Science.gov

Sample records for vehicle passenger service

  1. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  2. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  3. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  4. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  5. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(18) inclusive, if the part is present on the passenger motor vehicle. In...

  6. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  7. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  8. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  9. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  11. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  12. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger...

  13. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger...

  14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5 Section 541.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger...

  15. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  16. Market penetration of electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Froker, D.

    1983-01-01

    The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for future personal transportation needs is described. The results forecast an approximate total market share of EVs sold in the passenger vehicle market to be 10% for 1990 and 20% for the year 2000. The sensitivity analysis disclosed that the parameters mainly responsible for changes of EV market share were range, purchase price, year purchased, and to some extent, the maximum cruising speed, in order of importance. Surprisingly, fuel prices, whether for electricity or gasoline, did not have much effect on market share even when considering much greater increases than we have seen in the past 10 years. As might be expected with fuel prices having negligible effects, changes in the efficiencies of EVs and ICVs also altered our expected market share very little. (LCL)

  17. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

  18. REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

  19. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  20. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai...

  4. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  5. Baseline tests of the Zagato Elcar electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Slavick, R. J.; Soltis, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The Elcar vehicle performance test results are presented. The Elcar Model 2000 is a two-passenger vehicle with a reinforced fiberglass body. It is powered by eight 12-volt batteries. The batteries are connected to the motor through an arrangement of contactors operated from a foot pedal in conjunction with a hand-operated switch. These contactors change the voltage applied to the 2-kilowatt motor. Acceleration tests, operating characteristics, and instrumentation are described.

  6. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  7. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  8. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  9. 49 CFR 583.7 - Procedure for determining major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.7 Section 583.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) Each manufacturer, except as specified in § 583.5(f) and (g), shall determine the countries, if any, which are major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment...

  10. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  11. Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

    2005-01-01

    Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings. PMID:16435701

  12. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  15. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  16. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  17. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  18. Child Passengers Injured in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction—During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Method—Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. Results—We found about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal were significantly higher. Practical Applications—The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. PMID:25662876

  19. The effect of passenger load on unstable vehicles in fatal, untripped rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, R A; Jones, I S

    1995-09-01

    Consumers may be unaware of the risk of rollover crashes posed by passenger loads in vehicles with poor roll stability. This analysis demonstrates that certain sports utility vehicles and small pickup trucks have designs that are so unstable that the weight of the passengers in the vehicle affects its propensity to roll over. This effect occurs even though the weight of the loaded vehicle is less than the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating. The risk of a fatal, "untripped" rollover crash in vehicles with low roll stability is increased as each passenger is added to the vehicle load. PMID:7661237

  20. Scarce metals in conventional passenger vehicles and end-of-life vehicle shredder output.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Rolf; Du, Xiaoyue; Haag, Olaf; Restrepo, Eliette; Wäger, Patrick A

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent with the demand for cleaner, lighter, and more efficient vehicles, many scarce metals (SMs) are used in passenger vehicles because of their unique physical and chemical properties. To explore the recycling potential of these metals, it is important to understand their distribution in the vehicles as well as their fate at the vehicles' end-of-life. However, this information remains very scattered and sparse. In this paper, we present a study investigating the distribution of 31 SMs in selected electrical and electronic (EE) components of conventional passenger vehicles and in the end-of-life vehicle shredder fractions from a shredder plant in Switzerland. The results of the chemical analyses show that the mass fractions of Co, Sn, Sr, Ta, Y, and Zr were dominant with >20,000 g/t in the selected EE components and Ag, Ga, Mo, Sb, Sn, Sr, and Zr with >50 g/t in the analyzed shredder fractions. The largest masses of 17 SMs were found in the shredder light fraction, which is incinerated in municipal waste treatment plants mainly in Switzerland; thus, these SMs are currently not recovered. The SM mass fractions in both the EE components and the shredder fractions were projected to their total masses in 100 hypothetical midrange passenger vehicles. The resulting mass balance showed a mismatch of >50% for 23 metals, which indicates other important SM sources such as alloys. PMID:25719501

  1. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial transport of... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  2. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... measuring the performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with... notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 10983) requesting comments on the Proposed Metrics and Standards... Federal Railroad Administration Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under...

  3. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  4. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... kg (496 pounds). This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used....

  5. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... kg (496 pounds). This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used....

  6. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... kg (496 pounds). This provision does not apply to nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerants, when such refrigerant is for servicing operations of a motor carrier on whose motor vehicles the refrigerant is used....

  7. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  8. 49 CFR 583.7 - Procedure for determining major foreign sources of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the percentages attributable to each such country for each carline on a model year basis, before the... value of a carline's passenger motor vehicle equipment which is attributable to individual countries other than the U.S. and Canada. The percentage of the value of a carline's passenger motor...

  9. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate... the international no-smoking symbol, and the posting of signs in all vehicles transporting...

  10. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate... the international no-smoking symbol, and the posting of signs in all vehicles transporting...

  11. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate... the international no-smoking symbol, and the posting of signs in all vehicles transporting...

  12. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate... the international no-smoking symbol, and the posting of signs in all vehicles transporting...

  13. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate... the international no-smoking symbol, and the posting of signs in all vehicles transporting...

  14. Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrea, M.; Kapernaum, M.; Wahl, C.

    2009-04-01

    In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio fuels as alternative fuels for petroleum-based ones has increased constantly in the last years. The advantages of the bio fuels usage is given by their similar proprieties, characteristics of renew ability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on the exhaust emission. The study involved measurements on a roller test facility of a reference passenger car representing new technologies (emission standards, injection system). The vehicle operated by use of reference gasoline and reference gasoline blended (10 and 20%) with bio-ethanol (EtOH). The measurements used different driving cycles: ARTEMIS cycle, real world driving cycle, NEDC cycle, the standard European driving cycle and additionally, a driving cycle consisting in Idle, 30, 50, 90 km/h. The sampling positions were before and after the catalyst and in the exhaust pipe. The detailed speciation of NMVOC' (non methane volatile organic compounds) was completed by use of active carbon tubes, DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) tubes and cold traps. The particles were monitored by use of an on-line EEPS (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer). CO2, NO, NO2 and NOX (NO +NO2) were continuously monitored by use of an on- line FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy)- MEXA system. The investigations reveal that among the carbonylic compounds 15 oxygenated species were found in engine out exhaust and only 3 in tailpipe emissions, namely formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acroleine. These are of great interest due to their impacts on human health. The hydrocarbons emissions decrease by increased of EtOH content. New compounds were observed

  15. Vehicle-passenger-structure interaction of uniform bridges traversed by moving vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailzadeh, E.; Jalili, N.

    2003-02-01

    An investigation into the dynamics of vehicle-occupant-structure-induced vibration of bridges traversed by moving vehicles is presented. The vehicle including the driver and passengers is modelled as a half-car planar model with six degrees-of-freedom, and the bridge is assumed to obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory with arbitrary conventional boundary conditions. Due to the continuously moving location of the variable loads on the bridge, the governing differential equations become rather complicated. The numerical simulations presented here are for the case of vehicle travelling at a constant speed on a uniform bridge with simply supported end conditions. The relationship between the bridge vibration characteristics and the vehicle speed is rendered, which yields into a search for a particular speed that determines the maximum values of the dynamic deflection and the bending moment of the bridge. Results at different vehicle speeds demonstrate that the maximum dynamic deflection occurs at the vicinity of the bridge mid-span, while the maximum bending moment occurs at ±20% of the mid-span point. It is shown that one can find a critical speed at which the maximum values of the bridge dynamic deflection and the bending moment attain their global maxima.

  16. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... of Study is to evaluate alternatives to provide higher speed passenger rail service to meet future... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  17. Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

  18. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the sensitivity of: (1) mission analysis results to the boundary values given for number of passenger cars and average annual vehicle miles traveled per car; (2) vehicle characteristics and performance to specifications; and (3) tradeoff study results to the expected parameters.

  19. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  20. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants’ Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Diane L.; Boyett, Kimberly S.; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-01-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  1. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-04-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  7. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  8. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  9. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly...

  10. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States.... International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade... Trade Act of 2002 (19 U.S.C. 3804(f)), assessing the likely impact of the U.S.-Korea Free...

  11. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  12. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  13. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  14. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  15. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  16. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  17. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  18. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  19. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  20. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... live at the educational institution and who travels to and from classes by any mode of travel....

  2. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  3. Passenger vehicle safety in Australasia for different driver groups.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2011-05-01

    Vehicle fleets in developed countries have benefitted from improved technology and regulation leading to safer vehicles. Nevertheless, for various reasons the public do not necessarily choose particular makes and models of cars according to their safety performance. This study aimed to identify areas for potential crashworthiness improvement in the Australasian fleets by studying the distribution of these fleets according to vehicle age and estimated crashworthiness. We used an existing database that encompassed the vast majority of the crash fleets studied, with existing estimates of crashworthiness generated by the Australasian Used Car Safety Ratings project. There were clear tendencies for older and younger people to be driving less safe vehicles that were also generally older. Given that older drivers are more fragile, and hence more liable to be injured in crashes, and younger drivers have a greater propensity to crash, it is clearly undesirable that these driver groups have the least crashworthy vehicles. Some suggestions are made to encourage safer vehicle choices. PMID:21376855

  4. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  6. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  7. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  8. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  9. Experimental and numerical study on the effect due to passengers on flexural vibrations in railway vehicle carbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Takigami, Tadao

    2015-05-01

    The effects of passengers on vertical flexural vibrations of railway vehicle carbodies have been investigated experimentally and numerically. The primary focus is the damping effect caused by passengers. Vibration measurement tests, including stationary excitation tests and a running test on a commercial line, were conducted on three different types of actual railway vehicles for varying the numbers, postures and distributions of passengers. The measurement results showed that the peak frequencies in the measured FRF (frequency response function) and acceleration PSD (power spectral density) in response to excitation force or acceleration changed only a little; in contrast large reduction of the peak values was observed when passengers were aboard. These results show that passengers behave not as additional mass but as damping elements upon the carbody flexural vibrations. The damping effect by passengers appeared over several flexural modes and was significantly induced even by few passengers. Numerical studies were also carried out to develop analytical models for representing the measured results of the vibrations of carbody with passengers. It was shown that the change of the carbody FRF due to passengers could be simulated well by using a simple one-degree-of-freedom passenger model comprising a mass-spring-dashpot with a large damping ratio.

  10. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  11. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  12. Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F. |; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  3. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  4. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... (iii) Each railroad shall retain records of the inspection, testing, and maintenance of the...

  5. Factors contributing to the amount of vehicular damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Broyles, R W; Clarke, S R; Narine, L; Baker, D R

    2001-09-01

    This study examines the vehicular damage resulting from motor vehicle crashes involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars in the state of Oklahoma. In particular, the focus of the analysis is on differences in vehicular damage to passenger cars and four-wheel drive vehicles. Results indicate that passenger cars sustain significantly greater vehicular damage than four-wheel drive vehicles. In addition, several other factors significantly influence the level of damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. Driver behavior or unsafe acts, represented by the rate of travel prior to the collision, failure to yield, failure to obey a stoplight or a stop sign, the consumption of alcohol and the use of drugs, also contributed to the amount of vehicular damage. In addition, results also indicate that the level of damage was influenced significantly by environmental factors, represented by a reduced intensity of light, wet or slippery roadways and the type of collision. The findings reinforce the importance of a number of policy initiatives that may reduce the vehicular damage resulting from collisions involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. For example, the study indicates a need to initiate legislation that lowers the speed limit during dark and twilight hours, commits additional resources to road maintenance to reduce unsafe road conditions, and stimulates improvements in automotive design that provide better lateral protection to vehicles. PMID:11491248

  6. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  7. Massive internal injury in the absence of significant external injury after collisions of passenger vehicles with much larger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry J; Cook, Benjamin A

    2008-05-01

    We have encountered cases of motor vehicle collisions in which there was relatively little external trauma, but there were massive internal injuries that were much more extensive than might be expected from the external examination. Two cases were collisions between trains and pickup trucks, the third a collision between a semi trailer and a van. In all three cases, the external examination showed minor abrasions and lacerations. Internally, however, there were massive injuries which were fatal. While the significant injuries in our cases were not surprising given the force of the collisions involved, it is interesting that the external examination showed relatively little injury. We speculate that collisions between passenger vehicles and very large vehicles generate massive internal injuries by transmission of force through the victims. PMID:18423353

  8. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... to regulate drivers, motor carriers, and vehicle equipment. ``At a minimum, the regulations shall... even the drivers, often do not know which FMCSA-authorized motor carrier is operating the vehicle and... governing driving and operational safety of motor vehicles, including driver's hours of service and...

  9. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  10. Influence of oxygenated fuels on the emissions from three pre-1985 light-duty passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, F.D.; Knapp, K.T.; Ray, W.D.; Siudak, P.D.; Snow, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    Tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on an oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxgenated base fuel were characterized. Emission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90 F to simulate ambient driving conditions. The two fuels tested were a commercial summer grade regular gasoline (the nonoxgenated base fuel) and an oxygenated fuel containing 9.5 percent methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE), more olefins, and fewer aromatics than the base fuel. The emissions measured were total hydrocarbons (THCs), speciated hydrocarbons, speciated aldehydes, carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. This study showed no pattern of tailpipe regulated emission reduction when oxygenated fuel was used. THC, CO, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene emissions from both fuels and all vehicles, in general, decreased with increasing test temperature, whereas NOX emissions, in general, increased with increasing test temperature.

  11. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  12. 75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Vehicles Used in Interstate Commerce, 66 FR 2767, 2769 (Jan... would support a different view as to the reach of the statute. Background On August 12, 2003 (68 FR... Commercial Motor Vehicle, 64 FR 48510, 48514 (Sept. 3, 1999) (IFR). The Agency stated in that IFR that...

  13. Passenger car collision fatalities--with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Björnstig, Johanna; Eriksson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 10(9)km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant deaths per 100,000 cars in car-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars. The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle's lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accounted for most of the fatal injuries. Multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles. An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for those who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2g/L. Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions. PMID:18215544

  14. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  15. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  16. Influence of oxygenated fuels on the emissions from three pre-1985 light-duty passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, F.D.; Knapp, K.T.; Ray, W.D. ); Siudak, P.D.; Snow, R.F. )

    1994-06-01

    Tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three pre-1985 passenger motor vehicles operating on an oxygenated blend fuel and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. Emission data were collected for vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure at 40, 75, and 90[degree]F to simulate ambient driving conditions. The two fuels tested were a commercial summer grade regular gasoline (the nonoxygenated base fuel) and an oxygenated fuel containing 9.5 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), more olefins, and fewer aromatics than the base fuel. The emissions measured were total hydrocarbons (THCs), speciated hydrocarbons, speciated aldehydes, carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. This study showed no pattern of tailpipe regulated emission reduction when oxygenated fuel was used. Tailpipe emissions from the 1984 Buick Century without a catalyst and the 1977 Mustang with catalyst decreased with the MTBE fuel. However, emissions from the 1984 Buick Century and the 1980 Chevrolet Citation, both fitted with catalysts increased. The vehicles emitted more 1,3-butadiene and, in general, more NO[sub x] when operated with the base fuel. THC, CO, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene emissions from both fuels and all vehicles, in general, decreased with increasing test temperature, whereas NO[sub x] emissions, in general, increased with increasing test temperature. 14 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  17. Improved transistorized ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Peak, S.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive system, the investigation of a power level expansion to a family of horsepower and battery system voltages, and the investigation of the applicability of the ac controller for use as an on-board battery charger and for providing the function of motor reversal. Additional vehicle specifications, e.g., acceleration and pulling out of potholes, were added to the NASA vehicle specifications. Then, a vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The General Electric ac induction motor used in the drive is optimized to operate as a vehicle traction motor with a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter as a power source. The motor is nominally rated 20 hp and 41 hp peak. The power inverter design is a three-phase transistorized bridge configuration with feedback diodes. The transistors are a special design General Electric high-power Darlington transistor rated 450 volts and 200 amps. The battery system voltage chosen was 108 volts. The control strategy is a constant torque profile by PWM operation to base speed and a constant horsepower profile by square-wave operation to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. An advanced current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The primary feedback control is a motor angle control, with voltage and torque outer loop controls.

  18. Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

  19. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  20. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  1. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  2. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  3. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  4. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  5. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  6. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 125.333 Section 125.333...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff,...

  7. 75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail... intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to study the implementation of rail passenger service on the 26-mile...

  8. 27 CFR 31.92 - Carriers not engaged in passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carriers not engaged in passenger service. 31.92 Section 31.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration Sales in Multiple Locations §...

  9. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  11. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply. PMID:22074174

  12. Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

  13. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... segment scheduled to take 8 hours or more, you may, as a condition of permitting a service animal to... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany a passenger with a disability. (1) You must not deny transportation to a service animal on the basis that...

  14. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... segment scheduled to take 8 hours or more, you may, as a condition of permitting a service animal to... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany a passenger with a disability. (1) You must not deny transportation to a service animal on the basis that...

  15. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  16. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  17. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  18. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  19. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  20. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  1. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  2. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  3. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  4. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  5. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services must... services within the aircraft cabin as requested by or on behalf of passengers with a disability, or when..., including mobility aids and other assistive devices stowed in the cabin (see also 382.91(c)). To...

  6. Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents.

    PubMed

    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Mannering, Fred L

    2004-03-01

    This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury, and fatal/disabling injury. The models are conditioned on driver gender and the number and type of vehicles involved in the accident. The conditional structure avoids bias caused by men and women's different reporting rates, choices of vehicle type, and their different rates of participation as drivers, which would affect a joint model of all crashes. We found variables that have opposite effects for the genders, such as striking a barrier or a guardrail, and crashing while starting a vehicle. The results suggest there are important behavioral and physiological differences between male and female drivers that must be explored further and addressed in vehicle and roadway design. PMID:14642869

  7. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 51083) that incorporated brake performance and emissions tests into FTA's bus... Weight Per Person (See, ``Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements: Final Rule, 75 FR... Transportation (44 FR 11032). Executive Order 12866 requires agencies to regulate in the ``most...

  8. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-07

    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  9. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

  10. Ubiquitous connected train based on train-to-ground and intra-wagon communications capable of providing on trip customized digital services for passengers.

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

  11. Ubiquitous Connected Train Based on Train-to-Ground and Intra-Wagon Communications Capable of Providing on Trip Customized Digital Services for Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

  12. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  13. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. PMID:24556585

  14. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices C and D, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of tradeoff studies are presented in summary form. Various aspects of the overall vehicle design discussed include selection of the base vehicle, the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics. The drivetrain design and integration, power conditioning unit, battery subsystem, control system, environmental system are described. Specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures, and advanced technology components are included.

  15. The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

  16. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) remote servicing kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1988-01-01

    With the design and development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) progressing toward an early 1990 initial operating capability (IOC), a new era in remote space operations will evolve. The logical progression to OMV front end kits would make available in situ satellite servicing, repair, and consummables resupply to the satellite community. Several conceptual design study efforts are defining representative kits (propellant tanks, debris recovery, module servicers); additional focus must also be placed on an efficient combination module servicer and consummables resupply kit. A remote servicer kit of this type would be designed to perform many of the early maintenance/resupply tasks in both nominal and high inclination orbits. The kit would have the capability to exchange Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), exchange propellant tanks, and/or connect fluid transfer umbilicals. Necessary transportation system functions/support could be provided by interfaces with the OMV, Shuttle (STS), or Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). Specific remote servicer kit designs, as well as ground and flight demonstrations of servicer technology are necessary to prepare for the potential overwhelming need. Ground test plans should adhere to the component/system/breadboard test philosophy to assure maximum capability of one-g testing. The flight demonstration(s) would most likely be a short duration, Shuttle-bay experiment to validate servicer components requiring a micro-g environment.

  17. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL...

  18. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and accommodations required by this rule? 382.31 Section 382.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS...

  19. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  20. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  1. Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapou, Ashley E. M.; Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Xiong, Youyou; Meng, Qingyu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2013-11-01

    In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health concern due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n = 3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th

  2. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  3. GEO Collision Avoidance using a Service Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M.; Concha, M.

    2013-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is defined as the knowledge and characterization of all aspects of space. SSA is now a fundamental and critical component of space operations. The increased dependence on our space assets has in turn lead to a greater need for accurate, near real-time knowledge of all space activities. Key areas of SSA include improved tracking of small objects, determining the intent of maneuvering spacecraft, identifying all potential high risk conjunction events, and leveraging non-traditional sensors in support of the SSA mission. As the size of the space object population grows, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows. Moreover, as the SSA mission evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis, the need for new, more sophisticated collision avoidance methods are required. This paper demonstrates the utility of using a service vehicle to perform collision avoidance maneuver for GEO satellites. We present the planning and execution details required to successfully execute a maneuver; given the traditional conjunction analysis timelines. Various operational constraints and scenarios are considered as part of the demonstration. Development of the collision avoidance strategy is created using SpaceNav's collision risk management tool suite. This study aims to determine the agility required of any proposed servicing capability to provide collision avoidance within traditional conjunction analysis and collision avoidance operations timelines. Key trades and analysis items are given to be: 1. How do we fuse the spacecraft state data with the tracking data collected from the proximity sensor that resides on the servicing spacecraft? 2. How do we deal with the possibility that the collision threat for the event may change as the time to close approach is reduced? 3. Perform trade space of maneuver/thrust time versus achievable change in the spacecraft's orbit. 4. Perform trade space of proximity of service vehicle to spacecraft versus time

  4. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a disability based on safety concerns? 39.27 Section 39.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and...

  5. Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.T.

    1993-12-31

    Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  7. [The mechanism of injuring of front-seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle collisions: forensic issues].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Zivković, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Forensic pathologists sometimes need to determine seating positions of automobile occupants after road traffic accidents as accurately as possible. That could be of essential significance particularly in regard to the question of guilt both in the criminal and civil law. So far, medical surveys have implied the specific injury which would undoubtedly point at the allocation of the seating positions of fatally injured car occupant. Some of the injuries could occur by both direct and indirect force action. Same type of injury of the specific body region in both drivers and front seat passengers could occur by different mechanism and in different phases of the accident. Sometimes neither the order of injury occurrence remains unclear, nor whether some of the injuries are post-mortal. What makes it even harder is the fact that same body regions, i.e. head and thorax, are most affected in both drivers and front seat passengers, and that these injuries are often fatal. Even if the victim survives the accident for some time and later dies in hospital, the possibility of accident reconstruction and determination of car occupants seating position at the moment of accident declines with the time length of survival period. Examining the victims' clothes, searching for biological traces, technical expert inspection of the vehicle, traffic expert analysis of the site, enables adequate reconstruction of the traffic accident. All this implies that in such cases the knowledge of underlying mechanism of car occupants' injury is insufficient, and that a close cooperation between forensic pathologists and the team of other forensic technical experts is necessary. PMID:23858818

  8. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  9. 15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited servicing of vehicles. 265... § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make nonemergency repairs on privately owned vehicles on the site....

  10. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability. PMID:25880018

  11. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  12. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  13. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  14. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  15. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  16. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  17. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  18. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  19. Risk and Injury Severity of Obese Child Passengers in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Hsieh, Min-Heng; Shum, Phillip C.; Tubbs, R. Shane; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk and injury severity on the regional body (head, neck, and chest) of obese children in frontal motor vehicle crashes. Design and Methods No physical surrogates (i.e., crash dummies) for obese children are available and experiments on pediatric cadavers are generally not feasible. Therefore, we developed computational models of obese children using medical imaging processing and state-of-the-art modeling techniques. A hybrid modeling technique was used to integrate finite element model for torso fat layer into the standard multibody model to represent various levels of obese children for 3- and 6-year-old age group. The models were used to investigate injury severity under various crash scenarios through model simulations. Results The head injury criterion and chest acceleration were observed to increase as body mass index (BMI) increased. Meanwhile, no such correlations were found between BMI and neck injury and chest deformation. Forward head and torso excursions were observed to increase as obesity increased, owing to the momentum effect of greater body mass. Conclusions Obese children appear to have greater risks of the head and chest injuries than do their non-obese counterparts in frontal motor vehicle crashes, owing to higher head and chest accelerations induced by greater body excursion. PMID:25645729

  20. A Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Crew and Vehicle Rescheduling of Railway Passenger Transportation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tomiyama, Tomoe; Morita, Toyohisa; Murata, Tomohiro

    We propose a method for solving the crew rescheduling problem (CRP) and the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRP) based on the Lagrangian relaxation method. The CRP/VRP is formulated as an integer programming problem on the basis of a network flow modeling approach from which a Lagrangian relaxation problem is constructed by relaxing the constraint that links multiple resources. Using two procedures that generate the upper and lower bounds of the primal problem, both of which utilize an efficient shortest path algorithm for the directed acyclic graph (DAG), the proposed method gradually improves the gap between the upper and lower bounds while updating Lagrangian multipliers. Experimental results of real-world vehicle rescheduling data from Japanese railway lines indicated that the proposed method generated feasible solutions that were confirmed to be fairly close to the optimal solutions according to the gap between the upper and lower bounds, and also clarified the quality of the other method's solution by using the gap, which could lead to streamlining and sophisticating real-world rescheduling related activities.

  1. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  2. Child Passengers Killed in Reckless and Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction About 20 years ago, concern was raised about the dangers children face when driven by drinking drivers in the United States. During the last decade, the pace of research on this topic subsided. Yet in 2010, every day three children younger than age 15 were killed, and 469 were injured in motor-vehicle crashes. Method The aim of this effort is to describe the status of the problem in the United States and suggest lines of research. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we selected crashes in which a driver aged 21 or older was driving at least one child younger than age 15. We identified crashes that occurred at different times of the day in which the driver was speeding, ran a red light, or was alcohol positive. We described the drivers’ demographics and examined how they relate to the different crash types. Results We found that, although driving a child seems to protect against the studied forms of risky driving, such protection varies sharply depending upon the drivers’ and children’s demographics and the crash type. There is no clear reason to explain the drivers’ decision to endanger the children they drive. The percent of children killed in speeding-related and red-light running motor-vehicle crashes has remained relatively stable during the last decade. Future research must (a) examine the effectiveness of current child endangerment laws; (b) examine crashes other than fatal; and (c) be more targeted, looking at specific drivers’ age and gender, specific children’s ages, the time of the crash, and the type of crash. PMID:24529098

  3. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  4. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

  5. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  6. 75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a working condition fringe... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH65 Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles as defined in section 274(i). Qualified...

  7. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  8. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  9. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  10. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... noted. Additionally, this section contains provisions applicable to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and... to the requirements of § 86.1810(p). (n) Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV... Subsequent Model Zero-Emission Vehicles and 2001 and Subsequent Model Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... noted. Additionally, this section contains provisions applicable to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and... to the requirements of § 86.1810(p). (n) Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV... Subsequent Model Zero-Emission Vehicles and 2001 and Subsequent Model Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in...

  14. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  15. Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallkamp, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

  16. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.113 Section 382.113 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF...

  17. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  18. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  19. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph 39.27(a): You may take such action in order to comply with Coast Guard safety regulations. Example... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or...: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to Services § 39.27 Can a PVO take action to...

  20. 49 CFR 39.27 - Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a PVO take action to deny transportation or... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES... transportation or restrict services to a passenger with a disability based on safety concerns? (a) As a PVO,...

  1. Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Saxer, Christian J.; Wilhelm, Patrick

    The US urban driving cycle (FTP-75) is widely used to estimate both the emissions under hot engine conditions as well as those associated with the cold start. Applying fast analysis techniques such as chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS) the warm-up behavior of individual vehicles can be monitored at a time resolution of 1 s. CI-MS has been used to investigate the emissions of methane, benzene and the alkyl benzene class of compounds. The amount of the emissions at cold start influence was deduced from the time-resolved emission data of four gasoline-driven vehicle classes representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades. Overall, the emissions of five EURO-0, 20 EURO-1, 18 EURO-2 and so far of six EURO-3 passenger cars were recorded. The test vehicles were selected from the currently operating Swiss car fleet based on the car sales statistics. The average methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions are reported using both, the traditional bag method as well as the regression model. At room temperature a clear reduction of 94%, 81% and 85% was found for the methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions from EURO-0 to EURO-3 technology, respectively.

  2. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  3. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 μg/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 μg/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (∑ B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 μg/m3and 37.652 μg/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  4. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty

  5. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  6. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  7. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  8. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  9. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  10. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  11. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  12. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  13. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers’ fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. Method A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Findings Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. Conclusions The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  14. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Michael; Owens, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions. PMID:26806073

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  17. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

  18. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

  19. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  20. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  1. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  2. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  3. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Apurba; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery and pack designs for electric vehicle applications. We develop models of power capability and manufacturing operations to identify the minimum cost cell and pack designs for a variety of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) requirements. We find that economies of scale in battery manufacturing are reached quickly at a production volume of ∼200-300 MWh annually. Increased volume does little to reduce unit costs, except potentially indirectly through factors such as experience, learning, and innovation. We also find that vehicle applications with larger energy requirements are able to utilize cheaper cells due in part to the use of thicker electrodes. The effect on cost can be substantial. In our base case, we estimate pack-level battery production costs of ∼545 kWh-1 for a PHEV with a 10 mile (16 km) all-electric range (PHEV10) and ∼230 kWh-1 for a BEV with a 200 mile (320 km) all-electric range (BEV200). This 58% reduction, from 545 kWh-1 to 230 kWh-1, is a larger effect than the uncertainty represented by our optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Electrodes thicker than about 100 or 125 microns are not currently used in practice due to manufacturing and durability concerns, but relaxing this constraint could further lower the cost of larger capacity BEV200 packs by up to an additional 8%.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be greater than 1... electric vehicles) as described in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart F, except that these procedures do not apply...) Manufacturers must measure NMOG emissions using the procedures described in 40 CFR 1066.635. (2)...

  7. Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

  8. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing. (a) No certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray... airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each passenger serving cart is secured in...

  9. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the operator is located at any passenger seat. (b) No operator may move an aircraft on the surface, take off.... (c) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless...

  10. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the operator is located at any passenger seat. (b) No operator may move an aircraft on the surface, take off.... (c) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless...

  11. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  12. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  13. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  14. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an integrated setting to passengers at intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 57935, Sept. 19, 2011, § 37.42 was added... intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail station platforms constructed or altered after February 1, 2012. 37... passengers at intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail station platforms constructed or altered...

  15. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  16. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  17. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  18. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  19. Manipulator design and development for the Ranger satellite servicing vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.; Akin, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The Ranger program is a planned series of low cost telerobotics flight experiments, based on the use of Pegasus launch vehicles. As the first step towards this goal, the Space Systems Lab was developing a neutral buoyancy version of Ranger for use in design verification and operations testing. The design approach and results of the Ranger manipulator development program is related. Ranger is designed to incorporate four appendages: a pair of dexterous, seven degree of freedom manipulators for general manipulation; a six DOF grappling arm for securing the vehicle to the local work site; and a five DOF positioning manipulator for the stereo camera pair that provide feedback to the remote operator. Each of these manipulators incorporate unique approaches to satisfying design requirements. The numerical and operational requirements are given for Ranger manipulators, and the evolution is discussed of the differing design approaches based on similarities and differences in the requirements. Testing results for individual joints and manipulator assemblies are presented, followed by initial results of operational testing on satellite servicing tasks with the integrated Ranger neutral buoyancy vehicle.

  20. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  1. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  2. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  3. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  4. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae. PMID:26856055

  5. A temporal assessment of vehicle use patterns and their impact on the provision of vehicle-to-grid services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chioke B.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    With the emerging nationwide availability of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) at prices attainable for many consumers, electric utilities, system operators and researchers have been investigating the impact of this new source of energy demand. The presence of BEVs on the electric grid might offer benefits equivalent to dedicated utility-scale energy storage systems by leveraging vehicles’ grid-connected energy storage through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled infrastructure. It is, however, unclear whether BEVs will be available to provide needed grid services when those services are in highest demand. In this work, a set of GPS vehicle travel data from the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) is analyzed to assess temporal patterns in vehicle use. These results show that vehicle use does not vary significantly across months, but differs noticeably between weekdays and weekends, such that averaging the data together could lead to erroneous V2G modeling results. Combination of these trends with wind generation and electricity demand data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) indicates that BEV availability does not align well with electricity demand and wind generation during the summer months, limiting the quantity of ancillary services that could be provided with V2G. Vehicle availability aligns best between the hours of 9 pm and 8 am during cooler months of the year, when electricity demand is bimodal and brackets the hours of highest vehicle use.

  6. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  7. Computer assisted vehicle service featuring signature analysis and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Boscove, J.A.; Kurtz, H.L.; Prince, J.E.; Wiegand, W.P.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a diagnostic method for use in diagnosing a vehicle utilizing a diagnostic system, the vehicle having an on-board computer control system for monitoring and controlling vehicle functions and the diagnostic system including a technician terminal having a diagnostic controller for processing diagnostic signals representative of vehicle conditions the controller having data entry means, data output means and storage means for storing vehicle parameters and diagnostic routines and the technician terminal having a display means for providing instructions for fault repair sequences.

  8. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  9. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  10. The tole of towing services at motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Dean, L; Jame, W; Ryan, G A

    1975-08-16

    A survey of tow truck services operating in a defined area of the south-east suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine their potential for delivering emergency medical care at the scene of crashes. Most towing firms have an association with a panel-beating shop, and operate within a limited area of one to three miles radius. The rapid response of tow trucks to crash scenes is due to their well-developed intelligence network of "spotters" and the short distances the trucks travel. Very little first aid is provided by the drivers, although one-fifth had some first aid training at some time. In about one-half of the calls to crashes a damaged vehicle is still at the scene, in about 20% an ambulance is called, and in about 5% a hospital admission occurs. Direct observation of 22 crashes suggests that on average, tow trucks arrive at a crash scene five minutes before the ambulance, and fifteen minutes before the police. There is a good case for making first aid training a preerequisite for issue of a tow truck operator's license. PMID:1160789