due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n = 3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th percentile. IVAQ during commuting may vary based on human behavior and meteorological factors. Additional studies are needed to further characterize ways to help reduce in-vehicle aldehyde exposures, especially for people with existing chronic respiratory illnesses who could experience symptom exacerbations upon such exposures.

  11. A risky treat: exploring parental perceptions of the barriers to seating their children in the rear seats of passenger vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Alexia

    2007-01-01

    Background Sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle rather than in the front seat reduces children's risk of injury or death by ⩾35% in the event of a crash. As road trauma is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality in highly motorised nations, even in countries where restraint use is high, encouraging parents to place children in the rear seats of vehicles offers a low-cost avenue to improving children's overall health. However, little is known about the factors that affect parents' decisions about seating positions. Objective To explore parental perceptions of barriers to placing their children in the rear seat of passenger vehicles whenever possible. Design and subjects Focus group discussions were held with urban parent-drivers to elicit their concerns about children's car safety and barriers to rear-seat use. Results Most parents had a rule that children should sit in the rear seat. Parents said that they relaxed these rules for a variety of reasons including social pressure, perceptions of the trip as short and because children regard sitting in the front seat as a treat. Parenting style, child cooperativeness, social pressure and inability to justify the risk of injury were identified as barriers to rear-seat travel. Conclusions Effective interventions to increase the proportion of children travelling in the rear seat should address parents' experiences of pressure to relax seating rules and risk perception, as well as provide strategies that support sound parental safety decisions. PMID:17446250

  12. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  13. The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

  14. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  15. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  16. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  17. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  18. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when emissions decreased by about 30%. The more limited data available for urban buses shows that there has been little change in NO x emissions from Euro I to Euro IV. There is general much better consistency across the different estimates of heavy duty vehicle NO x emissions than for light duty vehicles.

  19. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  20. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public... THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles. A... vehicle....

  1. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public... THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles. A... vehicle....

  2. 15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited servicing of vehicles. 265... § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make nonemergency repairs on privately owned vehicles on the site....

  3. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  4. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a disability based on safety concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and...

  5. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a disability based on safety concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and...

  6. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  7. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability. PMID:25880018

  8. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles. A person may not wash, polish, change...

  9. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  10. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  11. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  12. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  13. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-09-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  14. A Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Crew and Vehicle Rescheduling of Railway Passenger Transportation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tomiyama, Tomoe; Morita, Toyohisa; Murata, Tomohiro

    We propose a method for solving the crew rescheduling problem (CRP) and the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRP) based on the Lagrangian relaxation method. The CRP/VRP is formulated as an integer programming problem on the basis of a network flow modeling approach from which a Lagrangian relaxation problem is constructed by relaxing the constraint that links multiple resources. Using two procedures that generate the upper and lower bounds of the primal problem, both of which utilize an efficient shortest path algorithm for the directed acyclic graph (DAG), the proposed method gradually improves the gap between the upper and lower bounds while updating Lagrangian multipliers. Experimental results of real-world vehicle rescheduling data from Japanese railway lines indicated that the proposed method generated feasible solutions that were confirmed to be fairly close to the optimal solutions according to the gap between the upper and lower bounds, and also clarified the quality of the other method's solution by using the gap, which could lead to streamlining and sophisticating real-world rescheduling related activities.

  15. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  16. Risk and Injury Severity of Obese Child Passengers in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Hsieh, Min-Heng; Shum, Phillip C.; Tubbs, R. Shane; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk and injury severity on the regional body (head, neck, and chest) of obese children in frontal motor vehicle crashes. Design and Methods No physical surrogates (i.e., crash dummies) for obese children are available and experiments on pediatric cadavers are generally not feasible. Therefore, we developed computational models of obese children using medical imaging processing and state-of-the-art modeling techniques. A hybrid modeling technique was used to integrate finite element model for torso fat layer into the standard multibody model to represent various levels of obese children for 3- and 6-year-old age group. The models were used to investigate injury severity under various crash scenarios through model simulations. Results The head injury criterion and chest acceleration were observed to increase as body mass index (BMI) increased. Meanwhile, no such correlations were found between BMI and neck injury and chest deformation. Forward head and torso excursions were observed to increase as obesity increased, owing to the momentum effect of greater body mass. Conclusions Obese children appear to have greater risks of the head and chest injuries than do their non-obese counterparts in frontal motor vehicle crashes, owing to higher head and chest accelerations induced by greater body excursion. PMID:25645729

  17. Child Passengers Killed in Reckless and Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction About 20 years ago, concern was raised about the dangers children face when driven by drinking drivers in the United States. During the last decade, the pace of research on this topic subsided. Yet in 2010, every day three children younger than age 15 were killed, and 469 were injured in motor-vehicle crashes. Method The aim of this effort is to describe the status of the problem in the United States and suggest lines of research. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we selected crashes in which a driver aged 21 or older was driving at least one child younger than age 15. We identified crashes that occurred at different times of the day in which the driver was speeding, ran a red light, or was alcohol positive. We described the drivers’ demographics and examined how they relate to the different crash types. Results We found that, although driving a child seems to protect against the studied forms of risky driving, such protection varies sharply depending upon the drivers’ and children’s demographics and the crash type. There is no clear reason to explain the drivers’ decision to endanger the children they drive. The percent of children killed in speeding-related and red-light running motor-vehicle crashes has remained relatively stable during the last decade. Future research must (a) examine the effectiveness of current child endangerment laws; (b) examine crashes other than fatal; and (c) be more targeted, looking at specific drivers’ age and gender, specific children’s ages, the time of the crash, and the type of crash. PMID:24529098

  18. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  19. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

  20. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  1. Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

  2. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  3. 75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a working condition fringe... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH65 Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles as defined in section 274(i). Qualified...

  4. 41 CFR 109-26.501-50 - Authority and allocations for the acquisition of passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle fleet or replacement vehicles. A copy of the motor vehicle portion of the submission... vehicle fleet manager shall provide written certification to the OPMO that disposition action has been... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority...

  5. 41 CFR 109-26.501-50 - Authority and allocations for the acquisition of passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the motor vehicle fleet or replacement vehicles. A copy of the motor vehicle portion of the submission... vehicle fleet manager shall provide written certification to the OPMO that disposition action has been... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority...

  6. 41 CFR 109-26.501-50 - Authority and allocations for the acquisition of passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle fleet or replacement vehicles. A copy of the motor vehicle portion of the submission... vehicle fleet manager shall provide written certification to the OPMO that disposition action has been... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority...

  7. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assistance. (f) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments and/or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the carrier provides...

  8. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  9. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... using the animal. (e) If a passenger seeks to travel with an animal that is used as an emotional support... specifically treating the passenger's mental or emotional disability) stating the following: (1) The passenger has a mental or emotional disability recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of...

  10. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... using the animal. (e) If a passenger seeks to travel with an animal that is used as an emotional support... specifically treating the passenger's mental or emotional disability) stating the following: (1) The passenger has a mental or emotional disability recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of...

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  12. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  13. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  14. Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Saxer, Christian J.; Wilhelm, Patrick

    The US urban driving cycle (FTP-75) is widely used to estimate both the emissions under hot engine conditions as well as those associated with the cold start. Applying fast analysis techniques such as chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS) the warm-up behavior of individual vehicles can be monitored at a time resolution of 1 s. CI-MS has been used to investigate the emissions of methane, benzene and the alkyl benzene class of compounds. The amount of the emissions at cold start influence was deduced from the time-resolved emission data of four gasoline-driven vehicle classes representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades. Overall, the emissions of five EURO-0, 20 EURO-1, 18 EURO-2 and so far of six EURO-3 passenger cars were recorded. The test vehicles were selected from the currently operating Swiss car fleet based on the car sales statistics. The average methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions are reported using both, the traditional bag method as well as the regression model. At room temperature a clear reduction of 94%, 81% and 85% was found for the methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions from EURO-0 to EURO-3 technology, respectively.

  15. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 μg/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 μg/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (∑ B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 μg/m3and 37.652 μg/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  16. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  17. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty training is widely available and can be relatively quickly achieved. Equipment availability (vehicles, specialized tools, diagnostic software and computers) is a bigger challenge for funding-constrained colleges. • A computer-based emulation system that would replicate vehicle and diagnostic software in one package is a training aid that would have widespread benefit, but does not appear to exist. This need is further described at the end of Section 6.5. The benefits of this project are unique to each of the three target audiences. Students have learned skills they will use for the remainder of their careers; independent technicians can now accept customers who they previously needed to turn away due to lack of familiarity with hybrid systems; and fleet maintenance personnel are able to lower costs by undertaking work in-house that they previously needed to outsource. The direct job impact is estimated at 0.75 FTE continuously over the 3 ½ -year duration of the grant.

  18. Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallkamp, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

  19. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  20. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  1. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  2. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  3. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  4. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  5. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  6. Fatal passenger vehicle crashes 1999 to 2004 with drivers under age 15: the impact in Texas and other southern and southwestern states.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Larry

    2007-03-01

    Texas has more fatal crashes involving unlicensed drivers under age 15 than does any other US state. Numbers and rates of such crashes are also above the national mean in many southern and Southwest states. Data on fatal passenger vehicle crashes from 1999 through 2004 were obtained from the online Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). During the study period, there were 51 fatal passenger vehicle crashes in Texas in which drivers were under age 15. These crashes accounted for 12.3% of the US total. Nine southern states, including Texas, together accounted for 44% of all fatal crashes involving drivers under 15. Unlicensed crash rates per million inhabitants were higher in Texas than in other states with comparable populations but were much lower than those in other southern, southwest, and north central states. While Texas has recently improved its compliance with proposed graduated licensing models, state law explicitly prohibits police from stopping drivers based solely on age-related probable cause. This restriction may be a major barrier to effective detection and interdiction of under-age unlicensed driving. Because of the relatively high number of fatal crashes involving drivers under age 15 occurring in Texas, preventive efforts targeted to this state could modestly reduce the national burden of deaths due to very young unlicensed drivers. Expanding these efforts to other southern and southwest states could further reduce numbers and rates of such crashes. Expanded use of graduated licensing and increased public awareness are likely to prove effective tools in this public health effort. PMID:17396742

  7. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  8. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Michael; Owens, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  9. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  10. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.577 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware...

  11. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by...

  12. Pre- and post-catalyst-, fuel-, velocity- and acceleration-dependent benzene emission data of gasoline-driven EURO-2 passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Weilenmann, Martin

    The benzene emission characteristics of six gasoline-driven EURO-2 vehicles, three passenger cars and three light duty vehicles, have been determined by time-resolved chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Aliquots of the exhaust gas were monitored pre- and post-catalyst with two independently operating mass spectrometers. Each vehicle was driven with two different fuels having benzene contents of 1 and 2 vol%. Seven driving cyclesincluding the European (EDC) and the US (FTP-75) driving cyclewith a total driving time of about 8800 s were studied. Herein, we discuss the average emission characteristics of the entire fleet at transient driving in the velocity range of 0-150 km h -1. The conversion efficiencies of the involved catalytic systems were deduced from the pre- and post-catalyst data. On average, the vehicles showed optimal benzene conversion efficiencies (>95%) in the velocity range of 30-90 km h -1. When driving below 20 or above 100 km h -1 reduced benzene conversion was found (80-82%). No benzene conversion was observed when driving above 130 km h -1. In contrast, the post-catalyst benzene emissions exceeded those of the untreated exhaust gas by 19-49%. Thus on an average, benzene was formed across the catalysts under these conditions. In addition, the influence of the benzene content of the gasoline on the tail-pipe emissions was also studied. The use of the gasoline with 1 vol% benzene instead of 2 vol% induced a 20-30% reduction of the post-catalyst emissions when driving below 50 km h -1. The fuel effect became smaller above 100 km h -1 and was even negative at high engine load (>130 km h -1). Thus under these conditions, when benzene is formed across the catalyst, the amount of the emitted benzene was independent of the benzene level of the fuel.

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... taxis) in the performance of this contract will be exempt from customs duty and value added tax...) Vehicles (except taxis) with a seating capacity of less than 29, one gallon for every 27 miles....

  14. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real-world driving. The program test results provide information on the veracity of these claims.

  15. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

  16. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

  17. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 13580). Furthermore, due to the complexity of the issues proposed in the NPRM, FTA is..., FTA published an NPRM in the Federal Register (76 FR 13850) proposing to amend its bus testing... Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  18. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National... is rules that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough...

  19. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  20. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  1. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  2. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  3. Particle number emission factors and volatile fraction of particles emitted from on-road gasoline direct injection passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momenimovahed, A.; Handford, D.; Checkel, M. D.; Olfert, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Particle number emission factors, and the volatility of the particles, are measured on-road for five gasoline direct injection vehicles over a wide range of operating conditions including urban and highway driving conditions. Two condensation particle counters (CPC) were used to measure nascent and non-volatile (thermodenuded) particle concentrations for transient urban and highway tests. To measure the non-volatile concentration and also the volatility of the particles, a thermodenuder was employed to remove the semi-volatile material from the aerosol sample. Rapid accelerations were also studied in more detail by measuring the particle size distributions in real-time using a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). The ratio of semi-volatile particles to total particle number is generally higher during acceleration followed by the idle operating mode. The number emission factors (for particles larger than 2.5 nm) ranged between 5.46 1011-3.50 1012/km for freshly emitted (nascent) particles and between 2.87 1011-3.31 1012/km for non-volatile (thermodenuded) particles. More particles per kilometer are produced during acceleration compared to cruise conditions where the non-volatile particle number emission factor for acceleration is 2.3 and 1.8 times higher than vehicle cruise for urban and highway driving cycles, respectively. Particle number emission factor models are also presented in terms of particle emission rate as a function of vehicle tractive power and also as a function of vehicle specific power as defined for the US Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model.

  4. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Apurba; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery and pack designs for electric vehicle applications. We develop models of power capability and manufacturing operations to identify the minimum cost cell and pack designs for a variety of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) requirements. We find that economies of scale in battery manufacturing are reached quickly at a production volume of ∼200-300 MWh annually. Increased volume does little to reduce unit costs, except potentially indirectly through factors such as experience, learning, and innovation. We also find that vehicle applications with larger energy requirements are able to utilize cheaper cells due in part to the use of thicker electrodes. The effect on cost can be substantial. In our base case, we estimate pack-level battery production costs of ∼545 kWh-1 for a PHEV with a 10 mile (16 km) all-electric range (PHEV10) and ∼230 kWh-1 for a BEV with a 200 mile (320 km) all-electric range (BEV200). This 58% reduction, from 545 kWh-1 to 230 kWh-1, is a larger effect than the uncertainty represented by our optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Electrodes thicker than about 100 or 125 microns are not currently used in practice due to manufacturing and durability concerns, but relaxing this constraint could further lower the cost of larger capacity BEV200 packs by up to an additional 8%.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), formaldehyde (HCHO) and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), formaldehyde (HCHO) and...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be greater than 1... electric vehicles) as described in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart F, except that these procedures do not apply...) Manufacturers must measure NMOG emissions using the procedures described in 40 CFR 1066.635. (2)...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), formaldehyde (HCHO) and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), formaldehyde (HCHO) and...

  10. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A...

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A...

  12. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 393.86 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. (2) The description on the shipping paper... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical... vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers. (a) Oilfield service vehicles. Notwithstanding §...

  13. Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

  14. Manipulator design and development for the Ranger satellite servicing vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.; Akin, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The Ranger program is a planned series of low cost telerobotics flight experiments, based on the use of Pegasus launch vehicles. As the first step towards this goal, the Space Systems Lab was developing a neutral buoyancy version of Ranger for use in design verification and operations testing. The design approach and results of the Ranger manipulator development program is related. Ranger is designed to incorporate four appendages: a pair of dexterous, seven degree of freedom manipulators for general manipulation; a six DOF grappling arm for securing the vehicle to the local work site; and a five DOF positioning manipulator for the stereo camera pair that provide feedback to the remote operator. Each of these manipulators incorporate unique approaches to satisfying design requirements. The numerical and operational requirements are given for Ranger manipulators, and the evolution is discussed of the differing design approaches based on similarities and differences in the requirements. Testing results for individual joints and manipulator assemblies are presented, followed by initial results of operational testing on satellite servicing tasks with the integrated Ranger neutral buoyancy vehicle.

  15. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS..., beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger seat. (b) No... and seat back tray table is secured in its stowed position. (c) No certificate holder may permit...

  16. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS..., beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger seat. (b) No... and seat back tray table is secured in its stowed position. (c) No certificate holder may permit...

  17. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS..., beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger seat. (b) No... and seat back tray table is secured in its stowed position. (c) No certificate holder may permit...

  18. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS..., beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger seat. (b) No... and seat back tray table is secured in its stowed position. (c) No certificate holder may permit...

  19. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After... commuter, intercity, or high-speed rail system must ensure, at stations that are approved for entry...

  20. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After... commuter, intercity, or high-speed rail system must ensure, at stations that are approved for entry...

  1. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  2. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration and frequency of this task, the incremental contribution of this task to mechanics' 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures was 0.0016 flcc. Using the range of data inputs that were obtained, the authors calculated a range of TWA exposures of 3.75 x 10(-5) flcc to 0.03 flcc. The mean value of 0.0016 flcc is below background levels of asbestos that have been reported in garages during this time and below the current OSHA PEL of 0.1 flcc. PMID:18188736

  3. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  4. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  5. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  6. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

  7. A temporal assessment of vehicle use patterns and their impact on the provision of vehicle-to-grid services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chioke B.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    With the emerging nationwide availability of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) at prices attainable for many consumers, electric utilities, system operators and researchers have been investigating the impact of this new source of energy demand. The presence of BEVs on the electric grid might offer benefits equivalent to dedicated utility-scale energy storage systems by leveraging vehicles’ grid-connected energy storage through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled infrastructure. It is, however, unclear whether BEVs will be available to provide needed grid services when those services are in highest demand. In this work, a set of GPS vehicle travel data from the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) is analyzed to assess temporal patterns in vehicle use. These results show that vehicle use does not vary significantly across months, but differs noticeably between weekdays and weekends, such that averaging the data together could lead to erroneous V2G modeling results. Combination of these trends with wind generation and electricity demand data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) indicates that BEV availability does not align well with electricity demand and wind generation during the summer months, limiting the quantity of ancillary services that could be provided with V2G. Vehicle availability aligns best between the hours of 9 pm and 8 am during cooler months of the year, when electricity demand is bimodal and brackets the hours of highest vehicle use.

  8. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae. PMID:26856055

  9. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and 41... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY...

  10. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management...

  11. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  12. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  14. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition...

  15. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition...

  16. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition...

  17. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  18. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  19. An investigation of service and refueling infrastructure for energy storage vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The service infrastructure for energy storage vehicles (ESV's) is examined to determine barriers to the introduction of ESV's into the private transportation sector. Electrically rechargeable battery powered vehicles, aluminum/air fuel cell vehicles, and hydrogen powered vehicles are considered. Implications of infrastructure for hybrid vehicles are also discussed. Service delivery systems and refueling methods are identified. Refueling methods for electrically rechargeable vehicles, which are investigated, include overnight home recharging, recharging at parking facilities of businesses, employers and institutions (distributed refueling) and battern exchange systems. The potential for each method is examined and the relative cost of various alternatives is investigated. The production, distribution and supply of aluminum fuel and of hydrogen are considered. Retrofitting possibilities of existing service facilities are examined for each ESV type. Design implications for retrofitting and new facility construction are discussed.

  20. Assessment of flywheel system benefits in selected vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, L.

    1982-12-01

    Flywheel-equipped vehicles were compared with their non-flywheel counterparts (baseline systems) on the basis of energy utilization. To accomplish this, a computer-based vehicle simulation program was developed. This program determines the propulsion power required to negotiate each element of the driving cycle, and apportions this power between prime mover and storage device according to one or more selected operating strategies. The state of flywheel (and/or battery) charge is continuously tracked, along with the consumption of fuel or dissipation of battery energy. Energy flows associated with all major component processes are accounted for. Results are given for a four-passenger commuter vehicle with electric drive (range extension application of the flywheel system) and a six-passenger family car with conventional heat engine drive (fuel conservation application of the flywheel system). The six-passenger vehicle was also examined with respect to its use in urban taxi service.

  1. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  2. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  3. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  4. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  5. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  6. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicles development program. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Applicable data was categorized and processed according to vehicle usage and trip parameters with consideration of payload (cargo, people, size) and driving cycles. A mission that maximizes the fuel potential savings for the total 1985 vehicle fleet was selected. Mission requirements that have a bearing on conventional and hybrid vehicle performance and characteristics were identified and formulated and a reference ICE vehicle was selected that meets or exceeds all requirements while maintaining within applicable constraints. Specifications for vehicle performance were established based on mission requirements, mission related vehicle characteristics, and fuel consumption.

  7. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  8. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal...

  9. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal...

  10. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal...

  11. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal...

  12. Operations analysis (study 2.6). Volume 4: Computer specification; logistics of orbiting vehicle servicing (LOVES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The logistics of orbital vehicle servicing computer specifications was developed and a number of alternatives to improve utilization of the space shuttle and the tug were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that space servicing offers a potential for reducing future operational and program costs over ground refurbishment of satellites. A computer code which could be developed to simulate space servicing is presented.

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  14. Measurement and Assessment of Noise Within Passenger Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HARDY, A. E. J.

    2000-03-01

    Railways are becoming increasingly market-driven. Consequently, it is important that passengers are provided with a comfortable environment that reflects the operator's desired image for the service. A major factor in determining how passengers perceive the environment within trains is the level and nature of sound to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, the subject of noise within railway vehicles has had less attention in recent years, and is therefore less well developed, than external “environmental” noise. Two specific areas that merit investigation are methods for its quantification and assessment. A variety of criteria are used for assessing the noise environment within buildings, and may be considered appropriate for the quantification of internal train noise. These include “noise criteria” (NC), “preferred noise criteria” (PNC), “noise rating” (NR), and “room criterion” (RC). Recently, the automotive industry has also been using loudness level. Simple descriptors, such as the A-weighted sound level, have not been found to correlate well with perceived acoustic comfort. A complicating factor when considering internal rail vehicle noise is that its level and quality is not constant, with significant variability likely to occur over the duration of a journey. This difficulty is compounded by acoustic spatial variation within a vehicle. The paper considers the problems inherent in the quantification of noise within rail vehicles, and in the determination of the relationship between this noise and passenger response. Methods by which these problems may be overcome are discussed, drawing on real data and on long experience of study in this field.

  15. Recreation Vehicle Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4507.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The graduate of the Recreational Vehicle Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) know the standards and regulations that relate to recreation vehicles; (2) install, repair and maintain LP gas distribution systems and appliances; (3) install, repair and maintain plumbing and electrical…

  16. Differential Risk of Injury in Child Occupants by Passenger Car Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kallan, Michael J.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.; Menon, Rajiv A.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  17. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  18. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  19. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further. PMID:19320180

  20. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1066, as follows: (i) Establish appropriate load settings based on loaded vehicle..., the US06 driving schedule, and the SC03 driving schedule. See 40 CFR 1066.801 for further information... substitute for the SC03 value in the equation for the types of vehicles identified in 40 CFR 600.115...

  1. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A...

  2. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  3. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration. 908.7101-2 Section 908.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special...

  4. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  5. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  6. Parallel development of ceramic based heat engines: analysis of the expected fuel savings associated with pursuing both the AGT and the uncooled diesel for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Moteff, J.D.; Wynblatt, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some within the materials and the heat engine communities feel that the barriers confronting the development of a ceramic based uncooled diesel are not as problematic as those barriers facing the development of the ceramic based advanced gas turbine (AGT). Given this scenario, the study examined whether pursuing a light-duty uncooled diesel (i.e., an uncooled diesel for passenger cars), in parallel with the AGT would increase the expected fuel savings from a given investment. The study indicates that although a light-duty uncooled diesel is perceived as having a better chance of being developed within a given time frame and budget, developing it in parallel with the AGT would not improve expected fuel savings. The cost penalty associated with diesel particulate traps would limit its commercialization. 9 references, 12 figures.

  7. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station... Shuttle services, certain ELV launches, and Space Station activities, NASA and other signatories...

  8. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV launches, and Space...

  9. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  10. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development. PMID:25683551

  11. Analysis of the economic and environmental effects of compressed natural gas as a vehicle fuel. Volume 1. Passenger cars and light trucks. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    In July 1989 the President submitted to Congress his Administration's proposals for revising the Clean Air Act. One major component of his plan is the Clean Alternative Fuels Program. The program would replace a portion of the motor vehicle fleet in certain cities with new vehicles that meet stringent air emission limits operating on clean burning fuels such as methanol, ethanol, Compressed natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, electricity, and reformulate gasoline. The report, released by EPA, is the second in a series of reports that will discuss the economic and environmental issues associated with each of these fuels.

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  13. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY...

  14. National Child Passenger Safety Week--February 8-14, 1998.

    PubMed

    1998-01-30

    February 8-14 is National Child Passenger Safety Week. During 1996, a total of 1701 children aged <15 years died as passengers in motor-vehicle crashes in the United States (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). This week focuses on efforts to improve the safety of children riding in motor vehicles. Several specific actions should be taken to help reduce injuries and death among child passengers. PMID:9461048

  15. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  16. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  17. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  18. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  19. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  20. A study of commercial vehicle safety alliance's out-of-service criteria.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, S U; Miller, S G; Bell, C A; Montagne, P E

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a two-phase project that reviewed the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance's out-of-service criteria for vehicles. The first phase examined relevant background information and conducted a questionnaire survey of CVSA inspectors and industry representatives. The second phase of the project involved extensive collection and evaluation of accident data. The results of both phases show a high level of support, in terms of contribution to vehicle accidents, for four of the vehicle criteria (regarding brakes, load securement, tires, and wheels and rims). There was some support for coupling devices, fuel systems, lighting devices, steering and suspension. The support for the remaining vehicle criteria (exhaust systems, frames, van and open top trailer bodies, and windshield wipers) was little to none. Further research continuing the study of accident data is recommended to confirm these findings. However, the data must be collected in a consistent and detailed manner if accurate information on the relationship of accidents and vehicle criteria is to be established. PMID:9542545

  1. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  2. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration. (a) New vehicles shall be procured in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.304, 101-26.501, and 101-38.13, and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.304, 109-38.13, and 109-38.51. (b) Orders for all... accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.501. Requisitions for sedans, station wagons, and certain light trucks...

  3. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services Administration. (a) New vehicles shall be procured in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.304, 101-26.501, and 101-38.13, and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-25.304, 109-38.13, and 109-38.51. (b) Orders for all... accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.501. Requisitions for sedans, station wagons, and certain light trucks...

  4. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  5. Collisions with passenger cars and moose, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Björnstig, U; Eriksson, A; Thorson, J; Bylund, P O

    1986-01-01

    The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants. PMID:3953927

  6. 77 FR 11995 - Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Non-Performance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... 46 CFR Parts 501 and 540 RIN 3072-AC45 Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility... responsibility requirements for nonperformance of passenger vessel service by passenger vessel operators that are... Register on September 20, 2011. 76 FR 58227-58236. In the NPRM, the Commission relied upon the...

  7. Real-time measurements of SO2, H2CO, and CH4 emissions from in-use curbside passenger buses in New York City using a chase vehicle.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Wormhoudt, Joda; Nelson, David D; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

    2005-10-15

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory "chased" in-use curbside passenger buses operated by various operators in New York City. With the cooperation of New York State's Metropolitan Transit Authority, the relationships between the emissions of the several gas-phase species and particulate loadings were investigated across several bus technologies, bus types, and fuels (diesel, ultralow sulfur diesel, and compressed natural gas, CNG). The CNG buses followed did not employ an oxidation catalyst. The buses characterized were not prescreened in any fashion and were measured while deployed on their normal in-service routes. This paper focuses on the fuel-based mass emissions of SO2, H2CO, and CH4, measured using tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide emissions from buses known to be burning ultralow sulfur diesel (<30 ppm(m) S) were 16 times lower than those from buses burning normal commercial diesel fuel, nominally less than 300 ppm(m) sulfur. Emissions of formaldehyde and methane from in-use CNG buses were approximately 15 times greater than those from diesel powered buses. PMID:16295865

  8. Passenger car hydrocarbon emissions speciation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Black, F.; High, L.

    1980-05-01

    Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe emissions were for the urban driving conditions of the Federal Test Procedure used in motor vehicle certification. The evaporative emissions were for both diurnal and hot soak conditions, also prescribed in the Federal Test Procedure for certification. The vehicle tests involved four gasoline fuels of varying composition.

  9. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  10. Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

  11. Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: an experimental investigation using high definition film.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour. PMID:23746746

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  17. Considerations for Passenger Transport by Advanced Spaceplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott-Scott, J. L.; Harrison, M.; Woodrow, A. D.

    One of the strongest incentives to space industry development in the 21st century is likely to be space tourism. At present the greatest handicaps to the exploitation of this opportunity are the prohibitive cost of access to space (few tourists could afford the ticket) and safety (astronautics remains an inherently dangerous occupation). This paper addresses both of these issues. First, the characteristics required of a vehicle suitable for carrying passengers into space are discussed in the context of the SKYLON spaceplane concept. Attention is focused on the design of the cabin module. Then the needs of the passengers are considered both from the perspectives of safety (the unique environmental hazards), health, and comfort. The paper concludes with a review of the key issues.

  18. Optimization of maneuvers and resources for the rendezvous of a servicing vehicle to a space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, Jacques; Canu, Richard; Joulot, Antoine

    Addressing the generation of flight scenarios for the rendezvous of a servicing vehicle to a space station, solutions in terms of sequences of maneuvers shall be found that meet a generally complex set of mission constraints while optimizing the needed resources. For the optimization of maneuvers and resources during rendezvous, this paper describes a methodology based on the parametric optimization of a sequence of genetic non-impulsional thrust maneuvers which are defined by the user from a standard catalog, allowing to cope with both translations and rotations. The method uses a reduced gradient algorithm to find an optimal trajectory that meet every mission constraint. Most attention has been paid to the standard of realism in the modeling of the chaser and target dynamics, and in the formalization of the constraints on the approach trajectories; these last ones are defined as the terminal position, the attitude and kinematic capture conditions for berthing or docking, the maximal duration allocated to the approach, path constraints, the propulsive capacities of the chaser and a `safety' constraint, which in other words means that any failure on the chaser during the approach shall result in collision avoiding trajectories or in a mechanical contract to the station within safe limits. The criterion for scenarios optimization can be minimization of propellant consumption or phase duration, or a weighed combination of both. For illustration purpose, example results are given for the final approach of a servicing vehicle to an Earth-pointed space station.

  19. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  20. Preliminary survey report: evaluation of brake-drum service controls at Pennsylvania Bureau of Vehicle Management, Vehicle Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wagenen, H.D.

    1987-03-01

    Exposure to asbestos during the servicing of brakes on state-owned vehicles at the Bureau of Vehicle Management Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was investigated as part of a study of control technologies. Brakes had been serviced at this garage facility for the previous year using a BCE-1000 Clayton brake-cleaning unit, sized for cars, vans, and pickups. The brake-cleaning unit consisted of a transparent enclosure hood and a HEPA vacuum filter dust collector, designed to contain and collect all brake-lining dust during vehicular brake maintenance and replacement. The authors conclude that the Clayton BCE-1000 dust-control unit appeared to be effective in containing and collecting brake dust during all vehicular brake maintenance and replacement jobs in this situation.

  1. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  2. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  3. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  4. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  5. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  6. Real-Time Monitoring System Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey, M.; Shibasaki, R.

    2011-09-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service) makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Sensor Service Grid (SSG) to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  7. SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Clemens; Sjöberg, Fredrik; Delcura, Juan Manuel; Eilertsen, Baard

    2008-07-01

    Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several space agencies during the development phase. The business plan is based on life extension for high value commercial satellites while also providing the satellite operators with various fleet management services such as graveyard burns, slot transfers and on orbit protection against replacement satellite or launch failures. The OLEV spacecraft will be able to dock with a geostationary satellite and uses an electrical propulsion system to extend its life by taking over the attitude control and station keeping functions. The OLEV system is building on the SMART-1 platform developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for ESA as a technology test-bed to demonstrate the use of electrical propulsion for interplanetary orbit transfer manoeuvres. The concept is called SMART-OLEV and takes advantage of the low cost, low mass SMART-1 platform by a maximum use of recurrent platform technology.

  8. Orion Crew Module / Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Peter A.; Haddock, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    An Orion Crew Module Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and a Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing were designed during a summer 2014 internship in Kennedy Space Centers Structures and Mechanisms Design Branch. The simulator is a structure that supports ballast, which will be integrated into an existing Orion mock-up to simulate the mass properties of the Exploration Mission-1 flight vehicle in both fueled and unfueled states. The simulator mimics these configurations through the use of approximately 40,000 lbf of steel and water ballast, and a steel support structure. Draining four water tanks, which house the water ballast, transitions the simulator from the fueled to unfueled mass properties. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the simulator to verify and validate equipment used to maneuver and transport the Orion spacecraft in its fueled and unfueled configurations. The second design comprises a cantilevered tripod hoist structure that provides the capability to position a large Orion Service Module Umbilical in proximity to the Vehicle Motion Simulator. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the Vehicle Motion Simulator, with the hoist structure attached, to test the Orion Service Module Umbilical for proper operation prior to installation on the Mobile Launcher. Overall, these two designs provide NASA engineers viable concepts worthy of fabricating and placing into service to prepare for the launch of Orion in 2017.

  9. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  10. Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

  11. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  12. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. Field Operations Program - US Postal Service Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward

    2002-01-01

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valey Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on "park and loop" mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

  14. Field Operations Program - U.S. Postal Service - Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    2002-01-21

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ''park and loop'' mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

  15. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....337-10(c) of this subchapter and 49 CFR 393.86 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. (2... vehicle must maintain hydrostatic test records in accordance with § 180.417(b) and must make those records...) Periodic test and inspection. (i) Each meter prover must be externally visually inspected once a year....

  16. 75 FR 34524 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... BMW M3 Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006. Notice of Petition Published at: 74 FR... Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicle. Notice of Petition Published at: 75 FR 19461 (April 14, 2010). Vehicle... Porsche 911 Series Passenger Cars. Notice of Petition Published at: 75 FR 14484 (March 25, 2010)....

  17. Vehicle Monitor System for Public Transport Management Based on Embedded Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guilin; Zhang, Deying; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Shaohua

    In this paper, a solution of monitor system of Public Transport operation vehicles is presented for realizing intelligent management of public transport. The system adopts ARM and embedded Linux operation system as the development platform, and integrates GPS (Global Position System) technology, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) technology and embedded technology and so on. The paper mainly completed the design of hardware circuit and transplantation of embedded Linux operating system on S3C2410 chip. The system realized location tracking, communication scheduling, stops broadcasting, video monitoring, and intelligent passenger counting of public transport vehicles. The result of experiment showed that the system could improve the operation efficiency of public transport vehicles.

  18. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  19. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. 1828.371 Section 1828.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL...

  20. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  1. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  2. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  3. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized externalities to evaluate the societal costs of passenger transportation in each region. Results are validated against existing studies. The dominating contribution of automobile end-use energy consumption and emissions is discussed and strategies for improving regional performance given private travel's disproportionate share are identified.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  5. 49 CFR 39.45 - May PVOs impose other restrictions on passengers with a disability that they do not impose on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.45 May PVOs impose other restrictions on passengers... passengers, to use a wheelchair or other mobility device in order to receive assistance required by this...

  6. 43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operating a vehicle on the public lands, no person shall exceed posted speed limits, willfully endanger... vehicle is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle in motion, unless the operator and each front seat... by the vehicle operator and any front seat passenger. It also applies on public lands, or...

  7. Natural Environmental Service Support to NASA Vehicle, Technology, and Sensor Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  8. The role of the payment vehicle in non-market valuations of a health care service: willingness-to-pay for an ambulance helicopter service.

    PubMed

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the role of the payment vehicle when conducting non-market valuations of health care services using stated preference methods. Based on a contingent valuation study conducted in Denmark encompassing more than 3400 respondents three important conclusions are drawn. Firstly, it is found that the valuation of a publicly financed ambulance helicopter service is higher than for an identical privately financed service. Secondly, the results suggest that the public premium is likely to be partly driven by altruistic preferences, and that some citizens value access to this type of service for all. An important driver is also perceptions of quality of services across the private and public sector. Finally, it is shown that exclusion of protest bidders is problematic and may bias welfare estimates. The take home message is that it is difficult to isolate the value of a good per se, and that analysts should take care in applying the payment vehicle that is likely to be applied in real life when valuing non-market goods. There has been little awareness of the importance of choice of payment vehicle in the literature to date. PMID:25661283

  9. Electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This article describes how optimizing accessories helps to extend electric vehicle range. A battery is the only source of energy available to power an electric vehicle (EV), so managing power consumption is critical to successful EV engineering. Accessories consuming electric power reduce the vehicle`s driving range. In the case of passenger compartment heating, available battery energy already is reduced at lower ambient temperatures. Minimizing power consumption of an EV climate control system, then, becomes a high priority in developing vehicles that are commercially acceptable.

  10. 49 CFR 39.47 - May PVOs require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39... for damage to or loss of wheelchairs or other mobility or assistive devices....

  11. Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

    2007-05-01

    The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

  12. 76 FR 69796 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2002 Jaguar XJ8 Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...This document announces receipt by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2002 Jaguar XJ8 passenger cars manufactured for sale in the Kuwaiti market (nonconforming 2002 Kuwaiti Jaguar XJ8 passenger cars) that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), are eligible for......

  13. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  14. Performance development target setting of passenger car diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangyong; Yu, Xiumin; Liu, Jiangwei; Song, Tao; Li, Wenxiang

    2013-05-01

    Setting engine emission targets to meet diesel car requirements is particularly important in engine performance development phase. Many researches are focused on associating vehicle performance with engine targets, but most work is done by testing, which is time and cost consuming, furthermore, the relationship of vehicle and engine will change when either engine or vehicle changes. A GT-Drive model to simulate New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) for passenger car is developed and calibrated by testing data, model precision is controlled within 5%. Time distribution of engine operating conditions when car running NEDC cycle has been analyzed, 10 critical major engine operating points are summarized according to running time proportion. Emission of NO x and smoke control regions containing these 10 points for target engine are set. Vehicle emissions are simulated and evaluated during engine development after engine performance test data are got, and engine combustion system layout and calibration are adjusted until vehicle targets are met. Vehicle is tested in chassis dynamometer finally, the testing results show a good agreement with the simulated results with an error of less than 5%, which proves that the emission value exchange of vehicle and engine is reliable. Performance target decomposition method for passenger car diesel presented can greatly shorten the development cycle and save costs.

  15. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum-service controls at United States Postal Service, vehicle maintenance facility, Nashville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.; Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; Van Wagenen, H.D.

    1987-08-01

    The effectiveness of a brake-washer assembly unit (Kleer-Flo Model LW-22 Rollabout) for limiting exposure to asbestos during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated as the U.S. Post Office Maintenance Garage in Nashville, TN. A fleet of 575 Jeep delivery vehicles are serviced at the facility. Most of the vehicles had 13- or 14-inch wheels and 10-inch long brake shoes. Ventilation in the garage was minimal. During winter months, there was no provision for fresh, heated air from the outside. When the 14 bay doors were open in the summer, they provided good ventilation in conjunction with roof fans. One gallon of concentrated detergent, Greasoff No. 19, was used diluted to clean 40 to 50 wheels. Very low asbestos exposures were recorded when the washing assembly was in operation. Personal air samples for the brake mechanics averaged less than the detection limit of 0.004 fibers/cubic centimeter (f/cc) with only one sample above 0.004f/cc. Of the ten vehicles tested, fibers found in the drums were between 83 to 100% chrysotile, with two vehicles having 100% asbestos fibers.

  16. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    PubMed

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  17. 41 CFR 109-26.501-51 - Used vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 109-26.501-51 Used vehicles. Normally, DOE... from exchange/sale. The statutory passenger motor vehicle allocation requirements shall apply to...

  18. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Report of Motor Vehicle Data (passenger vehicles). (2) DOE Report of Truck Data. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually...

  19. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  20. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104 Department... transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other vehicles used only for transportation...

  1. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104 Department... transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other vehicles used only for transportation...

  2. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104 Department... transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other vehicles used only for transportation...

  3. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  4. Increased risk of driver fatality due to unrestrained rear-seat passengers in severe frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    While belt usage among rear-seat passengers is disproportionately lower than their front-seat counterpart, this may have serious consequences in the event of a crash not only for the unbelted rear-seat passenger but also for the front-seat passengers as well. To quantify that effect, the objective of the study is to evaluate the increased likelihood of driver fatality in the presence of unrestrained rear-seat passengers in a severe frontal collision. U.S.-based census data from 2001 to 2009 fatal motor vehicle crashes was used to enroll frontal crashes which involved 1998 or later year vehicle models with belted drivers and at least one adult passenger in the rear left seat behind the driver. Results using multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of a belt restrained driver sustaining a fatal injury was 137% (95% CI=95%, 189%) higher when the passenger behind the driver was unbelted in comparison to a belted case while the effects of driver age, sex, speed limit, vehicle body type, airbag deployment and driver ejection were controlled in the model. The likelihood of driver fatality due to an unrestrained rear left passenger increased further (119-197%) in the presence of additional unrestrained rear seat passengers in the rear middle or right seats. The results from the study highlight the fact that future advances to front row passive safety systems (e.g. multi-stage airbag deployment) must be adapted to take into account the effect of unrestrained rear-seat passengers. PMID:23411155

  5. [Health surveillance and people-suitability to passenger and good haulage].

    PubMed

    Cosentino, F

    2012-01-01

    In Italy the transport of goods is done mainly by road and is complicated matter. Companies engaged in the passenger transport are state-controlled companies and little companies of taxi service. The work of the driver in public or private companies carrying people or goods shows a lot of similarities and remains one of the most difficult job. The analyzed job-risks are: vibration, noise, manual handling of loads by workers involved in loading /unloading the vehicle, exposure to chemical pollutants and the indoor environment of the cabin stress. The protocol for health surveillance should therefore be drawn up taking into account: current legislation, risk factors, most frequently occurring diseases and/or disease that may affect job that may affect job performance. PMID:23405651

  6. In-service parametric modelling a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper for high-speed transit problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. L.; Yu, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high-speed operation of modern rail vehicles and severe in-service environment of their hydraulic dampers, it has become important to establish more practical and accurate damper models and apply those models in high-speed transit problem studies. An improved full parametric model with actual in-service parameters, such as variable viscous damping, comprehensive stiffness and small mounting clearance was established for a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper. A subtle variable oil property model was built and coupled to the modelling process, which included modelling of the dynamic flow losses and the relief-valve system dynamics. The experiments validated the accuracy and robustness of the established full in-service parametric model and simulation which captured the damping characteristics over an extremely wide range of excitation speeds. Further simulations were performed using the model to uncover the effects of key in-service parameter variations on the nominal damping characteristics of the damper. The obtained in-service parametric model coupled all of the main factors that had significant impacts on the damping characteristics, so that the model could be useful in more extensive parameter effects analysis, optimal specification and product design optimisation of hydraulic dampers for track-friendliness, ride comfort and other high-speed transit problems.

  7. Energy impacts of accelerated retirement of less efficient passenger cars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-17

    The potential energy impacts of a program to accelerate the retirement of older, less fuel efficient domestic passenger cars are investigated. Using and accounting model of light duty vehicle fuel demand, a set of three cases were established and analyzed to assess the fuel consumption impacts of alternative assumptions regarding the effect of an accelerated passenger car retirement program on new car sales and travel demand.

  8. 76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... FR 78064, December 14, 2010), which updated the AAWPP for new and existing inspected passenger... Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels.'' This policy letter provides guidance on how...

  9. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  10. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  11. 49 CFR 37.205 - Additional passengers who use wheelchairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional passengers who use wheelchairs. 37.205 Section 37.205 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR... wheelchairs. If a number of wheelchair users exceeding the number of securement locations on the bus seek...

  12. 49 CFR 37.205 - Additional passengers who use wheelchairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional passengers who use wheelchairs. 37.205 Section 37.205 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR... wheelchairs. If a number of wheelchair users exceeding the number of securement locations on the bus seek...

  13. Child passenger safety: decisions about seating location, airbag exposure, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Glass, R J; Segui-Gomez, M; Graham, J D

    2000-08-01

    The installation of passenger-side airbags in new vehicles complicates efforts to maximize child safety in motor vehicle crashes. It has been recommended by both public and private organizations that children sit in the rear seat with proper restraint to achieve maximum safety. Drivers now need to decide whether a child should be restrained, where the child should be seated (front versus rear), and whether the child should be seated in front of a passenger-side airbag. This research was undertaken to determine which choice minimizes the risk of fatality to children. Using data from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System for calendar years 1989 to 1998, fatal vehicle crashes with child passengers younger than 13 years were analyzed. The effectiveness of passenger-side airbags and rear seating for children, by age category and restraint use, was estimated using the double-pair comparison method. For each of four age categories, the fatality risk of each possible combination of restraint use, seating location, and airbag presence was also estimated using logistic regression. Passenger airbags were associated with an increase in child fatality risk of 31% for restrained children, and 84% for unrestrained children. Passenger airbags did appear to offer protection to restrained 9- to 12-year-old children. Restraint use and rear seating were associated with statistically significant reductions in the odds of a child dying in a crash. In order to minimize child fatality risk, parents should seat children in the rear of the vehicle while using the proper child restraint system, especially in vehicles with passenger airbags. These findings support current public education efforts in the United States. PMID:11051075

  14. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  15. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  16. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  17. Application for certification 1982 model year light-duty vehicles - Saab-Scania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  18. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-06-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance characteristics. This report covers the 1978 Chevrolet Luv Truck manual transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The portion of the test code which involved the throttle valve modulation and line pressure were deleted since they did not apply to the manual transmission. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper 90% range at rated load for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Luv Truck Manual transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

  19. Small passenger car transmission test: Ford C4 transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-06-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

  20. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-10-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

  1. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, passenger presence was associated with a greater number of vehicles before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and susceptibility to peer pressure, while fewer eye glances at hazards was linked to lower self-esteem. While the results of this study were mixed, they suggest that the presence of a teenage passenger can affect some aspects of teenage driver behavior even in the absence of overt pressure and distraction. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical concepts of social influence and social facilitation models. PMID:23727554

  2. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Passenger Presence was associated with waiting for a greater number of vehicles to pass before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and susceptibility to peer pressure, while fewer eye glances at hazards was linked to lower self-esteem. While the results of this study were mixed, they suggest that the presence of a teenage passenger can affect some aspects of teenage driver behavior even in the absence of overt pressure and distraction. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical concepts of social influence and social facilitation models. PMID:23727554

  3. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in agricultural systems, allowing sustainable temporal intensification while protecting and enhancing soil functioning. PMID:26904043

  4. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A.; Ewing, Patrick M.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C.; Hunter, Mitchell C.; Koide, Roger T.; Mortensen, David A.; Smith, Richard G.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in agricultural systems, allowing sustainable temporal intensification while protecting and enhancing soil functioning. PMID:26904043

  5. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... inoperative or nonfunctioning public address or intercom system may remain in passenger service until no later... free from oil, water, waste, or any obstruction that creates a slipping, tripping, or fire hazard,...

  6. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inoperative or nonfunctioning public address or intercom system may remain in passenger service until no later... free from oil, water, waste, or any obstruction that creates a slipping, tripping, or fire hazard,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger... passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5. (c) Fleet average CO 2...

  8. Considerations on vehicle design criteria for space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isozaki, Kohki; Taniuchi, Akira; Yonemoto, Koichi; Kikukawa, Hiroshige; Maruyama, Tomoko

    1995-10-01

    The transportation research committee of JRS (Japanese Rocket Society) has begun conceptual design of vertical takeoff and landing fully reusable SSTO (Single Stage to Orbit) rocket type vehicle as a standard vehicle model for space tourism. The design criteria of the vehicle have paid most attention to the requirements of service to meet space tour amusement. The standard vehicle, which has 22m body length and weighs about 550 tons at takeoff, can provide attractive tours of 24 hours maximum for 50 passengers into the low earth orbit with a variety of space flight pleasures such as experience of weightlessness and earth sightseeing. Within the reach of our near future rocket technology, the design utilizes MMC, CF/Epy and Ti/Mw advanced materials. The twelve LOX/LH2 engines consist of two nozzle types, which can be throttled and gimbaled during the whole mission time, perform vertical launch and tail-first reentry to final landing associated with aerodynamic control of body flaps within tolerable acceleration acting on passengers.

  9. Fuel cell propulsion systems for small transportation vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.A.; Altseimer, J.H.; Nochumson, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    Results are presented for small industrial vehicles, automobiles, and medium-sized trucks. Fuel cell systems were compared to competing technologies on economic and non-economic grounds. The criteria considered included capital cost, levelized life cycle cost, emissions and safety. The industrial vehicle used was a 1815 kg (4000-1b) capacity fork-lift truck. Indoor and outdoor cases were considered. Results indicate that fuel cells can compete at costs approximating their present costs. The automobile used was a five-passenger sedan in consumer and fleet operation. For competitiveness, fuel cell costs must drop to near or below minimum projected costs. The medium-sized truck considered was a 6800 kg (15,000-lb) GVW delivery van used by United Parcel Service. The fuel-cell is competitive at costs slightly below minimum projected costs. Capital costs for fuel-cell-powered automobiles and delivery vans are considerably higher than for ICE-powered vehicles.

  10. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  11. University-School-Community Partnership as Vehicle for Leadership, Service, and Change: A Critical Brokerage Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney; Miller, Peter; Lovelace, Temple S.

    2016-01-01

    Using a critical brokerage perspective to advance theoretical insights in the development of a community university partnership and understanding of the organizational embeddedness of a community empowerment agency in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, this article suggests that partnerships between American universities and communities are perfect vehicles for…

  12. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations (FPMR) 41 CFR 101-26.501, and 41 CFR 102-1 through 102-220, and Department of Energy Property Management Regulations (DOE-PMR) 41 CFR 109-26.501. Orders for all motor vehicles must be placed utilizing... submitted utilizing GSA's on-line system (Auto Choice), in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR...

  13. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations (FPMR) 41 CFR 101-26.501, and 41 CFR 102-1 through 102-220, and Department of Energy Property Management Regulations (DOE-PMR) 41 CFR 109-26.501. Orders for all motor vehicles must be placed utilizing... submitted utilizing GSA's on-line system (Auto Choice), in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR...

  14. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  15. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  16. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  17. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  18. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must include a statement, as appropriate, that the regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards,...

  20. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a seat or berth shall fasten his or her safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “Fasten Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her...

  1. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a seat or berth shall fasten his or her safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “Fasten Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her...

  2. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a seat or berth shall fasten his or her safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “Fasten Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her...

  3. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a seat or berth shall fasten his or her safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “Fasten Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her...

  4. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a seat or berth shall fasten his or her safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “Fasten Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her...

  5. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested areas unsafe for passengers, such as near anchor...

  6. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested areas unsafe for passengers, such as near anchor...

  7. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested areas unsafe for passengers, such as near anchor handling...

  8. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested areas unsafe for passengers, such as near anchor...

  9. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of vehicle safety standards. 500.102 Section... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  10. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of vehicle safety standards. 500.102 Section... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  11. PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

  12. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and......

  13. 78 FR 20385 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...This document announces receipt by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2010 BMW Z4 passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), are eligible for importation into the United States because they are substantially similar to vehicles that were originally......

  14. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  15. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection. 571.222 Section 571.222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  16. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection. 571.222 Section 571.222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  17. 41 CFR 109-6.400-50 - Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against the use of tobacco products in GSA-Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) motor vehicles; (i... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators. 109-6.400-50 Section 109-6.400-50 Public Contracts and Property...

  18. 41 CFR 109-6.400-50 - Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... against the use of tobacco products in GSA-Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) motor vehicles; (i... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators. 109-6.400-50 Section 109-6.400-50 Public Contracts and Property...

  19. 41 CFR 109-6.400-50 - Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against the use of tobacco products in GSA-Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) motor vehicles; (i... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators. 109-6.400-50 Section 109-6.400-50 Public Contracts and Property...

  20. 41 CFR 109-6.400-50 - Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against the use of tobacco products in GSA-Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) motor vehicles; (i... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instructions to DOE passenger carrier operators. 109-6.400-50 Section 109-6.400-50 Public Contracts and Property...

  1. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  2. A Smartphone App to Communicate Child Passenger Safety: An Application of Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, A. C.; McDonald, E. M.; Omaki, E.; Shields, W.; Case, J.; Aitken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Child passenger safety remains an important public health problem because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children, and the majority of children ride improperly restrained. Using a mobile app to communicate with parents about injury prevention offers promise but little information is available on how to create such a tool.…

  3. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  4. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...This document publishes the final data on thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The final 2010 theft data indicated a decrease in the vehicle theft rate experienced in CY/MY 2010. The final theft rate for MY 2010 passenger vehicles stolen in calendar year 2010 is 1.17 thefts per thousand vehicles, a decrease of 12.03 percent from the......

  5. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  6. Transformation Education: A Vehicle for Structuring Group Care Organizations to Increase Service Quality and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents how…

  7. A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

  8. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passenger access area. 104.106... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger...

  9. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  10. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passenger access area. 104.106... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger...

  11. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Passenger access area. 104.106... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger...

  12. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as follows: 1. High passenger trip delays are disproportionately generated by cancelled flights and missed connections. Passengers scheduled on cancelled flights or missed connections represent 3 percent of total enplanements, but generated 45 percent of total passenger trip delay. On average, passengers scheduled on cancelled flights experienced 607 minutes delay, and passengers who missed the connections experienced 341 minutes delay in 2006. The heavily skewed distribution of passenger trip delay reveals the fact that a small proportion of passengers experience heavy delays, which can not be reflected by flight-based performance metrics. 2. Trend analysis for passenger trip delays from 2000 to 2006 shows the increase in flight operations slowed down and leveled off in 2006, while enplanements kept increasing. This is due to the continuous increase in load factor. Load factor has increased from 69% in 2003 to 80% in 2006. Passenger performance is very sensitive to changes in flight operations: annual total passenger trip delay was increased by 17% and 7% from 2004 to 2005, and from 2005 to 2006, while flight operations barely increased (0.5% from 2004 to 2005, and no increase from 2005 to 2006) during the same time period. 3. Passenger trip delay is shown to have an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay in terms of routes. Seventeen percent of the 1030 routes generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. An interesting observation is that routes between the New York metropolitan area and the Washington D.C. metropolitan area have the highest average passenger trip delays in the system. 4. In terms of airports, there is also an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay. Nine of the 35 busiest airports generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. Some airports, especially major hubs, impact the passenger trip delays significantly more than others. Recognition of this asymmetric performance can help reduce the total passenger trip delay propagation in the air transportation network by making changes primarily in major airports, such as Atlanta, GA (ATL), Chicago O'Hare (ORD) and Newark (EWR) airports. 5. Congestion Flight Delay, Load Factor, Flight Cancellation Time, and Airline Cooperation Policy are the most significant factors affecting total passenger trip delay in the system.

  13. Service learning: a vehicle for building health equity and eliminating health disparities.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Samantha; de Zapien, Jill; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Rosales, Cecilia; Bergsma, Lynda; Taren, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection on the broader social, economic, and political contexts of health. We describe the elements and impact of five distinct week-long intensive SL courses focused on the context of urban, rural, border, and indigenous health contexts. Students involved in these SL courses demonstrated a commitment to community-engaged scholarship and practice in both their student and professional lives. SL is directly in line with the core public health value of social justice and serves as a venue to strengthen community-campus partnerships in addressing health disparities through sustained collaboration and action in vulnerable communities. PMID:25706014

  14. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  15. Increasing seat belt use in service vehicle drivers with a gearshift delay.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J E Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard; Tenenbaum, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of park. Unbelted participants experienced either a constant delay (8 s) or a variable delay (M  =  8 s). A 16-s delay was introduced for those U.S. drivers who did not show significant improvement. Seat belt use increased from 48% to 67% (a 40% increase) for U.S. drivers and from 54% to 74% (a 37% increase) for Canadian drivers. The fixed delay was more effective for U.S. drivers than the variable delay, but there was no difference between these two delay schedules for Canadian drivers. After the driver fastened his or her seat belt, it tended to remain fastened for the duration of the trip. PMID:21358899

  16. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  17. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  18. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  19. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  20. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  1. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  2. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  3. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  4. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  5. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  6. 48 CFR 908.7101-5 - Used vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purposes, or the vehicles are acquired from exchange sale. In accordance with 41 CFR 109-26.501-50 and 109-26.501-51, the statutory passenger vehicle allocation requirements for DOE shall apply to any.... Normally, DOE does not purchase or authorize contractors to purchase used vehicles. However, the Heads...

  7. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  8. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  9. New batteries and their impact on electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of electric vehicles and electric vehicle batteries. The present and predicted performance levels of some battery systems such as lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and zinc-chlorine are considered, as are the characteristics that an electric vehicle must possess in order to appeal to customers. The implications of battery improvements for manufacturers of electric vehicles are discussed. Lack of knowledge of passenger range requirements for electric vehicles is noted.

  10. Small passenger car transmission. Final report test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. The testing of a 1979 Dodge Omni A-404 automatic transmission is discussed. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are presented. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Dodge Omni A-404 transmission.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Malibu 200C transmission with lockup

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M.P.

    1981-08-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Malibu 200C automatic transmission with lockup. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 95% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Malibu 200C transmission.

  12. Effect of vehicle incompatibility on child occupant injury risk.

    PubMed

    Kallan, Michael J; Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    With the vehicle fleet of family transportation in the United States continuing to evolve primarily through the increasing number of light truck vehicles (LTV), studying the effects of vehicle incompatibility has become increasingly important. Using data collected from a population-based sample of child-involved crashes in insured vehicles, we explored the effect of variations in crash partner vehicle type on child occupant injury risk, stratified by direction of impact. Children in passenger cars and LTVs involved in onside collisions were at an increased risk of serious injury if struck by a LTV as compared to a passenger vehicle (passenger cars and minivans). Though smaller in magnitude, this trend was also present in offside and rear crashes as well. PMID:16179154

  13. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

  14. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership... of an aircraft carrying passengers on a program flight must ensure that all passengers have been... equipment required under § 91.509 for a flight over water; (7) The normal and emergency use of...

  16. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in... way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits; (ii) Rail space on...

  17. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested... sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits; (ii) Rail space on stairways; and...

  18. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in congested... sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits; (ii) Rail space on stairways; and...

  19. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in... way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits; (ii) Rail space on...

  20. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following rail space may not be used in determining the maximum number of passengers permitted: (i) Rail space in... way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits; (ii) Rail space on...

  1. Nonlinear biodynamics of passengers coupled with quarter car models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalukopoulos, C.; Natsiavas, S.

    2007-07-01

    Biodynamic response of lumped parameter passenger-seat models coupled with simplified models of ground vehicles is investigated. The relatively small dimension of the resulting mechanical models is counterweighted by the complexity introduced by the strongly nonlinear characteristics exhibited by the components of both the biodynamic and the car subsystems. This complexity is enhanced further by the possibility of loss of contact allowed to take place between the wheel and the ground or the passenger and the seat, during strong excitation. After setting up the equations of motion, appropriate methodologies are developed, capturing the dynamic response of the coupled system to transient, harmonic and stochastic excitation, caused by road irregularities. Then, numerical results are presented, illustrating the effect of the excitation amplitude and frequency content on several response quantities related to the dynamic performance of the human and the vehicle components. Special emphasis is put on examining the influence of the seat suspension stiffness and damping characteristics. The results indicate that the nonlinear properties of the coupled model affect significantly its dynamics and can lead to large quantitative and qualitative deviations from the predictions of the corresponding linearized models. Among other things, complex motions are captured, even for harmonic excitation, when the forcing frequency lies between neighboring natural frequencies of the linearized system.

  2. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

  3. Future Directions in the Design, Development, and Investigation of Technology as a Service Delivery Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment outcome research with children and adolescents has progressed to such an extent that numerous handbooks have been devoted to reviewing and summarizing the evidence base. Ensuring that consumers of these advancements in state-of-the-field interventions have the opportunity to access, engage in, and benefit from this evidence-base, however, has been wrought with challenge. As such, much discussion exists about innovative strategies for overcoming the gap between research and practice; yet, no other potential solution that has received more attention in both the popular and academic press than technology. The promise of technology is not surprising given the fast-paced evolution in development and, in turn, a seemingly endless range of possibilities for novel service delivery platforms. Yet, this is precisely the most formidable challenge threatening to upset the very promise of this potential solution: The rate of emerging technologies is far outpacing the field’s capacity to demonstrate the conceptual or empirical benefits of such an approach. Accordingly, this paper aims to provide a series of recommendations that better situate empirical enquiry at the core of a collaborative development, testing, and deployment process that must define this line of work if the promise of mental health technologies is going to be a reality for front-line clinicians and the clients they serve. PMID:24400723

  4. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  5. Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification, 1992 model-year light-duty vehicles - BMW of North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from BMW of North America, Inc. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. The sleep of commercial vehicle drivers under the 2003 hours-of-service regulations.

    PubMed

    Hanowski, Richard J; Hickman, Jeffery; Fumero, Maria C; Olson, Rebecca L; Dingus, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has found that commercial drivers get an average of 5.18 h of sleep per night. The revised hours-of-service (HOS) regulations (in the United States) are in place to provide drivers with more opportunities to get sleep. However, are drivers really getting more sleep under these new regulations? Also, is there a relationship between sleep quantity and involvement in critical incident (crashes, near-crashes, or crash-relevant conflicts)? Data from 73 truck drivers, collected during a naturalistic driving study after the implementation of the 2003 HOS regulations, were analyzed to determine overall sleep quantity (using actigraphy), along with sleep quantity prior to being involved in a critical incident. Sixty-two drivers had at least seven consecutive days (Monday through Sunday) of reliable actigraphy data; mean sleep quantity per 24-h period (midnight centered using the Cole-Kripke algorithm) for these drivers was 6.28 h (S.D.=1.42 h). Fifty-eight critical incidents were recorded in the 10th and 11th driving hours. Analysis results indicated that drivers received significantly less sleep in the period prior to a critical incident as compared to their mean overall sleep quantity. The results of this study indicate drivers may be getting more sleep under the revised 2003 HOS regulations as compared to the old regulations. In addition, significantly less sleep in the 24-h period prior to involvement in a critical incident suggests driver fatigue may have been a potential contributing factor in these critical incidents. PMID:17920836

  8. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  9. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 2: Mission handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) for support of future space missions is defined. Some 20 generic missions are defined each representative of the types of missions expected to be flown in the future. These include the service and update of communications satellites, emergency repair of surveillance satellites, and passenger transport of a six man crew rotation/resupply service to a deep space command post. The propulsive and functional capabilities required of the MOTV to support a particular mission are described and data to enable the user to determine the number of STS flights needed to support the mission, mission peculiar equipment requirements, parametrics on mission phasing and requirements, ground and flight support requirements, recovery considerations, and IVA/EVA trade analysis are presented.

  10. Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers' relative risk of fatal crash involvement.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Zador, Paul L; Lerner, Neil D; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D; Wang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15-20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger's age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System provided fatal motor vehicle crash data from 1999 to 2003 and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers' trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16-20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT=7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34-8.69; RR per 10 million VMT=9.94; 95% CI, 9.13-10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21-34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk. Additionally, as all imputation techniques are imperfect, a more accurate estimation of U.S. fatal crash risk per distance driven would require national surveys to collect data on non-household passenger characteristics. PMID:20159095

  11. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  12. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  13. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  14. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  15. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  16. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  17. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  18. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  19. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  20. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...