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1

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1983-02-22

2

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1980-01-01

3

Choosing railway Vehicles for carrying passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To carry passengers, diesel and electrical trains, railcars, passenger carriages and hauled locomotives are used in AB ‘Lietuvos geležinkeliai’ (Lithuanian Railways). In certain sections, the number of passengers is very low (e.g. several or up to twenty passengers per 24 hours), and therefore rolling stock is used inefficiently. For this reason, it is necessary to optimize the choice of vehicles

Stasys Dailydka

2010-01-01

4

Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold

Kristopher J. Seluga; Irving U. Ojalvo; Richard M. Obert

2005-01-01

5

Evaluation of passenger rail vehicle crashworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been an increased effort to investigate and improve the crashworthiness of passenger rail vehicles in the United States. The structural crashworthiness requirements for new rail vehicles are changing to include specifications for crash energy management and crush zones rather than primarily specifications of vehicle and component strengths. In addition, the structural requirements to improve crashworthiness

S. W. Kirkpatrick; M. Schroeder; J. W. Simons

2001-01-01

6

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. 238.307 Section 238...and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1...unpowered vehicles used in a passenger train as required by this...

2010-10-01

7

49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. 238.307 Section 238...and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1...unpowered vehicles used in a passenger train as required by this...

2009-10-01

8

Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.  

PubMed

Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

2005-07-01

9

Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment  

DOEpatents

A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01

10

Scenario Analysis of Chinese Passenger Vehicle Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a simulation and scenario analysis of Chinese passenger vehicle growth and resulting energy demand and CO2<\\/sub> emissions. The model includes provincial level logistic growth functions with saturation levels representative of neighboring Asian economies, income growth measured in international dollars, and both estimated and literature-based income elasticities. Scenarios explore variation in key parameters, including income and population

Peter H. Kobos; Jon D. Erickson; Thomas E. Drennen

2003-01-01

11

Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.  

PubMed

This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

2003-01-01

12

REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

13

Architecture of a passenger information system for public transport services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passenger information system (PIS) called TUTPIS has been developed for networking passengers with companies that provide public transport services. TUTPIS supports a passenger with personalised, real time information services in all phases of a journey. Services include timetables, travel route searching, route reservations, and electronic payment. TUTPIS is targeted to operate on the developing wireless network infrastructure of mobile,

M. Hannikainen; A. Laitinen; T. Hamalainen; K. Kaisto; K. Leskinen

2001-01-01

14

75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 AGENCY...SUMMARY: Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008...

2010-05-12

15

Reducing risks to children in vehicles with passenger airbags.  

PubMed

This review examines the risk that passenger airbags pose for children and discusses behavioral and technologic measures aimed at protecting children from airbag deployment. Although airbags reduce fatal crash injuries among adult drivers and passengers, this safety technology increases mortality risk among children younger than age 12. The magnitude of the risk is multiplied when children are unrestrained or restrained improperly. As new vehicles are resold to buyers who tend to be less safety-conscious than new car owners, the number of children endangered by passenger airbag deployment may increase. For vehicles already in the fleet, strong measures are required to secure children in the rear seat and increase the proper use of appropriate restraint systems through police enforcement of laws. One promising strategy is to amend child passenger safety laws to require that parents secure children in the rear seats. For future vehicles, a mandatory performance standard should be adopted that suppresses airbag deployment automatically if a child is located in the front passenger seat. Other promising improvements in airbag design also are discussed. Major changes in passenger airbag design must be evaluated in a broad analytical framework that considers the welfare of adults as well as children. PMID:9651455

Graham, J D; Goldie, S J; Segui-Gomez, M; Thompson, K M; Nelson, T; Glass, R; Simpson, A; Woerner, L G

1998-07-01

16

Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

2009-12-01

17

Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airline industry is undergoing a very difficult time and many companies are in search of service segmentation strategies that will satisfy different target market segments. This study attempts to identify the service dimensions that matter most to current airline passengers. The research measures and compares differences in passengers’ expectations of the desired airline service quality in terms of the

David Gilbert; Robin K. C Wong

2003-01-01

18

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF VEHICLE MODELS COUPLED WITH BIODYNAMIC PASSENGER MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates dynamic response of discrete passenger-seat models coupled with simplified models of ground vehicles. The relatively small dimension of the resulting mechanical model is counterweighted by the complexity introduced by the strongly nonlinear characteristics exhibited by the components of both the biodynamic and the car subsystems. This complexity is enhanced further by the possibility of loss of contact

C. Papalukopoulos; C. Theodosiou; S. Natsiavas

19

Baseline Tests of the Epc Hummingbird Electric Passenger Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted ...

R. J. Slavik E. A. Maslowski N. B. Sargent A. Birchenough

1977-01-01

20

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

2010-07-01

21

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

2010-07-01

22

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

2009-07-01

23

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

2009-07-01

24

Market Penetration of Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for futur...

D. Froker

1981-01-01

25

The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ?67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

2013-04-01

26

Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings. PMID:16435701

Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

2005-01-01

27

49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles...374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate...

2010-10-01

28

49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles...374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate...

2009-10-01

29

Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for\\u000a such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment\\u000a involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated\\u000a thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental

Tzu-Ping Lin; Ruey-Lung Hwang; Kuo-Tsang Huang; Chen-Yi Sun; Ying-Che Huang

2010-01-01

30

The effect of passenger load on unstable vehicles in fatal, untripped rollover crashes.  

PubMed Central

Consumers may be unaware of the risk of rollover crashes posed by passenger loads in vehicles with poor roll stability. This analysis demonstrates that certain sports utility vehicles and small pickup trucks have designs that are so unstable that the weight of the passengers in the vehicle affects its propensity to roll over. This effect occurs even though the weight of the loaded vehicle is less than the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating. The risk of a fatal, "untripped" rollover crash in vehicles with low roll stability is increased as each passenger is added to the vehicle load.

Whitfield, R A; Jones, I S

1995-01-01

31

78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

2013-03-13

32

International air passenger services: The determinants of bata negotiation outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

International air passenger services, like services in general, have played an increasingly important role in international commerce. No such services would take place, however, without bilateral air transport agreements (BATAs). This study examines the determinants of the outcomes of the BATA negotiation process. It focuses on United States flags hare, a key outcome. Using regression analysis, this study finds that

John Palmer; Douglas Nigh

1986-01-01

33

[Determinants of passengers' dissatisfaction regarding disrupted train service].  

PubMed

This research employed an extended hypothetical model that included the cognitions of attribution and importance from Oliver's (1980) expectancy-disconfirmation model. The model examined factors which might mitigate the experiences of dissatisfied passengers who encountered the types of service disruption that occur frequently on city train routes. A covariance structural analysis model was applied to questionnaire data obtained from 5383 railroad users who encountered problems. The passengers' degree of discontent was most strongly influenced by their evaluation of the responsibility attributed by the railroad company. The strong influence of the passengers' impression of the impropriety of the railroad company's announcements regarding the train service make it imperative for the railroad company to take strong corrective action. The passengers' dissatisfaction will decrease greatly when there are appropriate announcements, in addition to the alleviation of discrepancies related to time, confusion, and changes. PMID:22834088

Yamauchi, Kana

2012-06-01

34

The passenger vessel services act and America's cruise tourism industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Passenger Vessel Services Act (PVSA) of 1886, a cabotage law, attempts to shield U.S. maritime shipping from foreign competition. It also applies to the U.S. cruise ship industry. The PVSA requires foreign cruise ships that carry passengers between U.S. ports to also stop at foreign ports. Norwegian Cruise Line America (NCLA), which operates one U.S. flagged cruise ship in

James Mak; Christopher Sheehey; Shannon Toriki

2010-01-01

35

76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period...regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle weights. The purpose of this...

2011-05-19

36

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used. A cylinder secured against shifting while in...

2012-10-01

37

49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used. A cylinder secured against shifting while in...

2011-10-01

38

Developing zones of tolerance for managing passenger rail service quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to develop and empirically test an extension to the three-column format SERVQUAL instrument to evaluate passenger rail service quality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article combines the literatures of service quality and rail transport quality to develop the conceptual framework. Three new transport dimensions (comfort, connection, and convenience) are added to the original five

Robert Y. Cavana; Lawrence M. Corbett

2007-01-01

39

Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. Design and settings: The Pedestrian Crash Data Study, conducted from 1994 to 1998, provided a solid database upon which details and mechanism of pedestrian crashes can be investigated. Results: From 552 recorded cases in this database, 542 patients had complete injury related information, making a meaningful study of pedestrian crash characteristics possible. Pedestrians struck by LTVs had a higher risk (29%) of severe injuries (abbreviated injury scale ?4) compared with passenger vehicles (18%) (p = 0.02). After adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed, LTVs were associated with 3.0 times higher risk of severe injuries (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 7.29, p = 0.013). Mortality rate for pedestrians struck by LTVs (25%) was two times higher than that for passenger vehicles (12%) (p<0.001). Risk of death for LTV crashes after adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed was 3.4 times higher than that for passenger vehicles (95% CI 1.45 to 7.81, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Vehicle type strongly influences risk of severe injury and death to pedestrian. This may be due in part to the front end design of the vehicle. Hence vehicle front end design, especially for LTVs, should be considered in future motor vehicle safety standards.

Roudsari, B; Mock, C; Kaufman, R; Grossman, D; Henary, B; Crandall, J

2004-01-01

40

Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in

J. D. Salisbury; E. Behrin; M. K. Kong; D. J. Whisler

1980-01-01

41

Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods  

SciTech Connect

This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

2005-07-01

42

Commercial launch vehicle services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans to discontinue the use of expendable launch vehicles have been reevaluated in view of the growing number of communications satellite payloads. A White House directive of May 16, 1983, makes space hardware, services, and facilities available to private sector users. Whereas the customer must bear all costs, the government will absorb the sunk costs of research and development. The

K. E. Degnan

1983-01-01

43

36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...comply with permit terms and conditions is prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area...

2013-07-01

44

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities performed in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) program which studied the technical, economic, and fuel conservation aspects of replacing new 1985 full sized passenger cars in the US with automobiles having combination heat engines and electri...

P. Montalenti R. Piccolo

1979-01-01

45

Improved Transistorized AC Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive s...

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

46

Analysis of Alternate-Fueled Passenger Vehicles: A Sample Technology Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten passenger vehicles powered by the following were characterized on a common engineering and economic basis: gasoline internal combustion, diesel internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen internal comb...

A. T. Peaslee G. R. Thayer

1981-01-01

47

Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

2000-02-01

48

Life Cycle Assessment of conventional and alternative small passenger vehicles in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is examined how environmentally friendly conventional and new vehicle technologies are and how their environmental effects can be compared. An automotive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is being performed for small family passenger vehicles in Belgium. Next to the well-to-wheel (WTW) emissions (related to fuel production, distribution and fuel use in the vehicle), the LCA also includes

M. Messagie; F. Boureima; J. Matheys; N. Sergeant; L. Turcksin; C. Macharis; J. Van Mierlo

2010-01-01

49

40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86...standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. Section 86.1811-10 includes...

2013-07-01

50

Fuel Efficiency of the Austrian Passenger Vehicle Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger cars contribute a large – and moreover dynamically growing – share of CO2 emissions. Accordingly they are central to climate protection strategies. Improving the fuel efficiency of passenger car fleets is a key strategic objective of transport-related mitigation policies because it can, ceteris paribus, cut down on fossil fuel demand and facilitate the achievement of targets for the use

Ina Meyer; Stefan Wessely

2010-01-01

51

Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio fuels as alternative fuels for petroleum-based ones has increased constantly in the last years. The advantages of the bio fuels usage is given by their similar proprieties, characteristics of renew ability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on the exhaust emission. The study involved measurements on a roller test facility of a reference passenger car representing new technologies (emission standards, injection system). The vehicle operated by use of reference gasoline and reference gasoline blended (10 and 20%) with bio-ethanol (EtOH). The measurements used different driving cycles: ARTEMIS cycle, real world driving cycle, NEDC cycle, the standard European driving cycle and additionally, a driving cycle consisting in Idle, 30, 50, 90 km/h. The sampling positions were before and after the catalyst and in the exhaust pipe. The detailed speciation of NMVOC' (non methane volatile organic compounds) was completed by use of active carbon tubes, DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) tubes and cold traps. The particles were monitored by use of an on-line EEPS (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer). CO2, NO, NO2 and NOX (NO +NO2) were continuously monitored by use of an on- line FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy)- MEXA system. The investigations reveal that among the carbonylic compounds 15 oxygenated species were found in engine out exhaust and only 3 in tailpipe emissions, namely formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acroleine. These are of great interest due to their impacts on human health. The hydrocarbons emissions decrease by increased of EtOH content. New compounds were observed. The nitro-compounds found in the after engine position by increased EtOH were no more found in the exhaust gas. The results show that total particle concentration, mass and diameter decreased substantially after catalyst and filter by increased ethanol blend.

Petrea, M.; Kapernaum, M.; Wahl, C.

2009-04-01

52

Specific absorption rate evaluation for passengers using wireless communication devices inside vehicles with different handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations.  

PubMed

Radiation from mobile phones inside vehicles, which are semiopen metallic enclosures with irregular shapes and apertures, has been a major concern and has warranted investigation in past years. In this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in mobile phone users inside a vehicle was evaluated using different scenarios, including handedness, passenger counts, and seating locations. A computer simulation for SAR distributions in a human body was performed based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The SAR values in mobile phone users in free space were also compared to those inside a vehicle; results illustrated that the maximum SAR induced for mobile phone users in a vehicle is 5% higher than those in free space, but the SAR results showed no significant difference for the handedness. By comparing the SAR values between mobile phone users and nonusers inside a vehicle with a passenger count and seating locations, it was observed that the SAR values around the nonusers' body varied much in different situations, and were higher than those in free space, in some circumstances. PMID:22893364

Leung, Sai-Wing; Diao, Yinliang; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Siu, Yun-Ming; Wu, Yongle

2012-08-08

53

[An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].  

PubMed

A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

54

40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

2013-07-01

55

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds—0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h?1. Emission factors and their relative values between

Z. D. Ristovski; E. R. Jayaratne; L. Morawska; G. A. Ayoko; M. Lim

2005-01-01

56

INFLUENCE OF OXYGENATED FUELS ON THE EMISSIONS FROM THREE PRE-1985 LIGHT-DUTY PASSENGER VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Tailpipe and evaporative emission from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on a oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. mission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 degrees F ...

57

Influence of Oxygenated Fuels on the Emissions from Three Pre1985 Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on an oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. Emission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40,75, and 90°F to simulate ambient driving conditions. The two fuels tested were a commercial summer grade regular gasoline (the nonoxygenated base fuel)

Fred D. Stump; Kenneth T. Knapp; William D. Ray; Paula D. Siudak; Richard F. Snow

1994-01-01

58

An effective tracking technique of public transportation toward passenger generated vehicle location system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an automatic vehicle locating (AVL) system which gains the geographic location data of a vehicle by passengers' sending the data via their smartphones in order to support public transportation users. While the existing AVL systems with specialized facilities costs a large amount of money and currently only large cities can introduce the system to their public transportation

Masaki Ito; Toshihiko Sasama; Takao Kawamura; Kazunori Sugahara

2011-01-01

59

Side Impact Injury Risk for Belted Far Side Passenger Vehicle Occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a side impact, the occupants on both the struck, or near side, of the vehicle and the occupants on the opposite, or far side, of the vehicle are at risk of injury. Since model year 1997, all passenger cars in the U.S. have been required to comply with FMVSS No. 214, a safety standard that mandates a minimum level

Hampton C. Gabler; Kennerly Digges; Brian N. Fildes; Laurie Sparke

60

Speed-independent vibration-based terrain classification for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrain physical characteristics can have a significant impact on passenger vehicle handling, ride quality, and stability. Here, an algorithm is presented to classify terrain using a single suspension-mounted accelerometer. The algorithm passes a measured acceleration signal through a dynamic vehicle model to estimate the terrain profile, and then extracts spatial frequency components of this estimated profile. A method is introduced

Chris C. Ward; Karl Iagnemma

2009-01-01

61

Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban form – for example, sprawl versus infill development – impacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban

Steve Hankey; Julian D. Marshall

2010-01-01

62

Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.  

PubMed

After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

2013-04-01

63

Reducing Risks to Children in Vehicles With Passenger Airbags  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. This review examines the risk that pas- senger airbags pose for children and discusses behav- ioral and technologic measures aimed at protecting chil- dren from airbag deployment. Although airbags reduce fatal crash injuries among adult drivers and passengers, this safety technology increases mortality risk among children younger than age 12. The magnitude of the risk is multiplied when,children are

Ashley Simpson; Leo G. Woerner; John D. Graham; Sue J. Goldie; Maria Segui-Gomez; Kimberly M. Thompson

2010-01-01

64

Commercial launch vehicle services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to discontinue the use of expendable launch vehicles have been reevaluated in view of the growing number of communications satellite payloads. A White House directive of May 16, 1983, makes space hardware, services, and facilities available to private sector users. Whereas the customer must bear all costs, the government will absorb the sunk costs of research and development. The five primary launch vehicles available to commercial users are described. When mated with the payload-assisted module D (PAM-D), the Delta 3920 can carry a 1200 kg payload into transfer orbit at a cost of $18.5 million. Ariane 2/3 can carry a payload weighing as much as 2600 kg, with a launch cost of $25-30 million. The Titan 34D, mated with the IUS, can deliver a payload of about 2500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit. It is noted that a second Atlas class is being developed which will be able to deliver 5200 kg to orbit. Costs for the Space Shuttle will continue to range from $14 million to $20 million until 1988. After that, however, the costs may rise by as much as 70 percent.

Degnan, K. E.

1983-09-01

65

Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

1980-02-01

66

Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

O'Neill, Brian

2009-04-01

67

75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the Cotton Belt Corridor AGENCY: Federal Transit...passenger service on the 26-mile long Cotton Belt Corridor from Dallas-Fort Worth...County, Texas. The primary purpose of the Cotton Belt Corridor Regional Rail Project...

2010-07-08

68

KLM and Northwest: a survey of the impact of a passenger alliance on cargo service characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and quantifies the impact of a major passenger alliance, between KLM and Northwest Airlines, on the cargo service characteristics of one of the partners, KLM. The hypothesis that the KLM\\/Northwest Airlines passenger alliance had led to a decline in the quantity and quality of cargo service connections is rejected, even though the first years of the alliance

P. S Morrell; R. V Pilon

1999-01-01

69

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Passenger Vehicle/Trailer Combinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of combination vehicle aerodynamics, pertinent to crosswind and truck-induced disturbances, was performed. This was accomplished via 1/10 scale model wind tunnel measurements performed on 6 trailers and 4 tow vehicles, and va...

J. W. Zellner

1982-01-01

70

Compatibility between passenger vehicles and road barriers during oblique collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European and US testing procedures for road barriers, vehicles are specified for the tests essentially by their mass properties. However, vehicles with similar mass can behave quite differently during a crash event. For the specific crash situation with the roadside restraint systems, e.g. W-beam guardrail, cable barriers, etc., the vehicle structure has to be compatible with the road

W. Wu; R. Thomson

2004-01-01

71

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities performed in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) program which studied the technical, economic, and fuel conservation aspects of replacing new 1985 full sized passenger cars in the US with automobiles having combination heat engines and electric motor power are summarized. These studies included NTHV design for the body power units, transmission system, and controls; evaluation of alternative strategies;

P. Montalenti; R. Piccolo

1979-01-01

72

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; ...

1980-01-01

73

China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles: Rationale, policy process, and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the

Hongyan H. Oliver; Kelly Sims Gallagher; Donglian Tian; Jinhua Zhang

2009-01-01

74

Meeting U.S. passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in 2016 and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

New fuel economy standards require new U.S. passenger vehicles to achieve at least 34.1 miles per gallon (MPG) on average by model year 2016, up from 28.8 MPG today. In this paper, the magnitude, combinations and timings of the changes required in U.S. vehicles that are necessary in order to meet the new standards, as well as a target of

Lynette Cheah; John Heywood

2011-01-01

75

Multi-objective control synthesis: an application to 4WS passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vehicle dynamics and control play an important role in an automated highway system for passenger cars. This study addresses the problem of designing active controllers for four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicles. We first obtain a set of linear maneuvering equations representing the four-wheel steering motions and independent wheel torques for lateral\\/directional plus roll dynamics. We then formulate simultaneous H2 and H?

S.-S. You; Y.-H. Chai

1999-01-01

76

14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135...passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface,...

2013-01-01

77

Passenger vehicle safety in Australasia for different driver groups.  

PubMed

Vehicle fleets in developed countries have benefitted from improved technology and regulation leading to safer vehicles. Nevertheless, for various reasons the public do not necessarily choose particular makes and models of cars according to their safety performance. This study aimed to identify areas for potential crashworthiness improvement in the Australasian fleets by studying the distribution of these fleets according to vehicle age and estimated crashworthiness. We used an existing database that encompassed the vast majority of the crash fleets studied, with existing estimates of crashworthiness generated by the Australasian Used Car Safety Ratings project. There were clear tendencies for older and younger people to be driving less safe vehicles that were also generally older. Given that older drivers are more fragile, and hence more liable to be injured in crashes, and younger drivers have a greater propensity to crash, it is clearly undesirable that these driver groups have the least crashworthy vehicles. Some suggestions are made to encourage safer vehicle choices. PMID:21376855

Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

2010-11-18

78

49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation...passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO, you must permit service animals to accompany passengers with a...

2011-10-01

79

49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation...passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO, you must permit service animals to accompany passengers with a...

2012-10-01

80

Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio

M. Petrea; M. Kapernaum; C. Wahl

2009-01-01

81

Passenger Vehicle Interior Noise Reduction by Laminated Side Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of aerodynamically generated noise, in particularly wind noise, and road noise through vehicle glazing has become of increasing importance and is a major problem in automotive NVH today. Conventional tempered side glass has inherent noise transmission problems and radiates noise more easily at around 1-6 KHz at high vehicle operating speeds for highway driving. Laminated side glass was

Jun Lu

82

Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

Not Available

1980-10-01

83

Contribution of Medical Conditions to Passenger Vehicle Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a growing concern about risks associated with driving for people with known medical conditions. However, the association between having a chronic medical condition and being involved in a motor vehicle crash remains controversial. This analysis a...

R. Hanna

2009-01-01

84

Airport Offsite Passenger Service Facilities: An Option for Improving Landside Access: Volume II: Access Characteristics and Travel Demand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Offsite airport facilities provide ground transportation, baggage and passenger check in, and other transportation services to departing air passengers from a remote location. The purpose of this study was to develop models to determine the airports that ...

A. K. Goswami J. S. Miller L. A. Hoel

2009-01-01

85

Ride comfort characteristics with different tire pressure of passenger vehicle featuring MR damper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents ride comfort characteristics of a quarter-vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) suspension system with respect to different tire pressure. As a first step, controllable MR damper is designed and manufactured based on the optimized damping force levels and mechanical dimensions required for a commercial mid-sized passenger vehicle. After experimentally evaluating dynamic characteristics of the manufactured MR damper, the quarter-vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the MR damper is constructed in order to investigate the ride comfort. After deriving the equations of the motion for the proposed quarter-vehicle MR suspension system, vertical tire stiffness with respect to different tire pressure is experimentally identified. The skyhook controller is then implemented for the realization of quarter-vehicle MR suspension system. Ride comfort characteristics such as vertical acceleration RMS of sprung mass are evaluated under bump road condition and presented in time domain.

Lee, H. G.; Sung, K. G.; Choi, S. B.

2009-02-01

86

Fatigue damage analysis on body shell of a passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for design durability qualification of a vehicle body shell is presented. Field test data were used to produce an accelerated durability test that retains all of the damaging real time load histories present in the original test cycle. Fatigue analysis methods are used to access and compare the fatigue damage imposed during durability test and laboratory (torsion) experiments.

E. S. Palma; F. A. C. Vidal

2002-01-01

87

An analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of three electric-propulsion systems based on the Al-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE). In this comparison, the engine and fuel systems of a current five-passenger vehicle were conceptually replaced by three Al-air systems: (1) an Al-air battery-only system, (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling,

J. D. Salisbury; E. Behrin

1980-01-01

88

Application of Optimal Control Theory to the Crashworthiness of a Passenger Vehicle Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal control theory concepts are thought to be useful in understanding the problem of determining safe deceleration characteristics for a crashing vehicle. These deceleration waveforms are to be computed such that passenger belt forces are minimized. Using both a linear one-degree-of-freedom model and a nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom model for a frontal collision, this problem is shown to be equivalent to the

Howard Kaufman; Duane Larson

1969-01-01

89

Fatigue damage analysis on body shell of a passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for design durability qualification of a vehicle body shell is presented. Field test data were used to produce an\\u000a accelerated durability test that retains all of the damaging real time load histories present in the original test cycle.\\u000a Fatigue analysis methods are used to access and compare the fatigue damage imposed during durability test and laboratory (torsion)\\u000a experiments.

E. S. Palma; F. A. C. Vidal

2002-01-01

90

49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...opening packages and identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to other passengers...

2012-10-01

91

49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...opening packages and identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the PVO provides to other passengers...

2011-10-01

92

Factors contributing to the amount of vehicular damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars.  

PubMed

This study examines the vehicular damage resulting from motor vehicle crashes involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars in the state of Oklahoma. In particular, the focus of the analysis is on differences in vehicular damage to passenger cars and four-wheel drive vehicles. Results indicate that passenger cars sustain significantly greater vehicular damage than four-wheel drive vehicles. In addition, several other factors significantly influence the level of damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. Driver behavior or unsafe acts, represented by the rate of travel prior to the collision, failure to yield, failure to obey a stoplight or a stop sign, the consumption of alcohol and the use of drugs, also contributed to the amount of vehicular damage. In addition, results also indicate that the level of damage was influenced significantly by environmental factors, represented by a reduced intensity of light, wet or slippery roadways and the type of collision. The findings reinforce the importance of a number of policy initiatives that may reduce the vehicular damage resulting from collisions involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. For example, the study indicates a need to initiate legislation that lowers the speed limit during dark and twilight hours, commits additional resources to road maintenance to reduce unsafe road conditions, and stimulates improvements in automotive design that provide better lateral protection to vehicles. PMID:11491248

Broyles, R W; Clarke, S R; Narine, L; Baker, D R

2001-09-01

93

Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

1992-11-01

94

Massive internal injury in the absence of significant external injury after collisions of passenger vehicles with much larger vehicles.  

PubMed

We have encountered cases of motor vehicle collisions in which there was relatively little external trauma, but there were massive internal injuries that were much more extensive than might be expected from the external examination. Two cases were collisions between trains and pickup trucks, the third a collision between a semi trailer and a van. In all three cases, the external examination showed minor abrasions and lacerations. Internally, however, there were massive injuries which were fatal. While the significant injuries in our cases were not surprising given the force of the collisions involved, it is interesting that the external examination showed relatively little injury. We speculate that collisions between passenger vehicles and very large vehicles generate massive internal injuries by transmission of force through the victims. PMID:18423353

Carson, Henry J; Cook, Benjamin A

2008-02-07

95

The Passenger Vessel Services Act and America’s Cruise Tourism Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Passenger Vessel Services Act (PVSA) of 1886, a cabotage law, attempts to shield U.S. maritime shipping from foreign competition. It also applies to the U.S. cruise ship industry. The PVSA requires foreign cruise ships that carry passengers between U.S. ports to also stop at foreign ports. Norwegian Cruise Line America (NCLA), which operates one U.S. flagged cruise ship in

James Mak; Christopher Sheehey; Shannon Toriki

2009-01-01

96

A multiobjective model for passenger train services planning: application to Taiwan's high-speed rail line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a multiobjective programming model for the optimal allocation of passenger train services on an intercity high-speed rail line without branches. Minimizing the operator's total operating cost and minimizing the passenger's total travel time loss are the two planning objectives of the model. For a given many-to-many travel demand and a specified operating capacity, the model is solved

Yeong-Hwa Chang; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ching-Cheng Shen

2000-01-01

97

Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

2007-01-01

98

Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury,

Gudmundur F. Ulfarsson; Fred L. Mannering

2004-01-01

99

Soviet Passenger Automobiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes models of passenger vehicles produced today by eight USSR automotive manufacturers. Fifty years ago at the factory in Fili only five passenger vehicles type 'Russo-Balt' were successfully assembled from parts manufactured before the r...

1973-01-01

100

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? As a carrier, you must provide services within the aircraft cabin as requested by...

2010-01-01

101

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

Not Available

1980-01-01

102

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

Not Available

1980-10-01

103

The competitive environment of a service industry: the examples of the U.K.Continent passenger sea ferry services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines an international service sector (passenger sea ferry services between the U.K. and continental Europe) from the perspective of its competitive environment. Porter's five forces model forms the basis of the analysis of the market illustrated by recent develoments. Within this context the barriers to entry into and exit from the market are considered in detail. Recently, there

H. Heijveld; R. Gray

1996-01-01

104

Columbus service vehicle and derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Columbus phase B1 started in early 1985 the Service Vehicle (SV) was one of the four candidate elements to be developed by Europe in the frame of the U.S. Space Station program. The present paper will briefly summarize the main results achieved on the SV after phase B1 completion. It will also provide data on some SV derivatives which are currently under study, and particularly one resulting actually from an adaptation of this SV to a more European autonomous environment relying exclusively upon the use of Ariane and Hermes launchers: the so-called Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV). An other derivative is an answer to the manned space interventions issue, an intermediate concept betwen a manned SV and an astronaut with its ancilliary devices (e.g. Manned Maneuvering Unit).

Eymar, P.

1986-10-01

105

Preventing Passenger Vehicle Occupant Injuries by Vehicle Design—A Historical Perspective from IIHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure—designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to

Brian ONeill

2009-01-01

106

Business Model for Commingled Operations of Freight and Non-FRA-Compliant Passenger Rail Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to develop a business model of commingled operations of freight and non-FRA-compliant passenger rail services because there are no domestic cases of such operations and the number of cases in which freight and light rail transit (LRT) equipment share tracks on a temporal basis of separation is limited. Greater opportunities for commingling may be created, however,

David O Nelson; Alexander Lu

2009-01-01

107

Application of ISM in service quality analysis of railway passenger train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretative Structural Modeling is an effective approach to analyze the complex system structure. The adjacency matrix represents the relations between and among system factors. The reachability matrix which can represent all relations including direct and indirect relations is derived by matrix operations. By analyzing the affecting factors of service quality of railway passenger train, the multistage hierarchical structure is established

Wan-Xiang Wang; Rui-Jun Guo; Hai-Long Zheng

2010-01-01

108

Improved transistorized ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive system, the investigation of a power level expansion to a family of horsepower and battery system voltages, and the investigation of the applicability of the ac controller for use as an on-board battery charger and for providing the function of motor reversal. Additional vehicle specifications, e.g., acceleration and pulling out of potholes, were added to the NASA vehicle specifications. Then, a vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The General Electric ac induction motor used in the drive is optimized to operate as a vehicle traction motor with a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter as a power source. The motor is nominally rated 20 hp and 41 hp peak. The power inverter design is a three-phase transistorized bridge configuration with feedback diodes. The transistors are a special design General Electric high-power Darlington transistor rated 450 volts and 200 amps. The battery system voltage chosen was 108 volts. The control strategy is a constant torque profile by PWM operation to base speed and a constant horsepower profile by square-wave operation to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. An advanced current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The primary feedback control is a motor angle control, with voltage and torque outer loop controls.

Peak, S.C.

1982-09-01

109

48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Government and Her Majesty's (HM) Customs and Excise, fuels and lubricants used by passenger vehicles (except taxis) in the performance...to both loaded and unloaded miles. The unit prices shall be based on the recoupment by the Contractor of customs duty in...

2012-10-01

110

Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear).

1993-01-01

111

Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research performed to devise and design a lower cost inverter-induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles. A two-phase inverter-motor system is recommended. It is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and nearly a 10% cost advantage for a high production vehicle because of the reduction in total parts count, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches and somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three-phase bridge inverter-motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two-phase inverter-motor drive are that the tow-phase motor is larger and more expensive than a three-phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power switches is difficult because motor lead and bifilar winding leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency. An actuall model of the two-phase system must be constructed and evaluated. The most challenging engineering design task will be to design the inverter, motor and snubber circuits to minimize transient voltages with high system efficiency.

Hoft, R.G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G.Q.; Erickson, C.L.

1985-05-01

112

Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child rear seat passengers during vehicle maneuvers.  

PubMed

Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child's lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child's shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4-12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems. PMID:22105379

Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B

2011-01-01

113

Deformations and intrusions of the passenger compartment as indicators of injury severity and triage in head-on collisions of non-airbag-carrying vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In motor vehicle collisions the mechanism of injury is important in determining severity as well as for triage decisions in the pre-hospital phase of patient management. This study correlates deformation of the basic structures of the passenger compartment [windscreen, control panel (dashboard) and steering wheel] with occupants’ injuries in passenger vehicle head-on collisions involving non-airbag-carrying vehicles, with or without compartment

N Stefanopoulos; C Vagianos; M Stavropoulos; E Panagiotopoulos; J Androulakis

2003-01-01

114

Development of Crash Energy Management Designs for Existing Passenger Rail Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the passenger equipment crashworthiness research, sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration and supported by the Volpe Center, passenger coach and cab cars have been tested in inline collision conditions. The purpose of these tests was t...

B. Perlman D. Tyrell E. Martinez

2004-01-01

115

The forensic pathologist and the determination of driver versus passenger in motor vehicle collisions. The need to examine injury mechanisms, occupant kinematics, vehicle dynamics, and trace evidence.  

PubMed

Five cases of vehicular homicide are presented in which the determination of an occupant's role in a motor vehicle collision was an important medicolegal question. The identification of the occupant's role in a motor vehicle collision can be determined by the forensic pathologist. The investigation that coordinates an examination of injury mechanisms, occupant kinematics, vehicle dynamics, and trace evidence will facilitate such a determination. This determination protects the innocent passenger, when faced with criminal or civil charges, from being falsely prosecuted as the driver. The examination of the above-mentioned components in a multi-occupant collision takes on particular forensic importance when a surviving driver claims to be a passenger: the victim rather than the assailant. PMID:2741865

Smock, W S; Nichols, G R; Fuller, P M; Weakley-Jones, B

1989-06-01

116

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mental or emotional disability recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersâFourth Edition (DSM IV); (2) The passenger needs the emotional support or psychiatric service animal as an accommodation for air...

2010-01-01

117

U.S. air passenger service: a taxonomy of route networks, hub locations, and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the service provided by the 13 largest U.S. passenger airlines to the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 1989. We classify the route systems by their nature and geographical extent using a variety of measures based on route-level data. We then identify individual airline hub locations and derive and calculate several measures of the

Neil Bania; Paul W. Bauer; Thomas J. Zlatoper

1992-01-01

118

U.S. Air Passenger Service: a Taxonomy of Route Networks, Hub Locations, and Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the service provided by the 13 largest U.S. passenger airlines to the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 1989. We classify the route systems by their nature and geographic scope using a variety of measures based on route-level data. We then identify individual airline hub locations; derive and calculate several measures of the extent

Neil Bania; Paul W. Bauer; Thomas J. Zlatoper

1998-01-01

119

Spatial variations in broadband and air passenger service provision in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the resurgence of regions as key nodes in the global economy, there is a growing interest in better defining their competitive\\u000a advantages, particularly those accrued through infrastructure provision. Two important components of this competitive landscape\\u000a are information and communication technologies (ICTs) and commercial air passenger service. While the development of these\\u000a two networks is frequently cited as being a

Tony H. Grubesic

2010-01-01

120

Product and service delivery satisfaction among North American cruise passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have, during the past decade, become increasingly interested in customer satisfaction and service quality issues, very little of the research has been devoted to the tourist industry. The cruise line industry, which is among the fastest growing sectors of the leisure market, has hardly received any research attention. This paper discusses the importance of the cruise product and

Victor B Teye; Denis Leclerc

1998-01-01

121

MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF NOISE WITHIN PASSENGER TRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Railways are becoming increasingly market-driven. Consequently, it is important that passengers are provided with a comfortable environment that reflects the operator's desired image for the service. A major factor in determining how passengers perceive the environment within trains is the level and nature of sound to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, the subject of noise within railway vehicles has had

A. E. J. HARDY

2000-01-01

122

Steering wheel deformity and serious thoracic or abdominal injury among drivers and passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: There were 42,860 persons involved in motor vehicle crashes and seated in the driver or front passenger seat whose data were available for analysis. Five hundred fifty-four (1.3%) persons had serious thoracic injuries, and 169 (0.4%) persons had serious abdominal injuries. In multivariable logistic regression models that adjusted for important crash factors and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness

Craig D. Newgard; Roger J. Lewis; Jess F. Kraus

2005-01-01

123

Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

2010-02-01

124

Northeast Corridor High Speed Rail Passenger Service Improvement Project. Task 7B - Shops and Yard Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to formulate functional design criteria for 'CorridorRail' revenue vehicle inspection, servicing, maintenance and repair for locomotives, cars and right-of-way maintenance equipment including signal and communication equipment...

1975-01-01

125

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...capacities of their product lines, to identify chassis suitable for the advertised passenger...and/or accommodate a heavier-duty chassis. FTA seeks comment regarding the adequacy...upgrade individual components, such as chassis, wheels, tires, brakes, or...

2011-03-14

126

Performance Limits of Rail Passenger Vehicles: Stability/Curving Trade-Offs and Model Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamic performance capabilities of conventional and radial (both self and forced steering) passenger trucks are investigated with respect to lateral stability and curve negotiation. There always exists an inherent trade-off between good stability and...

1981-01-01

127

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2012-10-01

128

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation...VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an...

2011-10-01

129

Improved Transistorized AC Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirem...

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

130

Passenger waiting time and information acquisition using automatic vehicle location for verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus riders utilize a variety of information media to learn how to travel to their destinations and to learn when they should arrive at bus stops. As part of the OCTA (Orange County Transit Authority) Transit Probe evaluation, 1199 passengers were surveyed to measure relationships between information acquisition and waiting time. A unique aspect of the survey was that some

Randolph W. Hall

2001-01-01

131

A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

Griffin, Jill A; Playe, Stephen J; Osborne, Benjamin; Smithline, Howard A

2004-01-01

132

Passenger Vehicle Driver Cell Phone Use Results from the Fall 2000 National Occupant Protection Use Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantifying the actual use of cell phones by motor vehicle drivers while they are driving is difficult. The 2000 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, a telephone survey conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) from November...

D. Utter

2001-01-01

133

Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

134

Influence of different electrified vehicle concepts and driving cycles on the energetic efficiency of passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of electrified power trains for use in vehicle propulsion systems is a very difficult topic and thus often discussed in research worldwide. Very much effort has been undertaken to obtain simulation and design tools for entire vehicle development. The designed vehicle has to meet multi-objective criterion where to find an optimum for a specific usage. Facing decreasing resources

Andreas Thanheiser; Dominik Buecherl; Hans-Georg Herzog

2010-01-01

135

Analysis of colliding vehicle interactions for the passenger rail train-to-train impact test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale train-to-train impact test was performed in which a cab car-led passenger train traveling at 30 mph collided with a standing locomotive-led train. During the test, the lead cab car overrode the cab of the standing locomotive, sustaining approximately 20 feet of crush, while the cab of the locomotive remained essentially intact. In this study, a finite element-based analysis

Richard Stringfellow; Robert Rancatore; Patricia Llana; Ronald Mayville

2004-01-01

136

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Michigan: Highway Worker Killed by Passenger Vehicle While Setting Up Highway Work Zone Warning Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Friday, August 9, 2002, a 26-year-old technical sales representative employed by a highway traffic management firm was struck and killed by a passenger vehicle while setting up a highway work zone warning device. The victim and her partner were working...

2003-01-01

137

Analysis of the vehicle mix in the passenger-car sector in Japan for CO 2 emissions reduction by a MARKAL model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the passenger-car sector in Japan are increasing rapidly and should be reduced cost-effectively in order to stabilize energy-related CO2 emissions in Japan. The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the most cost-effective mix of vehicles for reducing CO2 emissions and to estimate the subsidy that is necessary to achieve this vehicle mix. For

Masayuki Ichinohe; Eiichi Endo

2006-01-01

138

Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health concern due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n = 3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th percentile. IVAQ during commuting may vary based on human behavior and meteorological factors. Additional studies are needed to further characterize ways to help reduce in-vehicle aldehyde exposures, especially for people with existing chronic respiratory illnesses who could experience symptom exacerbations upon such exposures.

Mapou, Ashley E. M.; Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Xiong, Youyou; Meng, Qingyu; Zhang, Junfeng

2013-11-01

139

The Medium Launch Vehicle and commercial space launch services  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the DOD Medium Launch Vehicle and commercial space launch services offered by the Delta-series launch vehicles, whose operation has been relinquished by NASA, after 20 years of continuous development and service, to the USAF. Over the course of 180 flights, reliability has been of the order of 93.3 percent. The production rate of these vehicles

C. James Dorrenbacher

1987-01-01

140

Simulation Optimization of the Crashworthiness of a Passenger Vehicle in Frontal Collisions using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although computer simulation is regarded primarily as a tool for systems analysis, simulation can also be used in the process of systems optimiza- tion. This paper describes recent enhancements to a computer program package which enables the use of vehicle and occupant simulation models in determining the design of vehicles and restraints for maximum occupant impact protection. Also described is

K. Preston; W. Thomas HollowelI; Walter D. Pilkey

141

Locations of Signaling and Lighting Equipment on Passenger Vehicles Sold in the U.S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents detailed data regarding the locations of signaling and lighting equipment for the 15 best-selling cars and 15 best-selling light trucks, constituting approximately 48% of model year 2002 vehicles in the U.S. Actual vehicle measurement...

B. Schoettle M. Sivak Y. Nakata

2002-01-01

142

Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

Jones, C.T. [Murray State Univ., KY (United States)

1993-12-31

143

Allocating Emergency Service Vehicles to Serve Critical Transportation Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize the service coverage to Critical Transportation Infrastructures (CTIs), this research formulates an integer programming model that optimizes the simultaneous allocation of multiple types of emergency service vehicles among a set of candidate stations. Sufficient coverage of a CTI is achieved only when all types of emergency service vehicles are each individually capable of reaching the CTI within the

Ruey Long Cheu; Yongxi Huang; Bo Huang

2008-01-01

144

How efficient are ferries in providing public transport services? the case of Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian trunk road system is supplemented by ferries due to long coastline with numerous islands and fjords. Ferries in the network operate very much like public transport; they provide scheduled transportation services. The services provided include transporting passengers, passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles across fjords, and there are costs associated with the provision of those services e.g. fuel and

E Sandvik; J Odeck

2007-01-01

145

Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x /CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when emissions decreased by about 30%. The more limited data available for urban buses shows that there has been little change in NO x emissions from Euro I to Euro IV. There is general much better consistency across the different estimates of heavy duty vehicle NO x emissions than for light duty vehicles.

Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

2011-12-01

146

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

Not Available

1980-10-01

147

Policy and Academic Innovation: An Old Vehicle with a New Passenger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Policy" has emerged as an organizing vehicle for encouraging innovation and guiding administrative decisions in academe. Barriers to innovation are identified as: general, faculty, administrative, and personal resistance. The development of leadership familiar with the nature and function of policy as an organizing concept is essential. (MLW)

Redmon, Thomas

1982-01-01

148

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

149

45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles. A person may not wash, polish,...

2011-10-01

150

45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles. A person may not wash, polish,...

2012-10-01

151

Optimal design of power-split transmissions for hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic hybrid vehicles are inherently power dense. Power-split or hydro-mechanical transmissions (HMT) have advantages over series and parallel architectures. In this paper, an approach for optimizing the configuration and sizing of a hydraulic hybrid power-split transmission is proposed. Instead of considering each mechanical configuration consisting of combinations of gear ratios, a generalized kinematic relation is used to avoid redundant computation.

Kai Loon Cheong; Perry Y. Li; Thomas R. Chase

2011-01-01

152

Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

Peak, S. C.

1982-09-01

153

Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig  

SciTech Connect

The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

Ivens, J.

1989-01-01

154

MADARP: multi-agent architecture for passenger transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the MADARP agent architecture, devoted to the implementation of passenger transportation systems. It provides a set of base agents that perform the basic interface, planning and support services for managing different types of transportation requests by using an heterogeneous fleet. The agent use allows to easily adapt the architecture to different planning models by integrating vehicles and

Claudio Cubillos; Franco Guidi-Polanco; Claudio Demartini

2005-01-01

155

Impact of Delays on Passenger Train Services: Evidence from Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of delays on passenger railways, with specific reference to the national rail network in Great Britain, is examined. A key distinction is made between punctuality (trains running late) and reliability (trains canceled). In Britain these have been combined into a public performance measure, which deteriorated markedly as a consequence of the Hatfield accident in 2000 but has since

John Preston; Graham Wall; Richard Batley; J Nicolas Ibanez; Jeremy Shires

2009-01-01

156

Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.  

PubMed

In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

2013-07-29

157

Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

2013-04-01

158

10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG NORTHWEST SPILLWAY ABUTMENT; SERVICE VEHICLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG NORTHWEST SPILLWAY ABUTMENT; SERVICE VEHICLE GARAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

159

15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make nonemergency...

2012-01-01

160

Cost Evaluation of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 210 - Passenger Cars and Evaluation of Cost and Weight Trends for Standards 201, 203 and 204 - Passenger Cars. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The consumer cost and weight effect on 1983 vehicles, to comply with FMVSS 201, 203 and 204 as determined by a process of teardown analysis of those components affected by the Standards. The Standards cover: FMVSS 201 - Occupant protection in Interior Imp...

W. R. Osen N. F. Ludtke

1985-01-01

161

Fully Allocated Cost of Rail Passenger Service Between New York and Washington. Phase II. Metroliner and Conventional Passenger Trains During 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to determine the fully allocated cost of operating 51 conventional and 14 Metroliner trains between New York, N.Y. and Washington, D.C. during 1970. The study includes the development of techniques to analyze the costs of passenger stati...

1971-01-01

162

Measuring service quality and a comparative analysis in the passenger carriage of airline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquiring new customers and retaining existing customers have long been two important subjects for service organizations. Creating difference in every section of the service is a key factor to success on realization of these purposes. When service quality is thought as an important factor for creating difference in service industry, the importance of estimating service quality provided to customers comes

Sabri T. Erdil; O?uz Y?ld?z

2011-01-01

163

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2011-10-01

164

49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01...false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger...concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

2012-10-01

165

Passengers of Impaired Drivers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00vehicle ownership is a large impediment for PADs to act as designated drivers. We speculate that vehicle ownership may be a main reason for the less-than-expected success of the “designated driver” concept.

Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

2012-01-01

166

Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shutdown when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine restart for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being ut...

J. Wishart M. Shirk

2012-01-01

167

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through the radiator of 40% of vehicle speed, and an ozone reduction efficiency of...through the device as a function of vehicle speed; (ii) The ozone reduction efficiency...life of the vehicle for a range of vehicle speeds and ozone levels; (iii) The...

2010-07-01

168

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through the radiator of 40% of vehicle speed, and an ozone reduction efficiency of...through the device as a function of vehicle speed; (ii) The ozone reduction efficiency...life of the vehicle for a range of vehicle speeds and ozone levels; (iii) The...

2009-07-01

169

41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34...Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table:...

2013-01-01

170

Preliminary Survey Report: Evaluation of Brake Drum Service Controls at Pennsylvania Bureau of Vehicle Management, Vehicle Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to asbestos (1332214) during the servicing of brakes on state owned vehicles at the Bureau of Vehicle Management Maintenance Division (SIC-7538), Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was investigated as part of a study of control technologies. Brakes had be...

H. D. Van Wagenen

1987-01-01

171

Optimization Of Headway, Vehicle Size and Route Choice for Minimum Cost Feeder Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people use public transportation systems to reach their destination, while others use personal vehicles. Poor transportation systems do not attract ridership. Therefore, the usage of passenger cars increases, and traffic and environmental conditions deteriorate. Efficient public transportation has been recognized as one of the potential ways of mitigating air pollution, reducing energy consumption, improving mobility and alleviating traffic congestion.

Steven I-JY Chien

2005-01-01

172

Train Timetabling Algorithm Based on Passengers' Demands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In railways, fixed timetables are provided day by day at present, meaning that those timetables do not fit passengers' demand of each occasion. In this paper, we propose an idea to dynamically change train timetables reflecting passengers' demands so that passengers can be provided with better transportation services. To realize this idea, we introduce a train timetabling algorithm which organizes train timetables directly from passengers' demands. Unlike conventional works, the algorithm takes all passengers' disutilities into account by estimating each passenger's behavior towards a train timetable, and produces a timetable in which passengers' disutilities are minimized and efficiency of resource utilization is maximized. Hence, this algorithm takes passengers' demands as its input and outputs a near optimal timetable from the viewpoints of the criteria described above. We have conducted several experiments using the data which were made from actual railway lines and shown that the algorithm is capable of producing timetables which properly fit the passengers' demands.

Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

173

Passenger seating position and the risk of passenger death or injury in traffic crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the association of passenger seat position with the risk of death and serious injury for passengers in traffic crashes.Methods: Using 1993–2000 data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), the risk ratio for death and serious injury was estimated for rear seat passengers compared with front seat passengers in motor vehicle crashes.Results: The

Kathleen M. Smith; Peter Cummings

2004-01-01

174

Child passenger safety.  

PubMed

Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

Durbin, Dennis R

2011-03-21

175

SLAM Model of Domestic Airline Passenger Fares and the Contract Air Service Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops a prototype simulation model to assist in evaluating the benefits of the Contract Air Service Program. This program provides special fares for government employees traveling on official business aboard certain scheduled domestic fligh...

D. A. Shepherd

1986-01-01

176

Northeast Corridor High Speed Rail Passenger Service Improvement Project. Task 4. Scenario Development and System Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers, in brief, the preliminary work performed in identification, development, and evaluation of 14 alternative scenarios to handle estimated high potential demand for rail services in the Northeast Corridor in 1990. Additionally, the report ...

C. W. Gillespie R. A. Arnlund M. McGinnis A. Buchan E. Clausing

1975-01-01

177

40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...meters, an air flow velocity through the radiator of 40% of vehicle speed, and an ozone reduction...meters, an air flow velocity of 30% of vehicle speed and an ozone reducing...meters, an air flow velocity of 40% of vehicle speed and an ozone...

2013-07-01

178

Preserving Freight and Passenger Rail Corridors and Service. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efforts to preserve rail corridors or restore rail service to dormant rail alignments across the United States are very uneven. A handful of states have aggressive, well-funded programs to support the preservation or reuse of rail alignments; more states ...

D. P. Simpson

2007-01-01

179

Level of service design concept for airport passenger terminals—a European view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from the experiences of highway and pedestrian planning, the author suggests a method of improving the method of designing airport terminals. The improved technique would use the concept of level of service to indicate the interaction of time with space provision.

Norman Ashford

1988-01-01

180

Phase 1 of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Appendix B: Trade-off Studies, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid v...

M. Traversi R. Piccolo

1980-01-01

181

47 CFR 80.933 - General small passenger vessel exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.933 General small passenger vessel exemptions. (a) Subject U.S. vessels less than 50 gross tons...

2012-10-01

182

47 CFR 80.933 - General small passenger vessel exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.933 General small passenger vessel exemptions. (a) Subject U.S. vessels less than 50 gross tons...

2011-10-01

183

Life cycle assessment of lightweight and end-of-life scenarios for generic compact class passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  The automotive industry has a long history in improving the environmental performance of vehicles - fuel economy and emission\\u000a improvements, introduction of recycled and renewable materials, etc. The European Union also aims at improving the environmental\\u000a performance of products by reducing, in particular, waste resulting from End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) for example. The European\\u000a Commission estimates that ELVs

Wulf-Peter Schmidt; Elisabeth Dahlqvist; Matthias Finkbeiner; Stephan Krinke; Silvia Lazzari; Dirk Oschmann; Sophie Pichon; Christian Thiel

2004-01-01

184

Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

Collins, P.

2004-12-01

185

Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the real-time mass transport vehicle routing problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. This study does not focus on the

Laia Pages; R. Jayakrishnan

2006-01-01

186

Passenger seating position and the risk of passenger death in traffic crashes: a matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the association of passenger seating position with the risk of death for passengers in traffic crashes. Design, setting, participants Matched cohort analysis of data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System regarding 56?644 passengers in 23?308 passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles that crashed during 1990–2001. Main outcome measure The adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for death of a rear seat passenger compared with a front seat passenger within 30?days of a crash. Results The aRR for all passengers in the rear seat in a crash was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.82). This estimate varied by age, restraint use, and the presence of a front passenger airbag (p<0.001). For restrained passengers in cars with a front passenger airbag, the aRR was 0.62 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.81) for children 0–12?years, 0.96 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.06) for passengers 13–29?years, 1.03 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.15) for passengers 30–59?years, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.26) for passengers 60?years or older. The rear seat was associated with more protection in cars without front airbags and more protection for unrestrained passengers compared with restrained passengers. Conclusions Previous studies have reported that the rear seat was safer for persons of all ages; thus seating a young child in the rear has often meant that older children and adults had to assume an increased risk of death by sitting in the front. These results suggest that when front passenger airbags are present and passengers are restrained, putting adults in front and children in back enhances child safety without sacrificing adult safety.

Smith, K M; Cummings, P

2006-01-01

187

14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in its stowed position. (d) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into the aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2013-01-01

188

14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stowed position. (d) No certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie screen that extends into an aisle is stowed. (e) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given by a crewmember...

2013-01-01

189

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle... (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV...

2009-10-01

190

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle...cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle... (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV...

2010-10-01

191

A temporal assessment of vehicle use patterns and their impact on the provision of vehicle-to-grid services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the emerging nationwide availability of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) at prices attainable for many consumers, electric utilities, system operators and researchers have been investigating the impact of this new source of energy demand. The presence of BEVs on the electric grid might offer benefits equivalent to dedicated utility-scale energy storage systems by leveraging vehicles’ grid-connected energy storage through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled infrastructure. It is, however, unclear whether BEVs will be available to provide needed grid services when those services are in highest demand. In this work, a set of GPS vehicle travel data from the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) is analyzed to assess temporal patterns in vehicle use. These results show that vehicle use does not vary significantly across months, but differs noticeably between weekdays and weekends, such that averaging the data together could lead to erroneous V2G modeling results. Combination of these trends with wind generation and electricity demand data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) indicates that BEV availability does not align well with electricity demand and wind generation during the summer months, limiting the quantity of ancillary services that could be provided with V2G. Vehicle availability aligns best between the hours of 9 pm and 8 am during cooler months of the year, when electricity demand is bimodal and brackets the hours of highest vehicle use.

Harris, Chioke B.; Webber, Michael E.

2012-09-01

192

Servicing of multiple satellites using an OMV-derived transfer vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Servicing vehicles and supplies to be used for extending the mission life of polar orbiting satellites will be launched into orbit by expendable launch vehicles, since the Space Shuttle currently is not expected to operate in this orbital regime. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or a smaller version being designed for this purpose, and its performance potential as a permanently space-based

Carl D. Graves; Hans F. Meissinger; Alan Rosen

1989-01-01

193

Servicing of multiple satellites using an OMV-derived transfer vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Servicing vehicles and supplies to be used for extending the mission life of polar orbiting satellites will be launched into orbit by expendable launch vehicles, since the Space Shuttle currently is not expected to operate in this orbital regime. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or a smaller version being designed for this purpose, and its performance potential as a permanently space-based satellite servicing vehicle, are the subject of this paper. A single servicing vehicle of this class can maneuver, as required, to visit multiple user satellites in their respective orbits. Cost-effective orbit transfer techniques are essential for a viable multi-satellite servicing scenario. Such transfer modes and servicing scenarios, and the usable payload delivery performance achievable are analyzed and compared.

Graves, Carl D.; Meissinger, Hans F.; Rosen, Alan

194

Assessment of flywheel system benefits in selected vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheel-equipped vehicles were compared with their non-flywheel counterparts (baseline systems) on the basis of energy utilization. To accomplish this, a computer-based vehicle simulation program was developed. This program determines the propulsion power required to negotiate each element of the driving cycle, and apportions this power between prime mover and storage device according to one or more selected operating strategies. The state of flywheel (and/or battery) charge is continuously tracked, along with the consumption of fuel or dissipation of battery energy. Energy flows associated with all major component processes are accounted for. Results are given for a four-passenger commuter vehicle with electric drive (range extension application of the flywheel system) and a six-passenger family car with conventional heat engine drive (fuel conservation application of the flywheel system). The six-passenger vehicle was also examined with respect to its use in urban taxi service.

Forrest, L.

1982-12-01

195

An investigation of service and refueling infrastructure for energy storage vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service infrastructure for energy storage vehicles (ESV's) is examined to determine barriers to the introduction of ESV's into the private transportation sector. Electrically rechargeable battery powered vehicles, aluminum/air fuel cell vehicles, and hydrogen powered vehicles are considered. Implications of infrastructure for hybrid vehicles are also discussed. Service delivery systems and refueling methods are identified. Refueling methods for electrically rechargeable vehicles, which are investigated, include overnight home recharging, recharging at parking facilities of businesses, employers and institutions (distributed refueling) and battern exchange systems. The potential for each method is examined and the relative cost of various alternatives is investigated. The production, distribution and supply of aluminum fuel and of hydrogen are considered. Retrofitting possibilities of existing service facilities are examined for each ESV type. Design implications for retrofitting and new facility construction are discussed.

Wall, J. D.

1980-01-01

196

Fully Allocated Cost of Rail Passenger Service between New York and Washington. Comparison of Conventional and Metroliner Costs During the Fourth Quarter of 1968 and the Fourth Quarter of 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a comparative analysis of the fully allocated cost of rail passenger service between New York, New York and Washington, D. C. for the fourth quarters of 1968 and 1970. The objective of this phase of the study was to collect, analyze an...

1971-01-01

197

Vehicle drivetrain customization: application to a postal service fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current automotive manufacturers' strategy is to design more modular vehicles in order to increase the vehicle customization. This customization has been focused in the interior layout and chassis configuration, but the extension of this perspective to drivetrain configuration can provide great benefits, especially at professional domains, where routine activities are kept along vehicle life cycle. This paper intends to illustrate

S. Faias; J. Esteves; P. Ferrao

2005-01-01

198

Tuneable autonomy and human interfaces for free-flying servicing vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future mission applications for on-orbit servicing vehicles include inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) and future crewed deep space missions. The use of robotic servicing vehicles is seen as a key requirement to significantly reduce total human EVA hours for such applications. A necessary technology for these vehicles is the provision of automated mission and trajectory planning tools and suitable human-machine interfaces. This paper will explore new methods for such automation along with approaches to blend autonomy and human control in a seamless manner. These methods have been applied to a range of vehicles including the Daimler-Chrysler ISS Inspector. .

Roger, Alexander; Welsh, Teri; McInnes, Colin R.

2001-02-01

199

The tole of towing services at motor vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

A survey of tow truck services operating in a defined area of the south-east suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine their potential for delivering emergency medical care at the scene of crashes. Most towing firms have an association with a panel-beating shop, and operate within a limited area of one to three miles radius. The rapid response of tow trucks to crash scenes is due to their well-developed intelligence network of "spotters" and the short distances the trucks travel. Very little first aid is provided by the drivers, although one-fifth had some first aid training at some time. In about one-half of the calls to crashes a damaged vehicle is still at the scene, in about 20% an ambulance is called, and in about 5% a hospital admission occurs. Direct observation of 22 crashes suggests that on average, tow trucks arrive at a crash scene five minutes before the ambulance, and fifteen minutes before the police. There is a good case for making first aid training a preerequisite for issue of a tow truck operator's license. PMID:1160789

Dean, L; Jame, W; Ryan, G A

1975-08-16

200

14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...never required to accommodate certain unusual service animals (e.g., snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders) as service animals in the cabin. With respect to all other animals, including unusual or exotic animals that are...

2013-01-01

201

40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger...

2010-07-01

202

Modeling the Factors Affecting Bus Stop Dwell Time: Use of Automatic Passenger Counting, Automatic Fare Counting, and Automatic Vehicle Location Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwell time at bus stops represents a significant portion of bus operating time and contributes to its variability. Although dwell time is highly correlated with the number of passengers boarding and alighting, there are also secondary factors such as crowding, fare type, and bus design that may affect it. These secondary factors may strongly influence the effectiveness of different strategies

Martin N. Milkovits

2008-01-01

203

Rust pa Biler: En Undersoekelse i Utvalgte Omrader i Norge (Motor Vehicle Corrosion : A Study of Corrosion on Passenger Cars in Selected Areas in Norway).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results from a study of the amount of corrosion on passenger cars in eight (8) different geographical areas in Norway. Three different corrosive agents were identified, namely salt (NaCl) used as a deicing agent on roads, ocean cli...

A. Ragnoey

1986-01-01

204

A tabu search algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and delivery service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and delivery (VRP_SPD) is a variant of the classical vehicle routing problem,(VRP) where clients require simultaneous pick-up and delivery service. Deliveries are supplied from a single depot at the beginning of the vehicle’s service, while pick-up loads are taken to the same depot at the conclusion of the service. One important characteristic

Fermín Alfredo Tang Montané; Roberto Diéguez Galvão

2006-01-01

205

Accelerated Service Life Testing of Automotive Vehicles on a Test Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerated service life testing of automotive vehicles for durability to road roughness induced dynamic loads is often accomplished in the laboratory using road roughness simulation facilities [1–5]. However, such tests can also be accomplished by a carefully designed field operation on a test course [6], where both the speed of the vehicle and the roughness of die test course

S. Colin ASHMORE; Allan G. PIERSOL; Joseph J. WITTE

1992-01-01

206

48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01...2011-10-01 false Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services... Section 908.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

2011-10-01

207

The effect of teenage passengers on the fatal crash risk of teenage drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal crash-involved drivers of passenger vehicles were identified in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 1990 through 1995. Each driver was categorized as being alone in the vehicle at the time of the crash or with one or more passengers. Drivers at fault or responsible for crash occurrence were defined as all drivers involved in a single-vehicle crash,

David F. Preusser; Susan A. Ferguson; Allan F. Williams

1998-01-01

208

Passengers in Containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A futuristic vision of future passenger and cargo transport is presented. To speed up lengthy transit operations, passengers would be accomodated in comfortable, compartment-like containers. Several diagrams show how such containers can be accomodated abo...

V. Tarkhanovskiy

1977-01-01

209

14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2013-01-01

210

FAA Regional Service Demand Study: Task B - Forecast of Passengers, Operations and Other Activities for Stewart International Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents comprehensive forecasts of aviation demand at Stewart International Airport for the years 2005 through 2015, 2020, and 2025. These forecasts were prepared as part of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regional Air Service Deman...

2007-01-01

211

The Burden of Unhelmeted and Uninsured ATV Drivers and Passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injured all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riders contribute to the national trauma burden. The importance of helmet use on injury severity and outcomes in ATV drivers versus passengers that receive care is unknown along with the association of payor status and helmet use in this population. An investigation of whether helmet use protects ATV drivers and passengers resulting in less severe

Tricia L. Merrigan; Piper L. Wall; Hayden L. Smith; Todd J. Janus; Richard A. Sidwell

2011-01-01

212

Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

2008-01-01

213

49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and includes vehicles described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section: (a) An automobile designed to perform at least one of the following functions: (1) Transport more than 10...

2010-10-01

214

Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a

Frank A. Drews; Monisha Pasupathi; David L. Strayer

2008-01-01

215

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

216

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

Bujold

1980-01-01

217

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

218

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

219

Small passenger car transmission test: Ford C4 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

220

Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

NONE

1995-01-31

221

Near Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program, Phase 1. Appendices a and B. Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies Report, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of t...

1979-01-01

222

Operations Research Models for the Deployment of Emergency Services Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the development and current state of the art in operations research for deployment and planning analysis pertaining to Emergency Medical Services and Fire Departments. These public safety systems have received a great deal of attention in the operations research community since they provide important services to people and the problems are amenable to mathematical

Jeffrey B. Goldberg

223

40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1818-12...light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. (a) Applicability...light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles....

2013-07-01

224

A semantic and adaptive context management service for smart vehicle space in ubiquitous computing environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a semantic and adaptive service for context-aware information management system for supporting ubiquitous computing applications in a smart vehicle space. In ubiquitous computing environments, systems consisting of different device types, operating systems, network interfaces, and communication protocols. These contexts change dynamically and the applications have to adapt their behaviors in terms of the contexts. In order to

Qing Wu; Ying Li

2009-01-01

225

Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE\\/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid

Xiao-Yen J. Wang; James R. Yuko

2007-01-01

226

Impact of Service Station Networks on Purchase Decisions of Alternative-fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the impact of service station availability on the demand for alternative-fuel vehicles and the consumers' willingness to pay for an enlarged fueling infrastructure. We examine a stated preferences choice experiment conducted as a CAPI survey with about 600 interviews of potential car buyers in Germany and estimate the coefficients of a discrete choice model. We

Martin Achtnicht; Georg Bühler; Claudia Hermeling

2008-01-01

227

Investigations of Oil-Cooled, High-Speed Generators for Service Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-speed generators with intensive air- or oil cooling are used for power supply in service vehicles. Heat transmission of oil cooling systems is by far superior to that of water cooling systems. Oil cooled generators with internal and jacket ventilatio...

H. Foerschner

1985-01-01

228

POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

229

41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Fueling § 102-34.320 What...

2013-01-01

230

Preliminary survey report: evaluation of brake-drum service controls at Pennsylvania Bureau of Vehicle Management, Vehicle Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to asbestos during the servicing of brakes on state-owned vehicles at the Bureau of Vehicle Management Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was investigated as part of a study of control technologies. Brakes had been serviced at this garage facility for the previous year using a BCE-1000 Clayton brake-cleaning unit, sized for cars, vans, and pickups. The brake-cleaning unit consisted of

Van Wagenen

1987-01-01

231

Integrated Passenger Information System for Multimodal Trip Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of wireless and web-based communication technologies in advanced public transport information systems has led to the provision of passenger information services directly to the users. Most of the existing systems provide alternative travel plans either for urban or for single-mode interurban trips. The objective of this paper is to present an online passenger information system for delivering personalized

Konstantinos G Zografos; Vassilis Spitadakis; Konstantinos N Androutsopoulos

2008-01-01

232

Airport security screening and changing passenger satisfaction: An exploratory assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since September 11, 2001, airport screening procedures in the US have been continuously evolving. For example, the passenger screening process is now trying to strike a balance between security and customer service (i.e. minimizing wait times). This balancing act has important implications not only for passenger safety, but also for the financial stability of an airline industry that is faced

Konstantina Gkritza; Debbie Niemeier; Fred Mannering

2006-01-01

233

Appropriate analysis of CIREN data: Using NASS-CDS to reduce bias in estimation of injury risk factors in passenger vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database contains detailed medical and crash information on a large number of severely injured occupants in motor vehicle crashes. CIREN's major limitation for stand-alone analyses to explore injury risk factors is that control subjects without a given injury type must have another severe injury to be included in the database. This leads to

Michael R. Elliott; Alexa Resler; Carol A. Flannagan; Jonathan D. Rupp

2010-01-01

234

Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet--Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising

I. Meyer; S. Wessely

2009-01-01

235

The effect of communication architecture on the availability, reliability, and economics of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle-to-grid ancillary services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have proposed that fleets of plug-in hybrid vehicles could be used to perform ancillary services for the electric grid. In many of these studies, the vehicles are able to accrue revenue for performing these grid stabilization services, which would offset the increased purchase cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles. To date, all such studies have assumed a vehicle command architecture

Casey Quinn; Daniel Zimmerle; Thomas H. Bradley

2010-01-01

236

NHTSA's Vehicle Compatibility Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the crash compatibility of passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs) in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. NHTSA has conducted a series of eight full...

S. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

237

Passenger car units in saturation flows: Concept, definition, derivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger car units (pcus) are traditionally used to represent the effects of changes in traffic composition (the mix of cars, goods vehicles, buses, ad so on) on the saturation flows at traffic signal junctions. This paper describes in the results obtained by the two main methods of derivation of pcu values, regression analysis of asynchronous vehicles counts (asynchronous regression) and

R. M. Kimber; M. McDonald; N. Hounsell

1985-01-01

238

Quantitative assessment of passenger flows in Europe and its implications for tracing contacts of infectious passengers.  

PubMed

In contrast to air travel, there are no recommendations on tracing ground transport passengers exposed to infectious pathogens. We analysed European statistics on passenger transport in different conveyances and conducted expert workshops to discuss environmental conditions in ground transport, indications and minimal datasets required for contact tracing. Transport performance in the 27 countries of the European Union increased from 5.3 x 10(12) passenger kilometres (pkm) in 1995 to 6.5 x 10(12) pkm in 2007. Each resident generated on average 13,092 pkm in 2007, of which 2,062 pkm were public ground transport and 1,155 pkm in air transport. In the same year in Germany the total passenger volume in all different conveyances was 67,937 million. Public ground transport accounted for a passenger volume of 11,387 million (16.8%) and air transport for 129 million (0.2%). High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration is frequently used in airplanes but not in ground transport vehicles. Therefore opportunities for disease transmission in public ground transport are not necessarily lower than in air travel. However, contact tracing is rarely conducted in these settings because of immense logistic challenges.Indication for contact tracing should be revisited, including all kinds of passenger transport. PMID:22720770

Askar, M A; Mohr, O; Eckmanns, T; Krause, G; Poggensee, G

2012-06-14

239

76 FR 51916 - Procurement of Commodities and Services Financed by USAID  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...vehicles with passenger carriage capacity, such as highway trucks, passenger cars and buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles, ATVs and utility vehicles. Excluded from this definition are ambulances, snowmobiles, industrial vehicles for...

2011-08-19

240

A Two-Phase Set Partitioning Model for Passenger Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-phase set partitioning model is proposed to solve passenger transportation, this problem is a real life application for the pickup and delivery problem where vehicles have to transport passengers from their locations to different destinations with minimal routing cost. Following the classical cluster-first route-second approach the problem is modelled in two phases and solved like a set partitioning problem

Broderick Crawford; C. Castro; E. Monfroy

2009-01-01

241

PASSENGER TRAIN DESIGN FOR INCREASED COMPETITIVENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger trains have great potential to increase their market share, provided that good conditions are created for train traffic. This has been proven by modern, comfortable trains with good on-board service, high speed, and fewer quality shortcomings. One serious threat is that high ticket prices limit demand. Efficiency has to be increased. Operating costs can be reduced using modular train

Karl Kottenhoff

1998-01-01

242

Collisions with passenger cars and moose, Sweden.  

PubMed Central

The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants.

Bjornstig, U; Eriksson, A; Thorson, J; Bylund, P O

1986-01-01

243

User Acceptance of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Services: Critical Issues Relating to Acceptance of CVO Services by Interstate Truck and Bus Drivers. Executive Summary. Task B Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Penn + Schoen Associates has been commissioned by the Federal Highway Administration to conduct a study entitled User Acceptance of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Services. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate critical issues relatin...

1995-01-01

244

32 CFR 700.842 - Authority over passengers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.842 Authority over passengers. Except as otherwise...the naval service are subject to the authority of the commanding officer and shall conform to the...

2010-07-01

245

32 CFR 700.842 - Authority over passengers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.842 Authority over passengers. Except as otherwise...the naval service are subject to the authority of the commanding officer and shall conform to the...

2009-07-01

246

Lives Saved by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Other Vehicle Safety Technologies, 1960-2002. Passenger Cars and Light Trucks (With a Review of 19 FMVSS and Their Effectiveness in Reducing Fatalities, Injuries and Crashes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) began to evaluate its Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) in 1975. By October 2004, NHTSA had evaluated the effectiveness of virtually all the life-saving technologies introduced in pas...

C. J. Kahane

2004-01-01

247

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum-service controls at United States Postal Service, vehicle maintenance facility, Nashville, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a brake-washer assembly unit (Kleer-Flo Model LW-22 Rollabout) for limiting exposure to asbestos during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated as the U.S. Post Office Maintenance Garage in Nashville, TN. A fleet of 575 Jeep delivery vehicles are serviced at the facility. Most of the vehicles had 13- or 14-inch wheels and 10-inch long brake shoes.

F. W. Godbey; T. C. Cooper; J. W. Sheehy; D. M. OBrien; H. D. Van Wagenen

1987-01-01

248

Passenger car hydrocarbon emissions speciation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe emissions were for the urban driving conditions of the Federal Test Procedure used in motor vehicle certification. The evaporative emissions were for both diurnal and hot soak conditions, also prescribed in the Federal Test Procedure for certification. The vehicle tests involved four gasoline fuels of varying composition.

Black, F.; High, L.

1980-05-01

249

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. 1828.371 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING...

2012-10-01

250

48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. 1828.371 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING...

2011-10-01

251

75 FR 13337 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...passenger terminal buildings or enplane less...rehabilitation and bridge. Brief Description...complex conceptual design. Cargo service...Expand terminal building. Improve service...firefighting building. Runway 6...taxiway A4. Design services for...passenger boarding bridges (gates 1...

2010-03-19

252

Real-time measurements of SO2, H2CO, and CH4 emissions from in-use curbside passenger buses in New York City using a chase vehicle.  

PubMed

The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory "chased" in-use curbside passenger buses operated by various operators in New York City. With the cooperation of New York State's Metropolitan Transit Authority, the relationships between the emissions of the several gas-phase species and particulate loadings were investigated across several bus technologies, bus types, and fuels (diesel, ultralow sulfur diesel, and compressed natural gas, CNG). The CNG buses followed did not employ an oxidation catalyst. The buses characterized were not prescreened in any fashion and were measured while deployed on their normal in-service routes. This paper focuses on the fuel-based mass emissions of SO2, H2CO, and CH4, measured using tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide emissions from buses known to be burning ultralow sulfur diesel (<30 ppm(m) S) were 16 times lower than those from buses burning normal commercial diesel fuel, nominally less than 300 ppm(m) sulfur. Emissions of formaldehyde and methane from in-use CNG buses were approximately 15 times greater than those from diesel powered buses. PMID:16295865

Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Wormhoudt, Joda; Nelson, David D; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

2005-10-15

253

77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are met. For example, passenger train conductors are subject to operational (efficiency...efficiency) test of a passenger train conductor that involves the procedures for passenger...efficiency) test of a passenger train conductor that involves...

2012-06-27

254

Appropriate analysis of CIREN data: using NASS-CDS to reduce bias in estimation of injury risk factors in passenger vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database contains detailed medical and crash information on a large number of severely injured occupants in motor vehicle crashes. CIREN's major limitation for stand-alone analyses to explore injury risk factors is that control subjects without a given injury type must have another severe injury to be included in the database. This leads to bias toward the null in the estimation of risk associations. One method to cope with this limitation is to obtain information about occupants without a given injury type from the National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS), which is a probability sample of towaway crashes, containing similar crash information, but less medical detail. Combining CIREN and NASS-CDS in this manner takes advantage of the increased sample size when outcomes are available in both datasets; otherwise NASS-CDS can serve as a sample of controls to be combined with CIREN cases, possibly under a sensitivity analysis that includes and excludes NASS-CDS subjects whose status as a control is uncertain. Because CIREN is not a probability sample of crashes that meet its inclusion criteria, we develop a method to estimate the probability of selection for the CIREN cases using data from NASS-CDS. These estimated probabilities are then used to compute "pseudo-weights" for the CIREN cases. These pseudo-weights not only allow for reduced bias in the estimation of risk associations, they allow direct prevalence estimates to be made using medical outcome data available only in CIREN. We illustrate the use of these methods with both simulation studies and application to estimation of prevalence and predictors of AIS 3+ injury risk to head, thorax, and lower extremity regions, as well as prevalence and predictors of acetabular pelvic fractures. Results of these analyses demonstrate combining NASS and CIREN data can yield improvements in mean square error and nominal confidence interval coverage over analyses that use either the NASS-CDS or the CIREN sample alone. PMID:20159077

Elliott, Michael R; Resler, Alexa; Flannagan, Carol A; Rupp, Jonathan D

2009-10-23

255

Influence Analysis of a Passenger Car's Universality Design on Ride Comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

To strengthen the parts universality of a series of passenger cars and improve a passenger car ride comfort, the elastic components and the installation location of the vehicles are optimized. The optimization scheme of widening, lengthening the rear suspension leaf spring, and narrowing diameter of the front suspension torsion bar spring are analyzed, then the front and rear suspension stiffness

He Ren; Sun Li

2010-01-01

256

The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult).

Bruce Simons-Morton; Neil Lerner; Jeremiah Singer

2005-01-01

257

Modelling open access train services  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC policy is to encourage competition in the rail industry, and directives require governments to facilitate competition for freight and certain passenger services. In Great Britain, such competition was envisaged during privatisation in 1994. Here, most passenger rail services are run by franchised operators but open access passenger services are also permitted subject to certain conditions. In 2002, Hull Trains

Martin Prior; James Vickers; John Segal

2011-01-01

258

Should states require child passenger protection?  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death and injury in children over one year of age in the United States. In response to this problem, bills have been introduced in the legislatures of more than twenty states that would require children to be restrained when riding in motor vehicles. Details such as age limits and types of allowable restraint devices have varied with the individual proposals. Laws have been passed in Tennessee and Rhode Island requiring child passengers to be restrained under certain circumstances. In both these states, as well as in many other states where similar laws have been proposed, objections have been raised on the basis of individual and family rights. A state legislative commission has drafted a Proposed Model Law: Every driver transporting a child under the age of five years in a motor vehicle registered in this state and operated on the roadways, streets, or highways of this state shall provide for the protection of the child by properly using a child passenger restraint system meeting applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Is such a law a necessary protection, or does it violate due process, privacy, and the right of parents to raise children as they see fit? Does it also discriminate economically? PMID:7239892

1981-06-01

259

ConeXpress Orbital Life Extension Vehicle - a commercial service for communications satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telecommunications satellites are designed for useful lives of 10-15 years before they are "junked" when their propellant runs out. This is a waste of huge catital investments, because all or most of the satellites' revenue-generating communications payloads is still functional. The ConeXpress Orbital Life Extension Vehicle is a novel spacecraft that will significantly prolong the operating lives of these valuable satellites. Launched aboard Ariane-5, it is designed to dock with a satellite and operate as an orbital "tugboat", supplying the propulsion, navigation and guidance to keep its host in the proper orbital slot for many years of revenue-earning service.

Caswell, Doug; Visentin, Gianfranco; Ortega, Guillermo; de Kam, Jaap; Nugteren, Paul Robert; Scholten, Han

2006-08-01

260

Passengers' Airport Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling airport choice of passengers has been a subject of interest for air transport scientists and airport managers already for a while. Wilken, Berster and Gelhausen have reported of a market segment specific model approach to airport choice in Germany in a paper entitled \\

Marc Christopher Gelhausen

2007-01-01

261

Passenger Pigeons: Nomads Lost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson, developed by two scientists, is aimed at helping students understand the concept and implications of extinction using the example of the Passenger Pigeon, once an extremely abundant species that was completely eliminated by humans. Students will also discover that technologies that were seemingly unrelated to the loss of the bird were actually central to its extinction.

Science Netlinks;

2003-07-11

262

Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers’ relative risk of fatal crash involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but

Marie Claude Ouimet; Bruce G. Simons-Morton; Paul L. Zador; Neil D. Lerner; Mark Freedman; Glen D. Duncan; Jing Wang

2010-01-01

263

Small passenger car transmission. Final report test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

264

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Malibu 200C transmission with lockup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

265

The periodic impact responses and stability of a human body in a vehicle traveling on rough terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic impact motions of passengers in a vehicle traveling on rough terrain are investigated through a linear model of vehicle and passenger systems. In this mechanical model, the human body is considered as a massless bar with a lumped mass. The linear model assumes that the motion response of vehicle is quite small compared to the passenger's pitch motion

Ke Yu; Albert C. J. Luo

2004-01-01

266

Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al.

Danyi Wang

2007-01-01

267

43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operator and each front seat passenger is restrained...properly fastened safety belt that conforms to...mandatory use of a safety belt by the vehicle operator and any front seat passenger. It also...vehicle occupying a seat that was not originally...manufacturer with a safety belt, nor does it...

2012-10-01

268

Supervising passenger land-transport systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a supervisory control approach, based on controlled automata concepts, for the planning for online service-operations control of a new class of passenger land-transport systems ( PLanTSs). A PLanTS belongs to a class of dynamic demand-responsive transportation systems. Rapid advances in information and communication technologies are providing a new infrastructural and communications basis upon which higher

Kiam Tian Seow; Michel Pasquier

2004-01-01

269

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines

D. A Cooper

2001-01-01

270

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What services are carriers not required to...disability on board the aircraft? 382.113...TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are carriers not required to...disability on board the aircraft? As a carrier, you are...

2010-01-01

271

RAIL PASSENGER EQUIPMENT CRASHWORTHINESS TESTING REQUIREMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the requirements and the implementation of a series of impact tests of rail passenger equipment. The test requirements - the desired measurements - are dictated by the characteristics of the vehicle, as well as uncertainties in the analysis techniques used to evaluate the collision behavior of the equipment. The required measurements are implemented with available measurement transducers,

David Tyrell; Kristine Severson; A. Benjamin Perlman

2000-01-01

272

The Passenger Pigeon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The passenger pigeon no longer graces the North American skies, and for many this represents the disturbing ability that humans have to destroy a particular species. Fortunately, there is another "passenger pigeon" in existence, namely the official scholarly publication of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology. The Society is an organization of professional and non-professional ornithologists, and they are dedicated to the study of Wisconsin birds. The journal was first published in 1939, and it continues to feature original information about birds in the Badger State, along with season reports and such. Recently, the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections group saw fit to digitize all of the issues from January 1939 to Spring 2005. Visitors to the site can browse through the archive and also take a look at some of the other collections that deal with ecology and natural resources.

2007-01-01

273

MULI-Resenaerer och Gods i ett Flexibelt Fordon (MULI-Buslorry: Passenger and Goods Transport in a Multiple Buslorry).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the MULI-project a new type of medium-sized vehicle suitable for both passenger and goods transportation has been developed in cooperation with a qualified vehicle supplier. The vehicle, the MULI-Buslorry (a vehicle for MULtIple use), has a low floor, ...

L. Wede

1999-01-01

274

EVC EXPO 80. Proceedings of the third international electric vehicle conference, St. Louis, MO, May 20-22, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Issues and trends in the case of electric vehicles are considered along with vehicle systems, EV fleet user experience, batteries, aspects of vehicle testing, EV commercial market and vehicle potentials, EV cost considerations, the effective utilization of EVs, and modeling, mission analysis, and impact assessment. Attention is given to EV component reliability, automatic gearshift control for an efficient battery vehicle drive system, a brushless DC motor-power conditioner unit designed and built for propulsion of electric passenger vehicles, a roadway powered electric vehicle system, inductively coupled power systems for electric vehicles, a fuel-cell-powered golf cart, electric vehicles in telephone service, electric vehicle use in the U.S. Postal Service, high performance electric commercial vehicles, nickel iron battery design and performance, the development of the nickel-iron-battery system for electric vehicle propulsion, the advancing performance threshold of the lead-acid electric vehicle battery, advances in zinc bromine batteries for motive power, some aspects of battery vehicle evaluation with particular attention to a battery model, and a generic battery model for electric and hybrid vehicle simulation performance prediction.

Andrews, L.

1980-01-01

275

Preliminary survey report: evaluation of brake-drum service controls at Pennsylvania Bureau of Vehicle Management, Vehicle Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to asbestos during the servicing of brakes on state-owned vehicles at the Bureau of Vehicle Management Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was investigated as part of a study of control technologies. Brakes had been serviced at this garage facility for the previous year using a BCE-1000 Clayton brake-cleaning unit, sized for cars, vans, and pickups. The brake-cleaning unit consisted of a transparent enclosure hood and a HEPA vacuum filter dust collector, designed to contain and collect all brake-lining dust during vehicular brake maintenance and replacement. The authors conclude that the Clayton BCE-1000 dust-control unit appeared to be effective in containing and collecting brake dust during all vehicular brake maintenance and replacement jobs in this situation.

Van Wagenen, H.D.

1987-03-01

276

ALLOCATION OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK FOR PASSENGER TRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a commercially operating railway company, providing a high level of service for the passengers is of utmost importance. The latter requires a high punctuality of the trains and an adequate rolling stock capacity. Unfortunately, the latter is currently (2002) one of the bottlenecks in the service provision by the main Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers. Especially during the morning

A. Abbink; B. van den Berg; L. F. Kroon; M. Salomon

2002-01-01

277

Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized externalities to evaluate the societal costs of passenger transportation in each region. Results are validated against existing studies. The dominating contribution of automobile end-use energy consumption and emissions is discussed and strategies for improving regional performance given private travel's disproportionate share are identified.

Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

2010-03-01

278

Two-vehicle side impact crashes: The relationship of vehicle and crash characteristics to injury severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury type and severity among front outboard occupants of passenger vehicles struck in the side by another passenger vehicle and recorded in the United States National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were examined in relation to the location of impact, the angle of impact, occupant gender and age, seat belt use, the weight and body style of the side-impacted

Charles M. Farmer; Elisa R. Braver; Eric L. Mitter

1997-01-01

279

Field Operations Program - US Postal Service Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valey Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on "park and loop" mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

Francfort, James Edward

2002-01-01

280

Field Operations Program - U.S. Postal Service - Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ''park and loop'' mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

Francfort, J.E.

2002-01-21

281

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the testing of a 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automation transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed, and efficiency curves which are reported in the data section. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-03-01

282

14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft §...

2013-01-01

283

Are Child Passengers Bringing Up the Rear? Evidence For Differential Improvements in Injury Risk Between Drivers and their Child Passengers  

PubMed Central

Since nearly half of children fatally injured in automobile crashes were restrained, optimizing occupant protection systems for children is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality. Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study were used to compare the differential injury risk between drivers and their child passengers in the same crash, with a focus on vehicle model year. A matched cohort design and conditional logistic regression model were used in the analyses. Overall, injury risk for drivers was higher than for children, but the risk difference was largest for the oldest model year vehicles, particularly for children aged 4–8 in seat belts. While drivers experienced significant benefits in safety with increasing model years, children restrained by safety belts alone derived less safety benefit from newer vehicles.

Winston, Flaura K; Xie, Dawei; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R

2007-01-01

284

Parameteridentifikation des Insassensimulationsmodells MADYMO: Methoden und Erfahrungen (Parameter Identification of the Passenger Simulation Model MADYMO: Methods and Experience).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the delay in the passenger motion was determined from the evolution of the delay of vehicle cell using the simulation model MADYMO. This is a flexible program for the calculation of the motion of a dummy passenger. The dummy consists of s...

R. Zobel H. Bock T. Reiners

1987-01-01

285

Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data

C. Henderson; H. T. Ellis; J. P. Wilhelm

1979-01-01

286

On being aeromobile: airline passengers and the affective experiences of flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of heavier-than-air powered flight and the subsequent inauguration of regular passenger air services at the beginning of the twentieth century transformed not only the practical geographies but also the affective human experiences of travelling. Aircraft enabled passengers to accomplish journeys, which would once have taken many days or weeks to complete, in a matter of hours, and transformed

Lucy C. S. Budd

2011-01-01

287

Controlling Air Pollution from Passenger Ferries: Cost-Effectiveness of Seven Technological Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions

Alexander E. Farrell; James J. Corbett; James J. Winebrake

2002-01-01

288

The EU Passenger Name Record System and Human Rights Transferring passenger data or passenger freedom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission presented the 'EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system' in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger data between EU member states and between member states and

Evelien Brouwer

289

Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory  

SciTech Connect

The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

2007-05-01

290

‘Calling Passengers’ — An Ethical Problem in the Design of Self-Service Web Sites Amongst Low-Cost Airlines in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethics on the Internet has been a widely debated topic in recent years covering issues that range from privacy to security\\u000a to fraud. Little, however, has been written on more subtle ethical questions such as the exploitation of Web technologies\\u000a to inhibit or avoid customer service. Increasingly, it would appear, some firms are using Web sites to create distance between

Chris Barry; Ann Torres

291

Exponentially Stabilizing Output Tracking of Fully Autonomous Passenger Cars with an Observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, inspired by resolved acceleration control techniques popular in robotics, presents an automated vehicle control algorithm for combined longitudinal and lateral motion control of highway vehicles with special emphasis on passenger cars. Key design features are: 1) inherent coupling effects are taken into account as a result of combining two control issues, viz., lateral and longitudinal control; 2) rather

Sisil Kumarawadu; Jau-Woei Perng; Tsu-Tian Lee

2006-01-01

292

[Health surveillance and people-suitability to passenger and good haulage].  

PubMed

In Italy the transport of goods is done mainly by road and is complicated matter. Companies engaged in the passenger transport are state-controlled companies and little companies of taxi service. The work of the driver in public or private companies carrying people or goods shows a lot of similarities and remains one of the most difficult job. The analyzed job-risks are: vibration, noise, manual handling of loads by workers involved in loading /unloading the vehicle, exposure to chemical pollutants and the indoor environment of the cabin stress. The protocol for health surveillance should therefore be drawn up taking into account: current legislation, risk factors, most frequently occurring diseases and/or disease that may affect job that may affect job performance. PMID:23405651

Cosentino, F

293

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum-service controls at United States Postal Service, vehicle maintenance facility, Nashville, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of a brake-washer assembly unit (Kleer-Flo Model LW-22 Rollabout) for limiting exposure to asbestos during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated as the U.S. Post Office Maintenance Garage in Nashville, TN. A fleet of 575 Jeep delivery vehicles are serviced at the facility. Most of the vehicles had 13- or 14-inch wheels and 10-inch long brake shoes. Ventilation in the garage was minimal. During winter months, there was no provision for fresh, heated air from the outside. When the 14 bay doors were open in the summer, they provided good ventilation in conjunction with roof fans. One gallon of concentrated detergent, Greasoff No. 19, was used diluted to clean 40 to 50 wheels. Very low asbestos exposures were recorded when the washing assembly was in operation. Personal air samples for the brake mechanics averaged less than the detection limit of 0.004 fibers/cubic centimeter (f/cc) with only one sample above 0.004f/cc. Of the ten vehicles tested, fibers found in the drums were between 83 to 100% chrysotile, with two vehicles having 100% asbestos fibers.

Godbey, F.W.; Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; Van Wagenen, H.D.

1987-08-01

294

14 CFR 382.27 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to provide advance notice in order to obtain...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c) You may require a passenger with a disability...Accommodation for a passenger who must travel in a...service animal in the cabin; (9) Transportation...Accommodation of a passenger who has both severe vision...accommodation on the new flight. If the...

2010-01-01

295

Effects of Vehicle Impact Velocity, Vehicle Front-end Shapes on Pedestrian Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the effects of the vehicle impact velocity, vehicle front-end shape, and pedestrian size on the injury risk of the pedestrian in collisions with passenger vehicles with various frontal shapes.Method: A series of parametric study were carried out by using two sizes of THUMS pedestrian models (177 and 165 cm) and four vehicle FE

Yong Han; Jikuang Yang; Koji Mizuno; Yasuhiro Matsui

2012-01-01

296

3-D numerical and experimental analysis for airflow within a passenger compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

People use cars so frequently that they always consider the air-conditioning, and thermal comfort of the driver and passenger\\u000a when buying a new car. Therefore accurate simulation of the thermal performance of automobile air conditioners to improve\\u000a human comfort has become increasingly important. In order to improve the thermal comfort of passengers, 3-D flow motion and\\u000a thermal behavior within vehicles

C.-H. Chien; J.-Y. Jang; Y.-H. Chen; S.-C. Wu

2008-01-01

297

Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 1. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results and conclusions of the study by SRI treats the following topics: physical assets and services of rail passenger systems; energy demands and intensities; roles of local institutions; the industry future; and the role of the Federal government. Data reported were collected in 1976 and 1977, and in most cases, cover calendar year 1975.

1979-01-01

298

Passenger information systems in media networks: Patterns, preferences, prototypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study we explore how users evaluate new self-service applications for mobile phones. The application under examination is a passenger information system for public transport. The study is part of an interdisciplinary project (Cairo, context aware intermodal routing) and investigates two questions: How do users evaluate the communicative usability of novel applications? Which characteristics are relevant and how does

Simone Wirtz; Eva-Maria Jakobs; Shirley Beul

2010-01-01

299

Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOx emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NOx measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other

D. A Cooper; K Andreasson

1999-01-01

300

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric\\/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric

1982-01-01

301

The seeing passenger car 'VaMoRs-P'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passenger car Mercedes 500 SEL has been equipped with vision in the framework of the EUREKA-project 'Pometheus III'. Road and object recognition is performed both in a look-ahead and in a look-back region; this allows an internal servo-maintained representation of the entire situation around the vehicle using the 4D approach to dynamic machine vision. Obstacles are detected and tracked

E. D. Dickmanns; R. Behringer; D. Dickmanns; T. Hildebrandt; M. Maurer; F. Thomanek; J. Schiehlen

1994-01-01

302

Rolling Stock Circulation Model for Combining and Splitting of Passenger Trains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the railway rolling stock circulation problem. Given the departure and arrival times as well as the expected numbers of passengers, we have to assign the rolling stock to the timetable services. We consider several objective criteria ...

A. Schrijver G. Maroti L. G. Kroon P. J. Fioole

2004-01-01

303

Suit proceeds over airline's ejection of passenger with AIDS.  

PubMed

A Federal judge refused to dismiss a disability-discrimination lawsuit where an airline refused service to an AIDS patient because his Kaposi's sarcoma lesions emitted an odor. This ruling supports the law that a carrier is only allowed to remove a passenger if the passenger poses a threat to safety. The judge ruled that a jury would need to decide if Delta Airlines violated this law. The judge also is allowing claims for punitive damages, but ruled against any claims about intentional infliction of emotional distress. PMID:11365499

1998-06-12

304

49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle when the vehicle body is level and moves...of a passenger's body or mobility aid throughout...of a passenger's body or mobility aid...inserts for the vehicle owner's manual...for the size and weight of the lift,...

2009-10-01

305

Effects of Technologies on Commercial Vehicle Company Safety and Service: A Supply Chain Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the importance of safety, and the potential benefits for both the general public and the commercial vehicle industry of improving safety, the main goal of this project is to identify those commercial vehicle-related technologies that, through s...

B. M. Lantz

2006-01-01

306

An inpatient child passenger safety program.  

PubMed

Background. Our institution implemented an Inpatient Child Passenger Safety (CPS) program for hospitalized children to improve knowledge and compliance with the Massachusetts CPS law, requiring children less than 8 years old or 57 inches tall to be secured in a car seat when in a motor vehicle. Methods. After the Inpatient CPS Program was piloted on 3 units in 2009, the program was expanded to all inpatient units in 2010. A computerized nursing assessment tool identifies children in need of a CPS consult for education and/or car seat. Results. With the expanded Inpatient CPS Program, 3650 children have been assessed, 598 consults initiated, and 325 families have received CPS education. Car seats were distributed to 419 children; specialty car seats were loaned to 134 families. Conclusions. With a multidisciplinary approach, we implemented an Inpatient CPS Program for hospitalized children providing CPS education and car seats to families in need. PMID:24137036

Elliott, Lindsey Nichole; Digirolamo, Barbara; McMahon, Maria; Damian, Frances; Brostoff, Marcie; Shermont, Herminia; Mooney, David Patrick; Lee, Lois Kaye

2013-11-01

307

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-10-01

308

Magnetic field confinement for magnetically levitated vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically levitated vehicle adapted for movement along a guide way, comprising: a passenger compartment; first and second primary magnet means secured on the vehicle to produce a magnetic field having a magnetic flux density extending outward from the primary magnet means, to support the vehicle above and spaced from the guide way; and a plurality of confining magnets disposed on the vehicle to confine the magnetic flux extending outward from the primary magnet means and to reduce the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment; wherein the primary magnet means has a capacity to produce a primary magnetic field having a maximum strength of at least 200 gauss in the passenger compartment, and the confining magnets maintain the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment below 5 gauss.

Proise, M.

1993-05-25

309

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, 2007. Volume Four. Crash Injury and Emergency Medical Services Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the sixth in a series of periodic national telephone surveys on occupant protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by Schulma...

C. Lampkin J. M. Boyle

2008-01-01

310

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1...chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition,...

2012-10-01

311

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1...chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition,...

2011-10-01

312

49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15 Section 223.15 Transportation...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars...

2012-10-01

313

49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15 Section 223.15 Transportation...GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements ...15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars...

2011-10-01

314

Effects of tire inflation pressure on passenger-car fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of passenger car fuel consumption at different tire inflation pressures were recently conducted. These measurements were obtained from a vehicle operated on a test track using transient driving cycles and over a range of ambient conditions. The observed changes in fuel consumption, 0.33%/psi, should therefore be representative of actual driving conditions. Subsequently, tire inflation data from 2000 vehicles in six cities were analyzed to determine the extent of passenger car tire underinflation. These data sources were then combined to estimate the nationwide excess fuel consumption, about 600 million gal/y, due to tire underinflation.

Grugett, B.C.; Reineman, M.E.; Thompson, G.D.

1981-01-01

315

US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than pas...

J. J. Morena G. Danby J. Powell

1996-01-01

316

14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have been orally briefed onâ (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must...lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in...

2013-01-01

317

Characterizing Bus Transit Passenger Wait Times.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical models are developed to predict bus passenger waiting time components. A statistically significant quantity of waiting time data, including related passenger attributes, transits system characteristics and bus frequency, were collected by dir...

M. D. Salek R. B. Machemehl

1999-01-01

318

67 FR 19970 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...destination not being the principal purpose.'' FRA...destination as its principal purpose. However...Section 238.15 Movement of Passenger Equipment...destination not being the principal purpose. Train movements of new passenger...

2002-04-23

319

Corporate Reorganization and the Geography of Services: Evidence from the Motor Vehicle Aftermarket in the West Midlands Region of the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARSHALL J. N. (1989) Corporate reorganization and the geography of services: evidence from the motor vehicle aftermarket in the West Midlands region of the UK, Reg. Studies23, 139–150. Research suggests that a corporate complex of administrative managerial and technical staff in the hinterland of capital cities underpins the spatial centralization of service activities in the economy. There have been important

J. N. Marshall

1989-01-01

320

The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

Stommes, Eileen S.

321

PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

322

Impact of Tax Cuts on the Purchasing Behavior of Low-Pollution Vehicles, Fuel-Efficient Vehicles (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on anti-warming measures in the passenger vehicle sector and estimates the impacts of three policies in the green car taxation plan on consumer behavior with respect to car purchases. The three policies refer specifically to, first, preferential taxation for green vehicles; second, special treatment of the vehicle acquisition tax when acquiring fuel-efficient vehicles; and third, special treatment

FUJIWARA Toru

2011-01-01

323

Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also

S. C. Herndon; J. Shorter; M. Canagaratna; J. Jayne; D. D. Nelson; J. C. Wormhoudt; P. Williams; P. J. Silva; Q. Shi; A. Ghertner; M. Zahniser; D. Worsnop; C. Kolb; T. Lanni; F. Drewnick; K. L. Demerjian

2002-01-01

324

Productive efficiency and regulatory reform: The case of vehicle inspection services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring productive efficiency provides information on the likely effects of regulatory reform. We present a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of a sample of 38 vehicle inspection units under a concession regime, between the years 2000 and 2004. The differences in efficiency scores show the potential technical efficiency benefit of introducing some form of incentive regulation or of progressing towards liberalization.

Francesc Trillas; Daniel Montolio; Néstor Duch

2006-01-01

325

Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard

2010-01-01

326

Report on the Relationship of Fares, Services and Costs for D. C. Transit System, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Background to the consultant assignment; The economic and legal concepts of discrimination in pricing transportation; Passenger groups used for analysis of D.C. transit service and fares; Measuring transit service as perceived by the passenger; ...

1969-01-01

327

Impact test of a crash-energy management passenger rail car  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 3, 2003, a single-car impact test was conducted to assess the crashworthiness performance of a modified passenger rail car. A coach car retrofitted with a crash energy management (CEM) end structure impacted a fixed barrier at approximately 35 mph. This speed is just beyond the capabilities of current equipment to protect the occupants. The test vehicle was instrumented

Karina Jacobsen; David Tyrell; Benjamin Perlman

2004-01-01

328

Exhaust Emissions from A 25 - Passenger Internal Combustion Engine Powered Gasoline Fueled Bus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plans were made to install a Rankine cycle power system in a 25 - passenger city bus. Tests were conducted on a conventionally powered bus to establish baseline emissions with which the Rankine system emissions could be compared. The test vehicle was a Tw...

H. A. Ashby

1971-01-01

329

Computational aero-acoustic analysis of a passenger car with a rear spoiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes an effective numerical model based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to obtain the flow structure around a passenger car with wing type rear spoiler. The topology of the test vehicle and grid system is constructed by a commercial package, ICEM\\/CFD. FLUENT is the CFD solver employed in this study. After numerical iterations are completed, the

Chien-Hsiung Tsai; Lung-Ming Fu; Chang-Hsien Tai; Yen-Loung Huang; Jik-Chang Leong

2009-01-01

330

Serpentine-an intelligent urban transportation system for passengers, with autonomous, mobile robot properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpentine is a concept for a flexible public transportation system which can adapt to passenger demand in a city environment. Schematically, it includes a static component-track on ground, communication stations, central control system and distributed power management units; and a dynamic one-small 4 to 5 person capacity vehicles, which can autonomously move through the network, either independently from one another,

J.-D. Dessimoz; P.-F. Gauthey; M. Etique; B. Saugy; A. Vezzini

1999-01-01

331

An Economic Model of Australian Passenger Automobile Demand: A segmented Markets Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates a set of equations explaining the demand for passenger automobiles in Australia for small, medium and luxury size vehicles for the period 1973(1) through 1982(4). These equations are useful because they enable the examinations of hypotheses concerned with changing demand compositions. Model results support the hypothesis that small cars gained in popularity over the period as a

G. G. Madden

1988-01-01

332

Safety Evaluation and Countermeasure Research on the Passenger Transportation in Chongqing Mountainous Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the continual improvement of rural residents' living conditions, the passenger transport demand grows increasingly. However, the present backward vehicles, the traffic mode, the supervision system and the rural residents' consciousness of traffic safe can not adapt to the realistic demand of safe transportation under the current rural road condition; which makes traffic accidents show a growing tendency in

Yao Hongyun; Cao Yuanwen; Zhou Zheng

2010-01-01

333

A comparison of alternative technologies to decarbonize Canada's passenger transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a full systems model of Canada's economy, six alternative scenarios to de-carbonize the personal passenger vehicle fleet are compared to a business as usual non de-carbonized scenario in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, trade disposition of energy commodities, and the physical resources required for energy production. Three scenarios are analyzed to compare the impacts of increasing either ethanol 85,

Paul A. Steenhof; Bertram C. McInnis

2008-01-01

334

14 CFR 259.5 - Customer Service Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ENHANCED PROTECTIONS FOR AIRLINE PASSENGERS...services that the passenger was unable to use due to an oversale situation or flight cancellation; (6) Properly...

2013-01-01

335

Summary of Vehicle Occupant Protections Laws. Eighth Edition Current as of January 1, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication reports the status of State statutes that are concerned with vehicle occupant protection (except off-highway vehicles). Such laws include requiring the use of (1) safety belts, (2) child passenger restraint devices, and (3) motorcycle or ...

2007-01-01

336

A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars

Jiwoon Ahn; Gicheol Jeong; Yeonbae Kim

2008-01-01

337

From metal cutting to metal forming modern side-shafts for passenger cars: manufacturing aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

All passenger cars have at least two side-shafts (in all wheel driven vehicles there are four) which have to be made economically for the entire vehicle life (around 250.000 – 300.000 km) without failure.This paper presents a general comparison of various processes that are applied to current and new techniques for the manufacturing of modern side-shafts.These complex processes must consider

Ing. P. Amborn; Ing. H. Frielingsdorf; S. K. Ghosh; Ing K. Greulich

1995-01-01

338

Introduction to PEMFC Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) for Vehicles; generation, consumption and exchange of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, there have been increasing interests to use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) as auxiliary power unites (APUs) on board applications, for example in luxury passenger vehicles, police vehicles, contractor trucks, specialized utility trucks, recreational vehicles, refrigerated vehicles, and heavy trucks, military vehicles, tourist boats, leisure boats and airplanes. There are still issues related to power requirements,

Martin Andersson

339

A decision support system for the single-depot vehicle rescheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptions in trips can prevent vehicles from executing their schedules as planned. Mechanical failures, accidents, and tra-c congestion often hinder a vehicle schedule. When a vehicle on a scheduled trip breaks down, one or more vehicles need to be rescheduled to serve the passengers\\/cargo (if there are any) on that trip. The main objective of the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRSP)

Jing-quan Li; Denis Borenstein; Pitu B. Mirchandani

2007-01-01

340

48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...7101-2 Section 908.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101-2 Consolidated...

2012-10-01

341

Exploring reductions in London Underground passenger journeys following the July 2005 bombings.  

PubMed

We examine the reduction in London Underground passenger journeys in response to the July 2005 bombings. Using entrance data for London Underground stations between 2001 and 2007, we incorporate demand and supply factors in a multivariate time-series regression model to estimate changes in passenger journeys between different Underground lines. We find that passenger journeys fell by an average of 8.3% for the 4 months following the attacks. This amounts to an overall reduction of 22.5 million passenger journeys for that period. Passenger journeys returned to predicted levels during September 2005, yet we find evidence of reduced travel until June 2006. Our estimates controlled for other factors, including reduced Underground service provision due to damage from the attacks, economic conditions, and weather, yet substantial reductions in passenger journeys remained. Around 82% of passenger journey reductions following the 2005 attacks cannot be attributed to supply-side factors or demand-side factors such as economic conditions, weather, or the summer school-break alone. We suggest that this reduction may partially be due to an increased perception of the risk of Underground travel after the attacks. PMID:21231940

Prager, Fynnwin; Beeler Asay, Garrett Ryan; Lee, Bumsoo; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

2011-01-13

342

Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

2009-12-01

343

Individual factors affecting the risk of death for rear-seated passengers in road crashes.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of age, gender, use of restraint systems and seat position on the risk of death for rear-seated passengers of cars involved in road crashes. The data source was the Spanish register of traffic crashes with victims compiled by the Government's General Traffic Directorate. Data for crashes recorded from 1993 to 2002, inclusive, were studied. We used a matched cohort design to analyze all 5260 rear-seated passengers in vehicles occupied by two or three rear-seated passengers for accidents in which at least one of these passengers was killed. Conditional Poisson regression with death as the dependent variable was used. An increased risk of death was observed for females and children aged <3 years. For passengers aged 25 years and older, the risk increased with age. The use of restraint systems and central and right-side seats was associated with a lower risk. These results should be considered in research focused on passenger fragility and strategies to prevent injury and death. PMID:16426561

Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

2006-01-19

344

49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...extinguisher, at least one properly mounted. Road warning devices, at least one red burning... (o) Protection of passengers from weather. No motor vehicle shall be driven while...passengers therein are protected from inclement weather conditions such as rain, snow, or...

2011-10-01

345

High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: Measurements and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airline passengers now expect dasiamovies on demandpsila, games, telephone and other multimedia services to be provided at their seats, through all classes of service. The cabling and wired infrastructure to provide several hundred such connections is complex, heavy and makes reconfiguring the airliner seating patterns a time-consuming process. Wireless data transmission to seat-back terminals may therefore be advantageous and optical

D. C. O'Brien; G. E. Faulkner; S. Zikic; N. P. Schmitt

2008-01-01

346

O.R. Applications A rolling stock circulation model for combining and splitting of passenger trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the railway rolling stock circulation problem. Given the departure and arrival times as well as the expected numbers of passengers, we have to assign the rolling stock to the timetable services. We consider several objective criteria that are related to operational costs, service quality and reliability of the railway system. Our model is an extension of an

Pieter-Jan Fioole; Leo Kroon; Alexander Schrijver

347

A rolling stock circulation model for combining and splitting of passenger trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper addresses the railway rolling stock circulation problem. Given the departure,and arrival times as well as the expected numbers of passengers, we have to assign the rolling stock to the timetable services. We consider several objective criteria that are related to operational costs, service quality and reliability of the railway system. Our model,is an extension of an existing

Pieter-jan Fioole; Leo G. Kroon; Gábor Maróti; Alexander Schrijver

2006-01-01

348

Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles

Pablo Fontela; Antonio Soria; Javier Mielgo; José Francisco Sierra; Juan de Blas; Lucia Gauchia; Juan M. Martínez

2007-01-01

349

Consumer response to service and product quality: A study of motor vehicle owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently much interest in the idea of integrated quality management for durable products, extending from the product design, development and manufacturing process and through the ownership cycle of the product. We have carried out a logit analysis of events pertaining to a critical incident model which demonstrates how quality in both the product and its supporting services, as

N. P. Archer; G. O. Wesolowsky

1996-01-01

350

An integrity navigation system based on GNSS\\/INS for remote services implementation in terrestrial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, one of the most important applications of the navigation systems is the remote services. Applications such as the electronic-fee-collection, truck fleet control or antitheft devices imply millions of users through the roads of the whole world. Particularly in Europe, the development of the GALILEO system and the efforts of the European Parliament in prioritizing the toll collecting systems based

Rafael Toledo; Miguel A. Zamora; B. Ubeda; A. F. Gomez-Skarmeta

2004-01-01

351

Transformation Education: A Vehicle for Structuring Group Care Organizations to Increase Service Quality and Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents…

Ross, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

352

Using the U.S. National Household Travel Survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers' relative risk of fatal crash involvement  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15–20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger’s age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1999–2003) provided fatal motor vehicle crash data and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2001) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers’ trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16–20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT = 7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34–8.69; RR per 10 million VMT = 9.94; 95% CI, 9.13–10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21–34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk. Additionally, as all imputation techniques are imperfect, a more accurate estimation of U.S fatal crash risk per distance driven would require national surveys to collect data on non-household passenger characteristics.

Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Zador, Paul L.; Lerner, Neil D.; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D.; Wang, Jing

2009-01-01

353

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations....

2010-10-01

354

49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.103 Passenger train emergency simulations....

2009-10-01

355

27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels...Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels...that business throughout the passenger carrying train, aircraft, boat, or...

2013-04-01

356

33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger access area is a defined space, within the area...operator has implemented security measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or...

2013-07-01

357

Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The advertising of vehicles has been studied from a safety perspective but not in terms of vehicle air pollutants. We aimed to examine the content and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution-related information, in light passenger vehicle advertisements. METHODS: Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period

Nick Wilson; Anthony Maher; George Thomson; Michael Keall

2008-01-01

358

Modeling and Validation of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and construction of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on the conversion of a five passenger production sedan. The vehicle uses a relatively small fuel cell stack to provide average power demands, and a battery pack to provide peak power demands for varied driving conditions. A model of this vehicle was developed using ADVISOR,

Michael J. Ogburn; Douglas J. Nelson; Keith Wipke; Tony Markel

2000-01-01

359

40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature...

2013-07-01

360

Fuel and emission impacts of heavy hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid powertrains for certain heavy vehicles may improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. Of particular interest are commercial vehicles, typically in Classes 3-6, that travel in urban areas. Hybrid strategies and associated energy\\/emissions benefits for these classes of vehicles could be significantly different from those for passenger cars. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the energy and emissions

F. An; J. J. Eberhardt; F. Stodolsky

1999-01-01

361

The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect ‘the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat’ (Joy and Hartley 1953–54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle ‘feel’ accompanying

Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Mark S. Young

2006-01-01

362

Opportunities and challenges for novel heat engines in passenger automobiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern automobiles provide several opportunities for potential application of novel heat engines, including air conditioning, waste-heat recovery, auxiliary power units, and motive power. The driving force behind these potential applications is the prospect of reducing the vehicle's environmental impact by increasing its overall thermal efficiency, decreasing its emissions of greenhouse gases, or both. However, because the automotive sector is mature and highly competitive, any attempt to displace existing technology faces daunting hurdles. Weight and packaging impose tight constraints. Compatibility with existing systems is essential. Reliability must be ensured, often for 150000 miles. Last but not least, cost is paramount in an industry where pennies matter. Some implications of these factors for implementation of thermoacoustic heat engines on passenger vehicles will be surveyed.

Mozurkewich, George

2005-09-01

363

Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.  

SciTech Connect

The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

2008-01-31

364

Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1992-01-01

365

Nonlinear biodynamics of passengers coupled with quarter car models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodynamic response of lumped parameter passenger-seat models coupled with simplified models of ground vehicles is investigated. The relatively small dimension of the resulting mechanical models is counterweighted by the complexity introduced by the strongly nonlinear characteristics exhibited by the components of both the biodynamic and the car subsystems. This complexity is enhanced further by the possibility of loss of contact allowed to take place between the wheel and the ground or the passenger and the seat, during strong excitation. After setting up the equations of motion, appropriate methodologies are developed, capturing the dynamic response of the coupled system to transient, harmonic and stochastic excitation, caused by road irregularities. Then, numerical results are presented, illustrating the effect of the excitation amplitude and frequency content on several response quantities related to the dynamic performance of the human and the vehicle components. Special emphasis is put on examining the influence of the seat suspension stiffness and damping characteristics. The results indicate that the nonlinear properties of the coupled model affect significantly its dynamics and can lead to large quantitative and qualitative deviations from the predictions of the corresponding linearized models. Among other things, complex motions are captured, even for harmonic excitation, when the forcing frequency lies between neighboring natural frequencies of the linearized system.

Papalukopoulos, C.; Natsiavas, S.

2007-07-01

366

Using accelerator pedal force to increase seat belt use of service vehicle drivers.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

2011-01-01

367

INCREASING SEAT BELT USE IN SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS WITH A GEARSHIFT DELAY  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of park. Unbelted participants experienced either a constant delay (8 s) or a variable delay (M ?=? 8 s). A 16-s delay was introduced for those U.S. drivers who did not show significant improvement. Seat belt use increased from 48% to 67% (a 40% increase) for U.S. drivers and from 54% to 74% (a 37% increase) for Canadian drivers. The fixed delay was more effective for U.S. drivers than the variable delay, but there was no difference between these two delay schedules for Canadian drivers. After the driver fastened his or her seat belt, it tended to remain fastened for the duration of the trip.

Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard; Tenenbaum, Jeff

2010-01-01

368

46 CFR 90.10-29 - Passenger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-29 Passenger. (a) The term passenger...condition of carriage on the vessel, whether directly or indirectly flowing to the owner, charterer, operator, agent, or any...

2012-10-01

369

The Impact of Passenger Mix on Reported \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes U.S. airline price and passenger data disaggregated at the fare class level for the year 2000. We find that while average prices to and from most airlines' hubs tend to be higher than those throughout the remainder of their systems, much of the dierence can be explained by passenger mix (i.e. the proportion of leisure versus business

Darin Leey

370

Evacuability of Passenger Ships at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The term Evacuability (passenger evacuation performance capability) entails a wide range of capabilities encompassing evaluation of evacuation time, identification of potential bottlenecks, assessment of accommodation module layout, life saving appliances, passenger familiarisation with a ship's environment, crew training, effective evacuation procedures\\/strategies, intelligent decision support systems for crisis management and design\\/modification for ease of evacuation. From a technical point of

D. Vassalos; G. Christiansen; H. S. Kim; M. Bole; J. Majumder

371

Mean and time-varying flow measurements on the surface of a family of idealised road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamically generated noise in the A-pillar region of a passenger vehicle can make a significant contribution to interior noise and adversely affect passenger comfort. Modern vehicles experience strong surface pressure fluctuations on the side windows due to flow separation around the A-pillar. The objective of this work is to investigate how these fluctuations vary with speeds and also to study

Firoz Alam; Simon Watkins; Gary Zimmer

2003-01-01

372

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a nine-month study to identify and evaluate advanced propulsion systems for on-the-road hybrid vehicles are presented. Two concepts, both utilizing Stirling engines, were evaluated for five of reference mission\\/vehicles ranging from a two-passenger commuter car to a large bus, each had its own performance specification. Selection of the best hybrid configuration and reference mission\\/vehicle was made against

S. Bhate; H. Chen; G. Dochat

1980-01-01

373

Lateral load transfer and normal forces estimation for vehicle safety: experimental test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of vehicle dynamics data is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle handling and passenger safety. This study introduces observers that estimate lateral load transfer and wheel–ground contact normal forces, commonly known as vertical forces. The proposed method is based on the dynamic response of a vehicle instrumented with cheap and currently available standard sensors. The

M. Doumiati; A. Victorino; A. Charara; D. Lechner

2009-01-01

374

40 CFR 85.1503 - General requirements for importation of nonconforming vehicles and engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nonconforming vehicles or engines into the United States... (1) 5 heavy-duty engines. (2) A total of...vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles...provided that any vehicles/engines in excess of the...

2013-07-01

375

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROADSIDE ACCIDENTS OF POLICE, EMERGENCY, AND NON-EMERGENCY VEHICLES IN ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of roadside accidents involving police vehicles has received little attention by law enforcement agencies and researchers alike. The purpose of this exploratory study is: (1) to provide the frequency of roadside accidents involving police vehicles, other emergency vehicles, and large and small passenger cars in the state of Illinois; (2) to identify the types of vehicles involved in

Sesha Kethineni; David N. Falcone; Michael T. Charles

1992-01-01

376

46 CFR 171.045 - Weight of passengers and crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weight of passengers and crew. 171.045...PASSENGERS Intact Stability § 171.045 Weight of passengers and crew. (a) This...applicable to each vessel, using a total weight of passengers and crew carried, is...

2012-10-01

377

46 CFR 171.045 - Weight of passengers and crew.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weight of passengers and crew. 171.045...PASSENGERS Intact Stability § 171.045 Weight of passengers and crew. (a) This...applicable to each vessel, using a total weight of passengers and crew carried, is...

2011-10-01

378

Measuring the impact of passenger restrictions on new teenage drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger restrictions for new teenage drivers that became law in 1998 in California provide an opportunity to study the effectiveness of such laws in reducing the number of passengers as well as the influence of teenage passengers on novice drivers. Using fatal and injury crash data from California’s Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System, this study found that teenage passengers are

Douglas Cooper; Frank Atkins; David Gillen

2005-01-01

379

A sequential stochastic passenger screening problem for aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing effective aviation security systems has become a problem of national concern. Since September 11th, 2001 passenger screening systems have become an important component in the design and operation of aviation security systems. This paper introduces the Sequential Stochastic Passenger Screening Problem (SSPSP), which allows passengers to be optimally assigned (in real-time) to aviation security resources. Passengers are classified as

Laura A. McLay; Sheldon H. Jacobson; Alexander G. Nikolaev

2009-01-01

380

Research on optimizing the operating project about Intercity passenger train  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Intercity passenger flow is of very strong market sensitivity. From the market of passenger transportation and on the basis of analyzing the characteristics and influence factors of the Intercity passenger flow, this article introduces a method on how to make an operating project about the Intercity passenger train. Finally, an example about making use of the method to confirm

Wanhua Sun; Junfang Jia

2004-01-01

381

Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.  

PubMed

The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

Byrne, N J

1995-08-01

382

Models and algorithms for solving combined vehicle and crew scheduling problems with rest constraints : an application to road feeder service planning in air cargo transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mathematical model and two algorithms for solving a complex combined vehicle and crew scheduling problem. The\\u000a problem arises in the area of road feeder service (RFS) for air cargo transportation where cargo airlines engage specifically\\u000a equipped RFS-carriers to serve so-called lines, i.e. regular weekly patterns of trips starting and ending at the central hub,\\u000a respectively. The complexity

P. Bartodziej; U. Derigs; D. Malcherek; U. Vogel

2009-01-01

383

Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad

2009-04-01

384

On-board phthalocyanine gas sensor microsystem dedicated to the monitoring of oxidizing gases level in passenger compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of in-vehicle pollutant concentrations by means of an on-board molecular semiconductor gas sensor microsystem is described in this paper. The main objective is to measure in real time with a high level of accuracy the variations of oxidizing gases concentration in bus passenger compartments to inform travelers or commuters and to evaluate the assessment of bus drivers’ exposure.

J. Brunet; A. Pauly; C. Varenne; B. Lauron

2008-01-01

385

Changes in Subsidiary Reaction Time and Heart-Rate During Car Driving, Passenger Travel and Stationary Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction time (RT) task was used in three conditions, each lasting 2 h, during which six female subjects: (i) drove on a 5 km closed track, (ii) were driven as passenger on the same track, and (iii) were tested in a stationary vehicle. There was an increase in RT only in the driving condition. Furthermore, there was a progressively

H. LAURELL; H.-O. LISPER

1976-01-01

386

EVALUATION OF RAIL SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rail services are needed for basic mobility especially in rural areas and as a mean of reducing congestion and pollution as part of an integrated transport policy in urban areas. In transport expenditure generally there may be a number of options open but in the case of train passenger services there are essentially three: a) to retain the service in

Stuart Cole; Torben Holvad; Thaddaeus O'Higgins; Michael Gommers

387

Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

Smith, M; Berger, L

2002-01-01

388

Air Passenger Opinions on Security Screening Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One in three adults in the United States took an airline fl ight departing from a domestic airport between December 2003 and November 2004 (table 1), and 90 percent of these passengers expressed satisfaction with airport security screening procedures. The...

2005-01-01

389

Passenger Reactions to Transit Safety Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safety and security are important considerations for the transit operator, but few empirical studies exist that measure the effectiveness of measures taken to improve transit safety on either actual crime (or other incident) data or transit passengers per...

1999-01-01

390

Coastal Transport Studies, Mozambique. 1. Passenger Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, which is the first of the Coastal Transport Studies, covers national coastal passenger transport between the six main ports of Mozambique. It reviews traffic demand, operations, ports and other infrastructure and presents recommendations on ty...

H. Lauridsen O Holmsen J. Johannesen S. Olnes F. Soares

1989-01-01

391

14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.519 Passenger briefing. (a)...

2013-01-01

392

14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information....

2013-01-01

393

Optimal boarding method for airline passengers  

SciTech Connect

Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

2008-02-01

394

Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in Your Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 4-10 determine the Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in their community and develop, administer, and analyze a survey to determine attitudes toward carpooling. (DDR)

Stenstrup, Al

1995-01-01

395

ARKTRANS The Norwegian system framework architecture for multimodal transport systems supporting freight and passenger transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARKTRANS is the Norwegian system framework architecture for multimodal transport systems supporting freight transport as well as passenger transport. The project is established by Norwegian transport authorities and is co-funded by the Research Council of Norway. The authorities representing the four transport modes, road, sea, air, and railway as well as transport users and transport service providers have identical needs

Marit Natvig; Hans Westerheim; SINTEF ICT; Ivar Christiansen

396

Parents as passengers during pediatric transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport.Methods: One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing

Mary Mokate Lewis; Diane Holditch-Davis; Susan Brunssen

1997-01-01

397

Study on Mobile Passenger Support Systems for Public Transportation Using Multichannel Data Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing mobile passenger support systems for the public transportation. In this application field, various\\u000a kinds of data must be handled and integrated. Examples of such data are route information, fare information, area map, station\\u000a map, planned operation schedule, real-time operation schedule, vehicle facilities and so on. Depending on the user situation,\\u000a different information should be supplied and

Koichi Goto; Yahiko Kambayashi

2001-01-01

398

International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.  

PubMed

During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub. PMID:18177516

Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

2009-02-09

399

Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.  

PubMed Central

On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights.

Lasher, Lara E.; Ayers, Tracy L.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Nakatab, Michele N.; Effler, Paul V.

2004-01-01

400

Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.  

PubMed

On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights. PMID:15313108

Lasher, Lara E; Ayers, Tracy L; Amornkul, Pauli N; Nakatab, Michele N; Effler, Paul V

401

Potential Improvements to the Washington-Richmond Railroad Corridor. (National Railroad Passenger Corporation). Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Includes Executive Summary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report aims at specifying, on a preliminary basis, the infrastructure improvements that would enable the Washington-Richmond Corridor to accommodate reliably the mix and volume of higher speed intercity passenger, commuter, and freight services that ...

A. Galloway M. Holowaty N. Moyer R. Cogswell

1999-01-01

402

Index for vehicle acoustical comfort inside a passenger car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound quality is among the main factors that influence customers’ preference for choosing good automobile products. It all started more than 10 years ago and grows up so fast due to high competition in the automotive industries. A-weighted noise levels and sound power are usually utilised to measure the noise but they are not adequate to characterise the impact sound

Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor; Mohammad Hosseini Fouladi; Hassan Nahvi; Ahmad Kamal Ariffin

2008-01-01

403

Robust control of an automatic transmission system for passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, electronic control of automatic transmissions, which provides an effective means of satisfying increasingly strict fuel efficiency requirements and improving drivability and shift quality, is applied to an increasing number of automobile models, and increasingly larger sections of automatic transmissions are electronically controlled. A new automatic transmission control theory which ensures high robustness and sufficient control performance has

Hideo Furukawa; Kenji Hagiwara; Masayuki Fujita; Kenko Uchida

1994-01-01

404

Severe upper limb injuries in four passengers of a 'People Carrier'; the contribution of design faults.  

PubMed

Four passengers of a 'People Carrier' in a single vehicle motor accident sustained severe left upper limb trauma, when the vehicle rolled onto the near side. These injuries were directly attributable to the large glass interface between patient and road. The glass windows shattered on contact, providing no protection and in effect created a secondary injury mechanism. We advocate both the use of laminated side windows and mandatory testing of 'roll-over' characteristics for these 'People Carriers' to reduce the incidence of such injuries. PMID:7649628

Teanby, D N; Perks, A G; Watson, S B; Thorlby, A

1995-05-01

405

Reduced dwell times resulting from train–platform improvements: the costs and benefits of improving passenger accessibility to metro trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether a dwell time reduction on a high-intensity metro service, as a result of a series of accessibility enhancements, can contribute to an increased level of service and accessible public transport for passengers together with a reduction in costs for the operator. Actual train operation data were collected by on-site observations and from London Underground Ltd. A

Xenia Karekla; Nick Tyler

2012-01-01

406

Next Generation Airline Information: Using Consumer Devices to Keep Passengers Informed and as an Additional Channel to Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airline industries are going through a period of change and face many challenges to keep consumers loyal to their services and to offer differential services with low production cost. The rise of J2ME mobile phones presents an opportunity and a challenge to airline companies, the chance to increase information available to passengers to reduce dissatisfaction, and the challenge of

Steve Jones

2004-01-01

407

Improving accessibility for passengers with special needs: the VIA Rail Canada experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

VIA Rail Canada is an independent Crown Corporation that was established in 1977 to provide Canadians with safe, efficient and environmentally responsible passenger rail service. We operate in this vast land to over 450 communities, including many where rail travel is the only year-round, all-weather transportation service available. We operate close to 500 trains weekly on 12,500 kilometres of track.

Karl Coffen

2007-01-01

408

Application for certification, 1986 model year light-duty vehicles - Alfa Romeo  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1985-01-01

409

Application for certification 1981 model year light-duty vehicles - Alfa Romeo  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1981-01-01

410

49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...marine line haul, and rail substitute service...protective services; freight lost or damaged-solely...OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER...marine line haul, and rail substitute service...protective services; freight lost or...

2010-10-01

411

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Remotely Piloted Aircraft Design Selection Based on Service-Stated Meteorological/Oceanographic Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A decision tool for choosing most efficient unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's)/remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) for Meteorological/ Oceanographic (METOC) data collection is presented. A Microsoft Access database query (written in Structured Query Language) l...

R. J. Stanton

1999-01-01

412

Traffic Safety Facts Research Note: 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey: Use of and Support for Emergency Medical Services Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducts the Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey (MVOSS) on a periodic basis to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior regarding occupant protection devices (seat be...

A. W. Block

2009-01-01

413

Recommended performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles were developed. The standards cover passenger cars and commercial vehicles, with the latter having possible agricultural uses. The primary results cover performance parameters such as payload, acceleration time, top speed, range (both constant speed and on an SAE J227a schedule C cycle), maximum energy consumption, gradability, battery life, battery recharge time, safety

B. Underhill; P. Gott; D. Hurter

1977-01-01

414

Air-conditioning system of an intelligent vehicle-cabin  

Microsoft Academic Search

If vehicles can be more comfortable, safe, energy efficient and humanized, it will be very beneficial. This study introduces an “Airflow Management” technique to control the airflow in the vehicle cabin for the purpose of achieving a regional steady-state temperature. With this new concept, each passenger in a different area of the compartment can be satisfied with respect to his\\/her

K. David Huang; Sheng-Chung Tzeng; Tzer-Ming Jeng; Wing-Ding Chiang

2006-01-01

415

Motor vehicle suspension systems: Vibrational effects and stability. (Latest citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the relationship between motor vehicle suspension systems and vehicle vibration and ride stability. Included are studies correlating uneven tire wear and steering difficulties with suboptimal suspension systems. Hydropneumatic leveling, independent suspension, and active suspension systems are discussed. The use of composite materials, such as fiberglass, in suspension springs is also presented. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

416

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

417

Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-05-01

418

46 CFR 168.05-5 - Application of passenger vessel inspection regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to passenger vessels in subchapters E (Load Lines), F (Marine Engineering), H (Passenger Vessels), J (Electrical Engineering), K (Small Passenger Vessels Carrying More Than 150 Passengers Or With Overnight Accommodations...

2011-10-01

419

System Methods for Uncovering Economic, Technological, and Policy Enablers of an 'On-Demand Air Service' Regional Passenger Transportation Solution. USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-Demand Air Service (ODAS) is an emerging potential new mode of transportation, which commonly utilizes the Very Light Jet (VLJ) class of aircraft (maximum occupancy of 6 persons and range around 1000 nm). The mature and often stressed hub-and-spoke sys...

D. DeLaurentis S. Peeta

2011-01-01

420

Mechanical design of alarm system for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This device will consist of two separate packages connected to each other by a cable and to the vehicles power supply (battery). One package is to be located in the passenger compartment in view of the driver. The other is to be mounted on the lower rear of the car for an unobstructed view to the rear. They are separate

S. Senator

1996-01-01

421

Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hybrid vehicles are common in the marketplace for passenger cars and commercial applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. One of the biggest justifications for hybrids is their fuel efficiency. With fuel costs as high as $100 per liter in t...

D. M. Kramer G. P. Parker

2011-01-01

422

Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hybrid vehicles are common in the marketplace for passenger cars and commercial applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. One of the biggest justifications for hybrids is their fuel efficiency. With fuel costs as high as $100 per litre in t...

D. M. Kramer G. G. Parker

2011-01-01

423

Application for Certification 1991 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Volkswagen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

424

Application for Certification 1992 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Volkswagen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

425

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Audi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

426

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Volkswagen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

427

Application for Certification 1991 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Audi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

428

Application for Certification 1986 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicles/Engines - Mercedes-Benz Truck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1986-01-01

429

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

430

Application for Certification 1992 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

431

Application for Certification 1991 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - American Honda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineer...

1992-01-01

432

Application for Certification Model Year 1981 Light-Duty Vehicles - American Honda Motor Co., Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1981-01-01

433

Application for Certification 1992 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Federal Coach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

434

Application for Certification 1993 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Hyundai.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1993-01-01

435

Application for Certification 1992 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Hyundai.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

436

TEST OF A THEORETICAL COMMUTER EXPOSURE MODEL TO VEHICLE EXHAUST IN TRAFFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations which describe this sit...

437

Application for Certification 1982 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Toyota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1982-01-01

438

Application for Certification 1981 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Toyota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1981-01-01

439

Application for Certification 1991 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - BMW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1991-01-01

440

Application for Certification 1983 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - BMW AG.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1982-01-01

441

Application for Certification 1990 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - BMW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineer...

1992-01-01

442

Application for Certification 1981 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - BMW of North America, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1981-01-01

443

Application for Certification 1989 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Audi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1989-01-01

444

Application for Certification 1990 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles - Alfa Lancia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines ...

1990-01-01

445

Examination of the Effects of Tire Design on Vehicle Rolling Resistance and Fuel Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the current and expected future trends in highway tire design and their effects on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy. The primary emphasis is on passenger cars, operated under conditions typified by the US Environmental Prot...

D. L. Levine

1983-01-01

446

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first man-loading high temperature superconducting Maglev test vehicle in the world is reported. This vehicle was first tested successfully on December 31, 2000 in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Heretofore over 17,000 passengers took the vehicle, and it operates very well from beginning to now. The function of suspension is separated from one of propulsion. The

Jiasu Wang; Suyu Wang; Youwen Zeng; Haiyu Huang; Fang Luo; Zhipei Xu; Qixue Tang; Guobin Lin; Cuifang Zhang; Zhongyou Ren; Guomin Zhao; Degui Zhu; Shaohua Wang; He Jiang; Min Zhu; Changyan Deng; Pengfei Hu; Chaoyong Li; Fang Liu; Jisan Lian; Xiaorong Wang; Lianghui Wang; Xuming Shen; Xiaogang Dong

2002-01-01

447

Motor Vehicle Crash Involvements: A Multi-Dimensional Problem Size Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The size of the U.S. police-reported motor vehicle crash problem is analyzed in four dimensions: crash involvement type/role (e.g., single vehicle roadway departure, left turn across path); subject vehicle body type (i.e., passenger cars, light trucks/van...

J. S. Wang R. R. Knipling L. J. Blincoe

1996-01-01

448

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature...

2013-07-01

449

Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insights obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles.

Bent Sørensen

450

49 CFR 223.8 - Additional requirements for passenger equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for passenger equipment. 223.8 Section 223.8 Transportation Other Regulations... Specific Requirements § 223.8 Additional requirements for passenger...part, requirements for emergency window exits and window safety...

2012-10-01

451

49 CFR 223.8 - Additional requirements for passenger equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for passenger equipment. 223.8 Section 223.8 Transportation Other Regulations... Specific Requirements § 223.8 Additional requirements for passenger...part, requirements for emergency window exits and window safety...

2009-10-01

452

49 CFR 223.8 - Additional requirements for passenger equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for passenger equipment. 223.8 Section 223.8 Transportation Other Regulations... Specific Requirements § 223.8 Additional requirements for passenger...part, requirements for emergency window exits and window safety...

2011-10-01

453

49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements. (a) Knowledge test. All applicants for the passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including...

2011-10-01

454

49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements. (a) Knowledge test. All applicants for the passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including...

2012-10-01

455

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device...indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must...to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each safety belt must be equipped with a...

2013-01-01

456

Passenger Train Equipment Review Report. Volume 4. Braking Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Early in 1977, the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development, initiated the Improved Passenger Equipment Evaluation Program (IPEEP), which was designed as a detailed systematic review of advanced passenger trains and equipment th...

1981-01-01

457

76 FR 19275 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations governing the maximum weight and number of passengers that...increasing the Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP) to 185...provisions, the Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements rule became effective on March 14, 2011....

2011-04-07

458

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

459

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

460

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

461

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

462

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were presented.

Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

1987-12-01

463

In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at United States Postal Service Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Louisville, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control technology assessment of various methods to control worker exposure to asbestos during brake repair was reported for the Vehicle Maintenance Facility at the U.S. Post Office Building in Louisville, Kentucky. Results indicated that effective control of asbestos dust was achieved with the system used; one of 22 samples had a detectable level. Recommendations for better work practices were

T. C. Cooper; J. W. Sheehy; D. M. OBrien; J. D. McGlothlin; W. F. Todd

1987-01-01

464

Mathematical model of moving collectives interaction: Public transport and passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, development of the model of collective interaction in the system “buses-passengers” represented in [1] is discussed.\\u000a The point is that route busing depends on the travel time and alighting at bus stops; these times depend on boarding and passengers\\u000a crowding at bus stops. In its turn, the number of passengers in the passenger compartment and at bus

S. A. Regirer; N. N. Smirnov; A. E. Chenchik

2007-01-01

465

Knowledge and behaviors of physicians and caregivers about appropriate child passenger restraint use.  

PubMed

The object of this research was to ascertain caregivers' and physicians' knowledge, behaviors, and comfort levels regarding child passenger safety restraint transitions with belt positioning booster seats (BPB). A targeted survey of physicians caring for 4-8 year olds plus convenience sampling surveys of caregivers across an urban community was conducted. Data revealed 42% of physicians and 47% of caregivers did not know that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children in this age group. Only 34% of caregivers consistently placed children in booster seats; 48% reported receiving physician information about proper restraint; 67% reported wanting to learn about proper restraint; and 36% wanted such information from physicians. Caregivers who recalled physician questions about restraints were three times more likely than others to use booster seats correctly. 70% of physicians reported asking about child restraint in vehicles in this age group. However, only 48% were very comfortable with knowing when to recommend booster seats, 43% reported having received no training in child passenger safety, and only 37% knew where to refer caregivers for more information. Physicians need more information about appropriate child passenger safety restraints as children grow and ways to deliver and reinforce the message so that it is retained to improve community health. Caregivers indicate willingness to learn, but providers miss many opportunities to teach. PMID:19714454

Brixey, Suzanne N; Guse, Clare E

2009-12-01

466

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

467

Analysis of the coordination level of urban passenger transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the urban passenger transport system from the angle of the choice of resident trip methods, and also analyzes the mechanism and characteristics of the coordinated development of urban passenger transport system. Applying the theory of synergetic and the principle of complex system, this thesis builds the coordination degree model of urban passenger transport system of four subsystems,

Lin Fu; Xuemei Li

2008-01-01

468

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the passenger cabin under all probable...be seen from the cabin side of each lavatory...occupied by the crew or passengers must meet the following...1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018...etc., used in passenger or crew compartments...materials located on the cabin side of...

2009-01-01

469

14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the passenger cabin under all probable...be seen from the cabin side of each lavatory...occupied by the crew or passengers must meet the following...1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018...etc., used in passenger or crew compartments...materials located on the cabin side of...

2010-01-01

470

46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

471

46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section...Sea, 1974 § 71.75-5 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels...are required to have a â SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.â (b)...

2011-10-01

472

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2011-10-01

473

46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section...Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel...voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant...

2012-10-01

474

46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section...Sea, 1974 § 71.75-5 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels...are required to have a â SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.â (b)...

2012-10-01

475

INTERACTION AMONG FELLOW CRUISE PASSENGERS: DIVERSE EXPERIENCES AND IMPACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By employing a social?psychological approach to the study of tourist experience, the present study investigated the social interaction between fellow cruise passengers and the impact of such interaction on cruise vacation experience as perceived by the customers. Results based on content analysis of interviews and virtual focus group discussions showed that cruise passengers had diverse experiences meeting fellow passengers, which

Jue Huang; Cathy H. C. Hsu

2009-01-01

476

Two-vehicle side impact crashes: the relationship of vehicle and crash characteristics to injury severity.  

PubMed

Injury type and severity among front outboard occupants of passenger vehicles struck in the side by another passenger vehicle and recorded in the United States National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were examined in relation to the location of impact, the angle of impact, occupant gender and age, seat belt use, the weight and body style of the side-impacted vehicle, and the weight and body style of the striking vehicle. Elderly occupants were three times as likely as younger occupants in similar crashes to be seriously injured. Serious injuries were also more likely for occupants seated on the struck side and occupants of lightweight passenger vehicles. After accounting for vehicle weight differences, struck-side occupants of cars were still much more likely to be seriously injured than struck-side occupants of light trucks. However, among occupants seated on the side of the vehicle opposite the impact, the likelihood of serious injury was higher for those seated in light trucks. PMID:9183477

Farmer, C M; Braver, E R; Mitter, E L

1997-05-01

477

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing...the assumed average weight per person standard that will become effective in December 2011...an Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP...rule will become effective on December 1,...

2011-05-19

478

Exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria while commuting in passenger cars and public buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examined airborne microbe levels inside and outside passenger cars and public buses during two seasons (winter and summer). The prevalence level of individual fungal genera depended on the fungi and agar type, whereas a constant higher prevalence (>90%) was found for the total bacteria and total fungi. The four most prevalent fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria in a descending order. The major parameters associated with the airborne microbe measurements included agar type, vehicle type, and seasonal variation. When compared to the malt extract agar (MEA), the dichloran glycerol 18 agar (DG-18) was found to produce better counts for the target fungi. The summer in-vehicle bacterial concentrations were significantly higher for public buses than for the passenger cars, whereas the reverse was true for summer in-vehicle total fungal concentrations. This pattern was also consistent with summer outdoor results. In contrast, the winter in-vehicle and outdoor airborne microbe levels were similar for cars and buses. Meanwhile, summer was generally found to have higher in-vehicle fungal concentrations than winter. The current in-vehicle airborne microbe concentrations were found to be similar to residential indoor values from other reports, such as bacterial values between 10 and 10 3 CFU m -3 and total fungal aerosol concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 3 CFU m -3. It was suggested that motor vehicles in which many individuals spend a certain percentage of their day or week for travel are also a potential microenvironment for individual exposure to airborne microbes.

Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

479

77 FR 33098 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...or between oil and gas well sites. These...those commercial motor vehicles (CMVs...for use at oil and gas well sites, and...hydration pumps, and separators. This list should...for use at oil and gas well sites, and...situations, just as other motor carriers...

2012-06-05

480

PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B. [U.S. EPA Mobile Source Emissions Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Snow, R. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-01-01

481

A psychosocial model of young adult passengers' intervening in unsafe driving of their friends.  

PubMed

Young adults are over-represented in motor vehicle crashes and the carrying of same passengers puts them at greater risk of crashing. The current study examined characteristics of the passengers who might play a positive role in reducing friends' crashes by actively engaging in strategies to protect such friends. A psychosocial theoretical model of prosocial behaviour including self-process and contextual cues explained intervening behaviour among primarily novice driver college students (n=242) with the exception of the self-process, perspective taking. The results of this study provide support for countermeasure development that accounts for the positive role of peers to increase road safety, and reduce the incidence of crashes, among young adults. PMID:23201758

Buckley, Lisa; Davidson, Cathy

2012-11-30

482

International Air Passenger Transport in the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is relatively straightforward, suggesting “what international air passenger travel will look like in five, ten or fifteen years and why?” This requires answering two questions; what will be the principal determinants of the growth in international air travel and what impact will each of these drivers have on the growth rate? An imbedded question is

David Gillen

2009-01-01

483

Air Rail Intermodality from Passenger Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and rail are not only competing modes. Due to their different capabilities and characteristics the two modes fulfil the essential requirement of the market. The High-Speed Train inter-modal connection is inevitable to European airports in particular as a response to passenger needs. There are numerous advantages to this proposal, principally that it re- leases runway and ATC resources, offers

A. Cokasovaa

484

EVALUATION OF RAIL PASSENGER EQUIPMENT CRASHWORTHINESS STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of competing crashworthiness strategies--crash energy management (CEM) and conventional passenger train design. CEM is a strategy for providing rail equipment crashworthiness that uses crush zones at the ends of cars. These zones are designed to collapse in a controlled way during a collision, distributing the crush among the train cars. This technique preserves the

David Tyrell; A. Benjamin Perlman

2003-01-01

485

Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.  

PubMed

A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak. PMID:1488941

Hatakka, M

1992-01-01

486

Measuring performance of airport passenger terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of an airport passenger terminal generally has something to do with moving travelers and their bags between aircraft and ground transportation, but airport operators, travelers, airlines, and other users of the terminal have a range of concerns about comfort, convenience, costs, and ambiance that should accompany this movement and will assess performance in terms of such factors. Statistics are

Andrew C. Lemer

1992-01-01

487

49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured primarily for use in the transportation of not more than 10 individuals. (Sec. 301, Pub. L. 94-163, 80 Stat. 901 (15 U.S.C. 2001)) [42 FR 38362, July 28,...

2009-10-01

488

Quality of door sounds of passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reported that the sound of a car door closing is one of the main factors to determine the overall impression of the car. Much effort has been made to improve the quality of this sound. In this study, sounds of the closing of the doors of various passenger cars were recorded and presented via headphones in a sound-proof

Sonoko Kuwano; Hugo Fastl; Seiichiro Namba; Seishi Nakamura; Hiroshi Uchida

2006-01-01

489

75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact with very small airborne peanut particles of the kind that passengers might encounter...to the airborne transmission of peanut particles in an aircraft cabin (as opposed to...to the airborne transmission of peanut particles? Should any food item that...

2010-06-08

490

MODEL OF INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT PASSENGER INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developments in field of passenger information systems tend - using means of telematics - towards co-ordination and building together of these systems. The integration covering all these information systems is today already an actual aim. But scientific bases for realization are still missing. The execution of this complex development, the planning are not possible without system analysis and modelling.

Csaba CSISZÁR

491

Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A Macroeconomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today's transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This article assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium model PACE?T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European

Sabine Jokisch; Tim Mennel

2009-01-01

492

Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

493

Motor Vehicle Mismatch-Related Spinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most prevalent etiology of SCI. Few studies have defined SCI risk factors. Vehicle mismatch occurs in 2-vehicle MVCs in which there are significant differences in vehicle weight, stiffness, and height. This study examined SCI risk and vehicle mismatch. Methods: A matched case-control study using the 1995 to 2003 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Study subjects were identified from 2-vehicle MVCs. Cases were occupants who had suffered a cervical, thoracic, or lumbar SCI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: There were 101,682 cases of SCI matched to 805,091 controls. Occupants of passenger vehicles involved in MVCs with a light truck or van (LTV) were at increased risk for SCI (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07–3.24) and this risk was greatest for thoracic SCI (OR = 5.09, 95% CI = 2.33–11.13). In addition, occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with passenger vehicles were at significant increased risk for cervical (OR = 1.39) and lumbar (OR = 2.65) SCI; and occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with other LTVs were at increased risk of any SCI (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.52–2.69). For these subjects, significant increased risks were seen for all spine regions: cervical (OR = 1.41), thoracic (OR = 2.86), and lumbar (OR = 2.38). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that occupants of passenger vehicles are at increased SCI risk when involved in 2-vehicle MVCs with LTVs; and that occupants of LTVs are at increased SCI risk, regardless.

Cobb, Jason D; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse S; Rue, Loring W

2005-01-01

494

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

495

Secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations in motor vehicles: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Motor vehicles represent important microenvironments for exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). While some countries and cities have banned smoking in cars with children present, more data are needed to develop the evidence base on SHS exposure levels in motor vehicles to inform policy and education practices aimed at supporting smoke-free motor vehicles when passengers are present.Objective:To assess exposure to secondhand

M R Jones; A Navas-Acien; J Yuan; P N Breysse

2009-01-01

496

Influencing factors and sensitivity analysis of occupant impact injury in passenger compartment.  

PubMed

Objective: The study reported in this article addressed the influence of each factor (impact acceleration, table height h, table to seat distance l 1, interseat distance l 2, table contact stiffness k 1, seat contact stiffness k 2, etc.) on the extent of occupant impact injury in a railway vehicle secondary collision. Methods: The vehicle's passenger compartment-occupant coupling model was established using proprietary software (MADYMO). The simulated occupant was MADYMO's validated Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy model, and the vehicle's passenger compartment model included the floor surface, side wall, seat (with cushion), backrest, and table. The floor surface and side wall were modeled as flat surfaces; the seat (with its cushion), backrest, and table were modeled as ellipsoids. Some 25 samples were selected for numerical simulation based on a 2-factor, 5-level, full-factorial experimental design: the response surface method (RSM) was applied to fit the mapping relationship between the occupant's injury parameters (head injury criterion [HIC] and thoracic cumulative 3-ms injury criterion [TC3ms]) and other multi-influence factors. Results: Taking the seat-table structure model and seat-seat structure model as examples, the influence of each factor on the extent of the passenger compartment occupant's impact injury was assessed from the basis of traditional passenger compartment configurations found on Chinese trains. The sensitivity analysis of occupant injury parameters on these influence factors was carried out to determine the extent of the influence of each factor on each impact injury parameter. Conclusions: The response surfaces of the occupant's injury parameters (HIC and TC3ms), and changes therein as the system's variables were altered showed that impact injury parameters and change thereto could be described intuitively and qualitatively. Some meaningful conclusions were obtained through the sensitivity analysis of occupant injury parameters to changes in these influence factors. The research offered a guideline for the design and manufacture of a train's passenger compartment structure. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID:24073769

Suchao, Xie; Hongqi, Tian

2013-01-01

497

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07

498

Fatal falls and jumps from motor vehicles.  

PubMed Central

In 1978, 345 persons were killed in the United States in jumps and falls from non-crashing motor vehicles: 64 per cent fell; 15 per cent jumped; and it was not known whether the other 21 per cent jumped or fell. Two hundred and one people had been traveling on the exterior of vehicles, especially truck beds, and almost all of these people fell from their vehicles. The other 144 fatalities involved people in passenger compartments. Many of the falls from compartments occurred when occupants opened doors, or when vehicles changed direction. Seventy-seven per cent of those who fell from passenger compartments were males, and 44 per cent were less than five years old. Among those who jumped from vehicle compartments, 62 per cent were women and all were older than 14 years. Fatal falls and jumps from vehicles could be reduced in a variety of ways. These include legislation to prohibit travel on vehicle exteriors, designing vehicles so that doors cannot be opened when in motion, improving door designs, installing signals that provide warning if doors are not closed completely, and using occupant restraints.

Williams, A F; Goins, S E

1981-01-01

499

Design and Assessment of an Online Passenger Information System for Integrated Multimodal Trip Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and evaluation of an online passenger information system for delivering personalized multimodal trip planning services through the integration of wireless and Web-based communication technologies. The goal of the system is to provide real-time travel information throughout the entire life cycle of an interurban trip. Before the full-scale deployment of this type of system, it is

Konstantinos G. Zografos; Konstantinos N. Androutsopoulos; Vassilis Spitadakis

2009-01-01

500

The automated transfer vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) was confirmed at the October 1995 ESA Ministerial Council meeting in Toulouse by the ESA Member States as part of the programme for European participation in the International Space Station. The ATV will be a servicing and logistics vehicle for periodically resupplying the Station. It will be operational from early 2003, flying

J. Y. Heloret

1999-01-01