Sample records for vehicle passenger service

  1. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...mechanical inspections of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used...

  2. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...mechanical inspections of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used...

  3. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...mechanical inspections of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used...

  4. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger...mechanical inspections of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used...

  5. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52...52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. ...an employee and a student . (7) Single-passenger commuter vehicle...

  7. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  8. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

  9. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13...Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13...Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13...Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13...Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13...Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor...

  14. Market penetration of electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Froker, D.

    1983-01-01

    The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for future personal transportation needs is described. The results forecast an approximate total market share of EVs sold in the passenger vehicle market to be 10% for 1990 and 20% for the year 2000. The sensitivity analysis disclosed that the parameters mainly responsible for changes of EV market share were range, purchase price, year purchased, and to some extent, the maximum cruising speed, in order of importance. Surprisingly, fuel prices, whether for electricity or gasoline, did not have much effect on market share even when considering much greater increases than we have seen in the past 10 years. As might be expected with fuel prices having negligible effects, changes in the efficiencies of EVs and ICVs also altered our expected market share very little. (LCL)

  15. REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

  16. Toll road crashes of commercial and passenger motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Solomon, Mark G; Preusser, David F

    2002-05-01

    Revenue-collection data from toll roads allow for accurate estimates of miles driven by vehicle type and, when combined with crash data, valid estimates of crash involvements per mile driven. Data on vehicle-miles traveled and collisions were obtained from toll road authorities in Florida. Kansas, and New York. In addition, state crash files and published vehicle-miles of travel were obtained for toll roads in Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Large commercial motor vehicles were significantly underinvolved in single-vehicle crashes on all state toll roads. In five states, commercial motor vehicles were significantly overinvolved in multiple-vehicle crashes relative to passenger vehicles; the exceptions were Kansas, where they had significantly lower multiple-vehicle involvement rates, and Indiana. where there were no significant differences in multiple-vehicle involvements by vehicle type. The risk of commercial motor vehicle involvement in multiple-vehicle crashes resulting in deaths or serious injuries was double that of passenger vehicles in the two states (Ohio and Pennsylvania) that identified serious injuries. Whether crash rates, on toll roads of commercial motor vehicles are higher or lower than those of passenger vehicles appears to depend on the type of crash, specific toll road. and traffic density. PMID:11939358

  17. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  18. Characterization of GPS multipath for passenger vehicles across urban environments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterization of GPS multipath for passenger vehicles across urban environments Olivier Le a theoretical formulation with extensive testing. The experiment includes the acquisition of measurements provided by a low-cost automotive GPS receiver on-board a vehicle in real traffic conditions. In addition

  19. Deaths of teenagers as motor-vehicle passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan F. Williams; JoAnn K. Wells

    1995-01-01

    Most studies of teenage motor-vehicle crashes and injuries have focussed on drivers. However, deaths of 13- to 19-year-olds as passengers are nearly as common as teenage driver deaths (2,131 vs. 2,355 in 1993), and teenage passenger death rates are much higher relative to rates for older people than is the case for driver deaths. The deaths of both teenage drivers

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252...on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...on Fuel (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252...on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...on Fuel (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  2. Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden

    E-print Network

    Klier, Thomas

    France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

  3. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. ...need not be. (b) Passenger-carrying motor vehicles, otherwise admissible...the Superintendent are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor vehicles that are so large as to...judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not...

  5. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  6. Development of a TiAl turbocharger for passenger vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimitsu Tetsui

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve acceleration and to reduce the amount of harmful substances in the exhaust gases of passenger vehicles, improvement of turbocharger response is highly effective. The simplest way to do this is to apply lightweight materials for the turbine wheel, in which Ni-based superalloys are currently used. However, as the turbine wheel is exposed to exhaust gases at

  7. Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gilbert; Robin K. C Wong

    2003-01-01

    The airline industry is undergoing a very difficult time and many companies are in search of service segmentation strategies that will satisfy different target market segments. This study attempts to identify the service dimensions that matter most to current airline passengers. The research measures and compares differences in passengers’ expectations of the desired airline service quality in terms of the

  8. Applying engineering and fleet detail to represent passenger vehicle transport in

    E-print Network

    efficiency Alternative fuel vehicles A well-known challenge in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for passenger vehicle transport, retaining supplemental physical accounting for vehicle stock, fuel useApplying engineering and fleet detail to represent passenger vehicle transport in a computable

  9. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  10. THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL PASSENGER VEHICLES: A DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL PASSENGER VEHICLES: A DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION APPROACH UC ....................................................................23 3 MARKET DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES ............................ 26 3.1 SUPPLY OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES

  11. A vehicle health monitoring system evaluated experimentally on a passenger vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hok K. Ng; Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer

    2006-01-01

    A vehicle health monitoring system based on analytical redundancy, is developed for automated passenger vehicles. A residual generator and a residual processor are designed together to detect and identify actuator and sensor faults of the Buick LeSabre rapidly. The residual generator includes fault detection filters and parity equations. It uses the control commands and sensor measurements to generate the residuals,

  12. Applying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle Transport in a

    E-print Network

    for vehicle stock, fuel use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This method is implemented in the MITApplying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle Transport in a Computable://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Applying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle

  13. A unified framework for trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Sterling J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of an active safety framework that performs trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios. The vehicle navigation ...

  14. The passenger vessel services act and America's cruise tourism industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Mak; Christopher Sheehey; Shannon Toriki

    2010-01-01

    The Passenger Vessel Services Act (PVSA) of 1886, a cabotage law, attempts to shield U.S. maritime shipping from foreign competition. It also applies to the U.S. cruise ship industry. The PVSA requires foreign cruise ships that carry passengers between U.S. ports to also stop at foreign ports. Norwegian Cruise Line America (NCLA), which operates one U.S. flagged cruise ship in

  15. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  16. A unified approach to semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios

    E-print Network

    Iagnemma, Karl

    This paper describes the design of unified active safety framework that combines trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles into a single constrained-optimal-control-based ...

  17. Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

    2000-02-01

    Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

  18. ANALYSIS AND CONTROL DESIGN OF A HYDRO-MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC HYBRID PASSENGER VEHICLE

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    the internal speed variable comes from either the en- gine (mode 1) or the hydraulic system (mode 2 of this hydraulic hybrid vehicle is the development of an effective control system layer to regulate the numerousANALYSIS AND CONTROL DESIGN OF A HYDRO-MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC HYBRID PASSENGER VEHICLE Teck Ping, Sim

  19. INFLUENCE OF OXYGENATED FUELS ON THE EMISSIONS FROM THREE PRE-1985 LIGHT-DUTY PASSENGER VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tailpipe and evaporative emission from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on a oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. mission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 degrees F ...

  20. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the sensitivity of: (1) mission analysis results to the boundary values given for number of passenger cars and average annual vehicle miles traveled per car; (2) vehicle characteristics and performance to specifications; and (3) tradeoff study results to the expected parameters.

  1. PASSENGER SERVICE INTEGRATION KEY TO METRO SUCCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Adam; Parsons Brinckerhoff

    SUMMARY Drawing upon data from an intensive cross-sectional case study of 18 of the world's major modern metro rail systems, it was clear that planning for urban transit service integration from the start was the key success factor for metro services in all parts of the world. Using case studies and examples, the paper illustrates how early and strategic identification

  2. Research and Development on Safe Stowing and Securing of Vehicle on Board Ro-ro Passenger Ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongjie Xiao; Anxi Zhang; Ning Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The safety of navigation of ro-ro passenger ships has been perplexing the shipping circles, while the problem of vehicle safe stowing and securing is an important factor that affects the safe transportation of ro-ro passenger ships. Some specifications are put forward in home and abroad on the research of safe stowing and securing of vehicle on board ro-ro passenger ships.

  3. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  4. Reducing Risks to Children in Vehicles With Passenger Airbags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Simpson; Leo G. Woerner; John D. Graham; Sue J. Goldie; Maria Segui-Gomez; Kimberly M. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This review examines the risk that pas- senger airbags pose for children and discusses behav- ioral and technologic measures aimed at protecting chil- dren from airbag deployment. Although airbags reduce fatal crash injuries among adult drivers and passengers, this safety technology increases mortality risk among children younger than age 12. The magnitude of the risk is multiplied when,children are

  5. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39...general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? ...entity, you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where...

  6. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

  7. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

  8. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

  9. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51...requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? (a...you must furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to...

  10. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

  11. Structural-Acoustic Modal Coupling Analysis and Application to Noise Reduction in a Vehicle Passenger Compartment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Kim; J. M. Lee; M. H. Sung

    1999-01-01

    A practical method for noise reduction is proposed and is applied to the interior noise problem of a vehicle passenger compartment. The proposed method is based upon the structural-acoustic response model, in which the interior pressure is explicitly described in terms of the modal parameters and structural-acoustic modal coupling coefficients of the car body and compartment system. Considering only a

  12. STRUCTURAL-ACOUSTIC MODAL COUPLING ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TO NOISE REDUCTION IN A VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. KIM; J. M. LEE; M. H. SUNG

    1999-01-01

    A practical method for noise reduction is proposed and is applied to the interior noise problem of a vehicle passenger compartment. The proposed method is based upon the structural–acoustic response model, in which the interior pressure is explicitly described in terms of the modal parameters and structural-acoustic modal coupling coefficients of the car body and compartment system. Considering only a

  13. Intermodal passenger flows on London's public transport network : automated inference of full passenger journeys using fare-transaction and vehicle-location data

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Jason B. (Jason Benjamin)

    2012-01-01

    Urban public transport providers have historically planned and managed their networks and services with limited knowledge of their customers' travel patterns. While ticket gates and bus fareboxes yield counts of passenger ...

  14. 75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the Cotton Belt Corridor AGENCY: Federal Transit...passenger service on the 26-mile long Cotton Belt Corridor from Dallas-Fort Worth...County, Texas. The primary purpose of the Cotton Belt Corridor Regional Rail Project...

  15. Toll road crashes of commercial and passenger motor vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa R Braver; Mark G Solomon; David F Preusser

    2002-01-01

    Revenue-collection data from toll roads allow for accurate estimates of miles driven by vehicle type and, when combined with crash data, valid estimates of crash involvements per mile driven. Data on vehicle-miles traveled and collisions were obtained from toll road authorities in Florida, Kansas, and New York. In addition, state crash files and published vehicle-miles of travel were obtained for

  16. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment...Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment...take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished...

  17. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment...Aircraft § 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment...take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by...

  18. Analysis of alternate-fueled passenger vehicles: a sample technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Thayer, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Ten passenger vehicles powered by the following were characterized on a common engineering and economic basis: gasoline internal combustion, diesel internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen internal combustion, hydrogen fuel cell, methanol internal combustion, methanol fuel cell, Ni/Zn battery, and Pb/Acid battery. Levelized life cycle costs were computed for each vehicle. The market penetration of the nongasoline vehicles was studied over a 50-yr. period using a generalized equilibrium energy economic model. Results indicate that only the methanol internal-combustion vehicle using methanol produced from coal is a viable alternative to the gasoline internal-combustion vehicle. The market penetration of alternate vehicles was enhanced more by reduction in acquisition costs than by comparable improvements in engineering parameters.

  19. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  20. Climate and energy policy for U.S. passenger vehicles : a technology-rich economic modeling and policy analysis

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Valerie J

    2011-01-01

    Climate and energy security concerns have prompted policy action in the United States and abroad to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. Policy affects the decisions of firms and ...

  1. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  2. Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunyu Kong; Jikuang Yang

    2010-01-01

    A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel with ethanol's chemical properties. FFV's qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under the Energy Policy Act identifies FFVs. Auto manufacturers place a label inside the FFV fuel compartment that states the vehicle can

  4. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  5. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  6. Parking Services VEHICLE OPERATOR REGISTRATION

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Parking Services VEHICLE OPERATOR REGISTRATION PLEASE PRINT AND COMPLETE BOTH SIDES. Last name-School Volunteer NOTE: Registration decal and/or parking permit must be displayed in accordance with the parking of Binghamton University, which are available at the Parking Services Office, the Information Booth, and on

  7. Air time : another measure of the quality of passenger service

    E-print Network

    Blake Betancourt, Juan Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The proposal of a new metric called "Air Time" and its various components, show the advantage of having a broader perspective of the travel process of airline passengers. Travel time is basically affected by three different ...

  8. Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Lee

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

  9. Identifying mobility service needs for disabled air passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Chun Chang; Ching-Fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    One outcome of air transportation deregulation policies worldwide is the growing number of passengers, including people with a disability. Because social equality is recognized as a worthwhile objective, providing an environment at both the airport terminal and on-board aircraft that eases travel for those with various impairments is an objective airlines and airport authorities increasingly view as important, and which

  10. The Effects of Semi Truck Driver Age and Gender and the Presence of Passengers on Collisions with Other Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Bunn; L. Yu; S. Slavova; A. Bathke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A retrospective population-based case control study was conducted to determine whether semi truck driver age and gender and the presence of passengers affect the likelihood that a semi truck driver will be at fault in a semi truck collision (STC) with another vehicle.Methods: Cases were identified as semi truck drivers in at-fault STCs with other vehicles and controls were

  11. Preventing Passenger Vehicle Occupant Injuries by Vehicle Design—A Historical Perspective from IIHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian ONeill

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure—designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to

  12. Deformations and intrusions of the passenger compartment as indicators of injury severity and triage in head-on collisions of non-airbag-carrying vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Stefanopoulos; C Vagianos; M Stavropoulos; E Panagiotopoulos; J Androulakis

    2003-01-01

    In motor vehicle collisions the mechanism of injury is important in determining severity as well as for triage decisions in the pre-hospital phase of patient management. This study correlates deformation of the basic structures of the passenger compartment [windscreen, control panel (dashboard) and steering wheel] with occupants’ injuries in passenger vehicle head-on collisions involving non-airbag-carrying vehicles, with or without compartment

  13. Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

  14. Structural-Acoustic Modal Coupling Analysis and Application to Noise Reduction in a Vehicle Passenger Compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. H.; LEE, J. M.; SUNG, M. H.

    1999-09-01

    A practical method for noise reduction is proposed and is applied to the interior noise problem of a vehicle passenger compartment. The proposed method is based upon the structural-acoustic response model, in which the interior pressure is explicitly described in terms of the modal parameters and structural-acoustic modal coupling coefficients of the car body and compartment system. Considering only a few modes and modal coupling coefficients which have large contributions, the cause of the noise peak can be easily identified and the reduction procedure can be simplified compared with the conventional finite element analysis method. In addition, the use of experimental data reduces some inevitable errors in the numerical analysis and refines the numerical predictions in noise problems. These procedures are carried out by using a user-friendly computer program (ACSTAP) which has been developed during the course of this study.

  15. Transport Services Department Use of University Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    Transport Services Department Use of University Vehicles by PhD Students Following recent attention. I also take this opportunity to remind all staff (and students) that University vehicles (and are required to notify Transport Services by way of a `Driver and Vehicle Information Form'that they wish

  16. Single-vehicle crashes and alcohol: a retrospective study of passenger car fatalities in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Oström, M; Eriksson, A

    1993-04-01

    This retrospective study of fatal passenger car crash victims in northern Sweden compares 396 multiple-vehicle (MV) and 201 single-vehicle (SV) fatalities from 1980 through 1989. Compared to MV fatalities, SV victims were more frequently males, were younger, were more often inebriated, had higher blood alcohol concentrations, had a higher frequency of fatty liver, and were less often restrained. The SV fatalities occurred most often from May through October, from Fridays through Sundays, and from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. The road surface was usually dry, especially for drunken SV drivers. The SV drivers also more often lacked a valid driver's license. The study confirms that alcohol is one of the most important factors associated with traffic fatalities, particularly in SV crashes. More than half (56%) of the SV victims were inebriated by alcohol (MV, 11%), had a mean blood alcohol concentration of 1.9 g/l (MV, 1.6 g/l), and one-third had a fatty liver (MV, 20%). We also found a relation between fatty liver and increased blood alcohol concentrations, suggesting that studies regarding the role of alcohol in traffic fatalities should also include an evaluation of liver morphology. PMID:8471115

  17. The forensic pathologist and the determination of driver versus passenger in motor vehicle collisions. The need to examine injury mechanisms, occupant kinematics, vehicle dynamics, and trace evidence.

    PubMed

    Smock, W S; Nichols, G R; Fuller, P M; Weakley-Jones, B

    1989-06-01

    Five cases of vehicular homicide are presented in which the determination of an occupant's role in a motor vehicle collision was an important medicolegal question. The identification of the occupant's role in a motor vehicle collision can be determined by the forensic pathologist. The investigation that coordinates an examination of injury mechanisms, occupant kinematics, vehicle dynamics, and trace evidence will facilitate such a determination. This determination protects the innocent passenger, when faced with criminal or civil charges, from being falsely prosecuted as the driver. The examination of the above-mentioned components in a multi-occupant collision takes on particular forensic importance when a surviving driver claims to be a passenger: the victim rather than the assailant. PMID:2741865

  18. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology. While BC emissions were 96% higher for the GDI technology. The GDI technology had a smaller effect on CO2 emissions with a 4% rise compared to the other emissions. Additional results will discuss the emission rates converted to reflect total yearly passenger vehicular emissions in the U.S. Overall, the results show increases of global warming emissions from GDI passenger vehicle technology.

  19. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...have prompt access to information the carrier provides to other passengers (e.g. weather, on-board services, flight delays, connecting gates at the next airport). [Docket OST-2004-19482, 73 FR 27665, May 13, 2008, as...

  20. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...following as evidence that an animal is a service animal: Identification cards, other written documentation, presence of harnesses, tags, and/or the credible verbal assurances of a passenger with a disability using the animal. (e) If the...

  1. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  2. Spatial variations in broadband and air passenger service provision in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony H. Grubesic

    2010-01-01

    With the resurgence of regions as key nodes in the global economy, there is a growing interest in better defining their competitive\\u000a advantages, particularly those accrued through infrastructure provision. Two important components of this competitive landscape\\u000a are information and communication technologies (ICTs) and commercial air passenger service. While the development of these\\u000a two networks is frequently cited as being a

  3. Product and service delivery satisfaction among North American cruise passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor B Teye; Denis Leclerc

    1998-01-01

    Although researchers have, during the past decade, become increasingly interested in customer satisfaction and service quality issues, very little of the research has been devoted to the tourist industry. The cruise line industry, which is among the fastest growing sectors of the leisure market, has hardly received any research attention. This paper discusses the importance of the cruise product and

  4. Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

  5. Development of the All-Service Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schreiber

    1936-01-01

    The question in the minds of many transportation men today is: ``What type of highway vehicle may be constructed that will embody the maximum number of respective good points of trolley car, trolley coach, and motor bus?'' The answer of one large eastern transport company to this question is the ``all-service'' vehicle, a combination trolley coach and gasoline-electric motor bus.

  6. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

  7. Passenger waiting time and information acquisition using automatic vehicle location for verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph W. Hall

    2001-01-01

    Bus riders utilize a variety of information media to learn how to travel to their destinations and to learn when they should arrive at bus stops. As part of the OCTA (Orange County Transit Authority) Transit Probe evaluation, 1199 passengers were surveyed to measure relationships between information acquisition and waiting time. A unique aspect of the survey was that some

  8. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. PMID:24556585

  9. United States passenger-vehicle crashes by crash geometry: direct costs and other losses.

    PubMed

    Miller, T; Lestina, D; Galbraith, M; Schlax, T; Mabery, P; Deering, R

    1997-05-01

    The personal and societal losses caused by motor-vehicle crashes are significant. This paper provides tools that describe these losses for 30 different crash geometries. Persons involved with the development and implementation of crash countermeasures can use these tools to prioritize their countermeasure approach. Multiple vehicle crashes currently account for much larger direct costs but only slightly more years lost than single vehicle crashes. Direct expenditures on multiple vehicle crashes exceed $41 billion per year; they claim 974,000 years of life and functioning. Direct expenditures on single vehicle crashes exceed $18 billion per year; they claim 937,000 years of life and functioning. PMID:9183472

  10. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  11. Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapou, Ashley E. M.; Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Xiong, Youyou; Meng, Qingyu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2013-11-01

    In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health concern due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n = 3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th percentile. IVAQ during commuting may vary based on human behavior and meteorological factors. Additional studies are needed to further characterize ways to help reduce in-vehicle aldehyde exposures, especially for people with existing chronic respiratory illnesses who could experience symptom exacerbations upon such exposures.

  12. United states passenger-vehicle crashes by crash geometry: Direct costs and other losses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Miller; Diane Lestina; Maury Galbraith; Tim Schlax; Pamela Mabery; Richard Deering

    1997-01-01

    The personal and societal losses caused by motor-vehicle crashes are significant. This paper provides tools that describe these losses for 30 different crash geometries. Persons involved with the development and implementation of crash countermeasures can use these tools to prioritize their countermeasure approach.Multiple vehicle crashes currently account for much larger direct costs but only slightly more years lost than single

  13. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Chugh; Maureen L. Cropper; Urvashi Narain

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to

  14. Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.T. [Murray State Univ., KY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comparison of FieldBus Systems, CAN, TTCAN, FlexRay and LIN in Passenger Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve C. Talbot; Shangping Ren

    The Controller Area Network (CAN) architecture was developed for use in automobiles in the 1980's. It corresponds to the physical and datalink layers of the OSI network protocol stack. Manufacturers currently leverage and build upon this architecture to enable on-vehicle sensors, actuators and other commercial electronics to interoperate: communicate between different components, exchange data, and resolve operational dependencies. This paper

  16. Comparision of FieldBus Systems CAN, TTCAN, FlexRay and LIN in Passenger Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve C. Talbot; Shangping Ren

    2009-01-01

    The controller area network (CAN) architecture was developed for use in automobiles in the 1980's. It corresponds to the physical and datalink layers of the OSI network protocol stack. Manufacturers currently leverage and build upon this architecture to enable on-vehicle sensors, actuators and other commercial electronics to interoperate: communicate between different components, exchange data, and resolve operational dependencies. This paper

  17. Development of a semi-empirical program for predicting the braking performance of a passenger vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Lee; J.-M. Lee; M.-S. Choi; C.-K. Kim; E.-B. Koh

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of automobiles, the need to know the braking performance of vehicles has been acknowledged. However, because\\u000a there are numerous design variables as well as nonlinearities in the braking system, it is difficult to predict the performance\\u000a accurately. In this paper, a computational program is developed to estimate the braking performance numerically. This synthetic\\u000a braking performance program accounts

  18. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  19. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-09-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  20. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation. PMID:17310696

  1. A Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Crew and Vehicle Rescheduling of Railway Passenger Transportation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tomiyama, Tomoe; Morita, Toyohisa; Murata, Tomohiro

    We propose a method for solving the crew rescheduling problem (CRP) and the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRP) based on the Lagrangian relaxation method. The CRP/VRP is formulated as an integer programming problem on the basis of a network flow modeling approach from which a Lagrangian relaxation problem is constructed by relaxing the constraint that links multiple resources. Using two procedures that generate the upper and lower bounds of the primal problem, both of which utilize an efficient shortest path algorithm for the directed acyclic graph (DAG), the proposed method gradually improves the gap between the upper and lower bounds while updating Lagrangian multipliers. Experimental results of real-world vehicle rescheduling data from Japanese railway lines indicated that the proposed method generated feasible solutions that were confirmed to be fairly close to the optimal solutions according to the gap between the upper and lower bounds, and also clarified the quality of the other method's solution by using the gap, which could lead to streamlining and sophisticating real-world rescheduling related activities.

  2. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  3. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  4. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  5. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Section 3.25 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  6. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  7. Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

  8. Developing an integrated transit schedule with improved passenger level of service measures 

    E-print Network

    Blume, Kelly Lyn

    2002-01-01

    distances in case study (500 trips) . . . . . . . 53 FIGURE 8 Base case travel times in case study (500 trips) . . 59 FIGURE 9 Origin-to-destination distance and number of valid itineraries . . . . . . 62 vru LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1 Computer... passenger's request where two transfers must be made. Fixed Route 1 Pa ra transit Leg Origin Paratransii Leg Destination Fixed Route 2 ~ requested origm and destination ttt possible transfer point FIGURE I An integrated transit trip After all...

  9. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...173.5a Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...movement on a public highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers....

  10. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...173.5a Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...movement on a public highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers....

  11. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...173.5a Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway...movement on a public highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers....

  12. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure (P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed (Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece (S nw ) and the nozzle angle (?) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  13. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  14. Vehicle routing and scheduling for the ultra short haul transportation system

    E-print Network

    Smith, Barry C.

    1979-01-01

    A method of vehicle routing and scheduling for an air based intraurban transportation system is developed. The maximization of level of service to passengers in a system operating under time varying demand is considered ...

  15. Truck frontal underride protection – compatibility factors influencing passenger car safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Krusper; Robert Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Frontal collisions between passenger cars and trucks are the severest vehicle-to-vehicle collisions observed in accident statistics. Regulation 93 was developed to reduce the risk of fatal injury by preventing passenger cars from underriding heavy truck structures. The regulation does not fully address the higher energy of content in these collisions where passenger car structures cannot be expected to have sufficient

  16. Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallkamp, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

  17. Effects of diesel/biodiesel blends on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a passenger vehicle operated over the European and the Athens driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    This paper presents the regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions of a diesel passenger vehicle, operated with low sulphur automotive diesel and soy methyl ester blends. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted under real driving conditions (Athens Driving Cycle, ADC) and compared with those of a modified New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, equipped with an indirect injection diesel engine, fuelled with diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20% respectively. Unregulated emissions of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 nitro-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate matter were measured. Qualitative hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the SOF. Regulated emissions of NO x, CO, HC, CO 2, and PM were also measured over the two test cycles. It was established that some of the emissions measured over the (hot-start) NEDC differed from the real-world cycle. Significant differences were also observed in the vehicle's fuel consumption between the two test cycles. The addition of biodiesel reduced the regulated emissions of CO, HC and PM, while an increase in NO x was observed over the ADC. Carbonyl emissions, PAHs and nitro-PAHs were reduced with the addition of biodiesel over both driving cycles.

  18. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  19. Vehicle routing and staffing for sedan service

    E-print Network

    are given predicted travel times from the end of one ride to the start of another, and from .... defined attributes such as experience level and commercial licenses. ...... constraints simplifies the pricing problem by reducing the size of the solution space. ..... On the effectiveness of set covering formulations for the vehicle routing

  20. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  1. Developing an integrated transit schedule with improved passenger level of service measures

    E-print Network

    Blume, Kelly Lyn

    2002-01-01

    up the costs associated with every schedule. 2. Find more efficient solutions using simulated annealing and recalculate the total service cost to find the service configuration with the lowest total service cost. 3. Schedule stand-by requests... wheelchairs or walking aids; have temperature sensitivities; experience arthritis or cardiac or respiratory conditions; or suffer from fatigue, restricted motor functions, visual impairment, communication disabilities, or mental retardation...

  2. Child Passenger Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Child Passenger Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Pediatrics Child Passenger Safety Technical Report Podcasts on Child Passenger Safety CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety [ ...

  3. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty training is widely available and can be relatively quickly achieved. Equipment availability (vehicles, specialized tools, diagnostic software and computers) is a bigger challenge for funding-constrained colleges. • A computer-based emulation system that would replicate vehicle and diagnostic software in one package is a training aid that would have widespread benefit, but does not appear to exist. This need is further described at the end of Section 6.5. The benefits of this project are unique to each of the three target audiences. Students have learned skills they will use for the remainder of their careers; independent technicians can now accept customers who they previously needed to turn away due to lack of familiarity with hybrid systems; and fleet maintenance personnel are able to lower costs by undertaking work in-house that they previously needed to outsource. The direct job impact is estimated at 0.75 FTE continuously over the 3 ½ -year duration of the grant.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE DEMAND FOR NEW VEHICLE SERVICE CONTRACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan C. Moore

    Extended warranties in the automotive industry, know as service contracts, have an average price of almost $1,200 with an average markup of 100 percent. Given these conditions, why do consumers decide to purchase these offerings? Using survey data collected from new vehicle buyers, we investigate a number of possible explanations. These explanations include the roles of consumer experience and risk

  5. Automatic Vehicle Identification Technology Applications to Toll Collection Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIAN JOHN LU; MICHAEL J. RECHTORIK; Shiyu Yang

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems technologies are being developed and applied through transportation systems in the United States. An example of this type of innovation can be seen on toll roads where a driver is required to deposit a toll in order to drive on a toll road. To automati- cally process toll services, automatic vehicle identification (AVI) technologies should be developed

  6. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers. 173...5a Oilfield service vehicles and mechanical displacement meter provers. (a...movement on a public highway. (b) Mechanical displacement meter provers....

  7. 78 FR 74225 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...Nonconforming Vehicles: 2004 BMW 760i Passenger Cars Substantially...Certified Vehicles: 2004 BMW 760i Passenger Cars Notice...Vehicles: 2005, 2006 Mercedes-Benz SLR Passenger Cars...Vehicles: 2005, 2006 Mercedes-Benz SLR Passenger Cars...Nonconforming Vehicles: 2002 BMW R1100 S Motorcycles...

  8. The Coming Commercial Passenger Space Transportation Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Collins

    \\u000a This paper discusses the future of commercial passenger space transportation from multiple viewpoints — technical, financial,\\u000a organisational and political — as well as economic policy, legal and social considerations. It argues that passenger space\\u000a travel offers the opportunity for launch services to grow into a profitable commercial industry, with potential to grow to\\u000a a very large scale, like passenger air

  9. robust passenger oriented airline scheduling

    E-print Network

    Luis

    2010-10-29

    There are three major components in the schedule development step. The first step ... effectiveness of the airline and the quality of service provided to passengers. Designing an ..... In this way, the spill costs may be computed as the product between ..... Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 6, 3-22. Chan, Y.

  10. Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan

    E-print Network

    Horie, Teruhiko

    1969-01-01

    . Vehicle passenger-miles increased year after year, except during the Depres- sion. The automobile usage contributed greatly to this development. Japan traditionally favors the intra-urban mass transit system and inter-urban rail system. Automobile... passenger-miles continued to increase in Japan, but at a slowez rate. Both rail and vehicle passenger-miles went up during the period of increasing automobile ownership. The increase in per capita automobile is correlated to the growth of per capita real...

  11. Child Passenger Safety http://passengersafety.tamu.edu

    E-print Network

    Child Passenger Safety http://passengersafety.tamu.edu http://buckleup.tamu.edu The Passenger vehicle crashes by increasing the use of child restraints and safety belts. The project's emphasis is on increasing the correct use of child safety seats across Texas. Relevance · Motor vehicle crashes

  12. Autonomous personal vehicle for the first- and last-mile transportation services

    E-print Network

    Chong, Z. J.

    This paper describes an autonomous vehicle testbed that aims at providing the first- and last- mile transportation services. The vehicle mainly operates in a crowded urban environment whose features can be extracted a ...

  13. 75 FR 22675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment. Jet passenger loading bridge. PFC consultation. Passenger...project, acquisition of vehicles and acquisition of radio and computer equipment. The radio and computer equipment was determined to be...

  14. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved] 37.109...Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private Entities § 37.109 Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities....

  15. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved] 37.109...Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private Entities § 37.109 Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities....

  16. An agent-based simulation model for analyzing the impact of asymmetric passenger demand on taxi service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunmyung Kim; Inchul Yang; Keechoo Choi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a time-dependent agent-based taxi simulation model was developed. Modeling of taxi system is a complex task\\u000a because it is dependent on the spatiotemporal pattern of passenger demand. However, the role of taxi as a public transport\\u000a cannot be under-estimated in the urban area. Not only as a paratransit for the elder and disabled but also as a

  17. Meeting the needs of disabled air passengers: Factors that facilitate help from airlines and airports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Chun Chang; Ching-Fu Chen

    With the number of impaired air passengers having increased globally, air service providers may have the potential to create a lucrative niche market. However, it is less clear what the service needs of these passengers are as well as providing facilities and services. This paper aims to explore the service needs of impaired air passengers and to identify factors affecting

  18. Differential Risk of Injury in Child Occupants by Passenger Car Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kallan, Michael J.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.; Menon, Rajiv A.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  19. The effect of teenage passengers on the fatal crash risk of teenage drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Preusser; Susan A. Ferguson; Allan F. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Fatal crash-involved drivers of passenger vehicles were identified in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 1990 through 1995. Each driver was categorized as being alone in the vehicle at the time of the crash or with one or more passengers. Drivers at fault or responsible for crash occurrence were defined as all drivers involved in a single-vehicle crash,

  20. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Drews; Monisha Pasupathi; David L. Strayer

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a

  1. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicles development program. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Applicable data was categorized and processed according to vehicle usage and trip parameters with consideration of payload (cargo, people, size) and driving cycles. A mission that maximizes the fuel potential savings for the total 1985 vehicle fleet was selected. Mission requirements that have a bearing on conventional and hybrid vehicle performance and characteristics were identified and formulated and a reference ICE vehicle was selected that meets or exceeds all requirements while maintaining within applicable constraints. Specifications for vehicle performance were established based on mission requirements, mission related vehicle characteristics, and fuel consumption.

  2. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...it is shown that passenger vehicle passenger compartment intrusion...fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer...relative to other passenger vehicle fatalities involved in tractor-trailer...Repair Expenses for the Anti-Lock Brake System and...

  3. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  4. Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles

    E-print Network

    Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

    2012-01-01

    Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

  5. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

  6. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

  7. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...jurisdiction in which it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals,...

  8. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals, including...

  9. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...it was issued. (f) You are never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals, including...

  10. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bujold

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

  11. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  12. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  13. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  14. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  15. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  16. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  17. Notice to Main Campus Community: Facilities Services Hardscape Projects Altering Pedestrian and Vehicle Traffic

    E-print Network

    Notice to Main Campus Community: Facilities Services Hardscape Projects Altering Pedestrian and Vehicle Traffic: In conjunction with the ECU Master Plan Implementation and safety goals for becoming a more pedestrian and bicycle friendly campus, Facilities Services has started two projects that have

  18. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  19. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  20. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development. PMID:25683551

  1. VAN SAFETY POLICY (12-15 Passenger) Research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ("NHTSA") has found that

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    VAN SAFETY POLICY (12-15 Passenger) Research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety ride in a fifteen-passenger van. The guidelines below establish minimum safety requirements when Cal reduction of van rollovers, which may be found at http://www.safercar.gov/Vehicle+Shoppers/Passenger+Van+Safety

  2. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...570-8 Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations...implemented by GSA and current DOE directives...days or longer) motor vehicles shall prepare...of Motor Vehicle Data (passenger...

  3. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...570-8 Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations...implemented by GSA and current DOE directives...days or longer) motor vehicles shall prepare...of Motor Vehicle Data (passenger...

  4. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...570-8 Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations...implemented by GSA and current DOE directives...days or longer) motor vehicles shall prepare...of Motor Vehicle Data (passenger...

  5. TVA and the electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This brochure illustrates and describes the reliability testing carried out on electric vehicles. Seventeen vehicles including passenger car, station wagons, pick-up trucks, and mini-vans were tested under real-world conditions. Tests include vehicle reliability testing, vehicle performance testing, in-vehicle battery testing, battery charger testing, and EV support systems testing. (MHR)

  6. Do Light Truck Vehicles (LTV) Impose Greater Risk of Pedestrian Injury Than Passenger Cars? A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Desapriya; S. Subzwari; D. Sasges; A. Alidina; K. Turcotte; I. Pike

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pedestrian crashes present a growing challenge for public health trauma and road safety researchers around the world. They are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost, yet there is an international lack of published work on the topic, especially when compared with vehicle occupant safety studies. Our review attempts to quantify the risk of fatal injury among vulnerable road

  7. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  8. 15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of...

  9. MAC for ad-hoc inter-vehicle network: services and performance

    E-print Network

    Borgonovo, Flaminio

    MAC for ad-hoc inter-vehicle network: services and performance Flaminio Borgonovo+, Luca Campelli-- In this paper we analyze the performance of AD- HOC MAC, a new MAC protocol proposed within CarTALK200. ADHOC MAC has been devised to provide a reliable single hop broadcast channel overcoming the hidden

  10. Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Electric Vehicle Charging Service: Use Cases and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    to the anxiety related to electric vehicle charging services (EVCS). From a user perspective, the electricity drivers and the Grid operators. Second, the type of charging stations will range This work has been and charg- ing capacity/need unforecastable for Grid operators, adding anxiety to users and Grid operators

  11. Construction and verification of a model of passenger response to STOL aircraft characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for evaluating passenger acceptance of a transportation system's environment has been developed. This includes a model of passenger reaction to the vehicle, as well as the relative satisfaction compared to other system attributes. The technique is applied to two commercial airline operations - a U.S. commuter, and the Canadian Airtransit STOL system. It is demonstrated that system convenience and aircraft interior seating can play a large role in satisfying the passenger.

  12. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  13. Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

  14. The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Simons-Morton; Neil Lerner; Jeremiah Singer

    2005-01-01

    The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult).

  15. Analysis on safety structure of automobiles for protecting passengers from possible head injury during frontal collision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ren Caigui

    2011-01-01

    In a traffic accident, a high speed as well as a second collision would cause injury to the passengers. To protect passengers from possible head injury, based on WSTC Curve, requirements are put forward on the crush deformation of the collision-proof components in the frontal part of a vehicle in the light of Kinematics and Injury Biomechanics, from which the

  16. Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: an experimental investigation using high definition film.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour. PMID:23746746

  17. The Injury Risk to Wheelchair Occupants Using Motor Vehicle Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Rotko, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The transportation safety experience for persons using wheelchairs is largely unknown. Motor vehicle crash involvement and injury frequency was examined in a telephone interview completed by 596 wheelchair users. Overall, 42% were drivers. Most subjects also rode as passengers in private vehicles (87%) and public vehicles (61%). Wheelchair use as a seat in the vehicle was higher among passengers than drivers. Crash involvement was highest among drivers and lower in passengers. Reported injuries from non-crash scenarios, though, were higher in passengers compared to drivers. Persons seated in wheelchairs in vehicles appear to be at a greater safety risk. PMID:15319121

  18. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  19. The criteria for identifying the quality of passengers’ transportation by railway and their ranking using AHP method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrikas Sivilevi?ius; Lijana Maskeli?naite

    2010-01-01

    Passengers’ transportation by rail involving various interested groups, such as managers, service staff and passengers, is a complicated process. Decision?making persons, organizing railway trips should take into account the interests, needs and possibilities of these particular groups. The solution to some problems associated with passengers’ transportation by rail depends on the experience and qualification of decision?makers, people who are responsible

  20. 70 FR 49223 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-08-23

    ...limit on the force applied to passenger cars. Third, we are proposing to replace the...crashes, currently applies to passenger cars, and to multipurpose passenger vehicles...Newtons (5,000 pounds) for passenger cars. Recent agency data show that...

  1. Autonomous Vehicle Following Using a Robotic Driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Wong; Christopher Chambers; K. Stol; R. Halkyard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of autonomous control of a passenger vehicle for vehicle following using a robotic driver. The aim is to have a modular and transferable device that can autonomously control a standard passenger car. The robot controls the car in the same way as a human driver, by rotating the steering wheel and pushing the pedals. No

  2. Integral aircraft passenger seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Human-engineering approach was used to design integral seat which provides all the safety, comfort, and protective features that can possibly be afforded airline passengers. Results of dynamic impact testing indicated that seat can withstand and attenuate gravity loads of 21-g horizontal and 45-g vertical; by design, seat will withstand lateral g's as well.

  3. Passenger car motor oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of a conference on passenger car motor oil. Topics covered include: Analysis of oil consumption mechanism by measuring oil rims radial movement; Base oil effects in sequence IIID and sequence V-D engine tests; Study of transient oil consumption of automotive engines; and SI engine warm-up: Water and lubricating oil temperature influences.

  4. Passenger Pigeons: Nomads Lost

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-07-11

    This Science NetLinks lesson, developed by two scientists, is aimed at helping students understand the concept and implications of extinction using the example of the Passenger Pigeon, once an extremely abundant species that was completely eliminated by humans. Students will also discover that technologies that were seemingly unrelated to the loss of the bird were actually central to its extinction.

  5. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles to GSA headquarters: General Services Administration, FTM, Washington, DC 20406. Include the following in each request: (1) Two copies of the agency authorization to obtain...

  6. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles to GSA headquarters: General Services Administration, FTM, Washington, DC 20406. Include the following in each request: (1) Two copies of the agency authorization to obtain...

  7. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles to GSA headquarters: General Services Administration, FTM, Washington, DC 20406. Include the following in each request: (1) Two copies of the agency authorization to obtain...

  8. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles to GSA headquarters: General Services Administration, FTM, Washington, DC 20406. Include the following in each request: (1) Two copies of the agency authorization to obtain...

  9. Modeling waterborne passenger transportation user characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation examines potential new directions for the utilization of the waterborne passenger transportation mode. The research provides the analytical and managerial tools that will encourage and support the future development of this mode. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of waterborne transportation demand characteristics and mode potential, using a logit based waterborne passenger transportation demand model. The model was calibrated using data collected in Staten Island, New York. The data were collected utilizing a mailback questionnaire designed exclusively for the worktrip. Utilizing the results of the calibrated logit model, tests were preformed to determine the sensitivity of demand to changes in travel time, trip cost, and comfort and convenience. Based on the relationships developed from the sensitivity evaluation, a profitability analysis was conducted for the implementation of a high-speed ferry service replacing the existing Staten Island Ferry System. The high-speed service's effect on total ferry users and the impact of different fare levels were also examined.

  10. Multi-modal passenger security in Israel Yair Wiseman

    E-print Network

    Wiseman, Yair

    Multi-modal passenger security in Israel Yair Wiseman Bar-Ilan Univeristy Ramat-Gan Israel Yahel Defense Forces (IDF) are also involve in car accident analysis and prevention [3,4,5]. In this article we vehicles for terrorist attacks and therefore the benefits of this type of terrorism are numerous

  11. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as follows: 1. High passenger trip delays are disproportionately generated by cancelled flights and missed connections. Passengers scheduled on cancelled flights or missed connections represent 3 percent of total enplanements, but generated 45 percent of total passenger trip delay. On average, passengers scheduled on cancelled flights experienced 607 minutes delay, and passengers who missed the connections experienced 341 minutes delay in 2006. The heavily skewed distribution of passenger trip delay reveals the fact that a small proportion of passengers experience heavy delays, which can not be reflected by flight-based performance metrics. 2. Trend analysis for passenger trip delays from 2000 to 2006 shows the increase in flight operations slowed down and leveled off in 2006, while enplanements kept increasing. This is due to the continuous increase in load factor. Load factor has increased from 69% in 2003 to 80% in 2006. Passenger performance is very sensitive to changes in flight operations: annual total passenger trip delay was increased by 17% and 7% from 2004 to 2005, and from 2005 to 2006, while flight operations barely increased (0.5% from 2004 to 2005, and no increase from 2005 to 2006) during the same time period. 3. Passenger trip delay is shown to have an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay in terms of routes. Seventeen percent of the 1030 routes generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. An interesting observation is that routes between the New York metropolitan area and the Washington D.C. metropolitan area have the highest average passenger trip delays in the system. 4. In terms of airports, there is also an asymmetric performance of passenger trip delay. Nine of the 35 busiest airports generated 50 percent of total passenger trip delays. Some airports, especially major hubs, impact the passenger trip delays significantly more than others. Recognition of this asymmetric performance can help reduce the total passenger trip delay propagation in the air transportation network by making changes primarily in major airports, such as Atla

  12. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  13. The Passenger Pigeon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    The passenger pigeon no longer graces the North American skies, and for many this represents the disturbing ability that humans have to destroy a particular species. Fortunately, there is another "passenger pigeon" in existence, namely the official scholarly publication of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology. The Society is an organization of professional and non-professional ornithologists, and they are dedicated to the study of Wisconsin birds. The journal was first published in 1939, and it continues to feature original information about birds in the Badger State, along with season reports and such. Recently, the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections group saw fit to digitize all of the issues from January 1939 to Spring 2005. Visitors to the site can browse through the archive and also take a look at some of the other collections that deal with ecology and natural resources.

  14. 2012 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Type Quarter Passenger Vehicle OccupantsMotorcyclists Large Truck Occupants Pedestrians Pedalcyclists Total 2011 Jan–Mar 4,756 582 ... note and other general information on highway traffic safety may be accessed at: www-nrd.nhtsa.dot. ...

  15. Synerjet propulsion and the trimarket opportunity - Orbital, transglobal and lunar transportation services with one vehicle type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed aerospace transporter for performing earth-to-orbit/return missions as well as transatmospheric and in-space high-energy missions is argued to be an effective and feasible alternative for development. The vehicles are based on the exploitation of 'synerjet' technologies that use airbreathing/rocket combined-cycle propulsion. The vehicle is shown to be capable of terrestrial-service intercontinental transglobal flight in an 'orbital cruise' mode as well as round trips from low orbits to high orbits and to the moon. The operational flexibility is linked to the development of synerjet propulsion, so directions are proposed for technology development and validation efforts. The development of the NASP X-30 by NASA is shown to be an important initial contribution to the R&D in this direction.

  16. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Raichel

    2005-01-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of

  17. 68 FR 62417 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Hydraulic and Electric Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-11-04

    ...105, Hydraulic and electric brake systems, applies...Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies, prescribes a...process of converting an image of text, such as a scanned...105; Hydraulic and electric braking systems...seat area in passenger cars, multipurpose...

  18. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shreekar Pradhan; Bhakta Bahadur Ale; Vishwa Bhusan Amatya

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income.

  19. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  20. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  1. The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lerner, Neil; Singer, Jeremiah

    2005-11-01

    The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult). At a nearby site, the speed and headway of passing traffic were recorded using video and LIDAR technology. Teenage drivers drove faster than the general traffic and allowed shorter headways, particularly in the presence of a male teenage passenger. Both male and female teenage drivers allowed shorter headways (relative to no passenger or a female passenger) in the presence of a male teenage passenger, while the presence of a female teenage passenger resulted in longer headways for male teenage drivers. Overall, the observed rate of high risk driving (defined as speed > or =15 mph or more above the posted speed limit and/or headway of < or =1.0 s) for the teen male driver/male passenger condition was about double that of general traffic. In conclusion, the presence of male teenage passengers was associated with risky driving behavior among teenage drivers. PMID:15921652

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle

  3. On being aeromobile: airline passengers and the affective experiences of flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy C. S. Budd

    2011-01-01

    The advent of heavier-than-air powered flight and the subsequent inauguration of regular passenger air services at the beginning of the twentieth century transformed not only the practical geographies but also the affective human experiences of travelling. Aircraft enabled passengers to accomplish journeys, which would once have taken many days or weeks to complete, in a matter of hours, and transformed

  4. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...the impacts of the 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Project. Based...purpose of the 3C ``Quick Start'' Passenger Rail Project is...speed passenger rail service (up to 79 miles per hour) in the...separate tracks. The 3C Quick Start Project was submitted by...

  5. Why the New Market for New Passenger Cars Generally Undervalues Fuel Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Greene

    2010-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and prodigious consumers of petroleum, making their fuel economy an important focus of energy policy. Whether or not the market for fuel economy functions efficiently has important implications for both the type and intensity of energy and environmental policies for motor vehicles. There are undoubtedly imperfections in the market for

  6. 49 CFR 176.93 - Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...transport vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment operated by internal combustion engines which will permit ready diffusion of exhaust gases to the open air. Passenger vehicles may not be stowed in a position adjacent to vehicles operating...

  7. Increased risk of driver fatality due to unrestrained rear-seat passengers in severe frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    While belt usage among rear-seat passengers is disproportionately lower than their front-seat counterpart, this may have serious consequences in the event of a crash not only for the unbelted rear-seat passenger but also for the front-seat passengers as well. To quantify that effect, the objective of the study is to evaluate the increased likelihood of driver fatality in the presence of unrestrained rear-seat passengers in a severe frontal collision. U.S.-based census data from 2001 to 2009 fatal motor vehicle crashes was used to enroll frontal crashes which involved 1998 or later year vehicle models with belted drivers and at least one adult passenger in the rear left seat behind the driver. Results using multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of a belt restrained driver sustaining a fatal injury was 137% (95% CI=95%, 189%) higher when the passenger behind the driver was unbelted in comparison to a belted case while the effects of driver age, sex, speed limit, vehicle body type, airbag deployment and driver ejection were controlled in the model. The likelihood of driver fatality due to an unrestrained rear left passenger increased further (119-197%) in the presence of additional unrestrained rear seat passengers in the rear middle or right seats. The results from the study highlight the fact that future advances to front row passive safety systems (e.g. multi-stage airbag deployment) must be adapted to take into account the effect of unrestrained rear-seat passengers. PMID:23411155

  8. Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

  9. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  10. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  11. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  12. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  13. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

  14. Life cycle assessment of a catalytic converter for passenger cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wathanyu Amatayakul; Olle Ramnäs

    2001-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of a typical ceramic three-way catalytic converter manufactured for a Swedish passenger car is performed. The environmental impacts occurring in the life cycle of a catalytic converter, encompassing the extraction of raw materials, production of a catalytic converter, use phase, etc. are assessed. They are compared with the environmental benefits assessed throughout an average service lifetime

  15. The seeing passenger car 'VaMoRs-P'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Dickmanns; R. Behringer; D. Dickmanns; T. Hildebrandt; M. Maurer; F. Thomanek; J. Schiehlen

    1994-01-01

    A passenger car Mercedes 500 SEL has been equipped with vision in the framework of the EUREKA-project 'Pometheus III'. Road and object recognition is performed both in a look-ahead and in a look-back region; this allows an internal servo-maintained representation of the entire situation around the vehicle using the 4D approach to dynamic machine vision. Obstacles are detected and tracked

  16. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  17. Child passenger safety: decisions about seating location, airbag exposure, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Glass, R J; Segui-Gomez, M; Graham, J D

    2000-08-01

    The installation of passenger-side airbags in new vehicles complicates efforts to maximize child safety in motor vehicle crashes. It has been recommended by both public and private organizations that children sit in the rear seat with proper restraint to achieve maximum safety. Drivers now need to decide whether a child should be restrained, where the child should be seated (front versus rear), and whether the child should be seated in front of a passenger-side airbag. This research was undertaken to determine which choice minimizes the risk of fatality to children. Using data from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System for calendar years 1989 to 1998, fatal vehicle crashes with child passengers younger than 13 years were analyzed. The effectiveness of passenger-side airbags and rear seating for children, by age category and restraint use, was estimated using the double-pair comparison method. For each of four age categories, the fatality risk of each possible combination of restraint use, seating location, and airbag presence was also estimated using logistic regression. Passenger airbags were associated with an increase in child fatality risk of 31% for restrained children, and 84% for unrestrained children. Passenger airbags did appear to offer protection to restrained 9- to 12-year-old children. Restraint use and rear seating were associated with statistically significant reductions in the odds of a child dying in a crash. In order to minimize child fatality risk, parents should seat children in the rear of the vehicle while using the proper child restraint system, especially in vehicles with passenger airbags. These findings support current public education efforts in the United States. PMID:11051075

  18. Who Uses Physiotherapy Services for Motor Vehicle-Induced Whiplash-Associated Disorders? Interrogating Motor Accident Insurance Data for 2006-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Grimmer-Somers; Steve Milanese; Carolyn Brennan; Ivan Mifsud

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about who uses physiotherapy services for whiplash injuries sustained in motor-vehicle accidents. Compensable agencies around Australia are grappling with ways to identify early claimants who are likely to consume different types of health services. The objectives were to identify key characteristics of a typical user of physiotherapy services for motor-vehicle accident-induced whiplash-associated disorders. Method: A dataset

  19. The effect of teenage passengers on the fatal crash risk of teenage drivers.

    PubMed

    Preusser, D F; Ferguson, S A; Williams, A F

    1998-03-01

    Fatal crash-involved drivers of passenger vehicles were identified in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 1990 through 1995. Each driver was categorized as being alone in the vehicle at the time of the crash or with one or more passengers. Drivers at fault or responsible for crash occurrence were defined as all drivers involved in a single-vehicle crash, or drivers in multiple-vehicle crashes who were coded in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System as committing one or more driver errors. The results indicated that passenger presence was associated with proportionately more at-fault fatal crashes for drivers aged 24 and younger, were a neutral factor for drivers aged 25-29, and were associated with fewer at-fault involvements for drivers aged 30 and older. Relative risk of fatal crash involvement was particularly high for teenage drivers traveling, day or night, with two or more teenage passengers. Additional research is needed to determine how the added risk associated with teenage passengers riding with teenage drivers can be reduced or eliminated. PMID:9450125

  20. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles (EVS-13 Osaka)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995,

  2. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Wyczalek

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy

  3. Vehicle Internet Appliance (VIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hariri; Mahesh Indran

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present the design and implementation of an open and cost-effective vehicle information appliance (VIA) to enable the access to all car status information (e.g., engine temperature, engine condition, brakes, etc), as well as communicating with car passengers (e.g., multimedia video conferencing). The main objective of the vehicle Internet appliance is to effectively utilize the Internet

  4. ‘Calling Passengers’ — An Ethical Problem in the Design of Self-Service Web Sites Amongst Low-Cost Airlines in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Barry; Ann Torres

    Ethics on the Internet has been a widely debated topic in recent years covering issues that range from privacy to security\\u000a to fraud. Little, however, has been written on more subtle ethical questions such as the exploitation of Web technologies\\u000a to inhibit or avoid customer service. Increasingly, it would appear, some firms are using Web sites to create distance between

  5. Natural environmental service support to NASA vehicle, technology, and sensor development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  6. Vehicle yaw-inertia- and mass-independent adaptive steering control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wang; M F Hsieh

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a vehicle stability control (VSC) system using a vehicle yaw- inertia- and mass-independent adaptive control law. As a primary vehicle active control system, VSC can significantly improve vehicle driving safety for passenger cars and enhance trajectory tracking accuracy for other applications such as autonomous, surveillance, and mobile robot vehicles. For the designs of vehicle dynamic control systems,

  7. NUMBER: VMPS 4.00 (Formerly LESA 4.00) SECTION: Vehicle Management and Parking Services

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    will negotiate a fair market value with that department based on the NADA wholesale value. A credit for the value of the vehicle will be applied to that department's account and future lease charges will be debited against, requesting departments must transfer donated vehicle to VMPS. Value established for the donated vehicle using

  8. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-print Network

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate in vehicle weight and correlated the decline in new car weight with about a 20% increase in occupant fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks and highway fatalities are negative: higher miles per

  9. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  10. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...are required to report tarmac delay information to the Department...pay to passengers bumped from flights; (7) strengthening, codifying...provide passengers timely notice of flight status changes such as delays and cancellations; (11)...

  11. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a...

  12. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...b) No passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “No Smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each...

  13. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...b) No passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “No Smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...b) No passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “No Smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each...

  15. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (d) Each...

  16. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (d) Each...

  17. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...b) No passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “No Smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each...

  18. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...b) No passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “No Smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each...

  19. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (d) Each...

  20. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (d) Each...

  1. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...must be turned on during airplane movement on the surface, for each takeoff...installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (d) Each...

  2. Consumer acceptance of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sethna, B.N.

    1982-09-02

    The main objective of this study was to determine guidelines for the enhancement of consumers' perceptions to electric vehicles (EV). The specific objectives were to: expose the population of Potsdam, New York to an electric car, and to demonstrate its functioning; determine the relative importance of the different attributes of the electric car from the viewpoint of the potential consumer; and determine changes in consumers' perceptions after exposure to the car (and accompanying media coverage), as compared with their perceptions before exposure. An electric vehicle was ordered from a Florida firm whose officers absconded taking the vehicle downpayment and not delivering the EV. Subsequently the chief investigator of this project drove a rented EV for 5 months with survey respondents as passengers. The conclusions and recommendations of the study were: exposure to the EV and advertising positively affect its public acceptance; the high price is the most negative feature; energy tax credits would promote EV sales; and the most probable current use for EV's is in utility service fleets. (LCL)

  3. The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    The impact of high-speed rail and low-cost carriers on European air passenger traffic Regina R-speed passenger rail service is often argued as a potentially effective, lower-carbon substitute for intercity air travel. Previous studies on high-speed rail on air travel in Europe and Asia have primarily examined

  4. Vehicle image classification via expectation-maximization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pumrin; Daniel J. Dailey

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical method to extract images of passenger cars from highway traffic scenes. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to classify the vehicles in the images as either being passenger cars or some other bigger vehicles, cars versus non-cars. The vehicle classification algorithm uses training sets of 100-frame video sequences. The car group is comprised

  5. In-service parametric modelling a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper for high-speed transit problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. L.; Yu, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high-speed operation of modern rail vehicles and severe in-service environment of their hydraulic dampers, it has become important to establish more practical and accurate damper models and apply those models in high-speed transit problem studies. An improved full parametric model with actual in-service parameters, such as variable viscous damping, comprehensive stiffness and small mounting clearance was established for a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper. A subtle variable oil property model was built and coupled to the modelling process, which included modelling of the dynamic flow losses and the relief-valve system dynamics. The experiments validated the accuracy and robustness of the established full in-service parametric model and simulation which captured the damping characteristics over an extremely wide range of excitation speeds. Further simulations were performed using the model to uncover the effects of key in-service parameter variations on the nominal damping characteristics of the damper. The obtained in-service parametric model coupled all of the main factors that had significant impacts on the damping characteristics, so that the model could be useful in more extensive parameter effects analysis, optimal specification and product design optimisation of hydraulic dampers for track-friendliness, ride comfort and other high-speed transit problems.

  6. 71 FR 29846 - Phytosanitary Certificates for Fruits and Vegetables Imported in Passenger Baggage; Availability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-05-24

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Phytosanitary Certificates for Fruits and Vegetables Imported in Passenger...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...regulations in ``Subpart-Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR...

  7. Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.

    1980-09-01

    Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

  8. Road Rules for Little Passengers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... them from possible injury when a passenger-side air bag deploys. Explain that air bags could seriously hurt a small child because they ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Booster Seat Safety Car Seat Safety Auto Safety When Can a Child Switch to ...

  9. 1. A person commits an offense if the person operates a passenger vehicle, transports a child who is younger than eight years of age, unless the child is taller than four feet, nine inches, and does not keep

    E-print Network

    for hospitalization. Booster seats are 59% effective in reducing serious injury. Lap/shoulder belts are 50 will usually fit safely in vehicle lap/shoulder belts. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety-65% effective in preventing serious injury. 2009 Occupant Restraint Laws Age System Required Front Seat Back

  10. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  11. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...leaving a vehicle. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to prevent injuries and fatalities to passengers and bystanders during the operation of platform lifts installed in motor vehicles. S3. Application. This standard applies to...

  12. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...leaving a vehicle. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to prevent injuries and fatalities to passengers and bystanders during the operation of platform lifts installed in motor vehicles. S3. Application. This standard applies to...

  13. Light-Duty Vehicles in Tripped-Rollover Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Gary M. Hutter; Ralph L. Barnett; S. Carl Uzgiris; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Lucinda Fuller; Shelley Hamilton; Brian D. King; Jeffery W. Abendshien; Leslie A. Savage; James T. Semrau; Theodore Liber; Dolores Gildin; Dennis B. Brickman; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Claudine P. Giebs; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin Smith; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. King; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Denise Prokudowicz; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; Glenn Werner; Mary A. Misiewicz; Charles D'Eccliss; Alison Newberry; Anthony Provenzano; Robin Stone; Christina Timmins; Lynn Wallace-Mills; Thomas E. Zabinski

    1995-01-01

    one year, rollover impacts accounted for 9 percent of multiple-vehicle accident fatalities while rollovers accounted for 51 percent of single-vehicle accident fatalities. Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, and sport-utility vehicles. Although much attention has been given to the study of vehicle rollover stability and to rollover-accident avoidance, research has yet to conclusively uncover an individual vehicle characteristic

  14. Demand forecasting of diesel passenger car considering consumer preference and government regulation in South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongsu Lee; Youngsang Cho

    2009-01-01

    Changing market regulations in South Korea have allowed diesel-fueled passenger cars in the domestic market. The diffusion of diesel cars is tied to issues of environmental impact, energy supply and demand, and changes in tax revenue. Policymakers can influence demand for diesel vehicles to protect social welfare and to observe international environmental protection laws. On the supply side, carmakers need

  15. Detection and Monitoring of Passengers on a Bus by Video Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boon Chong Chee; Mihai Lazarescu; Tele Tan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect passengers onboard public transport vehicles. The method comprises first an elliptical head detection algorithm using the curvature profile of the human head as a cue. This is followed by applying the geometric blur features which are consistent to affine distortion of the image to keep track of the movement of the head within

  16. Detection and Monitoring of Passengers on a Bus by Video Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee Boon Chong; Mihai Lazarescu; Tele Tan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect passengers on-board public transport vehicles with the ultimate aim of monitoring their behaviours under suspicious circum- stances. The method comprises first an elliptical head de- tection algorithm using the curvature profile of the human head as a cue. This is followed by applying the geometric blur features which are consistent to affine distortion

  17. Vehicle yaw inertia and mass independent adaptive control for stability and trajectory tracking enhancements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junmin Wang; Ming Feng Hsieh

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a vehicle stability control (VSC) system using a yaw inertia and mass independent adaptive control law. As a primary vehicle active control system, VSC can significantly improve vehicle driving safety for passenger cars and enhance trajectory tracking accuracy for other applications such as autonomous, surveillance, and wheeled mobile robot vehicles. For the designs of vehicle dynamic control

  18. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain...

  19. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain...

  20. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain...

  1. Corporate Reorganization and the Geography of Services: Evidence from the Motor Vehicle Aftermarket in the West Midlands Region of the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Marshall

    1989-01-01

    MARSHALL J. N. (1989) Corporate reorganization and the geography of services: evidence from the motor vehicle aftermarket in the West Midlands region of the UK, Reg. Studies23, 139–150. Research suggests that a corporate complex of administrative managerial and technical staff in the hinterland of capital cities underpins the spatial centralization of service activities in the economy. There have been important

  2. Applications of Automatic Vehicle Location systems towards improving service reliability and operations planning in London

    E-print Network

    Ehrlich, Joseph Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in the transit industry, such as the introduction of Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems, have provided agencies with robust data collection and measurement systems and enabled the development ...

  3. Comfort studies of rail passengers

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, J. F.; Doré, C.; Weiner, J. S.; Lee, D. E.; Prestidge, S. P.; Andrews, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Nicol, J. F., Doré, C., Weiner, J. S., Lee, D. E., Prestidge, S. P., and Andrews, M. J. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 325-334. Comfort studies of rail passengers. A short series of trials is described in which a specimen car of the new High Density Rolling Stock was laden with passengers at different densities and under different environmental constraints, designed to simulate `shut-down' conditions. The results suggest that the limit for comfort, 21·8°C corrected effective temperature (CET), proposed by Bell and Watts (1971) is reasonable but that temperatures some 3 or 4°C higher can be tolerated without undue discomfort. The physiological limit for safety recommended by Bell and Watts is a CET of 30·6°C. This will be reached in less than 20 minutes if there is a power failure in warm conditions in crowded trains. An undesirable, possibly dangerous, level of discomfort will be experienced by passengers in ventilated but crowded trains after 30 minutes. In any case it is recommended that the globe temperature in a carriage should not exceed 30°C. Images PMID:4753715

  4. High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. O'Brien; G. E. Faulkner; S. Zikic; N. P. Schmitt

    2008-01-01

    Airline passengers now expect dasiamovies on demandpsila, games, telephone and other multimedia services to be provided at their seats, through all classes of service. The cabling and wired infrastructure to provide several hundred such connections is complex, heavy and makes reconfiguring the airliner seating patterns a time-consuming process. Wireless data transmission to seat-back terminals may therefore be advantageous and optical

  5. Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers’ relative risk of fatal crash involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Zador, Paul L.; Lerner, Neil D.; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D.; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15–20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger’s age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1999–2003) provided fatal motor vehicle crash data and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2001) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers’ trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16–20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT = 7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34–8.69; RR per 10 million VMT = 9.94; 95% CI, 9.13–10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21–34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk. Additionally, as all imputation techniques are imperfect, a more accurate estimation of U.S fatal crash risk per distance driven would require national surveys to collect data on non-household passenger characteristics. PMID:20159095

  6. Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

    This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

  7. A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

  8. Taking a new look at hybrid electric vehicle efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Environmental, economic, and national security challenges from passenger-car use have energized development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) worldwide. These vehicles could reduce fuel consumption, use nonpetroleum alternative fuels, and reduce urban air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Current thinking on hybrid electric vehicles may be underestimating their significance to reducing petroleum use.

  9. Application for certification, 1992 model year light-duty vehicles - Lotus Cars, Ltd

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Lotus Cars, LTD. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  11. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

  12. The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1982-08-01

    The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric designs, with the advantages of the hybrids increasing significantly as the power-to-weight ratio was increased. The comparisons were made for city driving, and the relative attractiveness of the hybrid designs was found to be independent of annual mileage up to 12,000 miles/yr. Both hybrid and electric vehicles benefit markedly from the use of an advanced battery such as sodium-sulfur. Such a battery is required before the hybrid passenger car can save both gasoline and total energy compared to a conventional ICE car of the same size.

  13. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  14. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  15. Passenger well-being in airplanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hinninghofen; P. Enck

    2006-01-01

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin

  16. Product service systems and sustainable mobility: An electric vehicle introduction case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Beella; S. Silvester; J. C. Brezet; A. Van Timmeren; P. Bauer; J. Quist; S. Van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    A product service system (PSS) is a function-oriented business model aimed at providing sustainability of both consumption and production. A PSS is defined as a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling user needs. In theory PSSs are normally shown realized with smart products. The first PSS were largely motivated by the need of traditional firms to

  17. Effects of daytime running lights on multiple-vehicle daylight crashes in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M Farmer; Allan F Williams

    2002-01-01

    Involvements in multiple-vehicle daylight crashes in nine states over 4 years were analyzed for a group of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with automatic daytime running lights. On average, these vehicles were involved in 3.2% fewer multiple-vehicle crashes than vehicles without daytime running lights (P=0.0074).

  18. Predictors of Hazardous Child Seating Behavior in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: 1990 to 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve Wittenberg; Sue J. Goldie; John D. Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children ages 5 to 14. Children seated in the front seats of vehicles are at increased risk of death and injury in crashes, particularly in vehicles with passenger-side air bags. This study identifies fac- tors associated with the seating of children in the front seats of vehicles involved in

  19. Effects of daytime running lights on multiple-vehicle daylight crashes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Charles M; Williams, Allan F

    2002-03-01

    Involvements in multiple-vehicle daylight crashes in nine states over 4 years were analyzed for a group of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with automatic daytime running lights. On average, these vehicles were involved in 3.2% fewer multiple-vehicle crashes than vehicles without daytime running lights (P = 0.0074). PMID:11829289

  20. Rebound 2007: Analysis of U.S. light-duty vehicle travel statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Greene; David L

    2010-01-01

    U.S. national time series data on vehicle travel by passenger cars and light trucks covering the period 1966–2007 are used to test for the existence, size and stability of the rebound effect for motor vehicle fuel efficiency on vehicle travel. The data show a statistically significant effect of gasoline price on vehicle travel but do not support the existence of

  1. Rebound 2007: Analysis of U.S. light-duty vehicle travel statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    U.S. national time series data on vehicle travel by passenger cars and light trucks covering the period 1966–2007 are used to test for the existence, size and stability of the rebound effect for motor vehicle fuel efficiency on vehicle travel. The data show a statistically significant effect of gasoline price on vehicle travel but do not support the existence of

  2. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

    2007-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

  3. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation An Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria Pollutant Inventory of Rail and Air Transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arpad Horvath; Mikhail Chester

    2008-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of other components. Vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction and operation,

  4. Chromosomal passengers and the (aurora) ABCs of mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Adams; Mar Carmena; William C. Earnshaw

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal passengers are proteins that move from centromeres to the spindle midzone during mitosis. Recent experiments show that the passengers inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora-B kinase are in a macromolecular complex that might also contain a third passenger, survivin. The chromosomal passenger complex functions throughout mitosis in chromosome condensation and segregation, and at the end of mitosis, in the

  5. A sequential stochastic passenger screening problem for aviation security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. McLay; Sheldon H. Jacobson; Alexander G. Nikolaev

    2009-01-01

    Designing effective aviation security systems has become a problem of national concern. Since September 11th, 2001 passenger screening systems have become an important component in the design and operation of aviation security systems. This paper introduces the Sequential Stochastic Passenger Screening Problem (SSPSP), which allows passengers to be optimally assigned (in real-time) to aviation security resources. Passengers are classified as

  6. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  7. Factors Associated with Adolescents’ Propensity to Drive with Multiple Passengers and to Engage in Risky Driving Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica H. Mirman; Dustin Albert; Lela S. Jacobsohn; Flaura K. Winston

    PurposeResearch shows that parenting factors and individual difference variables, such as sensation seeking and risk perceptions, are associated with increased motor vehicle crash risk for young drivers. The presence of peer passengers is also known to be associated with increased crash risk. However, as previous studies did not study these factors concurrently, less is known about the factors that are

  8. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    E-print Network

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  9. Air Travel Consumer Protection: Metric for Passenger On-Time Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance Sherry; Danyi Wang; George Donohue

    2007-01-01

    The raison d'etre for the air transportation system is the movement of passengers and cargo. Consumer information and regulatory consumer protection for airline services provide measure s of the performance using percentage of on -time flights and the percentage of cancelled fli ghts. R esearchers have shown that these \\

  10. ARKTRANS The Norwegian system framework architecture for multimodal transport systems supporting freight and passenger transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marit Natvig; Hans Westerheim; SINTEF ICT; Ivar Christiansen

    ARKTRANS is the Norwegian system framework architecture for multimodal transport systems supporting freight transport as well as passenger transport. The project is established by Norwegian transport authorities and is co-funded by the Research Council of Norway. The authorities representing the four transport modes, road, sea, air, and railway as well as transport users and transport service providers have identical needs

  11. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  12. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M; Berger, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores. PMID:12460964

  13. Performance of a fully mechanical parking brake system for passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozaini, A. H.; Ishak, M. R.; Abu Bakar, A. R.; Mohd Zain, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    In order to ensure that a vehicle remains stationary when it is parked at a certain road slope, the driver has to apply sufficient pulling force on the handbrake lever. Otherwise, the vehicle will start to rollaway where the torque generated by the parking brake system is lower that the torque required by the vehicle to remain stationary. This poses a danger situation not only to the vehicle's occupants but also to the people surrounding it. Thus, this paper aims to investigate performance of a typical parking brake system used in passenger cars. A theoretical model of drum-type parking brake system is derived and later being validated by test data that measured from the parking brake test bench. A good agreement is achieved between calculated and test results. Results from the model show that the parking brake system used in this work can hold the vehicle stationary at 11 degree slope less than 200 N of the applied force and thus it meets the regulation requirement, and also the vehicle will not rollaway even though there are four adult passengers inside it.

  14. Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Lara E.; Ayers, Tracy L.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Nakatab, Michele N.; Effler, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights. PMID:15313108

  15. Do front-seat belt laws put rear-seat passengers at risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Garbacz

    1992-01-01

    Cross-sectional economic models of traffic fatalities are estimated to determine the effectiveness of state statutes that require motor vehicle occupants to use seat belts. The estimates provide some support for the theory of offsetting consumer behavior. In the case of primary enforcement front-seat belt laws, models suggest that rear-seat passengers and nonoccupants may be killed as a result of more

  16. EFFECTS OF SEAT BELT LOAD LIMITERS ON DRIVER FATALITIES IN FRONTAL CRASHES OF PASSENGER CARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Brumbelow; Bryan C. Baker; Joseph M. Nolan

    In the mid-1990s, seat belt load-limiting devices were introduced on many new passenger vehicles equipped with front airbags. These devices are intended to re- duce belt-induced injuries such as rib fractures by allowing forward movement of occupants' torsos when belt loads exceed some threshold. Load limiters have been shown to reduce thoracic injury risk in controlled experiments with cadavers and

  17. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers...informed decisions when selecting flights. DATES: Comments should be...Consumer protection, Tarmac delay data. 14 CFR Part 253 Air...

  18. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...Hudson, SEPTA, Metrolink, and Utah Transit Authority; ASLRRA; ATDA; BLET...circumstances such as a passenger car filling with smoke. In another instance...of these railroads are part of larger transit organizations that receive Federal...

  19. The Effect of Passengers and Risk-Taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/Near Crashes Among Novice Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Zhang, Zhiwei; Klauer, Sheila E.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Wang, Jing; Chen, Rusan; Albert, Paul; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The high crash rates of novice teenage drivers are thought to be due to inexperience and risky driving behavior, exacerbated by passengers, night, and other complex driving conditions. This research examined factors associated with crash/near crash and risky driving rates among novice teenagers, including night vs day, passenger presence and characteristics, and driver psychosocial factors. Method The vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with recording systems that collected data on driving performance and occupant characteristics during their first 18 months of licensure. Survey data were collected at four measurement times. Poisson regression with random effects was used to analyze crash/near crash and elevated g-force event rates (i.e., risky driving); incident rate ratios (IRRs) measured associations with covariates. Results Crash/near crash rates among novice teenagers were 75% lower in the presence of adult passengers and 96% higher among those with risky friends. Teenage risky driving was 67% lower with adult passengers, 18% lower with teenage passengers; 20% lower during early night than day; and 109% higher among teens with relatively more risky friends. Conclusions The low rate of risky driving in the presence of adult passengers suggests that teens can drive in less risky fashion. The higher rate of risky driving among those with risky friends suggests that risky driving may be socially influenced. PMID:22098768

  20. Providing Ecotourism Excursions for Cruise Passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Johnson

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to argue that destinations can do more to offer coastal ecotourism experiences for cruise passengers, and in doing so they may secure a more sustainable product. An analysis of shore-side excursions currently available to P&O passengers in the Caribbean is presented. Excursions are classified against textbook tourism-type definitions. Time constraints imposed by cruise operators

  1. Occupant Injury Severity using a Heteroscedastic Ordered Logit Model: Distinguishing the Effects of Vehicle Weight and Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaokun Wang; Kara Kockelman

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a heteroscedastic ordered logit model to study the effects of various vehicle, environmental, roadway and occupant characteristics on the severity of injuries sustained by vehicle occupants, conditional on the crash occurrence. As expected, the models find that heavier vehicles increase both a vehicle's crashworthiness and its aggressiveness towards others. The models also find that if all passenger

  2. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  3. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  4. The Employment of Airships for the Transport of Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobile, Umberto

    1921-01-01

    It was a conclusion of this detailed study of the practicality of using airships for carrying passengers that, although slow, airships are capable of carrying useful loads over long distances. However, it is noted that there is a certain limit to the advantages of large cubature. Beyond a certain point, the maximum altitude of the airship goes on decreasing, in spite of the fact that the range of action in the horizontal plane and the useful load go on increasing. The possibility of rapid climb is an essential factor of security in aerial navigation in the case of storms, as is velocity. To rise above and run ahead of storms are ways of avoiding them. However, high altitude and high speed are antithetical. This investigation concluded that a maximum velocity of 120 km/h is as far as we ought to go. This figure can only be exceeded by excessive reduction of the altitude of ceiling, range of flight, and useful load. The essential requisites of a public transport service are discussed, as are flight security, regularity of service, competition with other forms of passenger transportation, and the choice between rigid and semi-rigid airships.

  5. Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - Range Rover

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems or exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Rover Group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Application for certification, 1988 model year heavy-duty vehicles - Navistar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines the author intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission-control systems. Information is also included on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1987 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. The engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Application for certification 1992 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar cars

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  11. Application for certification, 1986 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  12. Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems or exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  13. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  14. What Factors Affect Average Fuel Economy of US Passenger Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Gautam

    2010-01-01

    The auto industry consumes about 70 percent of total petroleum products used in the United States and is a major source of green house gas emissions. With the limited supply of traditional non-renewable energy and a slow growing renewable energy industry, it is important to increase energy efficiency to meet energy demand. Fuel economy, a measure of energy efficiency in

  15. Curving Analysis of Modified Designs of Passenger Railway Vehicle Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukkipati, Rao V.; Narayanaswamy, Srinivasan; Osman, Mohammad O. M.

    In this paper, modified truck designs were studied with an objective to achieving better compatibility between high speed stability and curving behaviour compared to the conventional truck. The analysis has shown that USD truck can be designed to achieve better over all performance compared to other truck designs. The results of steady state curving program were validated using the commercial software package NUCARS. The comparison of steady state curving behaviour of different truck designs using NUCARS also showed that USD truck has the potential to achieve superior performance compared to other truck designs. The research reported in this paper has dealt with steady state curving behaviour. To look into the safety implications of the new designs, transient behaviour in curves must be studied. The response of the railway cars in entry and exit spirals should be evaluated. The effects of track irregularities on the response of these modified designs need to be analyzed.

  16. Curving Analysis of Modified Designs of Passenger Railway Vehicle Trucks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao V. Dukkipati; Srinivasan Narayanaswamy; Mohammad O. M. Osman

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, modified truck designs were studied with an objective to achieving better compatibility between high speed stability and curving behaviour compared to the conventional truck. The analysis has shown that USD truck can be designed to achieve better over all performance compared to other truck designs. The results of steady state curving program were validated using the commercial

  17. Study of design directions for lateral vehicle control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen Guldner; Han-Shue Tan; Satyajit Patwardhan

    1997-01-01

    Lateral vehicle control for passenger cars, a vital control subsystem of automated highway systems (AHS), has been studied for several decades. Different reference systems have been examined for detecting the lateral vehicle displacement from the lane center. Implementations of `look-down' reference systems, however, encountered practical constraints, limiting driving speed to approximately 20 m\\/s under realistic conditions. This paper presents new

  18. Matching Vehicle Responses Using the Model-Following Control Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) is presently being developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It is being designed to have a steer-by-wire front steering system and an independent rear steering system. These steering systems enable the VDTV to emulate the directional control characteristics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

  19. Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen in Preparing for market launch

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen in California Preparing for market launch Catherine Dunwoody June 27, 2012 #12;2 A fuel cell vehicle is electric! 2 · 300-400 mile range · Zero-tailpipe emissions · Minutes to fill the tank · Passenger & cargo capacity #12;3 Why hydrogen? Zero tailpipe pollution

  20. 49 CFR 238.321 - Out-of-service credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Out-of-service credit. 238.321 Section...for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.321 Out-of-service credit. When a passenger car is out of service for 30 or more consecutive days...

  1. 49 CFR 238.321 - Out-of-service credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Out-of-service credit. 238.321 Section...for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.321 Out-of-service credit. When a passenger car is out of service for 30 or more consecutive days...

  2. 49 CFR 238.321 - Out-of-service credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service credit. 238.321 Section...for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.321 Out-of-service credit. When a passenger car is out of service for 30 or more consecutive days...

  3. 49 CFR 238.321 - Out-of-service credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Out-of-service credit. 238.321 Section...for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.321 Out-of-service credit. When a passenger car is out of service for 30 or more consecutive days...

  4. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  5. An automated vehicle arrival notification system for paratransit customers at Texas A&M University

    E-print Network

    Donovan, Rachel A

    2000-01-01

    For paratransit passengers, not knowing when their ride (the paratransit vehicle) will be arriving to pick them up is a major concern. The objectives of this research included designing, implementing, and evaluating a system for automatically...

  6. Valuing innovative technology R&D as a real option : application to fuel cell vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tsui, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims to elucidate real option thinking and real option valuation techniques for innovative technology investment. Treating the fuel cell R&D investment as a real option for General Motor's light passenger vehicle ...

  7. Lunar rover vehicle - an implication for rehabilitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, S. R.; Primeauk, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of adapting the lunar roving vehicle control concept to automobiles and vans for quadriplegics was investigated. Topics discussed include the current state of automobile handicapped controls, a description of the affected population, and a design for interfacing the control system into a passenger vehice.

  8. Adaptive steering control for uncertain vehicle dynamics with crosswind effects and steering angle constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazli E. Kahveci

    2008-01-01

    Automatic steering control has a direct impact on satisfaction of various vehicle performance requirements including obstacle avoidance, lane tracking accuracy, and passenger comfort. The presence of unknown vehicle dynamics in steering applications requires a robust control design potentially reducing the unexpected effects of uncertain driving conditions and minimizing vehicle path deviations in case particularly strong lateral forces are experienced. Among

  9. Dilution Rates for Tailpipe Emissions: Effects of Vehicle Shape, Tailpipe Position, and Exhaust Velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor W.-C. Chang; Lynn M. Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and

  10. Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bent Sørensen

    2007-01-01

    A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insight obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles.

  11. Drive-by Motor Vehicle Emissions: Immediate Feedback in Reducing Air

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    /M program data has demonstrated that less than 10% of the vehicles on the road in the United States cause merged highway messaging and on-road vehicle emissions sensing into a cost- effective public information transportation energy consumption per vehicle-mile and per passenger-mile traveled. The difficulty in achieving

  12. Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

  13. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. 14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger...Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and...Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), Office of Airline...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  2. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign passengers' baggage. 515...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers'...

  3. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign passengers' baggage. 515...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers'...

  4. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign passengers' baggage. 515...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers'...

  5. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign passengers' baggage. 515...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers'...

  6. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign passengers' baggage. 515...Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers'...

  7. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  8. Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

  9. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  10. Biomechanics of under ride motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Sances, Anthony; Enz, Bruce; Frieder, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the biomechanical aspects of injuries sustained by occupants of passenger cars during collisions with the trailer portion of a tractor/trailer rig. In such collisions, the occupants of the passenger car often sustain serious injuries when the passenger car passes beneath the trailer. This process by which the car "underrides" the trailer occurs due to the mismatch in height between the lowermost edge of the trailer and the crash mitigation structures in the vehicle. The study outlines a car-to-trailer crash testing methodology used to determine the effectiveness of one potential trailer underride guard in preventing serious injuries to occupants of passenger cars. The results from initial crash tests suggest that occupants of cars that collide with the unguarded sides of trailers are at a high risk of serious injury to the head, neck, and chest due the large intrusion of the roof and roof support structures into the occupant compartment. Testing of a trailer fitted with an underride guard showed that occupants of vehicles that collide with the sides of trailers that have been modified to engage the energy absorbing structures of passenger cars are exposed to a smaller risk of injury. PMID:17487053

  11. Tracking passenger movement with ground based laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuaki Ishihara; Huijing Zhao; Ryosuke Shibasaki

    2001-01-01

    It is important to count the number of passengers or to measure a trajectory of passengers in many fields, such as security of a building, marketing, etc. Various studies are conducted on the methods of counting or tracking passengers. For example, cameras have been mainly used in existing studies, but the disadvantage of using cameras is that geometric parameters like

  12. Primary models of passenger car information integrated control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying You; Jian Hu; Gangyan Li

    2010-01-01

    With the increase of the number and the complexity of passenger car ECUs (Electronic Control Units), it needs to design passenger car information integrated control system for sharing information and implementing real-time control between these ECUs. In order to design passenger car information integrated control system, it is necessary to research on its primary models. In this paper, the conceptual

  13. INTERACTION AMONG FELLOW CRUISE PASSENGERS: DIVERSE EXPERIENCES AND IMPACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jue Huang; Cathy H. C. Hsu

    2009-01-01

    By employing a social?psychological approach to the study of tourist experience, the present study investigated the social interaction between fellow cruise passengers and the impact of such interaction on cruise vacation experience as perceived by the customers. Results based on content analysis of interviews and virtual focus group discussions showed that cruise passengers had diverse experiences meeting fellow passengers, which

  14. The University of Oklahoma 15-PASSENGER VAN POLICY

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of students, faculty, staff, and guests for University functions, to and from events and activities all tires to appropriate pressure, F. Use to transport cargo only, G. Not load roof or tow trailers, H. Limit the number of passengers, when passenger transport is necessary, to 8 passengers, I. Require all

  15. Survey of passenger and driver attitudes in airbag deployment crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Ferguson; Donald W. Reinfurt; Allan F. Williams

    1997-01-01

    Passengers and drivers who were in crashes in which the passenger and driver airbags deployed were surveyed about their experiences. Overall, passengers and drivers were very positive about their experience, with the overwhelming majority reporting that they felt the airbags protected them from injury. Almost all of them said they would want airbags in their next car. Many respondents (about

  16. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  17. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  18. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  19. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  20. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  1. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  2. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  3. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  4. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  5. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

  6. Driver Mortality in Paired Side Impact Collisions Due to Incompatible Vehicle Types

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Using a matched case control design, this study measured the mortality associated with paired passenger car-sport utility vehicle side impact (‘T-bone’) collisions using FARS data. Survival versus fatal outcome within the matched crash pairs was measured with matched pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression adjusted for multiple effects. Overall, passenger car drivers experienced greater mortality than did SUV drivers, regardless if they were in the struck or striking vehicle (odds ratio: 10.0; 95% confidence interval: 7.9, 12.5). Differential mortality persisted after adjustment for confounders. Efforts should be sought to improve passenger car side impact crashworthiness and to reduce SUV aggressivity. PMID:12941243

  7. Partners for child passenger safety: a unique child-specific crash surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Durbin, D R; Bhatia, E; Holmes, J H; Shaw, K N; Werner, J V; Sorenson, W; Winston, F K

    2001-05-01

    Insurance claims data were combined with telephone survey and on-site crash investigation data to create the first large scale, child-focused motor vehicle crash surveillance system in the US. Novel data management and transfer techniques were used to create a nearly real-time data collection system. In the first year of this on-going project, known as Partners for Child Passenger Safety, over 1200 children < or = 15 years of age per week were identified in crashes reported to State Farm Insurance Co. from 15 states and Washington, D.C. Partners for Child Passenger Safety is similar in its design and overall objectives to National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), the only other population-based crash surveillance system currently operating in the US. PMID:11235802

  8. Medical guidelines for space passengers. Aerospace Medical Association Task Force on Space Travel.

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    In the foreseeable future, private companies will manufacture space vehicles with a capacity of transporting tourists into low Earth orbit. Because of the stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and limited medical care capability, a system of medical clearance is highly recommended for these space tourists. It is our purpose to establish guidelines for use by private businesses, medical providers, and those planning on being a space tourist. Consequently, a Task Force was organized by the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) for the purpose of facilitating safety of passengers, fellow passengers, crew, and flight operations. The guidelines are meant to serve only as a template with the full expectation that exceptions might be made with appropriate rationale. PMID:11601561

  9. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

    2008-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

  10. Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Letendre

    1997-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

  11. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  12. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    PubMed

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak. PMID:1488941

  13. Gasohol, economics, and passenger-transportation policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    The price and availability of oil will largely determine the future role of the automobile. Government-policy changes have been limited to automobile fuel-efficiency requirements, but this does little to counteract past policies that encouraged automobile use to the point where cars account for 92% of passenger miles traveled and 31% of the petroleum consumed. Gasohol policies, which were intended to

  14. Quality of door sounds of passenger cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonoko Kuwano; Hugo Fastl; Seiichiro Namba; Seishi Nakamura; Hiroshi Uchida

    2006-01-01

    It is reported that the sound of a car door closing is one of the main factors to determine the overall impression of the car. Much effort has been made to improve the quality of this sound. In this study, sounds of the closing of the doors of various passenger cars were recorded and presented via headphones in a sound-proof

  15. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...regard to these items; (2) Use of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and...or her safety belt and, if installed, his or her shoulder harness fastened about him or her. This briefing shall include...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...regard to these items; (2) Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems: Each passenger must be...or her safety belt and, if installed, his or her shoulder harness fastened about him or her, and if a child is being...

  17. [The modern view on inside vehicle trauma].

    PubMed

    Shadymov, A B; Novoselov, A S

    2014-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries to the driver and passengers remains a challenging problem for forensic medical experts investigating traffic accidents. Specifically, the investigators encounter difficulties in the conduction of comprehensive medico-autotechnical studies. The objective of the present work was to propose the algorithm of actions for elucidating not only qualitative but also quantitative characteristics allowing to determine the position of both the driver and the front-seat passenger of the vehicle. This algorithm significantly improves the quality of expert judgment making it more objective and reliable. PMID:25269170

  18. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  19. Improving Transportation Services for the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce: A Case Study on Solving the Mixed-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Split Deliveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthikarnnarunai, N.; Olinick, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study on the application of techniques for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) to improve the transportation service provided by the University of The Thai Chamber of Commerce to its staff. The problem is modeled as VRP with time windows, split deliveries, and a mixed fleet. An exact algorithm and a heuristic solution procedure are developed to solve the problem and implemented in the AMPL modeling language and CPLEX Integer Programming solver. Empirical results indicate that the heuristic can find relatively good solutions in a small fraction of the time required by the exact method. We also perform sensitivity analysis and find that a savings in outsourcing cost can be achieved with a small increase in vehicle capacity.

  20. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  1. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  2. Architecture of a Framework for Providing Information Services for Public Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Pérez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Álvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayón, Francisco; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained. PMID:22778585

  3. Architecture of a framework for providing information services for public transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Pérez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayón, Francisco; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained. PMID:22778585

  4. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Valerie

    2012-07-31

    Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

  5. The effects of conversation on attention and peripheral detection: Is talking with a passenger and talking on the cell phone different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Amado; P?nar Ulup?nar

    2005-01-01

    In this study conversation with a remote person (hands-free phone), an in-vehicle person (passenger), and a no conversation (baseline) condition were compared on measures of attention and peripheral detection. We held conversation pace constant so that any difference found in attention or peripheral detection could be attributed to the distinctive feature of the type of conversation (remote, in-vehicle). The difficulty

  6. 78 FR 21189 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...shut off and the vehicle key is removed from the ignition lock cylinder. Deactivation...BMW stated that the vehicle is also equipped...can be operated to lock and unlock all doors...passenger doors. The vehicle can be further secured...using either the key lock cylinder on the...

  7. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Abdullah Saifizul; Hideo Yamanaka; Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2011-01-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash.However, in many cases,

  8. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  9. THE IMPACT OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVES ON ROAD TRAFFIC DISABILITY AND DEATHS COMPARED TO PASSENGER CARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulbari Bener; A. Ghaffar; Abu Azab; M. Sankaran-Kutty; F. Toth; G. Lovasz

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of injuries resulting from road traffic crashes involving four wheel drives (4WD) vehicles and passenger cars in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Al-Ain and Tawam Hospital, UAE, during a period from 1st January to 31st December 2000. Patients and Methods: A

  10. Development of passenger car equivalencies for large trucks at signalized intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, C.J. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    The research reported in this article attempted to quantitatively measure the difference in operating characteristics between passenger cars and trucks traveling straight through a level, signalized intersection. The data collected were used to develop passenger car equivalent (PCE) values for trucks based on truck type and position in queue. The results of this study indicate that there is a need to distinguish between different truck types when analyzing the capacity of a signalized intersection. Large five-axle truck combinations were found to have a significantly higher effect on the capacity of a signalized intersection than the smaller single-unit trucks. The 1985 HCM accounts for the presence of heavy vehicles through the use of a heavy vehicle adjustment factor. This factor is based on a PCE of 1.5, which is assumed to be the average PCE for trucks, buses, and recreational vehicles. When the traffic stream contains a significant number of heavy trucks, a larger PCE effect would be expected. This effect should be accounted for in the estimation of the intersection's capacity.

  11. Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China?a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail. PMID:25287805

  12. Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ??0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

  13. Hazards Faced by Young Designated Drivers: In-Car Risks of Driving Drunken Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Peter J.; Carroll, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the risk in the practice of young designated drivers transporting drunken peers. Young drivers 18–29 years old in Alberta, Canada participated in 12 focus groups (N = 146). Interviews were semi-structured. A key finding is that when highly intoxicated youth are driven by a designated driver who is a peer, they are likely to behave in ways that are unsafe. Unsafe actions of drunken passengers in the vehicle include physical “rough-housing” with the driver, creating stress for the driver that leads to high risk driving situations and disrupting safe driving through nausea and in-car vomiting. PMID:19578459

  14. [Problems of hygienic safety of passenger transportation].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, E P; Nedomerkov, Iu N; Shterengarts, R Ia; Noarov, Iu A

    1995-01-01

    Research in the sphere of railway hygiene helped develop sanitary regulations for railway stations, centers for preparation of passenger cars for exploitation, train restaurants, etc. The authors demonstrate the advances in prophylactic disinfection of stations and cars, in assessment of the hygienic hazards of polymeric materials used in car making and of the microclimate in the cars, etc. Trends for investigation in railway transport hygiene are outlined. PMID:7590382

  15. Prospective audit of the pattern, severity and circumstances of injury sustained by vehicle occupants as a result of road traffic accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bradbury; C Robertson

    1993-01-01

    The pattern and severity of injuries sustained by 174 vehicle occupants consecutively admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary were prospectively documented. Drivers (DR) accounted for 66% of the patients, 20% were front seat passengers (FSP) and 14% were rear seat passengers (RSP). Injured patients were more likely to be male, young, intoxicated and not

  16. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1987-12-01

    A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were presented.

  17. Non-fatal injuries sustained by back seat passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Christian

    1975-01-01

    Of 2,275 cases of non-fatal injuries sustained by all categories of road users 185 were inflicted on back seat passengers. Twenty-six such passengers sustained severe and 66 moderately severe injuries. Only two patients (aged 18 months and 3 years) wore any form of restraint. Back seat passengers may be injured by impact with the rear of the front seat or

  18. Understanding bus service reliability : a practical framework using AVL/APC data

    E-print Network

    Cham, Laura Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Service reliability on a transit system can have significant impacts on its provider and both existing and potential users. To passengers, unreliable service affects their perception of service quality and transit utility ...

  19. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  20. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  1. Abstract--Multi-vehicle applications rely on the dynamic allocation of resources such as vehicles,

    E-print Network

    Sengupta, Raja

    of this model are services and service providers. Services are defined by standard names and interfaces such as unmanned air vehicle networks (see [1]), net markets (see [2]), metropolitan transportation management, in an unmanned air vehicle network, vehicles leave and join the network, routers go up and down, missions start

  2. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. 238...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects....

  3. 49 CFR 238.19 - Reporting and tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment. 238.19 Section 238.19 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238...tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment. (a) General. Beginning...

  4. 49 CFR 238.19 - Reporting and tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment. 238.19 Section 238.19 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238...tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment. (a) General. Beginning...

  5. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. 238...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects....

  6. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. 238...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS General § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects....

  7. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

  8. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

  9. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

  10. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

  11. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive,...

  12. 78 FR 45997 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1996 Chevrolet Impala Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...Nonconforming 1996 Chevrolet Impala Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National...nonconforming 1996 Chevrolet Impala passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to...of the 1996 Chevrolet Impala passenger cars) and they are capable of being...

  13. 77 FR 69539 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Chevrolet Corvette Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...Nonconforming 2007 Chevrolet Corvette Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National...nonconforming 2007 Chevrolet Corvette passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to...of the 2007 Chevrolet Corvette passenger cars) and they are capable of being...

  14. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  15. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  16. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  17. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  18. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. 125.313...AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE...Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. No...

  19. Background-aware Pedestrian/Vehicle Detection System for Driving Environments

    E-print Network

    Ryoo, Michael S.

    providing safety and comfort to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. The construction of autonomous and inBackground-aware Pedestrian/Vehicle Detection System for Driving Environments Ji Hoon Joung, M. S to enhance the reliability of detection of objects in a driving envi- ronment (e.g. pedestrian and vehicle

  20. A lidar Perception Scheme for Intelligent Vehicle Julien Moras, Veronique Cherfaoui and Phillipe Bonnifait

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A lidar Perception Scheme for Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Julien Moras, V´eronique Cherfaoui presents a lidar-based perception system for passenger-cars, able to do simultaneously mapping and moving of such a perception strategy. Index Terms--Intelligent Vehicles, Environmental Perception, Mapping, Mobile Object

  1. Restraint Use Among Northwest American Indian Children Traveling in Motor Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi A. Lapidus; Nicole H. Smith; Beth E. Ebel; Francine C. Romero

    Objectives. We sought to estimate motor vehicle passenger restraint use among Northwest American Indian children 8 years old or younger and to determine factors associated with using proper (i.e., age and weight appropriate) passen- ger restraint systems. Methods. We surveyed vehicles driven by members of 6 tribes in Idaho, Ore- gon, and Washington. Associations between proper restraint and child, driver,

  2. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  3. Children in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Margolis, L H; Kotch, J; Lacey, J H

    1986-06-01

    Review of North Carolina traffic crash data revealed that alcohol use, although associated with 7.9% of motor vehicle crashes involving children, accounted for 15.4% of the motor vehicle-related deaths and 10.4% of the injuries. The largest proportion of these deaths were child passengers in a vehicle in which the driver had been drinking, followed by child passengers in multiple-vehicle crashes in which the other driver had been drinking. The smallest proportion of deaths were child pedestrians. These findings suggest that, in addition to supporting more stringent alcohol control legislation, health care providers should be admonishing parents about the deadly hazards of drinking and driving to the children in their care. PMID:3714380

  4. Braking performance of heavy U. S. vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Radlinski, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of the information available describing the braking performance of heavy (on-highway) vehicles in the U.S. and contrasts the braking performance of heavy vehicles with that of passenger cars. It discusses the unique demands that are placed on heavy vehicle brake systems and shows that it is difficult to optimize braking performance for all operating conditions without adding complexity to the system. As designed, U.S. heavy vehicles do not perform as well as cars. In addition, heavy vehicle brake performance can degrade significantly from the design-intent level if proper maintenance is not performed. The brake maintenance situation in the U.S. leaves something to be desired.

  5. Airport Passenger Buildings D R A F T de Neufville & Belin Airport Passenger Buildings

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    implies that the design of passenger buildings should normally include shared space, swing gates@mit.edu) Room E-40-245, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA 02139. (U.S.A.) 2 Senior Analyst, Simat, Helliesen & Eichner, Inc, One Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (U.S.A.) Prof. Richard de Neufville Room E 40-245, MIT

  6. Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic Impact in the United States

    E-print Network

    Karplus, V.J.

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use, as well as (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  7. Bivariate ordered-response probit model of driver’s and passenger’s injury severities in collisions with fixed objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Venkataraman N. Shankar

    2004-01-01

    A bivariate ordered-response probit model of driver’s and most severely injured passenger’s severity (IS) in collisions with fixed objects is developed in this study. Exact passenger’s IS is not necessarily observed, especially when only most severe injury of the accident and driver’s injury are recorded in the police reports. To accommodate passenger IS as well, we explicitly develop a partial

  8. Effectiveness of Automatic Shoulder Belt Systems in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick P. Rivara; Thomas D. Koepsell; David C. Grossman; Charles Mock

    2000-01-01

    Context Approximately 10 million cars with automatic shoulder belt systems are cur- rently in use in the United States. However, reports on the effectiveness of such re- straints have yielded conflicting results. Objective To determine the effectiveness of automatic shoulder belt systems in re- ducing the risk of injury and death among front-seat passenger vehicle occupants. Design, Setting, and Subjects

  9. Vehicle road runoff — active steering control for shoulder induced accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Black; J. Wagner; K. Alexander; P. Pidgeon

    2008-01-01

    The safe operation of a passenger\\/commercial ground vehicle requires continual judgment, mission planning, and driving skills by the operator. The departure of the tires from the prescribed road surface, labeled road runoff, represents a hazardous situation that must be properly handled to prevent unintended consequences. In this instance, the recommended actions are for the driver to recognize the situation, reduce

  10. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Wang; D. Sperling; J. Olmstead

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural

  11. On-board equipment for liquid hydrogen vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Michel; H. Fieseler; G. Meyer; F. Thei?en

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on liquid hydrogen-powered vehicles such as passenger cars and buses. It describes recent solutions for the on-board storage and supply of the liquid fuel for different vehicles and driving systems, for example in internal combustion engines and fuel cells.In addition to optimized storage facilities and particular safety components, systems for improved pressure management and a new device

  12. Electric versus conventional vehicles: social costs and benefits in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina Funk; Ari Rabl

    1999-01-01

    This article compares the social costs of electric vehicles with those of conventional, thermal vehicles for typical passenger use in the Ile-de-France region (Greater Paris), a case of particular interest because nearly 80% of the electricity is generated by nuclear power plants. A four-seat electric car is compared to a new conventional car of the same make and model; for

  13. Electric versus conventional vehicles: Social Costs and Benefits in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    This article compares the social costs of electric vehicles with those of conventional, thermal vehicles for typical passenger use in the Ile-de-France region (Greater Paris), a case of particular interest because nearly 80% of the electricity is generated by nuclear power plants. A four-seat electric car is compared to a new conventional car of the same make and model; for

  14. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...requirements that prepare a flight attendant to initiate and lead...physically open the exit, understand flight attendant commands and be able...passenger-caused evacuation delays. Many exit seat passengers...that one of the main reasons flight attendants need to get off...

  15. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  16. The actual threat posed by unrestrained rear seat car passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Broughton

    2004-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the threat posed by unrestrained rear seat car passengers to restrained drivers and front seat passengers was published in 2002. This was based on Japanese accident data from 1995 to 1999, and the conclusions have been checked using corresponding accident data from Great Britain. The law in respect of the use of seat belts and other

  17. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers. PMID:25516129

  18. Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Poormon, Kevin; Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Greene, Nathanael; Rodriquez, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium: shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the defInition of the penetration criteria of the propellant and oxidizer tanks dome surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

  19. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ? 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT) as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM), and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI) was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%). The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7), mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days). In four flights (19%), contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P < 0,05). Passenger locator cards did not improve timeliness of CI. In only three flights contact details were identified within 2 days after arrival. Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided during and after the flight. Public health authorities should take into account patient delays in seeking medical advise and laboratory confirmation in relation to maximum time to provide postexposure prophylaxis when deciding to install contact tracing measures. International standardization of CT guidelines is recommended. PMID:22204494

  20. Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks.

    PubMed

    Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-09-16

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

  1. Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H.; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

  2. ASPS: American Suborbital Passenger System 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyczalek, Floyd A.

    1994-11-01

    With the evaporation of funding support for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), realization of a single stage to orbit flight system has been deferred. With the resource down sizing of the NASP management and technical team, development of the NASP concept appears to be delayed beyond the year 2030. To fill this gap for shorter flight times to remote destinations over 8,000 km, it is now proposed to convert the existing NASA shuttle to a passenger configuration and air launch horizontally from a Boeing 747 aircraft as the first stage carrier after climb to launch altitude. This US Shuttle concept may permit the transport of 100 passengers to destinations 10,000 km distant during a flight duration of 90 minutes, and during flight durations of about 120 minutes to any commercial destination on the planet Earth. This long distance system takes advantage of the existing shuttle and Boeing 747 airframe and propulsion technology, and can be implemented within the next decade.

  3. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...provided that the following vehicles and uses are exempted from...Watercraft; (c) Over-snow vehicles; (d) Limited administrative...Service; (e) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle for emergency...

  4. Vulnerability Analysis and Passenger Source Prediction in Urban Rail Transit Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Li, Yishuai; Liu, Jingyu; He, Kun; Wang, Pu

    2013-01-01

    Based on large-scale human mobility data collected in San Francisco and Boston, the morning peak urban rail transit (URT) ODs (origin-destination matrix) were estimated and the most vulnerable URT segments, those capable of causing the largest service interruptions, were identified. In both URT networks, a few highly vulnerable segments were observed. For this small group of vital segments, the impact of failure must be carefully evaluated. A bipartite URT usage network was developed and used to determine the inherent connections between urban rail transits and their passengers' travel demands. Although passengers' origins and destinations were easy to locate for a large number of URT segments, a few show very complicated spatial distributions. Based on the bipartite URT usage network, a new layer of the understanding of a URT segment's vulnerability can be achieved by taking the difficulty of addressing the failure of a given segment into account. Two proof-of-concept cases are described here: Possible transfer of passenger flow to the road network is here predicted in the cases of failures of two representative URT segments in San Francisco. PMID:24260355

  5. Outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness on passenger cruise ships, 1975-85.

    PubMed Central

    Addiss, D. G.; Yashuk, J. C.; Clapp, D. E.; Blake, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed data from the Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP), established by the US Public Health Service in 1975, to describe the epidemiology of shipboard diarrhoeal outbreaks, determine the risk of outbreak-related illness among cruise ship passengers, and evaluate changes in rates and patterns of shipboard diarrhoeal illness since the VSP was implemented. When the programme began, none of the cruise ships passed periodic VSP sanitation inspections; since 1978, more than 50% of ships have met the standard each year. On cruises lasting 3-15 days and having at least 100 passengers, diarrhoeal disease outbreaks investigated by the Centers for Disease Control decreased from 8.1 to 3.0 per 10 million passenger days between 1975-79 and 1980-85. The proportion of outbreaks due to bacterial pathogens (36%) did not change. Seafood cocktail was implicated in 8 of 13 documented food-borne outbreaks. The risk of diarrhoeal disease outbreaks on cruise ships appears to have decreased since implementation of the VSP but has not been eliminated. PMID:2776853

  6. Does increased emergency medical services prehospital time affect patient mortality in rural motor vehicle crashes? A statewide analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Gonzalez; Glenn R. Cummings; Herbert A. Phelan; Madhuri S. Mulekar; Charles B. Rodning

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundFatality rates from rural vehicular trauma are almost double those found in urban settings. It has been suggested that increased prehospital time is a factor that adversely affects fatality rates in rural vehicular trauma. By linking and analyzing Alabama's statewide prehospital data, emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital time was assessed for rural and urban vehicular crashes.

  7. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria air pollutants, life-cycle components often dominate total emissions and can be a magnitude larger than operational counterparts. Per passenger mile traveled, total SO2 emissions (between 350 and 460 mg) are 19-27 times larger than operational emissions as a result of electricity generation in vehicle manufacturing, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. NOx emissions increase 50-73% for automobiles, 24% for buses, 13-1300% for rail, and 19-24% for aircraft. Non-tailpipe VOCs are 27-40% of total automobile, 71-95% of rail, and 51-81% of air total emissions. Infrastructure and parking construction are major components of total PM10 emissions resulting in total emissions over three times larger than operational emissions for autos and even larger for many rail systems and aircraft (the major contributor being emissions from hot-mix asphalt plants and concrete production). Infrastructure construction and operation as well as vehicle manufacturing increase total CO emissions by 5-17 times from tailpipe performance for rail and 3-9 times for air. A case study comparing the environmental performance of metropolitan regions is presented as an application of the inventory results. The San Francisco Bay Area, Chicago, and New York City are evaluated capturing passenger transportation life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emissions. The regions are compared between off-peak and peak travel as well as personal and public transit. Additionally, healthcare externalities are computed from vehicle emissions. It is estimated that life-cycle energy varies from 6.3 MJ/PMT in the Bay Area to 5.7 MJ/PMT in Chicago and 5.3 MJ/PMT in New York for an average trip. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 480 g CO2e/PMT in the Bay Area to 440 g CO2e/PMT for Chicago and 410 g CO 2e/PMT in New York. CAP emissions vary depending on the pollutant with differences as large as 25% between regions. Life-cycle CAP emissions are between 11% and 380% larger than their operational counterparts. Peak travel, with typical higher riderships, does not necessarily

  8. Danyi Wang and Dr. Lance Sherry 1 Trend Analysis of Airline Passenger Trip Delays

    E-print Network

    the number of operations, the number of cancellations, load factor and passenger trip delays. INTRODUCTION On in cancellations (+1.5%) and higher load factors (+5.4%), resulted in 17.4% increase in Estimated Total Passenger not consider passenger factors such as load factor, aircraft size, and number of passenger loaded. Cancelling

  9. Dynamic Vehicle Routing with Priority Classes of Stochastic Demands

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen L.

    In this paper we introduce a dynamic vehicle routing problem in which there are multiple vehicles and multiple priority classes of service demands. Service demands of each priority class arrive in the environment randomly ...

  10. Electric vehicle future examined

    SciTech Connect

    Weslowski, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    A major oil disruption is probably necessary before electric vehicles (EVs) can make a market breakthrough, but the 1980s will see a period of experimentation and demonstration to develop a battery and components that will attract buyers. Batter research focuses on weight, energy density, endurance, and economics, but the first generation of vehicles will likely rely on lead-acid batteries until the new technologies are proved. The budding EV industry needs to collect more standardized performance data on vehicles in service. Several new batteries are under study by private and government groups, but these efforts need to be coordinated before the EV industry can develop. (DCK)

  11. Effect of helicopter noise on passenger annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of helicopter interior noise on passenger annoyance for both reverie and listening situations was investigated. The relative effectiveness of several metrics for quantifying annoyance response for these situations was also studied. The noise stimuli were based upon recordings of the interior noise of civil helicopter research aircraft. These noises were presented at levels ranging from approximately 70 to 86 d with various tonal components selectively attenuated to give a range of spectra. The listening task required the subjects to listen to and record phonetically-balanced words presented within the various noise environments. Results indicate that annoyance during a listening condition is generally higher than annoyance under a reverie condition for corresponding interior noise environments. Attenuation of the tonal components results in increases in listening performance but has only a small effect upon annoyance for a given noise level.

  12. Formulation of lower phosphorus passenger car oils

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, A.L.; Korosec, P.S.; Malfer, D.J.; Yatsunami, K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program to evaluate the effect of lowering zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) content on engine oil performance. The automative industry is concerned that engine oil composition may have an adverse effect on exhaust catalytic converter efficiency and has therefore called for more research to develop engine oils that will promote catlyst/engine oil compatibility. An apparently simple solution is to reduce ZDDP content to a level that allows satisfactory catalyst efficiency. The effects of lowering the ZDDP content have been evaluated in terms of wear, oxidation and bearing corrosion performance. It has been demonstrated that in laboratory engines and rig tests by quantifying the influence of lubricant composition on performance, engine oils can be formulated at lower phosphorous levels (0.08% wt) to meet the performance needs of modern passenger cars in the United States, Europe and Japan.

  13. Introducing heterogeneous users and vehicles into models and algorithms for the dial-a-ride problem.

    PubMed

    Parragh, Sophie N

    2011-08-01

    Dial-a-ride problems deal with the transportation of people between pickup and delivery locations. Given the fact that people are subject to transportation, constraints related to quality of service are usually present, such as time windows and maximum user ride time limits. In many real world applications, different types of users exist. In the field of patient and disabled people transportation, up to four different transportation modes can be distinguished. In this article we consider staff seats, patient seats, stretchers and wheelchair places. Furthermore, most companies involved in the transportation of the disabled or ill dispose of different types of vehicles. We introduce both aspects into state-of-the-art formulations and branch-and-cut algorithms for the standard dial-a-ride problem. Also a recent metaheuristic method is adapted to this new problem. In addition, a further service quality related issue is analyzed: vehicle waiting time with passengers aboard. Instances with up to 40 requests are solved to optimality. High quality solutions are obtained with the heuristic method. PMID:24511211

  14. Radar objects detection and imaging for ground-based vehicle collision avoidance: computer simulation results and safety aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Pusone; A. Terzi; A. Coccia; J. J. Reijmers; L. P. Ligthart; W. Ockels

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to illustrate a new concept of a multi-sensor system for obstacle detection, and collision avoidance by controlling the motion of the vehicle traveling at very high speed regimes, of the order of 250 km\\/h. The paper illustrates the primary requirement of safety for the vehicle and the passengers and presents the effects of relative

  15. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Hydrogen Storage Project: Progress towards meeting hydrogen-powered vehicle requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunita Satyapal; John Petrovic; Carole Read; George Thomas; Grace Ordaz

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on-board a wide range of vehicle platforms, while meeting all consumer requirements (driving range, cost, safety, performance, etc.), without compromising passenger or cargo space, is a tremendous technical challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in

  16. NASA N+3 Subsonic Fixed Wing Silent Efficient Low-Emissions Commercial Transport (SELECT) Vehicle Study. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Sam; Baber, Scott; Harris,Chris; Caldwell, Nicholas; Keding, Peter; Rahrig, Kyle; Pho, Luck; Wlezian, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual commercial passenger transport study was performed to define a single vehicle for entry into service in the 2030 to 2035 timeframe, meeting customer demands as well as NASA goals for improved fuel economy, NOx emissions, noise, and operability into smaller airports. A study of future market and operational scenarios was used to guide the design of an advanced tube-and-wing configuration that utilized advanced material and structural concepts, an advanced three-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine, natural laminar flow technology, and a suite of other advanced technologies. This configuration was found to meet the goals for NOx emissions, noise, and field length. A 64 percent improvement in fuel economy compared to a current state-of-the-art airliner was achieved, which fell slightly short of the desired 70 percent goal. Technology maturation plans for the technologies used in the design were developed to help guide future research and development activities.

  17. Electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Riezenman

    1992-01-01

    The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

  18. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...during the period that the alternative inspection interval is in effect. Data documenting inspections, tests, component replacement and renewals...retained for not less than three (3) inspection intervals. (f) Nonconformity...

  19. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

  20. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

  1. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  2. BOWIE INTERLOCKING TOWER AND PASSENGER STATION. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOWIE INTERLOCKING TOWER AND PASSENGER STATION. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 120.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Impacts of revenue management on estimates of spilled passenger demand

    E-print Network

    Abramovich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the airline industry, spill refers to passenger demand turned away from a flight because demand has exceeded capacity. The accurate estimation of spill and the lost revenue it implies is an important parameter in airline ...

  4. Passenger-to-train assignment model based on automated data

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yiwen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing a methodology for assigning passengers to individual trains using: (i) fare transaction records from Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) system and (ii) the train tracking data from Automatic ...

  5. Transfer passenger needs at airports : human factors in terminal design

    E-print Network

    Brillembourg, Marie-Claire

    1982-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the needs of particular users of airport: transfer passengers. The object of this work has been to produce a set of design guidelines for terminals. these guidelines are framed upon a user-need survey ...

  6. Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan 

    E-print Network

    Horie, Teruhiko

    1969-01-01

    a compara- tive study. A comparative survey will be made into the passenger transportation history of the United States prior to the World War II. This survey is an attempt to investigate the possibility of correlating ch 'ngss '. n automobile...

  7. 1. VIEW OF FORMER PASSENGER CANOPY EXTENDING FROM SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF FORMER PASSENGER CANOPY EXTENDING FROM SIDE OF STATION DOWN ALL SAINTS STREET. (4' x 5' negative) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Frederick Station, Southeast Corner of Market & All Saints Streets, Frederick, Frederick County, MD

  8. Productivity performance of US passenger airlines since deregulation

    E-print Network

    Powell, Robert A., II (Robert Andre)

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate US passenger airlines' productivity performance since the airline deregulation in 1978, this research measures and compares productivity at both the US airline industry and individual carrier levels. Productivity ...

  9. Impact of deleterious passenger mutations on cancer progression

    E-print Network

    Korolev, Kirill Sergeevich

    Cancer progression is driven by the accumulation of a small number of genetic alterations. However, these few driver alterations reside in a cancer genome alongside tens of thousands of additional mutations termed passengers. ...

  10. Design of route guidance information for elderly bus passengers

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Pei Pei

    1992-01-01

    . Make any changes necessary to develop a more effective way to present route guidance information to elderly bus passengers. Test to see if and how the changes help elderly people in using route guidance information to successfully reach desired...

  11. Test of a theoretical commuter exposure model to vehicle exhaust in traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Flachsbart, P.; Ah Yo, C.

    1986-04-01

    A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations that describe this situation are developed and discussed. The model is evaluated according to predictive power, explanatory power when compared to a more-parsimonious model, and the influence of initial CO concentrations inside a vehicle's passenger compartment. The model is shown to have relatively high predictive power and excellent explanatory power when compared to the more-conservative model.

  12. Intercity Passenger Rail Federal Funding presented by

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    2010 ·! Environmental Impact Statement/Preliminary Engineering Spring 2011 - 2013 ·! Design service #12;Twin Cities to Chicago Timeline ·! Service NEPA /Tier 1 environmental documentation - Fall negotiations with railroads, securing necessary federal approvals, minimal environmental mitigation factors

  13. Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Wells, Joann K

    2005-03-01

    During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle-animal crashes during 2000-2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck animals were deer, but six other types of animals were involved including small ones such as dogs. Eighty percent of the crashes were single-vehicle events. In most of these cases a motorcycle struck an animal and the rider came off the vehicle, or a passenger vehicle struck an animal and then ran off the road; in a few cases the animal went through the windshield. Multiple-vehicle crashes included vehicles striking deer that went through the windshields of oncoming vehicles, vehicles striking animals and then colliding with other vehicles, and vehicles striking animals that subsequently were struck by other vehicles. Crashes occurred primarily in rural areas, on roads with 55 mph or higher speed limits, during evening or nighttime hours, and in darkness. Greater application of deer-vehicle collision countermeasures known to be effective is needed, but it is noteworthy that a majority of fatalities occurred from subsequent collisions with other vehicles or objects, not from animal contacts. Sixty-five percent of motorcyclists killed were not wearing helmets, and 60% of vehicle occupants killed were unbelted; many of these fatalities would not have occurred with proper protection. PMID:15823876

  14. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  15. Correlates of attitudes toward a smoking ban in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul

    2005-01-01

    To examine the predictors of attitudes toward a smoking ban in vehicles, a computer-assisted telephone interview was conducted for a representative sample of Indiana adult residents using the random-digit-dialing method. Less than one third of the total respondents favored a smoking ban for car drivers and passengers, whereas about two thirds favored the smoking ban in public places. Fifty-four percent and 63 percent of nonsmokers opposed the smoking ban for car drivers and passengers, respectively. Religiosity was a significant predictor for attitudes toward a smoking ban for both drivers and passengers when controlling for other predictors, including smoking status, employment status, and age group. Gender, income group, and race/ethnicity were insignificant. PMID:15958935

  16. Metro passenger behaviors and their relations to metro incident involvement.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xin; Li, Qiming; Yuan, Jingfeng; Schonfeld, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    The frequent incidents caused by metro passengers in China suggest that it is necessary to explore the classification and effects of passenger behaviors and their relations to incident involvement. A metro passenger behavior questionnaire (MPBQ) and a metro station staff questionnaire (MSSQ), both comprising 32 behavior items, were developed and surveyed on a sample of metro passengers (N=579) and metro staff (N=99). Using the MPBQ, the self-reported frequency of each aberrant behavior was measured and subjected to explanatory factor analysis, which revealed a three-factor solution on the 28 retained behavior items: transgressions, self-willed inattentions and abrupt violations. ANOVA was used to examine the effects of demographic and riding profile variables on different types of behaviors. The MSSQ was used to collect metro staff opinions on behavior frequency, severity and entities that might be affected, given that a specific behavior occurred. An importance hierarchy was established over the 32 identified behaviors to determine the most important riding behaviors. Finally, logistic regression showed that riding time, number of stops experienced by a passenger and, more importantly, transgressions and abrupt violations, were significant predictors of incident involvement. The possible explanations and implications of the findings might help in understanding passenger behaviors and targeting metro safety interventions in ways that promote safer operations. PMID:26056970

  17. Vehicle classes for pavement design and capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, J.; Asce, M.; Lalani, N.; O'Connell, R.; Petersen, C.

    1986-11-01

    Transportation engineers working in Colorado were aware of a lack of published data at both the local and national level for vehicle classes on urban streets. Such vehicle class breakdowns are necessary for calculating equivalent daily loaded axle (EDLA) values for pavement design and conducting capacity analyses. A technical committee was formed to collect and analyze weekday vehicle class data on urban streets of various types. The major vehicle classes are passenger cars (70-75%), pickups (15-20%), single unit trucks (5-7%); tractor-trailers, buses, and recreational vehicles account for less than 1%. Using these data, a microcomputer spread sheet was set up to calculate EDLA values for pavement design for a range of design year volumes. This vehicle class data is also very useful in highway capacity calculations.

  18. Development of a Thermoelectric Module Suitable for Vehicles and Based on CoSb3 Manufactured Close to Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Altstedde, Mirko; Sottong, Reinhard; Freitag, Oliver; Kober, Martin; Dreißigacker, Volker; Zabrocki, Knud; Szabo, Patric

    2015-06-01

    Despite the ongoing electrification of vehicle propulsion systems, vehicles with combustion engines will continue to bear the brunt of passenger services worldwide for the next few decades. As a result, the German Aerospace Center Institute of Vehicle Concepts, the Institute of Materials Research and the Institute of Technical Thermodynamics have focused on utilising the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines by means of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). Their primary goal is the development of cost-efficient TEGs with long-term stability and maximised energy yield. In addition to the overall TEG system design, the development of long-term stable, efficient thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for high-temperature applications is a great challenge. This paper presents the results of internal development work and reveals an expedient module design for use in TEGs suitable for vehicles. The TEM requirements identified, which were obtained by means of experiments on the test vehicle and test bench, are described first. Doped semiconductor materials were produced and characterised by production methods capable of being scaled up in order to represent series application. The results in terms of thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) were used for the simulative design of a thermoelectric module using a constant-property model and with the aid of FEM calculations. Thermomechanical calculations of material stability were carried out in addition to the TEM's thermodynamic and thermoelectric design. The film sequence within the module represented a special challenge. Multilayer films facilitated adaptation of the thermal and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed films. A joint which dispenses with solder additives was also possible using multilayer films. The research resulted in a functionally-optimised module design, which was enhanced for use in motor vehicles using process flexibility and close-to-production manufacturing methods.

  19. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  20. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  1. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  2. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  3. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. 25.25-17 Section...for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate...

  4. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. 25.25-17 Section...for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate...

  5. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...37.107 Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...purchase or lease a new rail passenger car to be used in providing specified...

  6. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...37.107 Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...purchase or lease a new rail passenger car to be used in providing specified...

  7. 77 FR 5303 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1999 Volkswagen Bora Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Nonconforming 1999 Volkswagen Bora Passenger Cars Manufactured for Sale in the Europe Are...nonconforming 1999 Volkswagen Bora passenger cars manufactured for sale in the Europe (nonconforming...1999 European Volkswagen Bora passenger cars) that were not originally...

  8. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...37.107 Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged...purchase or lease a new rail passenger car to be used in providing specified...

  9. 78 FR 10687 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992 Porsche Carrera Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...Nonconforming 1992 Porsche Carrera Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National...decision that 1992 Porsche Carrera passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to...nonconforming 1992 Porsche Carrera passenger cars are eligible for importation into the...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and...13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? Commercial transport of passengers between...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and...13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? Commercial transport of passengers between...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and...13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? Commercial transport of passengers between...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and...13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? Commercial transport of passengers between...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and...13.1128 Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? Commercial transport of passengers between...

  15. Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

  16. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  17. Age appropriate restraints for the right front passenger.

    PubMed

    Augenstein, J; Perdeck, E; Digges, K; Bahouth, G

    2007-01-01

    This study applies NASS/CDS, GES and FARS data to examine occupant exposure plus injury and fatality rates for belted occupants in frontal crashes by seating position, age and gender. The NASS data was used to examine the distributions by crash severity. The GES data showed that when two elderly occupants (age 65+) were present, the female occupied the right front passenger position 73% of the time. A paired comparison analysis using FARS data showed that, for elderly occupants (age 65+), the fatality risk for elderly right front passengers is 42% higher than for elderly drivers. The NASS/CDS analysis found 74% of the seriously injured vulnerable passengers with MAIS 3+ injuries were in crashes less severe than 26 mph. This group of injured occupants was made up of 43% aged 50 and older and 42% younger females. The injury rates for the older (age 50+) right front passengers were 1.8 times the rates for the elderly drivers. These results suggest the need for more benign safety systems for the right front passenger that are appropriate for the lower injury tolerance of the predominant occupants of that seating position. PMID:18184503

  18. Passenger Mutations Confound Interpretation of All Genetically Modified Congenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berghe, Tom; Hulpiau, Paco; Martens, Liesbet; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Perry, Seth W; Bruggeman, Inge; Divert, Tatyana; Choi, Sze Men; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Shestopalov, Valery I; Libert, Claude; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2015-07-21

    Targeted mutagenesis in mice is a powerful tool for functional analysis of genes. However, genetic variation between embryonic stem cells (ESCs) used for targeting (previously almost exclusively 129-derived) and recipient strains (often C57BL/6J) typically results in congenic mice in which the targeted gene is flanked by ESC-derived passenger DNA potentially containing mutations. Comparative genomic analysis of 129 and C57BL/6J mouse strains revealed indels and single nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in alternative or aberrant amino acid sequences in 1,084 genes in the 129-strain genome. Annotating these passenger mutations to the reported genetically modified congenic mice that were generated using 129-strain ESCs revealed that nearly all these mice possess multiple passenger mutations potentially influencing the phenotypic outcome. We illustrated this phenotypic interference of 129-derived passenger mutations with several case studies and developed a Me-PaMuFind-It web tool to estimate the number and possible effect of passenger mutations in transgenic mice of interest. PMID:26163370

  19. A desiccant dehumidifier for electric vehicle heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Vehicle heating requires a substantial amount of energy. Engines in conventional cars produce enough waste heat to provide comfort heating and defogging/defrosting, even under very extreme conditions. Electric vehicles (EVs), however, generate little waste heat. Using battery energy for heating may consume a substantial fraction of the energy storage capacity, reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters in determining EV acceptability. Water vapor generated by the vehicle passengers is in large part responsible for the high heating loads existing in vehicles. In cold climates, the generation of water vapor inside the car may result in water condensation on the windows, diminishing visibility. Two strategies are commonly used to avoid condensation on windows: windows are kept warm, and a large amount of ambient air is introduced in the vehicle. Either strategy results in a substantial heating load. These strategies are often used in combination, and a trade-off exists between them. If window temperature is decreased, ventilation rate has to be increased. Reducing the ventilation rate requires an increase of the temperature of the windows to prevent condensation. An alternative solution is a desiccant dehumidifier, which adsorbs water vapor generated by the passengers. Window temperatures and ventilation rates can then be reduced, resulting in a substantially lower heating load. This paper explores the dehumidifier heating concept. The first part shows the energy savings that could be obtained by using this technology. The second part specifies the required characteristics and dimensions of the system. The results indicate that the desiccant system can reduce the steady-state heating load by 60% or more under typical conditions. The reduction in heating load is such that waste heat may be enough to provide the required heating under most ambient conditions. Desiccant system dimensions and weight appear reasonable for packaging in an EV.

  20. A longitudinal analysis of passenger travel disruptions in the National Air Transportation System

    E-print Network

    Njuguna, Esther Nyokabi

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the U.S. National Air Transportation System has shown that approximately 50% of delays suffered by passengers are a result of passenger travel disruptions in the form of either flight cancellations or ...