The pre-hospital care of patients with suspected spinal injuries involves early immobilisation of the whole spine and the institution of measures to prevent secondary injury from hypoxia, hypoperfusion or further mechanical disruption. Early ventilation and differentiation of haemorrhagic from neurogenic shock are the key elements of pre-hospital resuscitation specific to spinal injuries. Falls from a significant height, high-impact speed road accidents, blast injuries, direct blunt or penetrating injuries near the spine and other high energy injuries should all be regarded as high risk for spinal injury but clinical examination should determine whether the patient requires full, limited or no spinal immobilisation. Although there is little conclusive evidence in the literature that supports pre-hospital clinical clearance of the spine, the similarities between pre-hospital immobilisation decisions and in-hospital radiography decisions are such that it is likely that clinical clearance will be effective for selected patients. This decision can be made at the scene provided the patient has no evidence of: Altered level of consciousness or mental status Intoxication Neurological symptoms or signs A distracting painful injury (e.g. chest injuries, long bone fracture) Midline spinal pain or tenderness. Where there is evidence to support spinal immobilisation, then the full range of devices and techniques should be considered. In the remote or operational environment where pre-hospital times are prolonged, full immobilisation, analgesia and re-assessment may allow localisation of the injury and a reduction in the degree of immobilisation. Common reasons for missing significant spinal injuries include failing to consider the possibility of spinal injuries in patients who are either unconscious, intoxicated or uncooperative (54,55). The application of the decision rule discussed here will ensure that no clinically significant spinal injuries are missed in pre-hospital care. PMID:12174560
Acute spinal cord injuries may arise due to blunt injuries or to penetrating trauma, such as stab or gunshot injuries. The severity of injury varies both in terms of neurological segmental level, and the sensorimotor pattern of neurological deficit (ASIA category). The initial ATLS assessment of all trauma patients includes a thorough neurological examination to identify acute spinal cord injury.
Pradeep Thumbikat; Nazakat Hussain; Martin R. McClelland
About 10% of blunt polytrauma cases have an underlying overt or occult spinal cord injury. All multiply injured patients should be managed expectantly and aggressively until injury is ruled out and normal physiological parameters are restored. The ability to assess these patients accurately is often limited by an associated head injury or by the absence of sensation below a complete
Bob Winter; Dave Knight
About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia.
A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664
West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B
Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but for society as a whole. Despite the advent of novel medical therapies for the treatment of these injuries, many patients with spinal cord injury remain severely incapacitated and dependent on their families and/or specialized nursing care. Much of the controversy in the treatment of these injuries stems from insufficient knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease as well as the timing of certain treatments such as surgery. We discuss the diagnosis and management of these injuries as well as novel therapies on the horizon. The recent emphasis on evidence-based medicine has resulted in the creation of guidelines from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, which will hopefully result in some standardization of care. It is our opinion that early recognition of spinal cord injury and careful management in an intensive care setting can prevent many of the medical complications that are the major source of morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:17298772
Cortez, Ricardo; Levi, Allan D
(1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior zygaphophyses. (11) Injury to nervous elements left principally to other speakers. Cord compression very rare. Immediate and irremediable damage. Root injuries. Falling mortality of modern statistics due to better diagnosis. (12) Primary operation for fractures of spine relegated to oblivion. Rarity of indications for open operation. Reduction the best treatment. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6
Contact and collision sports such as American football expose the athlete to a wide array of potential injuries. Knee injuries garner much of the attention, but spinal injuries are potentially catastrophic and all levels of medical coverage of football must be knowledgeable and prepared to attend to an athlete with a neck injury. Of the other possible spinal conditions, some resolve on their own, others might require conservative therapy, and still others might require surgical intervention. The spectrum of potential injury is wide, yet the medical team must practice and prepare to treat the possible catastrophic neck injury. PMID:16483517
Wilson, Joseph B; Zarzour, Robert; Moorman, Claude T
The association of cervical spinal cord injury and swallowing disorders is clinically well recognized. This study was performed to determine the clinical significance and the outcome of deglutition disorders observed in the initial treatment of cervical spinal cord injury in our tertiary care spinal cord injury unit. All patients with cervical spinal cord injury admitted to our facility for initial
Rainer Abel; Silke Ruf; Bernhard Spahn
This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…
Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda
... assistants are trained in helping both adults and children with a broad range of physical, developmental, and behavioral issues in addition to spinal cord injury, such as arthritis, chronic pain, and mood disorders. Practitioners also help clients in ...
... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...
This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…
Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.
... Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... is described as burning, cramping and constant. PAIN MANAGEMENT Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...
Injuries produced by compression or tension loads delivered either axially or in association with flexion or extension represent the majority of spinal injuries observed in most centers. The spinal cord routinely is injured by ligament failure, or disloca...
A. Sances D. Maiman J. Myklebust S. Larson
Neonatal spinal cord injury can occur in utero, as well as after either a difficult delivery or a nontraumatic delivery. Spinal cord injury can also be related to invasive nursery procedures or underlying neonatal pathology. Early clinical signs of spinal cord injury that has occurred in utero or at delivery includes severe respiratory compromise and profound hypotonia. Knowledge of risk
SUSAN A. FURDON; DAVID A. CLARK; M. COLLEEN
The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...
Osteoporosis is a known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) and occurs in almost every SCI patient. It manifests itself as an increase in the incidence of lower extremity fractures. The pattern of bone loss seen in SCI patients is different from that usually encountered with endocrine disorders and disuse osteoporosis. In general, there is no demineralization in supralesional areas
Sheng-Dan Jiang; Li-Yang Dai; Lei-Sheng Jiang
Chronic pain is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major impediment to effective rehabilitation. The reported prevalence of chronic SCI pain is variable but averages 65% with around one third of these people rating their pain as severe. The mechanisms responsible for the presence of pain are poorly understood. However, evidence from clinical observations and
PJ Siddall; JD Loeser
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to profound haemodynamic changes. Constant outflows from the central autonomic pattern generators modulate the activity of the spinal sympathetic neurons. Sudden loss of communication between these centers and the sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral thoracic and lumbar spinal cord leads to spinal shock. After high SCI, experimental data demonstrated a brief hypertensive peak followed by
F. A. A. Gondim; A. C. A. Lopes Jr.; G. R. Oliveira; C. L. Rodrigues; P. R. L. Leal; A. A. Santos; F. H. Rola
To identify special characteristics of the pediatric spinal cord-injured (SCI) population, we analyzed a database of 1,770 traumatic SCI patients; 88 (5%) fell into the two pediatric subgroups: 0-12 years (n = 26) and 13-15 years (n = 62) at time of injury. Differences between age groups were identified with regard to demographics, neurologic characteristics, associated injuries and complications, and management. Mode level of bony injury was C2 in preteens, C4 in teens, and C4-C5 in adults. Scoliosis developed far more frequently in children, particularly preteens (23%), than in adults (5%). Violent etiologies, predominantly gunshots, accounted for a disproportionate share of injuries to preteens (19%) and African-Americans (28%), as compared with adults (12%) and Caucasians (7%). This last finding underscores the urgent need to mount a response to the nationwide proliferation of gunshot-related SCI in children and minorities. PMID:7729113
Apple, D F; Anson, C A; Hunter, J D; Bell, R B
In order to determine how many spinal cord injuries are preventable in this country, and how effective a prevention campaign is likely to be, the causes of injury were analysed in 250 consecutive patients admitted to The Duke of Cornwall Spinal Treatment Centre in Salisbury. The results show that many spinal cord injuries are preventable, and the findings support the theory that a programme of prevention similar to that in Australia is urgently required. PMID:10116894
Peach, F; Grundy, D
Study design:Retrospective review.Objective:Spinal cord injury is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer has been reported at 16–28 times higher than the general population. Earlier studies have identified indwelling catheters as risk factors. We examined the characteristics of bladder cancers in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population.Setting:Long Beach VA Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Unit, Long
J F Kalisvaart; H K Katsumi; L D Ronningen; R M Hovey
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition for individual patients and costly for health care systems requiring significant long-term expenditures. Cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein mediating cytoprotection in a variety of tissues, including spinal cord, through activation of multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that EPO exerts its beneficial effects by apoptosis blockage, reduction of inflammation, and restoration of vascular integrity. Neuronal regeneration has been also suggested. In the present review, the pathophysiology of SCI and the properties of endogenous or exogenously administered EPO are briefly described. Moreover, an attempt to present the current traumatic, ischemic and inflammatory animal models that mimic SCI is made. Currently, a clearly effective pharmacological treatment is lacking. It is highlighted that administration of EPO or other recently generated EPO analogues such as asialo-EPO and carbamylated-EPO demonstrate exceptional preclinical characteristics, rendering the evaluation of these tissue-protective agents imperative in human clinical trials.
Birbilis, Theodossios A.
One of the most obvious deficits following a spinal cord injury is the difficulty in walking, forcing many patients to use wheelchairs for locomotion. Over the past decade considerable effort has been directed at promoting the recovery of walking and to find effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Advances in our knowledge of the neuronal control of walking have led
Karim Fouad; Keir Pearson
Available data on spinal cord injury in Australia has been synthesised. An investigation and discussion has been made into the major financial costs involved in the acute management and ongoing life support systems required by people who have sustained spinal cord injury. The costs are projected to give an estimate of the potential for dollar savings in Australia in reducing
This review describes the changes of spinal neuronal function that occur after a motor complete spinal cord injury (cSCI) in humans. In healthy subjects, polysynaptic spinal reflex (SR) evoked by non-noxious tibial nerve stimulation consists of an early SR component and rarely a late SR component. Soon after a cSCI, SR and locomotor activity are absent. After spinal shock; however,
M Hubli; M Bolliger; V Dietz
Subsequent to traumatic injury of the spinal cord, a series of pathophysiological events occurs in the injured tissue that leads to tissue destruction and paraplegia. These include hemorrhagic necrosis, ischemia, edema, inflammation, neuronophagia, loss of Ca2+ from the extracellular space, and loss of K+ from the intracellular space. In addition, there is trauma-initiated lipid peroxidation and hydrolysis in cellular membranes. Both lipid peroxidation and hydrolysis can damage cells directly; hydrolysis also results in the formation of the biologically active prostaglandins and leukotrienes (eicosanoids). The time course of membrane lipid alterations seen in studies of antioxidant interventions suggests that posttraumatic ischemia, edema, inflammation, and ionic fluxes are the result of extensive membrane peroxidative reactions and lipolysis that produce vasoactive and chemotactic eicosanoids. A diverse group of compounds has been shown to be effective in ameliorating spinal cord injury in experimental animals. These include the synthetic glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS); the antioxidants vitamin E, selenium, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); the opiate antagonist naloxone; and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). With the exception of TRH, all of these agents have demonstrable antioxidant and/or anti-lipid-hydrolysis properties. Thus the effectiveness of these substances may lie in their ability to quench membrane peroxidative reactions or to inhibit the release of fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, or both. Whatever the mode of action, early administration appears to be a requirement for maximum effectiveness. PMID:3927795
Anderson, D K; Demediuk, P; Saunders, R D; Dugan, L L; Means, E D; Horrocks, L A
Objective:To demonstrate the effect of including both principal and secondary injuries in the calculation of national estimates of non-fatal motor vehicle-related injury, using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System–All Injury Program (NEISS–AIP).Methods:The setting was a stratified sample of 15 US hospital emergency departments selected among 50 NEISS–AIP hospitals which agreed to participate in the study. Non-fatal injury data from a
J Halpin; A I Greenspan; T Haileyesus; J L Annest
Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds. PMID:23945984
Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin
Activity for many disabled persons often begins as therapy, but the additional rewards derived from exercise must be appreciated. Public attitudes toward disabled persons have changed during the last few decades, recently focusing on abilities rather than on disabilities. The family physician of patients with spinal cord injuries will assist in managing acute medical problems and the association with loss of some degree of physical capacity. Physicians also can guide these individuals to choose a life that remains active and interesting over a “house-bound,” but safe, existence. Sensitivity and timing play key roles in establishing exercise as an intergral part of a disabled individuals' altered lifestyle. The physician can advocate increased access to wheelchairs and other facilities that make life easier for disabled individuals. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4
Mackie, J. William; McCormack, Rebecca; Campbell, Duncan
Kirshblum SC, Priebe MM, Ho CH, Scelza WM, Chiodo AE, Wuermser LA. Spinal cord injury medicine. 3. Rehabilitation phase after acute spinal cord injury.This self-directed learning module highlights the rehabilitation aspects of care for people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is part of the chapter on SCI medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees
Steven C. Kirshblum; Michael M. Priebe; Chester H. Ho; William M. Scelza; Anthony E. Chiodo; Lisa-Ann Wuermser
Although research on neural tissue repair has made enormous progress in recent years, spinal cord injury remains a devastating condition for which there is still no cure. In fact, recent estimates of prevalence in the United States reveal that spinal cord injury has undergone a five-fold increase in the last decades. Though, it has become the second most common neurological problem in North America after Alzheimer's disease. Despite modern trauma units and intensive care treatments, spinal cord injury remains associated with several comorbid conditions and unbearable health care costs. Regular administration of a plethora of symptomatic drug treatments aimed at controlling related-secondary complications and life-threatening problems in chronic spinal cord-injured patients has recently been reported. This article provides a thorough overview of the main drug classes and products currently used or in development for chronic spinal cord injury. Special attention is paid to a novel class of drug treatment designed to provide a holistic solution for several chronic complications and diseases related with spinal cord injury. There is clear evidence showing that new class can elicit 'on-demand' episodes of rhythmic and stereotyped walking activity in previously completely paraplegic animals and may consequently constitute a simple therapy against several physical inactivity-related comorbid problems. Understanding further pharmacological approaches to chronic spinal cord injury may improve both life expectancy and overall quality of life while reducing unsustainable cost increases associated with this debilitation condition. PMID:23360274
Steuer, Inge; Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A
Although the hemodynamic response to blunt spinal cord injury has been well described, much less is known about the responses to penetrating spinal cord injuries. In order to elucidate any differences, we reviewed the last 75 patients treated over the past 12 years with penetrating spinal cord injuries. There were 67 men and eight women; the mean age was 26.2 years (range, 15-59 years); 73 patients suffered 120 gunshot wounds; one patient was injured with an ice pick; one was stabbed twice. The offending missile causing spinal cord injury entered the neck in 24%, the thorax in 56%, and the abdomen in 20%. Nine patients (12%) were complete quadriplegics and 49 patients (65%) were complete paraplegics; 69 patients (92%) had no rectal tone; 17 patients (22%) had incomplete injuries. Despite the high proportion of complete spinal injury (78%), only 18 patients (24%) were hypotensive in the field. Five additional patients became hypotensive in the ED. Of the 23 patients with hypotension, 18 (74%) had significant blood loss to explain their low blood pressure. The mean HR was 100 beats/minute in the field (range, 50-130 beats/minute) and 90 beats/minute in the ED. Only five patients (7%) demonstrated the classic presentation of neurogenic shock (hypotension and bradycardia). This classic presentation of neurogenic shock is rare following penetrating spinal cord injury. Despite evidence of a complete spinal cord injury on initial physical examination, hypotension is usually secondary to blood loss in these patients. A careful search for sources of blood loss is mandatory before ascribing hypotension to spinal injury. PMID:8411282
Zipnick, R I; Scalea, T M; Trooskin, S Z; Sclafani, S J; Emad, B; Shah, A; Talbert, S; Haher, T
Background: Navajo motor vehicle mortality is the highest among the 12 Indian Health Service (IHS) administrative areas. In July 1988, the Navajo Nation enacted a primary enforcement safety belt use and a child restraint law. Objective: Assess the impact of the laws on the rate and severity of pediatric (0–19 years) motor vehicle injury resulting in hospitalizations in the Navajo Nation. Methods: Hospitalizations associated with motor vehicle related injury discharges were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, CM E codes, 810–825 (.0,.1) from the Navajo IHS hospital discharge database. Age specific rates for the period before the law, 1983–88, were compared with those after enactment and enforcement, 1991–95. Severity of injury, measured by the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score and new injury severity score (NISS), was determined with ICDMAP-90 software. Wilcoxon rank sum and ?2 tests were used for analysis. Results: Discharge rates (SE) for motor vehicle injury (per 100 000) decreased significantly in all age groups: 0–4 years (62 (7) to 28 (4)), 5–11 years (55.3 (6) to 26 (4)), and 15–19 years (139 (14) to 68 (7)); p=0.0001. In children 0–4 years, the median AIS score decreased from 1.5 (1,3) (25th, 75th centile) to 1 (1,2), p=0.06, and the median NISS decreased from 3.5 (1,9) to 2 (1,5), p=0.07. The proportion of children with NISS scores >4 decreased significantly for the 0–4 year age group (p=0.03). Conclusions: Concurrent with enactment of the Navajo Nation occupant and child restraint laws there was a reduction in the rate of motor vehicle related hospital discharges for children. Severity of injury declined in very young Navajo children. The effect of enactment and enforcement of this Native American child occupant restraint law may serve as an example of an effective injury control effort directed at Native American children.
Phelan, K; Khoury, J; Grossman, D; Hu, D; Wallace, L; Bill, N; Kalkwarf, H
Study design:Retrospective study.Objective:To describe the pattern and outcome of spinal cord injuries in Lagos, Nigeria.Setting:Nigeria, Lagos.Methods:This retrospective review of cases was conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, between January 1992 and December 2006.Results:A total of 468 cases of spinal cord injury over the 15-year period were studied. Three hundred and twelve of them (66.2%) were aged 40 years
D C Obalum; S O Giwa; T O Adekoya-Cole; G O Enweluzo
Optimal treatment of acute spinal cord damage requires an effective emergency medical service at the scene of injury coordinated with a hospital-based multidisciplinary team of physicians and allied health professionals. A detailed protocol outlines the steps required for evaluation, supportive therapy and stabilization. Emphasis is placed on team work with equal attention directed to nervous tissue and spinal column lesions. Laboratory and clinical investigations regarding spinal cord injury are directed toward epidemiology, anti-inflammatory agents, biomechanics, physical therapy and reconstructive surgery. PMID:7471548
Green, B A; Callahan, R A; Klose, K J; de la Torre, J
Retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies in Bucharest indicated a high rate of spinal injuries (about 28.5 per million population per year) in Romania. Most patients were poor, male, manual workers. Half of them were aged less than 40. Falls, particularly from horse-drawn carts, and road traffic accidents were the most frequent causes of injury. In summer, diving accidents were a common cause of spinal injuries. Sixty per cent of the patients had cervical injuries. Pressure sores became less frequent as staff and relatives were trained to turn and position patients. Because gastroduodenal bleeding and deep vein thrombosis were rare, the systematic use of drugs to prevent these conditions was deemed to be unnecessary, given the financial constraints. A shortage of beds and facilities made it difficult to manage associated injuries in a neurosurgical clinic in Bucharest or to admit all patients for rehabilitation. Thirty-nine per cent of all patients admitted with spinal injuries had spinal surgery (61% of those with neurological impairment). Bone grafting was the most common procedure for cervical injuries; surgical stabilisation was not commonly performed due to the shortage of plates and screws. The mortality rate in the early days post injury decreased from 22% (1985-1991) to 10.1% (1992) as medical management improved and the relatives helped with care in the acute phase. A programme is needed in Romania to prevent the accidents that cause spinal injuries and to improve clinical management. As a result of this study, three films were made to aid the prevention of accidents and to train staff and relatives in the care of those with spinal cord injuries. PMID:7885713
OBJECTIVE: To review the basic principles and techniques of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and provide information and evidence regarding its applications in spinal cord injury clinical rehabilitation. METHODS: A review of the available current and historical literature regarding TMS was conducted, and a discussion of its potential use in spinal cord injury rehabilitation is presented. RESULTS: TMS provides reliable information about the functional integrity and conduction properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor control in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of various neurological disorders. It allows one to follow the evolution of motor control and to evaluate the effects of different therapeutic procedures. Motor-evoked potentials can be useful in follow-up evaluation of motor function during treatment and rehabilitation, specifically in patients with spinal cord injury and stroke. Although studies regarding somatomotor functional recovery after spinal cord injury have shown promise, more trials are required to provide strong and substantial evidence. CONCLUSIONS: TMS is a promising noninvasive tool for the treatment of spasticity, neuropathic pain, and somatomotor deficit after spinal cord injury. Further investigation is needed to demonstrate whether different protocols and applications of stimulation, as well as alternative cortical sites of stimulation, may induce more pronounced and beneficial clinical effects. PMID:23321378
Awad, Basem I; Carmody, Margaret A; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lin, Vernon W; Steinmetz, Michael P
Objective: To investigate whether spinothalamic tract preservation and posterior column sparing are predictors of neurogenic recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury (SCI).Designs and Participants: In a retrospective review, the initial perianal pinprick sensation (S4,5 dermatomes) and position sense of the great toes were examined and correlated with bladder function at 1 year after SCI in 19 consecutive spinal
David J. Weiss; Guy W. Fried; Michael B. Chancellor; Gerald J. Herbison; John F. Ditunno; William E. Staas
Urologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been estimated that within eight years after injury, approximately 7% of SCI patients would develop kidney stones, whereas 36% would have bladder stones. Risk factors for urolithiasis among patients with SCI include complete spinal cord injury, lesions at or above the 4th thoracic spinal cord segment, upper motor neurone type of bladder, urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria, recurrent urinary tract infection, indwelling catheters, presence of residual urine and immobilization. Detection and removal of bladder stones are important to prevent possible complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection, urosepsis and renal failure. The authors describe a clinical case of a patient with acute SCI that developed bladder stones and discuss its possible causes. PMID:20353715
Silva, Ana Isabel; Sousa, Pedro; Miranda, Maria João; Andrade, Maria João
Historically, urologic complications have been the major source of morbidity and mortality among spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. All SCI patients should undergo urodynamic evaluation, with the initial urodynamics study done after the patient is beyond the spinal-shock phase. Management of the urinary tract in SCI individuals should be based on urodynamic principles and findings rather than on the neurologic history. PMID:8701559
Watanabe, T; Rivas, D A; Chancellor, M B
Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI.
Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.
Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society's recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI) have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.
Kumar, A.; Pandey, P. N.; Ghani, A.; Jaiswal, G.
We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms.
Son, Seong; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung
In the past quarter century, spinal cord injury medicine has welcomed the proliferation of new medications and technologies that improve the survival and quality of life for people with spinal cord injury, but also endured the failure of strategies we hoped would salvage the cord in the acute phase. Surgical decompression and spinal stabilization should be pursued whenever indicated and feasible; however, there is no compelling evidence that early decompression facilitates neurological improvement. Methylprednisolone, the subject of over two decades of trials, has proven to be of marginal benefit in improving functional outcome. Recent advances in the management of the respiratory, cardiovascular, autonomic, endocrine, skeletal and integumentary systems have not only changed morbidity and survival of spinal cord injury patients but also improved quality of life. Progress has been made in the early diagnosis and effective treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, neurogenic shock, autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension. Aggressive respiratory care for high cervical level of injury patients should include an option for phrenic nerve pacing as it is a viable rehabilitative strategy for appropriately selected patients. Pressure ulcers remain a significant psychological, financial, and functional burden for many people with SCI and for healthcare providers. This area will continue to require further work on early prevention and education. Despite extensive scientific and clinical data on neurogenic osteoporosis, there is no consensus regarding the best pharmacotherapeutic agents, dosing regimens, or rehabilitative strategies for prevention and treatment of bone loss. This chapter will focus on the advances. PMID:23098711
Juknis, Neringa; Cooper, Justin M; Volshteyn, Oksana
Up to 20,000 patients annually suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI) and 20% of these die before being admitted to the hospital in the United States as well as in the European Union. Prehospital management of SCI is of critical importance since 25% of SCI damage may occur or be aggravated after the initial event. Prehospital management includes examination of
Michael Bernhard; Andr ´ e Gries; Paul Kremer
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to paraplegia or quadriplegia. Although there are no fully restorative treatments for SCI, various rehabilitative, cellular and molecular therapies have been tested in animal models. Many of these have reached, or are approaching, clinical trials. Here, we review these potential therapies, with an emphasis on the need for reproducible evidence of safety and efficacy.
Sandrine Thuret; Lawrence D. F. Moon; Fred H. Gage
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often have psychological consequences, primarily anxiety and depression, which may interfere with rehabilitation possibilities, with adjustment to the impairment and therefore with the possibility of returning to previous familiar social life and work. To assess the degree of anxiety and depression in SCI patients, and to study the factors contributing to their genesis, 100 SCI in-
Giorgio Scivoletto; Annelisa Petrelli; Lina Di Lucente; Vincenzo Castellano; Dott. G Scivoletto
The aim of this article is to analyze cardiac dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Cardiac dysfunctions are common complications following SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. We reviewed epidemiology of cardiac disturbances after SCI, and neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic. SCI causes disruption of descendent pathways from central control centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating into intermediolateral nuclei of T1-L2 spinal cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant cardiac dysfunction. Impairment of autonomic nervous control system, mostly in patients with cervical or high thoracic SCI, causes cardiac dysrrhythmias, especially bradycardia and, rarely, cardiac arrest, or tachyarrhytmias and hypotension. Specific complication dependent on the period of time after trauma like spinal shock and autonomic dysreflexia are also reviewed. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe bradycardia and hypotension. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life-threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5-T6). Besides all this, additional cardiac complications, such as cardiac deconditioning and coronary heart disease may also occur. Proper prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic and pharmacological strategies and cardiac rehabilitation diminish occurrence of the cardiac dysfunction following SCI. Each type of cardiac disturbance requires specific treatment. PMID:20108532
Grigorean, Valentin Titus; Sandu, Aurelia Mihaela; Popescu, Mihai; Iacobini, Mihai Aurelian; Stoian, Rares; Neascu, Catalin; Strambu, Victor; Popa, Florian
The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1-L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life-threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5-T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha-adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long-term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non-pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment. PMID:20945818
Popa, Constantin; Popa, Florian; Grigorean, Valentin Titus; Onose, Gelu; Sandu, Aurelia Mihaela; Popescu, Mihai; Burnei, Gheorghe; Strambu, Victor; Sinescu, Crina
The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long–term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non–pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment.
Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C
Summary: Breaking the bad news in terms of prognosis for significant motor recovery following a neurologically complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most difficult tasks for the spinal cord medicine specialist. Learning the skills to facilitate this communication is extremely important to better assist patients to understand their prognosis as well as foster hope for their future. If bad news is delivered poorly it can cause confusion and long-lasting distress and resentment; if done well, it may assist understanding, adjustment, and acceptance. This article provides the physician who cares for patients with SCI with some concepts to consider when discussing prognosis with patients and their families.
Kirshblum, Steven; Fichtenbaum, Joyce
Little is known about the functional role of axotomized cortical neurons that survive spinal cord injury. Large thoracic spinal cord injuries in adult rats result in impairments of hindlimb function. Using retrograde tracers, we found that axotomized corticospinal axons from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex sprouted in the cervical spinal cord. Mapping of these neurons revealed the emergence of a new
Florent Haiss; Esther Sydekum; Regula Schneider; Miriam Gullo; Matthias T Wyss; Thomas Mueggler; Christof Baltes; Markus Rudin; Bruno Weber; Martin E Schwab; Arko Ghosh
Spinal myoclonus is a rare disorder characterized by myoclonic movements in muscles that originate from several segments of the spinal cord and usually associated with laminectomy, spinal cord injury, post-operative, lumbosacral radiculopathy, spinal extradural block, myelopathy due to demyelination, cervical spondylosis and many other diseases. On rare occasions, it can originate from the peripheral nerve lesions and be mistaken for
Feray Karaali Savrun; Derya Uluduz; Gokhan Erkol; Meral E Kiziltan
Summary The possibility that nitric oxide is somehow involved in the early bioelectrical disturbances following spinal cord injury in relation to the later pathophysiology of the spinal cord was examined in a rat model of spinal cord trauma. A focal trauma to the rat spinal cord was produced by an incision of the right dorsal horn of the T 10–11
T. Winkler; H. S. Sharma; E. Stålberg; R. D. Badgaiyan; P. Alm; J. Westman
As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide were incorporated in the PEG-PCL-PEG gel and injected into a lesion transecting the main dorsomedial and minor ventral medial corticospinal tract (CST). The degree of collateralization of the transected CST was quantified as an indicator of the regenerative potential of these treatments. At one month post-injury, we observed the robust rostral collateralization of the CST tract in response to the bFGF plasmid-loaded gel. In conclusion, we hope that this platform technology can be applied to the sustained local delivery of other proteins for the treatment of spinal cord injury.
This is a case report describing an injury – sustained by a 25-year-old man during a car accident, and characterized by fracture dislocation of the spine at the level of C7 and T4 accompanied by pulmonary contusion. He had an incomplete spinal cord lesion at the level of C7 and a complete lesion at the level of T4 (T4 ASIA
A Csókay; T Pentelényi; CH Tator; TEP Barros; WS El Masry; PS Ramani
Study design:Prospective literature review; search via Oldmedline (1958–1965), Medline (1966–2005) and Pubmed.Objectives:The objective of this study is to review the pathophysiology of priapism in acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); to determine the incidence of priapism in traumatic SCI, whether or not priapism is associated with incomplete or only complete SCI and whether and what treatment might be required.Methods:This is
N V Todd
Summary Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are particularly susceptible to the toxicity of the acute lesion environment after spinal cord injury\\u000a (SCI). They undergo both necrosis and apoptosis acutely, with apoptosis continuing at chronic time points. Loss of OLs causes\\u000a demyelination and impairs axon function and survival. In parallel, a rapid and protracted OL progenitor cell proliferative\\u000a response occurs, especially at the lesion borders.
Akshata Almad; F. Rezan Sahinkaya; Dana M. McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually necessitates considerable changes in the life of an individual, and their family members. SCI may demand difficult psychological adjustment and in addition place great strain on family roles and relationships. Glass (1993) summarises the situation thus: `The experience of spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating injuries which might affect an individual. The
Objective: To draw attention to inadequate care received by some spinal cord injury patients after discharge from the regional spinal injury center.Setting: Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, UK.Methods: Presence of the urethral stricture was not recognised in a 69-year-old male with T-3 paraplegia, who attended a health-care facility with a urinary infection. A Foley catheter was inserted into the urethra
S Vaidyanathan; G Singh; B M Soni; P L Hughes; Paul Mansour; T Oo; J Bingley; P Sett
The corticospinal tract (CST) is a major descending pathway contributing to the control of voluntary movement in mammals. During the last decades anatomical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated significant reorganization in the CST after spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. In animal models of SCI, anatomical evidence showed corticospinal sprouts rostral and caudal to the lesion and their integration into intraspinal axonal circuits. Electrophysiological data suggested that indirect connections from the primary motor cortex to forelimb motoneurons, via brainstem nuclei and spinal cord interneurons, or direct connections from slow uninjured corticospinal axons, might contribute to the control of movement after a CST injury. In humans with SCI, post mortem spinal cord tissue revealed anatomical changes in the CST some of which were similar but others markedly different from those found in animal models of SCI. Human electrophysiological studies have provided ample evidence for corticospinal reorganization after SCI that may contribute to functional recovery. Together these studies have revealed a large plastic capacity of the CST after SCI. There is also a limited understanding of the relationship between anatomical and electrophysiological changes in the CST and control of movement after SCI. Increasing our knowledge of the role of CST plasticity in functional restoration after SCI may support the development of more effective repair strategies.
Oudega, Martin; Perez, Monica A
An Awareness and Prevention Team of five lecturers has been employed for 5 years funded by the Spinal Research Foundation at the Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, New South Wales. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the lecture programme in increasing knowledge and preventing the incidence of spinal cord injury was carried out to demonstrate the justification for continuing the Programme. This evaluation was achieved using a questionnaire designed for sample responses by school students in target age range. The questionnaires were distributed to 27 schools in five categories in order to obtain a spread of responses and a workable control group of schools which had not been visited by the Team. Results of 3823 questionnaires were tabulated and analysed by computer. The schools which had been visited by the Lecture Team showed both higher levels of knowledge on the structure of the spinal cord and effects of injury and also a more balanced attitude and awareness towards people requiring wheelchairs for mobility. PMID:3601431
Yeo, J D; Walsh, J
Traumatic spinal cord injury is often disabling and recovery of function is limited. As a consequence of damage, both spinal cord and brain undergo anatomical and functional changes. Besides clinical measures of recovery, biomarkers that can detect early anatomical and functional changes might be useful in determining clinical outcome—during the course of rehabilitation and recovery—as well as furnishing a tool to evaluate novel treatment interventions and their mechanisms of action. Recent evidence suggests an interesting three-way relationship between neurological deficit and changes in the spinal cord and of the brain and that, importantly, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques, both structural and functional, provide a sensitive tool to lay out these interactions. This review describes recent findings from multimodal imaging studies of remote anatomical changes (i.e., beyond the lesion site), cortical reorganization, and their relationship to clinical disability. These developments in this field may improve our understanding of effects on the nervous system that are attributable to the injury itself and will allow their distinction from changes that result from rehabilitation (i.e., functional retraining) and from interventions affecting the nervous system directly (i.e., neuroprotection or regeneration).
Curt, Armin; Friston, Karl; Thompson, Alan
Bode RK, Heinemann AW. Course of functional improvement after stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:100-6. Objective: To examine functional improvement patterns of persons with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Statistical analysis of data from a multisite study evaluating rehabilitation outcomes. Setting: Eight inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Participants: A
Rita K. Bode; Allen W. Heinemann
Nowadays there are at present no efficient therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI), and new approaches have to be proposed. Recently, a new regenerative medicine strategy has been suggested using smart biomaterials able to carry and deliver cells and/or drugs in the damaged spinal cord. Among the wide field of emerging materials, research has been focused on hydrogels, three-dimensional polymeric networks able to swell and absorb a large amount of water. The present paper intends to give an overview of a wide range of natural, synthetic, and composite hydrogels with particular efforts for the ones studied in the last five years. Here, different hydrogel applications are underlined, together with their different nature, in order to have a clearer view of what is happening in one of the most sparkling fields of regenerative medicine.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To assess the impairment of supraspinal control over spinal sympathetic centres and the occurrence of autonomic dysreflexia in patients with spinal cord injury. Autonomic dysreflexia is caused by the disconnection of spinal sympathetic centres from supraspinal control and is characterised by paroxysmal hypertensive episodes caused by non-specific stimuli below the level of the lesion. Therefore, patients with
A Curt; B Nitsche; B Rodic; B Schurch; V Dietz
Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI.
Khalatbary, Ali Reza
Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI. PMID:24842137
Khalatbary, Ali Reza
This chapter provides an overview of spinal cord injuries (SCI) in children and adolescents, including epidemiology, medical and musculoskeletal complications, rehabilitation and psychosocial aspects. Males are more commonly affected than females during adolescence; however, as the age at injury decreases, the preponderance of males becomes less marked, and by 3 years of age the number of females with SCIs equals that of males. The neurologic level and degree of completeness varies with age; among children injured prior to 12 years of age approximately two-thirds are paraplegic and approximately two-thirds have complete lesions. Among adolescents, approximately 50% have paraplegia and 55% have complete lesions. Management of pediatric-onset SCI should be family centered and developmentally based, responsive to the dynamic changes that occur during growth and development. Distinctive anatomical and physiological features of children and adolescents, along with growth and development, are responsible for unique manifestations and complications of pediatric SCI. SCI without radiological abnormalities (SCIWORA), birth injuries, lap-belt injuries, upper cervical injuries, and the delayed onset of neurological deficits are relatively unique to pediatric SCI. Children who sustain their SCI before puberty experience a higher incidence of musculoskeletal complications, such as scoliosis and hip dislocation. PMID:23098710
Vogel, Lawrence C; Betz, Randall R; Mulcahey, M J
Chylous leakage is an unusual complication following anterior spinal surgery. This leakage can occur as a result of traumatic injury to the thoracic duct, the cisterna chyli, or the retroperitoneal lymphatic vessels. The authors present case reports of three patients who underwent anterior spinal surgical procedures in advertently complicated by an injury to the lymphatic system. All patients were managed
A. L. Bhat; G. L. Lowery
Objective: Societal services after traumatic spinal cord injury in Sweden were investigated, including self-rated levels of satisfaction with the application process and resource allocation. Design: Survey of an incidence population. Subjects: Thirty-four persons of a total regional incidence population (n = 48) with traumatic spinal cord injury. Methods: Structured interviews using a standardized ques- tionnaire. Results: About 25 separate services
Camilla Nordgren; Richard Levi; Gunnar Ljunggren; Åke Seiger
Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and\\/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the
Victor S. Regenboge; Lee F. Roger; Kwang S. Kim
Spinal cord injury without fractures or bony malalignment on either plain radiographs or computed tomography (SCIWORA) is most commonly found in the paediatric age group. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate these patients. The present communication describes SCIWORA in 15 adult patients investigated by MRI. Of the 151 patients with spinal cord injury in
SK Gupta; K Rajeev; VK Khosla; BS Sharma; Paramjit; SN Mathuriya; A Pathak; MK Tewari; A Kumar
Objective: To determine and describe trends in economic variables related to the care of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and significant changes in these trends coincident with major developments in medical care cost control.Data Sources: Data from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC) database were used to review the economic trends in SCI management from 1973 to
Irma G. Fiedler; Prakash W. Laud; Dennis J. Maiman; David F. Apple
This research project investigated the long-term effects of spinal cord injury and neurogenic bladder dysfunctional on renal function in patients who are ten years or more post-spinal cord injury. It is important to understand the natural history of those...
K. B. Waites
A series of studies will test the effects of electric fields on recovery of function in acute contusion injuries of the spinal cord in laboratory guinea pigs and in naturally occurring clinical cases of acute spinal cord injury in dogs. In addition, the e...
R. B. Borgens
Spinal cord injury leads to immense disability and loss of quality of life in human with no satisfactory clinical cure. Cell-based or cell-related therapies have emerged as promising therapeutic potentials both in regeneration of spinal cord and mitigation of neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury. This article reviews the various options and their latest developments with an update on their therapeutic potentials and clinical trialing.
Bacterial meningitis is rarely complicated by spinal cord involvement in adults. We report a case of Staphylococcus aureus septicemia complicated by meningitis and extensive spinal cord injury, leading to ascending brain stem necrosis and death. This complication was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging which demonstrated intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and by multimodality evoked potentials. Postmortem microscopic examination confirmed that the extensive spinal cord injury was of ischemic origin, caused by diffuse leptomeningitis and endarteritis.
De Schryver, Nicolas; Cosnard, Guy; van Pesch, Vincent; Godfraind, Catherine; Hantson, Philippe
Study design:International expert working group.Objective:To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research.Setting:Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS).Methods:A
K Krogh; I Perkash; S A Stiens; F Biering-Sørensen
Restoring locomotion after spinal-cord injury has been a difficult problem to solve with traditional functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a novel approach to FES that takes advantage of spinal-cord locomotor circuits by stimulating in the spinal cord directly. Previous studies in spinal-cord intact cats showed near normal recruitment order, reduced fatigue, and functional, synergistic movements induced
Rajiv Saigal; Costantino Renzi; Vivian K. Mushahwar
Damage to the spinal cord disrupts autonomic pathways, perturbing cardiovascular homeostasis. Cardiovascular dysfunction increases with higher levels of injury and greater severity. Disordered blood pressure control after spinal cord injury (SCI) has significant ramifications as cord-injured people have an increased risk of developing heart disease and stroke; cardiovascular dysfunction is currently a leading cause of death among those with SCI. Despite the clinical significance of abnormal cardiovascular control following SCI, this problem has been generally neglected by both the clinical and research community. Both autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension are known to prevent and delay rehabilitation, and significantly impair the overall quality of life after SCI. Starting with neurogenic shock immediately after a higher SCI, ensuing cardiovascular dysfunctions include orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysreflexia and cardiac arrhythmias. Disordered temperature regulation accompanies these autonomic dysfunctions. This chapter reviews the human and animal studies that have furthered our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysreflexia and cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiovascular dysfunction that occurs during sexual function and exercise is elaborated. New awareness of cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI has led to progress toward inclusion of this important autonomic problem in the overall assessment of the neurological condition of cord-injured people. PMID:23098715
Weaver, Lynne C; Fleming, Jennifer C; Mathias, Christopher J; Krassioukov, Andrei V
We describe an animal model to study neurotransmitter changes in parallel with urodynamic testing following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Urodynamic access was achieved using a subcutaneously placed 7 French dual lumen portacatheter. Spinal cord injury was induced by weight drop technique onto exposed dura at T8. The L6-S1 detrusor nuclei were localized stereotactically and microdialysis probe placement was confirmed through
Christopher P Smith; George T Somogyi; Erin T Bird; Michael B Chancellor; Timothy B Boone
Fetal spinal cord transplants placed into the site of a neonatal spinal cord lesion alter the response of immature CNS neurons to injury. The transplants prevent the retrograde cell death of immature axotomized neurons and support the growth of axons into and through the site of injury. In the present experiments we used a battery of locomotor tasks to determine
E. Kunkel-Bagden; B. S. Bregman
Aims To summarize the changes that occur in the properties of bladder afferent neurons following spinal cord injury. Methods Literature review of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and pharmacologic studies of normal and dysfunctional bladder afferent pathways. Results Studies in animals indicate that the micturition reflex is mediated by a spinobulbospinal pathway passing through coordination centers (periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center) located in the rostral brain stem. This reflex pathway, which is activated by small myelinated (A?) bladder afferent nerves, is in turn modulated by higher centers in the cerebral cortex involved in the voluntary control of micturition. Spinal cord injury at cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary voiding, as well as the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and sphincter function. Following spinal cord injury, the bladder is initially areflexic but then becomes hyperreflexic due to the emergence of a spinal micturition reflex pathway. The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury is dependent in part on the plasticity of bladder afferent pathways and the unmasking of reflexes triggered by unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive, C-fiber bladder afferent neurons. Plasticity is associated with morphologic, chemical, and electrical changes in bladder afferent neurons and appears to be mediated in part by neurotrophic factors released in the spinal cord and the peripheral target organs. Conclusions Spinal cord injury at sites remote from the lumbosacral spinal cord can indirectly influence properties of bladder afferent neurons by altering the function and chemical environment in the bladder or the spinal cord.
de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki
Spinal cord injury induces maladaptive synaptic transmission in the somatosensory system that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. Recent literature suggests that glial-neuronal interactions are important modulators in synaptic transmission following spinal cord injury. Neuronal hyperexcitability is one of the predominant phenomenon caused by maladaptive synaptic transmission via altered glial-neuronal interactions after spinal cord injury. In the somatosensory system, spinal inhibitory neurons counter balance the enhanced synaptic transmission from peripheral input. For a decade, the literature suggests that hypofunction of GABAergic inhibitory tone is an important factor in the enhanced synaptic transmission that often results in neuronal hyperexcitability in dorsal horn neurons following spinal cord injury. Neurons and glial cells synergistically control intracellular chloride ion gradients via modulation of chloride transporters, extracellular glutamate and GABA concentrations via uptake mechanisms. Thus, the intracellular “GABA-glutamate-glutamine cycle” is maintained for normal physiological homeostasis. However, hyperexcitable neurons and glial activation after spinal cord injury disrupts the balance of chloride ions, glutamate and GABA distribution in the spinal dorsal horn and results in chronic neuropathic pain. In this review, we address spinal cord injury induced mechanisms in hypofunction of GABAergic tone that results in chronic central neuropathic pain.
Gwak, Young S.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.
...Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity...other forms of information technology. Title: Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey, VA Form...will be used to determine spinal cord patients'...
...Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Under OMB Review...SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction...Title: Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey, VA Form 10-0515...used to determine spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA...
The Injury Prevention Committee of the Japan Medical Society of Paraplegia (JMSoP) conducted a nationwide epidemiological survey on spinal cord injury (SCI) using postal questionnaires for 3 years periods from 1990 to 1992, and the annual incidence of the spinal cord injury was estimated as 40.2 per million. From this registry, we investigated SCI related to sports activities.In 3 years,
Shinsuke Katoh; Hikosuke Shingu; Takaaki Ikata; Eiji Iwatsubo
Despite intensive preventive efforts, acute spinal cord injury remains a significant public health problem. The pathophysiology of this type of injury involves both the primary, or initial, mechanical injury and secondary injury mechanisms such as ischemia, lipid peroxidation and intracellular calcium influx. Initial management includes immobilization of the injured spine, maintenance of the airway, systemic oxygen delivery and treatment of neurogenic shock. All patients with acute spinal cord injury should receive an intravenous bolus of methylprednisolone, 30 mg per kg, within eight hours of injury, followed by an infusion of 5.4 mg per kg per hour for 23 hours. Transfer to a regional acute spinal cord injury unit for definitive management should be accomplished as soon as the patient's condition is stabilized. PMID:8677831
Fehlings, M G; Louw, D
Study Design review by the Spinal Cord Outcomes Partnership Endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies. Methods a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric properties was used to examine outcome tools or tests for accuracy, sensitivity, reliability and validity for human SCI. Results imaging, neurological, functional, autonomic, sexual health, bladder/bowel, pain, and psycho-social tools were evaluated. Several specific tools for human SCI studies have or are being developed to allow the more accurate determination for a clinically meaningful benefit (improvement in functional outcome or quality of life) being achieved as a result of a therapeutic intervention. Conclusion significant progress has been made, but further validation studies are required to identify the most appropriate tools for specific targets in a human SCI study or clinical trial.
Alexander, Marcalee S.; Anderson, Kim; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Blight, Andrew R.; Brannon, Ruth; Bryce, Thomas; Creasey, Graham; Catz, Amiram; Curt, Armin; Donovan, William; Ditunno, John; Ellaway, Peter; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Graves, Daniel E.; Haynes, Beth Ann; Heinemann, Allen W.; Jackson, Amie B.; Johnston, Mark; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kleitman, Naomi; Krassioukov, Andrei; Krogh, Klaus; Lammertse, Daniel; Magasi, Susan; Mulcahey, MJ; Schurch, Brigitte; Sherwood, Arthur; Steeves, John D.; Stiens, Steven; Tulsky, David S.; van Hedel, Hubertus J.A.; Whiteneck, Gale
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can have a range of debilitating effects and permanently alter the capabilities and quality of life of survivors. The first specialized centers of care for SCI were established in 1944 and since then an increasing amount of research has been carried out in this area. Despite this, the present treatment and care levels for SCI are not comparable to those in other areas of medicine. In the clinic, the aim of SCI treatment is primarily to limit secondary damage by reducing compression in trauma spots and stabilizing the spinal column. Currently, no effective strategy for functional recovery is offered. In this review, we focus on research progress on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCI, and assess the treatment outcomes of SCI in animal models, i.e., neurotrophins and stem cells are discussed as pre-clinical therapies in animal models. We also assess the resources available and national research projects carried out on SCI in China in recent years, as well as making recommendations for the future allocation of funds in this area. PMID:23124646
Cao, He-Qi; Dong, Er-Dan
Up to 20,000 patients annually suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI) and 20% of these die before being admitted to the hospital in the United States as well as in the European Union. Prehospital management of SCI is of critical importance since 25% of SCI damage may occur or be aggravated after the initial event. Prehospital management includes examination of the patient, spinal immobilisation, careful airway management (intubation, if indicated, using manual in-line stabilisation), and cardiovascular support (maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure above 90 mm Hg) and blood glucose levels within the normal range. It is still not known whether additional specific therapy is useful. Studies have not demonstrated convincingly that methylprednisolone (MPS) or other pharmacological agents really have clinically significant and important benefits for patients suffering from SCI. Recently published statements from the United States also do not support the therapeutic use of MPS in patients suffering from SCI in the prehospital setting any more. Moreover, at this stage, it is not known whether therapeutic hypothermia or any further pharmacological intervention has beneficial effects or not. Therefore, networks for clinical studies in SCI patients should be established, as a basic requirement for further improvement in outcome in such patients. PMID:15950358
Bernhard, Michael; Gries, André; Kremer, Paul; Böttiger, Bernd W
Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are know to suffer from autonomic failure as a result of their injury. The magnitude of the dysautonomia resulting from such an injury is difficult to predict or characterize and, in varying degree, it impedes the recovery of physiological homeostasis. This study is intended to investigate the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as
David C. Bunten; Alberta L. Warner; Sherry R. Brunnemann; Jack L. Segal
In the United States, injuries are the leading cause of premature lost years of life, surpassing cancer and heart disease combined. Public health surveillance of injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI) has recently begun to evolve, following decades of experience with similar methods for infectious and chronic disease conditions. In 1985, the Federal Government's Centers for Disease Control began
C L Harrison; M Dijkers
Hypothesis: The level of cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) can be used to predict the need for a cardiovas- cular intervention. Design: Retrospective review. Data included level of spi- nal cord injury, Injury Severity Score, lowest heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours and in- tensive care unit course. The level of CSCI was divided into
John F. Bilello; James W. Davis; Mark A. Cunningham; Tammi F. Groom; Debbie Lemaster; Lawrence P. Sue
The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David
Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated. PMID:23520469
Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Björn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta
Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated.
Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M.; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Bjorn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) produce direct mechanical disruption and subsequent severe degeneration of axons; these processes cause the associated neurologic deficits. Histological studies of fixed tissue in animal models of SCI have described axonal loss ...
Persistent chronic pain is prevalent after a spinal cord injury (SCI), with about two-thirds of persons with SCI reporting persistent pain despite available treatments. There is a risk for a significant psychosocial impact and a substantially reduced qual...
E. G. Widerstrom-Noga
Patients with spinal cord injury in Haiti previously had a poor prognosis. This article features a case study showing how care was transformed after the earthquake in 2010 by providing simple bladder care. PMID:22708192
The purpose of this review is to discuss the achievements and perspectives regarding rehabilitation of sensorimotor functions after spinal cord injury. In the first part we discuss clinical approaches based on neuroplasticity, a term referring to all adaptive and maladaptive changes within the sensorimotor systems triggered by a spinal cord injury. Neuroplasticity can be facilitated through the training of movements with assistance as needed, and/or by electrical stimulation techniques. The success of such training in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury critically depends on the presence of physiological proprioceptive input to the spinal cord leading to meaningful muscle activations during movement performances. The addition of rehabilitation technology, such as robotic devices allows for longer training times and provision of feedback information regarding changes in movement performance. Nevertheless, the improvement of function by such approaches for rehabilitation is limited. In the second part, we discuss preclinical approaches to restore function by compensating for the loss of descending input to spinal networks following complete spinal cord injury. This can be achieved with stimulation of spinal networks or approaches to restore their descending input. Electrical and pharmacological stimulation of spinal neural networks is still in an experimental stage; and despite promising repair studies in animal models, translations to humans up to now have not been convincing. It is likely that combinations of techniques targeting the promotion of axonal regeneration and meaningful plasticity are necessary to advance the restoration of function. In the future, refinement of animal studies may contribute to greater translational success. PMID:24103913
Dietz, Volker; Fouad, Karim
Objective: To describe two cases in which intraoperative monitoring of neurogenic ‘motor’ evoked potentials (NMEPs) did not identify a spinal cord injury that resulted in paraplegia.Methods: Bilateral tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and NMEP testing was performed in two patients during spinal deformity corrective surgery using standard stimulation and recording parameters. These potentials were obtained repetitively throughout the primary
Robert E Minahan; Jehuda P Sepkuty; Ronald P Lesser; Paul D Sponseller; John P Kostuik
Study design:Retrospective chart review.Objective:To identify the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (obese) in veterans with spinal cord injury.Setting:Veterans Administration Hospital in Wisconsin.Methods:A retrospective chart review of all the patients registered in the current database with the Spinal Cord Injury Unit in the Veterans Administration Hospital was undertaken Data collected for each patient included age, sex, height, date of assessment
N Gupta; K T White; P R Sandford
Study design: Longitudinal observational.Objectives: (a) To establish a reliable and feasible method to indicate the presence and severity of dysphagia and (b) to establish a course of treatment in individuals presenting with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI).Setting: Spinal Cord Injury Center, Werner Wicker Klinik, Bad Wildungen, Germany.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients consecutively admitted to
C Wolf; T H Meiners
Design: The present study is part of a programme of longitudinal research on ageing and spinal cord injury involving three populations – American, British and Canadian. The design was multivariate.Objective: To identify international differences in outcomes associated with ageing and spinal cord injury.Setting: A sample of 352 participants was assembled from five large, well-established databases. The Canadian sample was derived
MA McColl; S Charlifue; C Glass; G Savic; M Meehan
Study design:Literature survey.Objectives:To summarize and discuss current possibilities and success rates for the treatment of spinal cord injury in animal models.Settings:University of Antwerp, Belgium.Methods:We searched Pubmed for publications from 1997 onwards. Seven older papers were used for completion of data.Results:Despite major progress in pharmacological and surgical approaches, a spinal cord injury still remains a very complex medical and psychological challenge,
M W Ronsyn; Z N Berneman; V F I Van Tendeloo; P G Jorens; P Ponsaerts
Spinal-cord injury is characterized by primary damage as a direct consequence of mechanical insult, and secondary damage that is partly due to the acute inflammatory response. The extent of any hemorrhage within the injured cord is also known to be associated with the formation of intraparenchymal cavities and has been anecdotally linked to secondary damage. This study was designed to examine the contribution of blood components to the outcome of spinal-cord injury. We stereotaxically microinjected collagenase, which causes localized bleeding, into the spinal cord to model the hemorrhage associated with spinal cord injury in the absence of significant mechanical trauma. Tissue damage was observed at the collagenase injection site over time, and was associated with localized disruption of the blood-spinal-cord barrier, neuronal cell death, and the recruitment of leukocytes. The magnitude of the bleed was related to neutrophil mobilization. Interestingly, the collagenase-induced injury also provoked extended axonal damage. With this model, the down-stream effects of hemorrhage are easily discernible, and the impact of treatment strategies for spinal-cord injury on hemorrhage-related injury can be evaluated. PMID:24792308
Losey, Patrick; Young, Christopher; Krimholtz, Emily; Bordet, Régis; Anthony, Daniel C
Study design: Data are from a multicenter, randomized, double blind clinical trial of acute spinal cord injury. Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for randomized patients in the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study 3 (NASCIS). Setting: Sixteen spinal cord injury centers throughout the United States and Canada. Methods: Of 499 patients randomized in NASCIS
M J Shepard; M B Bracken
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating and common neurologic disorder that has profound influences on modern society from physical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic perspectives. Accordingly, the present decade has been labeled the Decade of the Spine to emphasize the importance of SCI and other spinal disorders. Spinal cord injury may be divided into both primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. The primary injury, in large part, determines a given patient's neurologic grade on admission and thereby is the strongest prognostic indicator. However, secondary mechanisms of injury can exacerbate damage and limit restorative processes, and hence, contribute to overall morbidity and mortality. A burgeoning body of evidence has facilitated our understanding of these secondary mechanisms of injury that are amenable to pharmacological interventions, unlike the primary injury itself. Secondary mechanisms of injury encompass an array of perturbances and include neurogenic shock, vascular insults such as hemorrhage and ischemia-reperfusion, excitotoxicity, calcium-mediated secondary injury and fluid-electrolyte disturbances, immunologic injury, apoptosis, disturbances in mitochondrion function, and other miscellaneous processes. Comprehension of secondary mechanisms of injury serves as a basis for the development and application of targeted pharmacological strategies to confer neuroprotection and restoration while mitigating ongoing neural injury. The first article in this series will comprehensively review the pathophysiology of SCI while emphasizing those mechanisms for which pharmacologic therapy has been developed, and the second article reviews the pharmacologic interventions for SCI. PMID:11586110
Dumont, R J; Okonkwo, D O; Verma, S; Hurlbert, R J; Boulos, P T; Ellegala, D B; Dumont, A S
Spinal cord injury research has greatly expanded in recent years, but our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functional recovery that can occur over the weeks and months following the initial injury, is far from complete. To grasp the scope of the problem, it is important to begin by defining the sensorimotor pathways that might be involved by a spinal injury. This is done in the rodent and nonhuman primate, which are two of the most commonly used animal models in basic and translational spinal injury research. Many of the better known experimentally induced models are then reviewed in terms of the pathways they involve and the reorganization and recovery that have been shown to follow. The better understood neuronal mechanisms mediating such post-injury plasticity, including dendritic spine growth and axonal sprouting, are then examined.
INTRODUCTION: Following spinal cord injury, prostate undergoes atrophy probably due to interruption of neuro-hormonal pathways. The incidence of carcinoma of prostate is lower in patients with spinal cord injury above T-10 than in those with lesion below T-10. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian male sustained T-4 paraplegia in 1991 at the age of 59-years. He had long-term indwelling urethral catheter. In
Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul M Soni; Paul Mansour; Peter L Hughes; Gurpreet Singh; Tun Oo
Use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in agriculture appears to be growing. Purpose: To provide estimates of ATV ownership and exposure on US farms and an overview of injuries to youths as a result of ATV use on the farm in 2001. Methods: Analysis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and US Department of Agriculture 2001…
Goldcamp, E. Michael; Myers, John; Hendricks, Kitty; Layne, Larry; Helmkamp, Jim
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal modifications in bone mass, bone biomechanical properties and bone morphology in spinal cord injured rats 2, 4 and 6 weeks after a transection. Material and methods Control animals were randomly distributed into four groups (n = 10 each group): control group (CG) – control animals sacrificed immediately after surgery; spinal cord-injured 2 weeks (2W) – spinal cord-injured animals sacrificed 2 weeks after surgery; spinal cord-injured 4 weeks (4W) – spinal cord-injured animals sacrificed 4 weeks after surgery; spinal cord-injured 6 weeks (6W) – spinal cord-injured animals sacrificed 6 weeks after surgery. Results Biomechanical properties of the right tibia were determined by a three-point bending test and injured animals showed a statistically significant decrease in maximal load compared to control animals. The right femur was used for densitometric analysis and bone mineral content of the animals sacrificed 4 and 6 weeks after surgery was significantly higher compared to the control animals and animals sacrificed 2 weeks after surgery. Histopathological and morphological analysis of tibiae revealed intense resorptive areas in the group 2 weeks after injury only. Conclusions The results of this study show that this rat model is a valuable tool to investigate bone remodeling processes specifically associated with SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that spinal cord injury induced bone loss within 2 weeks after injury in rats.
Amorim, Beatriz Oliveira; Fernandes, Kelly Rosseti; Pereira, Rosa Maria; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki
Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury.
Vinit, Stephane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.
Spinal injury is most frequent in young healthy men, desperate to walk. Most treatments have focused on regeneration of the injured axons, but no one has as yet achieved success with this approach. However, in the lamprey, a primitive fish with a spinal cord having all the critical features of the human spinal cored, spinal injury is followed by complete regeneration of injured axons. Additionally, the animal recovers the ability to swim, and in many, the swimming is normal. Unfortunately, in most others, it is highly abnormal. This talk will review evidence from the abnormal regeneration, why it bespeaks difficulties heretofore not considered, and suggest an alternate approach for the near future. In so doing, the speaker will introduce the normal function of the spinal cord, what happens in normal and abnormal regeneration, and the new techniques that employ methods from neuromorphic engineering, a synthesis of neuroscience and engineering to engineer smart devices.
Cohen, Avis (U of Maryland, Dept of Biology) [U of Maryland, Dept of Biology
Study Design Cross-sectional, paired cohort study. Objectives To replicate the finding of impaired immunocyte function following spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine whether cellular immune function in SCI subjects with decentralized sympathetic nervous system (SNS) (T6 and above) varies from SCI subjects with intact SNS (below T6). Setting University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. Method In vitro immune assays: (1) natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity using a K562 target cell line in a 4-h chromium51 release assay. The mean of three samples for each effector-to-target (E:F) ratio (25:1, 50:1, 100:1) was used in the analyses. (2) Cell enumeration was performed using commercially available antibodies and standard flow cytometry techniques. Results Participation of 36 SCI subjects and 36 individually age- and sex-matched healthy controls. SCI subjects were stratified into two groups, that is, neurologic level of injury (NLI) at T6 or above (26 subjects) and NLI below T6 (10 subjects). No statistically significant differences were identified between NLI T6 and above and NLI below T6 groups for the NK cytotoxicity assay. There was a statistically significant reduction in NK cell numbers in all subjects with SCI as compared to their paired controls. There was a statistically significant reduction in NK cell cytotoxicity in SCI subjects, relative to the controls for E:F ratio of 100:1 (F = 6.18, d.f. = 34, P = 0.02). Conclusion We replicated the finding of decreased NK cell number and cytotoxicity in SCI subjects. The mechanism behind these findings needs to be further investigated, with the long-term goal of developing therapeutic strategies to improve immune function.
Campagnolo, DI; Dixon, D; Schwartz, J; Bartlett, JA; Keller, SE
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between spinal cord injury (SCI) and type 2 diabetes in a large representative sample and to determine whether an association exists irrespective of known risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data were obtained on 60,678 respondents to the Statistics Canada 2010 Cycle of the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey. Multivariable logistic regression, incorporating adjustment for confounders and probability weights to account for the Canadian Community Health Survey sampling method, was conducted to quantify this association. Results: After adjustment for both sex and age, SCI was associated with a significant increased odds of type 2 diabetes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.36). These heightened odds persisted after additional adjustment for smoking status, hypertension status, body mass index, daily physical activity, alcohol intake, and daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.34–4.47). Conclusions: There is a strong association between SCI and type 2 diabetes, which is not explained by known risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Noonan, Vanessa K.; Dvorak, Marcel; Krassioukov, Andrei; Mancini, G.B. John; Borisoff, Jaimie F.
Scientific interest to find a treatment for spinal cord injuries has led to the development of numerous experimental strategies to promote axonal regeneration across the spinal cord injury site. Although these strategies have been developed in acute injury paradigms and hold promise for individuals with spinal cord injuries in the future, little is known about their applicability for the vast
Brian K. Kwon; Jie Liu; Corrie Messerer; Nao R. Kobayashi; John McGraw; Loren Oschipok; Wolfram Tetzlaff
The main features of spinal cord injuries in children are known to be that (1) plain radiographs do not show the bony injury; (2) many of the injuries are complete spinal cord injuries; (3) many involve the upper thoracic spine; and (4) the duration of spinal shock is short. Complications such as pressure sores occur just as easily in children
O Yoshimura; T Murakami; M Kawamura; K Takayanagi
Purpose\\/Objective: To investigate longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) as well as the predictors of those trajectories. Research Method\\/Design: A longitudinal study of 233 participants assessed at 4 time points: within 6 weeks, 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years from the point of injury. Data were analyzed using latent growth mixture modeling to
George A. Bonanno; Paul Kennedy; Isaac R. Galatzer-Levy; Peter Lude; Mangus L. Elfström
Damage from spinal cord injury (SCI) may be complicated by concomitant hemodynamic alterations within hours to months of the initial insult. Neurogenic shock, symptomatic bradycardia, autonomic dysreflexia, and orthostatic hypotension are specific conditions occurring commonly with SCI. Early recognition and appropriate management of each disorder may minimize secondary injury to the cord, avert systemic complications, and help alleviate patient discomfort. PMID:19472960
McMahon, Deanna; Tutt, Matthew; Cook, Aaron M
Summary: Traumatic spinal cord injury is frequently associated with brain injury and with alterations in respiratory and cardiovascular function that require critical care man- agement. Complications include respiratory failure, atelectasis, pneumonia, neurogenic shock, autonomic dysreflexia, venous thromboembolism, and sepsis. While complica- tions may be managed with supportive care, the goal of ameliorating neurologic outcome has proved elusive. Methylprednisolone, when instituted
Robert D. Stevens; Anish Bhardwaj; Jeffrey R. Kirsch; Marek A. Mirski
According to preliminary studies, the overall incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI; traumatic and medical) in Spain is estimated to be between 12 and 20 per million inhabitants, and almost 80% of these injuries occur in young men. SCI causes organic changes in men leading to erectile dysfunction (ED), impaired ejaculation, and changes in genital orgasmic perception. A vast majority
A S Ramos; J V Samsó
This is a review of 72 patients who were treated for Spinal Cord Injuries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, during the period January 1980 to January 1985. There were 20 patients who had tetraplegia as a result of their injuries and 52 with paraplegia. All the patients were treated conservatively.The catchment area of the hospital is
C A Okonkwo
Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats during the puerperium, whereas expression of the excitatory regulators dynorphin A and neuregulin-1 in the spinal cord is reduced. The puerperium did not alter spinal cord microgial and astrocyte activation. Astrocyte activation, as measured by GFAP expression, was not evident in female rats with injury, regardless of delivery status suggesting sex differences in spinal astrocyte activation after injury. These results suggest a change in the descending inhibitory/facilitating balance on spinal nociception neurotransmission during the puerperium, as mechanisms for its protective effect against injury-induced hypersensitivity.
Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C
On 11 August 2012, twin earthquakes measured 6.3 and 6.4 on the Richter scale hit three towns (Ahar, Varzaqan, and Heris) in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran resulting in tragic loss of three hundred lives and leaving thousands of injured. The aim of the present study was to report the spinal injuries during recent earthquake in northwest Iran, its consequences and management. Of the 923 hospitalized patients, 26 (2.8%) had neurosurgical complications. The imaging and clinical data of the patients were retrospectively studied regarding the anatomical location of the injury, the severity of spinal injury and associated neurological deficit. To further analyze the findings, Magerl (AO) and Frankel’s classifications were used. The injuries without any fracture were considered as minor spinal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 44.54±22.52 (range: 5-88) years. We detected a total of 38 vertebral injuries including 24 major (63.15%) and 14 minor injuries (36.85%). The most common injuries were observed in the lumbar spine (19 injuries, 50%). The 24 major injuries chiefly included Magerl type A (14 injuries, 58.3%). According to the Frankel’s classification, majority of the patients (88.46%) had no neurological deficit. In this study, three patients had nerve injuries. In conclusion, the number and proportion of spinal fractures patients in the recent twin earthquakes, northwest Iran was limited and caused less nerve injuries compared to the previous similar disasters. This might be due to the milder earthquake consequences since the incident happened in the middle of the day when men were working their fields. Potential complications in patients traumatized in earthquake incidents should be monitored for and early assessment of the neurological function is required to prioritize care for the victims.
Ghabili, Kamyar; Golzari, Samad E J; Salehpour, Firooz; Imani, Taghi; Bazzazi, Amir Mohammad; Ghaffari, Alireza; Khanli, Hadi Mohammad; Tizro, Parastou; Taghizade, Shabnam; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem
Summary Osteoporosis is a well acknowledged complication of spinal cord injury. We report that motor complete spinal cord injury and\\u000a post-injury alcohol consumption are risk factors for hospitalization for fracture treatment. The clinical assessment did not\\u000a include osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment considerations, indicating a need for improved clinical protocols.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction Treatment of osteoporotic long bone fractures often results in lengthy hospitalizations for
L. R. Morse; R. A. Battaglino; K. L. Stolzmann; L. D. Hallett; A. Waddimba; D. Gagnon; A. A. Lazzari; E. Garshick
Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ½ (ERK1/2) are implicated in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the specific functions of individual ERK isoforms in neurodegeneration are largely unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that ERK2 activation may contribute to pathological and functional deficits following SCI and that ERK2 knockdown using RNAi may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for SCI. Lentiviral ERK2 shRNA and siRNA were utilized to knockdown ERK2 expression in the spinal cord following SCI. Preinjury intrathecal administration of ERK2 siRNA significantly reduced excitotoxic injury-induced activation of ERK2 (p<0.001) and caspase 3 (p<0.01) in spinal cord. Intraspinal administration of lentiviral ERK2 shRNA significantly reduced ERK2 expression in the spinal cord (p<0.05), but did not alter ERK1 expression. Administration of the lentiviral ERK2 shRNA vector one week prior to severe spinal cord contusion injury resulted in a significant improvement in locomotor function (p<0.05), total tissue sparing (p<0.05), white matter sparing (p<0.05), and gray matter sparing (p<0.05) 6 weeks following severe contusive SCI. Our results suggest that ERK2 signaling is a novel target associated with the deleterious consequences of spinal injury.
Yu, Chen-Guang; Yezierski, Robert P.; Joshi, Aashish; Raza, Kashif; Li, Yanzhang; Geddes, James W.
Non-missile penetrating spinal injuries are rare. Screw driver injury, more especially to the cervical spine, represents an even rarer subset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from West Africa of cervical spinal cord injury from a screw driver. A middle-aged man was stabbed from the back with a screw driver. He presented with right-sided C4 Brown-Sequard syndrome with the impaling object in situ. Cervical spine x-rays showed the screw driver to have gone into the spine between the spinous processes of C4 and C5, traversing the spinal canal and lodged in the anterior part of the C4/5 intervertebral disc space. C4 and C5 laminectomies were performed and the screw driver removed under vision. The object was found to have traversed the right side of the cervical spinal cord. The dural tear was repaired. He had some neurologic improvement initially, but later declined. He died from severe pulmonary complications 2 weeks postinjury. Screw driver represents an unusual cause of non-missile penetrating cervical spinal injury. Its neurological effects and complications of the cord injury lead to significant morbidity and mortality.
Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Aremu, Abayomi Adeniran; Amao, Olusegun Adetunji; Awoleke, Jacob Olumuyiwa
Significant cardiovascular and autonomic dysfunction occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI). It is now recognized that cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in SCI. Patients with SCI may also suffer severe orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. Baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., the capability of the autonomic nervous system to detect and respond effectively to acute changes in blood pressure) has been recognized as having predictive value for cardiovascular events, as well as playing a role in effective short-term regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanisms underlying effective baroreflex function, describe the techniques available to measure baroreflex function, and summarize the literature examining baroreflex function after SCI. Finally, we describe the potential mechanisms responsible for baroreflex dysfunction after SCI and propose future avenues for research. Briefly, although cardiovagal baroreflex function is reduced markedly in those with high-level lesions (above the T6 level), the reduction appears to be partially mitigated in those with low-level lesions. Although no studies have examined the sympathetic arm of the baroreflex in those with SCI, despite this being arguably more important to blood pressure regulation than the cardiovagal baroreflex, nine articles have examined sympathetic responses to orthostatic challenges; these findings are reviewed. Future studies are needed to describe whether dysfunctional baroreflex sensitivity after SCI is due to arterial stiffening or a neural component. Further, measurement of forearm vascular conductance and/or muscle sympathetic nerve activity is required to directly evaluate the sensitivity of the sympathetic arm of the baroreflex in those with SCI. PMID:22897489
Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Ainslie, Philip N; Warburton, Darren E R
Background/Objective: Motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most prevalent etiology of SCI. Few studies have defined SCI risk factors. Vehicle mismatch occurs in 2-vehicle MVCs in which there are significant differences in vehicle weight, stiffness, and height. This study examined SCI risk and vehicle mismatch. Methods: A matched case-control study using the 1995 to 2003 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Study subjects were identified from 2-vehicle MVCs. Cases were occupants who had suffered a cervical, thoracic, or lumbar SCI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: There were 101,682 cases of SCI matched to 805,091 controls. Occupants of passenger vehicles involved in MVCs with a light truck or van (LTV) were at increased risk for SCI (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07–3.24) and this risk was greatest for thoracic SCI (OR = 5.09, 95% CI = 2.33–11.13). In addition, occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with passenger vehicles were at significant increased risk for cervical (OR = 1.39) and lumbar (OR = 2.65) SCI; and occupants of LTVs involved in MVCs with other LTVs were at increased risk of any SCI (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.52–2.69). For these subjects, significant increased risks were seen for all spine regions: cervical (OR = 1.41), thoracic (OR = 2.86), and lumbar (OR = 2.38). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that occupants of passenger vehicles are at increased SCI risk when involved in 2-vehicle MVCs with LTVs; and that occupants of LTVs are at increased SCI risk, regardless.
Cobb, Jason D; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse S; Rue, Loring W
Locomotor activity and spinal reflexes (SRs) show common features in different mammals, including humans. Here we report the time-course of the development of locomotor activity and SRs after a complete spinal cord injury in humans. SRs evoked by tibial nerve stimulation were studied, as was the leg muscle electromyography activity evoked by mechanically assisted locomotion (Lokomat) in biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocenmius medialis. Around 8 weeks after the injury, an early SR component (latency 60-120 ms) appeared, as in healthy subjects, and a well-organized leg muscle activity was present during assisted locomotion. At around 6 months after injury an additional, late reflex component (latency 120-450 ms) appeared, which remained even 15 years after the spinal cord injury. In contrast, the early component had markedly decreased at 18 months after injury. These changes in SR were associated with a loss of electromyography activity and a successively stronger electromyography exhaustion (i.e. decline of electromyography amplitude), when comparing the level of electromyography activity at 2 and 10 min, respectively, during assisted locomotion. These changes in electromyography activity affected mainly the biceps femoris, gastrocenmius medialis and tibialis anterior but less so the rectus femoris. When the amplitude relationship of the early to late SR component was calculated, there was a temporal relationship between the decrease of the early component and an increase of the late component and the degree of exhaustion of locomotor activity. In chronic, severely affected but sensori-motor incomplete spinal cord injury subjects a late SR component, associated with an electromyography exhaustion, was present in subjects who did not regularly perform stepping movements. Our data are consistent with the proposal of a common mechanism underlying the changes in SR activity and locomotor activity after spinal cord injury. These findings should be taken into consideration in the development of novel rehabilitation schemes and programs to facilitate regeneration-inducing therapies in spinal cord injury subjects. PMID:19460795
Dietz, V; Grillner, S; Trepp, A; Hubli, M; Bolliger, M
Study design:A multicenter prospective study comparing the neurological outcome of patients treated by surgical intervention versus conservative treatment for cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) without bone and disc injury.Objective:To evaluate the neurological outcome of decompression surgery for CSCI without bone and disc injury in patients with spinal cord compression with incomplete paralysis (AIS B, C).Setting:The Japan LHWO Spinal Injuries Center
O Kawano; T Ueta; K Shiba; Y Iwamoto
Study design:Cross-sectional study using a consecutive sample.Objectives:To modify the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) item 3 ‘balanced sitting’ and the Sitting Balance Score (SBS) to ensure suitability for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to assess the inter-rater reliability and validity of these instruments.Setting:Spinal Care Unit, clinical setting.Methods:Unsupported sitting was tested by three physiotherapists using MAS and SBS in 48
V Jørgensen; B Elfving; A Opheim
Many data are available concerning spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) and metabolism on various models and timing after spinal cord injury, however, detailed information on their exact relationship in the same injury model is lacking. This relationship is a crucial factor in the understanding of the pathophysiology of spinal cord trauma. Rats were subjected to lumbar laminectomy or lumbar spinal
Angelika E. M. Mautes; Helmut Schröck; Amadeo C. Nacimiento; Wulf Paschen
This study investigated the phenomena of finger enslaving, involuntary finger actions by non-intended fingers, and force deficit, smaller maximum force by all four fingers than the sum of individual finger maximum forces in individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI). A total of 16 subjects participated in this study: 8 with a cervical spinal cord injury and 8 controls. Each of the injured subjects had one paralyzed finger. The results showed that the efforts to produce force using any individual finger induced force production in all other fingers, suggesting finger force enslaving. The maximum force during the four-finger task was greater than the sum of the individual finger forces during single-finger tasks in the SCI group, which was reflected by positive force deficit, "force surplus". One may utilize these findings for rehabilitation of paralyzed fingers caused by cervical spinal injuries. PMID:19452144
Kim, Chang Kook; Lee, Dae-Yeon; Kim, You-Sin; Huang, Junfeng; Park, Jaebum; Shim, Jae Kun
Objective: To summarize a 25-year history of the Model Spinal Cord Injury Program and the coexistent National Spinal Cord Injury Database and provide the status of the Database with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses.Design: Inception cohort.Setting: Model spinal cord injury systems throughout the United States.Results: As of September 1998, the National Spinal Cord Injury Database included abbreviated registry
Samuel L. Stover; Michael J. De Vivo; Bette K. Go
This investigation was undertaken to study the early protective effects of Iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, after spinal cord injury in rabbit. Sixteen adult male rabbits (New Zealand Albino) were injured by application of epidural aneurysm clip. Eight rabbits received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 30 micrograms kg-1 Iloprost, and eight rabbits received an infusion of saline (SF). Treatment with Iloprost started immediately after spinal cord injury and continued for one hour. Evoked potentials were recorded for each rabbit at one, 15, and 60 minutes after the spinal cord injury. Twenty-four hours later, all the rabbits were deeply anesthetized and spinal cords were removed for histopathological examinations. There was no meaningful statistical difference between cortical somatosensorial evoked potentials (CSEP) of the saline and Iloprost group. However, light and electron microscopic studies showed that the Iloprost treated group had moderate protection of myelin and axons; and limited edema. These results suggest that intravenous Iloprost treatment after spinal cord injury has a highly protective effect without any side effects. PMID:9618701
Attar, A; Tuna, H; Sargon, M F; Yüceer, N; Türker, R K; Egemen, N
Background: As the immature spinal cord was nerve growth permissive, we examined glial reactions that influence regeneration of the spinal cord in a fetal rat spinal cord injury model. Methods: Three, 7, 21, and 35 days after intrauterine surgery, offsprings were killed and the thoracic and lumbar spinal cords were carefully removed from the spinal column and then cut into 10 m
Yoshinori Fujimoto; Takeshi Yamasaki; Nobuhiro Tanaka; Yu Mochizuki; Hiroki Kajihara; Yoshikazu Ikuta; Mitsuo Ochi
OBJECTIVESTo verify the applicability and validity of time-frequency analysis (TFA) of evoked potential (EP) signals in detecting the integrity of spinal cord function and preventing spinal cord injury.METHODSThe spinal cord was simulated during surgery in 20 mature rats by mechanically damaging the spinal cord. Cortical somatosensory evoked potential (CSEP), spinal somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), cortical motor evoked potential (CMEP), and
The clean intermittent self catheterization is an effective and safe technique for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract disease that result from spinal cord injuries. Although it has been described as of 1972, there is still resistance from health professionals for its utilization. The present study presents a report about the method used for training and encouraging of the patients towards using the technique, in a project of clinical and voluntary nursing care, performed in at a philanthropic association in the city of Curitiba. Our objective was to disseminate the experience that was learnt, to encourage professionals who assist people with spinal cord injuries towards recommending this technique. PMID:21445522
Assis, Gisela Maria; e Faro, Ana Cristina Mancussi
With advances in genetic and imaging techniques, investigating axon regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo is becoming more common in the literature. However, there are many issues to consider when using animal models of axon regeneration, including species, strains and injury models. No single particular model suits all types of experiments and each hypothesis being tested requires careful selection of the appropriate animal model. In this review, we describe several commonly-used animal models of axon regeneration in the spinal cord and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
Lee, Do-Hun; Lee, Jae K.
The role of the immune response in spinal cord injury has become a frequent object of debate. Evidence exists to suggest that autoimmunity following neurotrauma can be either beneficial or detrimental to recovery. The following commentary examines the recent findings indicating that mice lacking mature B- and T-lymphocytes have improved behavioral and histological outcomes following thoracic spinal cord injury. These data, presented in the October issue of Experimental Neurology are discussed within the context of previous findings and differing viewpoints in the field of neuroimmunology. Limitations on the translation of immune modulation therapeutics, and clinical perspectives on their future potential are also examined. PMID:23333564
Laliberte, A M; Fehlings, M G
We investigated a novel treatment paradigm for developing functional ambulation in wheelchair-dependent individuals with chronic, incomplete spinal-cord injury. By coordinating epidural stimulation of the dorsal structures of the spinal cord with partial weight bearing treadmill therapy, we observed improvement in treadmill and over-ground ambulation in an individual with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. The application of partial weight-bearing therapy alone was not
Michael R. Carhart; Jiping He; Richard Herman; S. D'Luzansky; W. T. Willis
: Disuse osteoporosis occurs in the lower extremities of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, spinal osteoporosis\\u000a is not usually observed in these patients. We investigated lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in SCI patients using single\\u000a energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our study population consisted of\\u000a 64 patients with long-standing SCI. Spine BMD
C. C. Liu; D. J. Theodorou; S. J. Theodorou; M. P. Andre; D. J. Sartoris; S. M. Szollar; E. M. Martin; L. J. Deftos
Spinal imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of SCI patients. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of advanced imaging techniques to provide pertinent microstructural and metabolic information that is not provided by conventional modalities. This review details the pathophysiological structural changes that accompany SCI, as well as their imaging correlates. The potential clinical applications of novel spinal cord imaging techniques to SCI are presented.
Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Salamon, Noriko; Holly, Langston T.
Background Spinal cord injury is a major cause of long-term disability and has no current clinically accepted treatment. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is best known as a regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Interestingly, several studies have demonstrated that leptin has significant effects on proliferation and cell survival in different neuropathologies. Here, we sought to evaluate the role of leptin after spinal cord injury. Findings Based on its proposed neuroprotective role, we have evaluated the effects of a single, acute intraparenchymal injection of leptin in a clinically relevant animal model of spinal cord injury. As determined by quantitative Real Time-PCR, endogenous leptin and the long isoform of the leptin receptor genes show time-dependent variations in their expression in the healthy and injured adult spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-injury tissue showed the long isoform of the leptin receptor expression in oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, in astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons. Moreover, leptin administered after spinal cord injury increased the expression of neuroprotective genes, reduced caspase-3 activity and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, histological analysis performed at the completion of the study showed that leptin treatment reduced microglial reactivity and increased caudal myelin preservation, but it did not modulate astroglial reactivity. Consequently, leptin improved the recovery of sensory and locomotor functioning. Conclusions Our data suggest that leptin has a prominent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory role in spinal cord damage and highlights leptin as a promising therapeutic agent.
Fernandez-Martos, Carmen Maria; Gonzalez, Pau; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier
This paper provides an overview on various alternative, complementary, or energy-based therapies that expand the healing spectrum\\u000a of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Not only do they have the capability to help a variety of secondary conditions,\\u000a they have the ability in some people, for certain injuries, to restore function, sometimes dramatically. After providing an\\u000a overall contextual rationale for
Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the 88 patients had only minimal evidence of bony injury. Of particular interest are the patients with severe cord injuries, yet no bony abnormalities, who seem to form a distinct subgroup of the cervical spinal cord injury patient on the basis of radiographic and clinical features. Of these 25 patients, 24 (96%) had severe cervical spondylosis. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were injured in falls, five (36%) of these 14 being of a seemingly trivial nature. Of the 42 patients with minimal or no demonstrable bony abnormalities, 33 (79%) were evaluated with plain tomography and no occult fractures or other significant pathology was demonstrated. Pantopaque myelography in 27 (64%) of the 42 cases revealed no extruded disk or other surgical lesion in any patient. In large measure, these injuries can be attributed to cervical spondylosis, which narrows the canal and makes the cord more susceptible to compression by the bulging ligamenta flava during hyperextension. PMID:3484576
Regenbogen, V S; Rogers, L F; Atlas, S W; Kim, K S
Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury.
Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses, and vacuum constriction devices. In anejaculatory patients who wish to father children, semen retrieval is necessary. Penile vibratory stimulation is recommended as the first line
Charles M. Lynne; Emad Ibrahim; Dana A. Ohl; Jens Sønksen; Nancy L. Brackett
Objective: To study the frequency and clinical implications of environmentally responsive temperature instability in hospitalized pediatric patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: A tertiary level SCI rehabilitation unit located in a free standing children's hospital in Wilmington, DE, USA. Study Design: Temperature data and corresponding clinical responses were collected prospectively between January 1991 and June 1993. Fifty-four consecutive patients
DE McLean; J Kearney; MF Cawley
Introduction: Quantitative bone assessment today is primarily based on the analysis of bone mineral density (BMD). The geometric and structural properties of bone, which are important parameters for skeletal strength, are generally not considered in the routine clinical assessment of spinal cord injury-related osteopenia.Objective: To study changes in structural and geometric properties of tibia bone longitudinally by means of peripheral
Eling D de Bruin; Volker Dietz; Maximilian A Dambacher; Edgar Stüssi
Drawing on data from a life history study of a small group of men who have suffered spinal cord injury and become disabled through playing sport, this article explores the meanings of hope in their lives. It focuses upon the life stories of 14, white, predominantly working-class men, aged 26–51. The most common kinds of hope used by the men
Brett Smith; Andrew C. Sparkes
The pain of 16 patients with spasticity secondary to spinal cord injury was assessed prior to intrathecal baclofen pump implantation and again 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Chronic pain was delineated into neurogenic and musculoskeletal components, noting changes in nature, quality, and severity of pain (visual analogue scale) and use of analgesic medications. Twelve of 16 patients had chronic pain
Paul G. Loubser; Nafiz M. Akman
Objective: To determine associations between major outcome variables after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and quality of life (QL).Subjects: Of a total population of 353 SCI patients, 320 participated, 261 men and 59 women living in the greater Stockholm area: 124 were tetraplegic, 176 were paraplegic, and 20 had no classified level. Mean age was 42 years (range, 17 to
Ninni Westgren; Richard Levi
The reflex interconnection of lower and upper extremity muscles was investigated in subjects with chronic (> 1 year post-injury) lesions to the cervical spinal cord. Lower extremity mixed nerves were stimulated with single shocks or with brief trains of high-frequency stimuli of varying intensities. EMG from a number of lower and upper extremity muscles was recorded on magnetic tape for
Analysis of the clinical case of a male aged 30 years, presenting with T6 complete paraplegia in 1991, demonstrated the existence of aggravating factors for disuse osteoporosis of spinal cord injury, possibly leading to bone density values below the fracture threshold with the risk of spontaneous fractures. This patient was admitted to hospital for multiple pressure sores requiring prolonged local
E Valayer-Chaleat; P Calmels; P Giraux; I Fayolle-Minon
The diagnostic utility of imaging techniques in injuries to the intramedullary and subarachnoid portions of the brachial plexus, with possibly complete avulsion of one or more nerve roots from the spinal cord and extramedullary meningocoele was compared in 18 patients studied by unenhanced computed tomography (CT), cervical myelography, myelographic CT (MCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Emphasis was placed on
E. Volle; J. Assheuer; J. P. Hedde; R. Gustorf-Aeckerle
Social support has been considered an important coping resource moderating the stress associated with physical illness and disability. The role of social support as a buffering agent for stressful life events inherent in physical illness and disability was examined in 78 individuals with spinal cord injury, residing in community settings in…
Rounds, James B; And Others
SUMMARY 1. After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), histological and neurological consequences are developing for several days and even weeks. However, little is known about the dynamics of changes in spinal axonal conductivity. The aim of this study was to record and compare repeated spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEP) after SCI in the rat during a 4 weeks’ interval. These recordings
Ivo Vanický; Tomáš Ondrej?ák; Miriam Ondrej?áková; Igor Šulla; Ján Gálik
Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event often resulting in permanent neurologic deficit. Research has revealed an\\u000a understanding of mechanisms that occur after the primary injury and contribute to functional loss. By targeting these secondary\\u000a mechanisms of injury, clinicians may be able to offer improved recovery after SCI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes In this review, we highlight advances in the field of SCI
David W. Cadotte; Michael G. Fehlings
With the recent increase in the number of scuba divers, there has come a concomitant increase in the cases of decompression sickness. About 24% of these cases have some neurological consequence involving the spinal cord and the potential to render a victim permanently paraplegic. The initial symptoms may be obvious or insidious and progressive. Victims have presented themselves to a
Ralph J. Dilibero; Andrew Pilmanis
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in motor and sensory deficits, the severity of which depends on the level and extent of the injury. Animal models for SCI research include transection, contusion, and compression mouse models. In this paper we will discuss the endogenous stem cell response to SCI in animal models. All SCI animal models experience a similar peak of cell proliferation three days after injury; however, each specific type of injury promotes a specific and distinct stem cell response. For example, the transection model results in a strong and localized initial increase of proliferation, while in contusion and compression models, the initial level of proliferation is lower but encompasses the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. All injury types result in an increased ependymal proliferation, but only in contusion and compression models is there a significant level of proliferation in the lateral regions of the spinal cord. Finally, the fate of newly generated cells varies from a mainly oligodendrocyte fate in contusion and compression to a mostly astrocyte fate in the transection model. Here we will discuss the potential of endogenous stem/progenitor cell manipulation as a therapeutic tool to treat SCI.
McDonough, Ashley; Martinez-Cerdeno, Veronica
Purpose: This study estimated the annual count of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in motor vehicles crashes by type and seat belt use using 18 years of NASS-CDS data. It determined the rate for SCI and fracture-dislocation of the spine. Methods: 1994-2011 NASS-CDS was used to estimate the annual occurrence of spinal injuries in front seat occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side, rear, and rollovers, and the effects of belt use were investigated. Light vehicles were included with model year 1994+. Spinal injuries were classified as minor (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 1), moderate (AIS 2), serious (AIS 3), fracture-dislocations, and SCI (AIS 4+). The annual count and rate for different types of spinal injury were estimated along with standard errors. The results were compared to estimates of head injuries. NASS-CDS electronic cases of SCIs in rear impacts were investigated. Results: There were 5,592 ± 1,170 fracture-dislocations of the spine and 1,046 ± 193 AIS 4+ SCI per year in motor vehicle crashes. Most of the injuries occurred in rollovers and frontal crashes and the least occurred in rear impacts. The rate of SCI was 0.054 ± 0.010%. The highest rate was 0.220 ± 0.056% in rollover crashes and the lowest rate was 0.032 ± 0.009% in frontal crashes. The highest rate for spinal fracture-dislocation was 1.552 ± 0.455% in rollovers and the lowest was 0.065 ± 0.021% in rear impacts. The rate for SCI was 0.027 ± 0.005% in belted and 0.145 ± 0.028% in unbelted occupants giving 81% effectiveness of belt use in reducing SCI. The cervical spine was associated with 66.3 ± 11.3% of the AIS 4+ SCI with 30.5 ± 7.4% in the thoracic spine and 3.2 ± 1.3% in the lumbar spine. Severe head injuries occurred 13.3 times more often than SCIs. Conclusions: Spinal cord injury occurred in one out of 1,860 front seat occupants in tow-away crashes. The rate was highest in rollover crashes and was reduced by seat belt use. Fracture-dislocation of the spine occurred about 5.3 times more often than SCIs and was also prevented by seat belt use. PMID:24433030
Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C
Permanent functional loss usually occurs after injury to the spinal cord. Currently, a clinical strategy to promote regeneration in the injured spinal cord does not exist. It has become evident that in order to promote regeneration, a growth permissive substrate at the injury site is critical. In this study, we report the utilization of an agarose scaffold that gels in
Anjana Jain; Young-Tae Kim; Robert J. McKeon; Ravi V. Bellamkonda
Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses
Kenneth H. Wong; Jae Choi; William Wilson; Joel Berry; Fraser C. Henderson Sr.
Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective This study was designed to neurophysiologically characterize spinal motor activity during recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Material Twenty five consecutive acute SCI admissions were recruited for this study. Methods The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) was used to categorize injury level and severity at onset. Surface EMG recording, was carried out initially between the day of admission and 17 days post onset (6.0 ± 4.3, mean ± SD days). Follow-up recordings were performed for up to 9 months after injury. Initial AIS distribution was: 7 AIS-A; 3 AIS-B; 2 AIS-C; 13 AIS-D. Results Twelve subjects (48%) showed long-duration involuntary motor unit activation during relaxation. This activity was seen on initial examination in nine and on follow-up by three months post-injury in three others. It was seen in muscles innervated from the injury zone in 11 and caudal to the lesion in 9 subjects. This activity was independent of the presence or absence of tendon reflexes and the ability to volitionally suppress plantar stimulation elicited reflex withdrawal. Conclusions The form of involuntary activity described here is the likely result of the altered balance of excitation and inhibition reaching spinal motor neurons due to the loss of inhibitory interneurons or their reduced activation by damaged supraspinal drive and the synaptic reorganization that follows SCI. As such, this activity may be useful for monitoring the effects of neuroprotective and restorative intervention strategies in persons with SCI.
McKay, WB; Ovechkin, AV; Vitaz, TW; de Paleville, DGLTerson; Harkema, SJ
A 65-year-old inebriated mancrashed his car and presented with spinal shock and neurogenic shock from a cervical spinal cord injury without cervical spine fracture or dislocation. The lateral cervical spine radiography was initially read as normal, except for degenerative disk disease; however, Torg’s ratio method of analyzing cervical spinal canal sagittal width indicated the spinal canal was congenitally narrow. Magnetic
Tareg Bey; Amy Waer; Frank G Walter; John Fortune; Joachim Seeger; Karsten Fryburg; William Smith
Objective: To identify and quantify trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with spinal cord injury.Design: Cohort study.Setting: Model spinal cord injury care systems and Shriner's Hospitals spinal cord injury units throughout the United States.Patients: A total of 28,239 consecutive persons admitted to the model system or to a Shriner's Hospital within 1 year of injury.Main Outcome Measure:
Michael J. De Vivo; J. Stuart Krause; Daniel P. Lammertse
Objectives Adenosine receptor activation at reperfusion has been shown to ameliorate ischemia—reperfusion injury of the spinal cord, but the effects of therapy given in response to ischemic injury are unknown. We hypothesized that adenosine receptor activation with ATL-146e would produce similar protection from ischemic spinal cord injury, whether given at reperfusion or in a delayed fashion. Methods Twenty-two New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. All three groups, including the ischemia—reperfusion group (IR, n = 8), underwent 45 min of infrarenal aortic occlusion. The early treatment group (early, n = 8) received 0.06 ?g/kg/min of ATL-146e for 3 h beginning 10 min prior to reperfusion. The delayed treatment group (delayed, n = 6) received ATL-146e starting 1 h after reperfusion. After 48 h, hind limb function was graded using the Tarlov score. Finally, lumbar spinal cord neuronal cytoarchitecture was evaluated. Results Hemodynamic parameters were similar among the groups. Hind limb function at 48 h was significantly better in the early group (3.5 ± 1.0) compared to the IR group (0.625 ± 0.5, P? 0.01). There was a trend towards better hind limb function in the early group compared to the delayed group (2.4 ± 1.1, P=0.08). Hind limb function was similar between delayed and IR groups. Hematoxylin—eosin spinal cord sections demonstrated preservation of viable motor neurons in the early group compared to the delayed and IR groups. Conclusions Early therapy with ATL-146e provided better protection in this study; therefore, therapy should not be delayed until there is evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. This study suggests that adenosine receptor activation is most effective as a preventive strategy at reperfusion for optimal protection in spinal cord ischemia—reperfusion injury. J Cardiovasc Med 9:363?367 © 2008 Italian Federation of Cardiology.
Reece, T. Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Okonkwo, David O.; Davis, Jonathon D.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Gazoni, Leo M.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Kern, John A.
In the past, urologic complications contributed greatly to spinal cord injury mortality. With improved evaluation and treatment, this is no longer the case. Treatment should be guided by urodynamic data gathered after the resolution of spinal shock symptoms. Goals of treatment are to facilitate voiding, reduce incontinence, and prevent renal damage. Indwelling catheters are almost never indicated for long-term treatment of the neurogenic bladder. Commonly used treatments include intermittent catheterization, condom catheter drainage with sphincter ablation, and pharmaceutical manipulation. Electrical stimulation of sacral nerve roots shows promise for future therapy. PMID:9122753
Nygaard, I E; Kreder, K J
Introduction In recent years, several massive earthquakes have occurred across the globe. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is reliable in detecting spinal injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the features of spinal injuries resulting from the Sichuan earthquake with those of non-earthquake-related spinal trauma using MDCT. Methods Features of spinal injuries of 223 Sichuan earthquake-exposed patients and 223 non-earthquake-related spinal injury patients were retrospectively compared using MDCT. The date of non-earthquake-related spinal injury patients was collected from 1 May 2009 to 22 July 2009 to avoid the confounding effects of seasonal activity and clothing. We focused on anatomic sites, injury types and neurologic deficits related to spinal injuries. Major injuries were classified according to the grid 3-3-3 scheme of the Magerl (AO) classification system. Results A total of 185 patients (82.96%) in the earthquake-exposed cohort experienced crush injuries. In the earthquake and control groups, 65 and 92 patients, respectively, had neurologic deficits. The anatomic distribution of these two cohorts was significantly different (P < 0.001). Cervical spinal injuries were more common in the control group (risk ratio (RR) = 2.12, P < 0.001), whereas lumbar spinal injuries were more common in the earthquake-related spinal injuries group (277 of 501 injured vertebrae; 55.29%). The major types of injuries were significantly different between these cohorts (P = 0.002). Magerl AO type A lesions composed most of the lesions seen in both of these cohorts. Type B lesions were more frequently seen in earthquake-related spinal injuries (RR = 1.27), while we observed type C lesions more frequently in subjects with non-earthquake-related spinal injuries (RR = 1.98, P = 0.0029). Conclusions Spinal injuries sustained in the Sichuan earthquake were located mainly in the lumbar spine, with a peak prevalence of type A lesions and a high occurrence of neurologic deficits. The anatomic distribution and type of spinal injuries that varied between earthquake-related and non-earthquake-related spinal injury groups were perhaps due to the different mechanism of injury.
Introduction: Among the many issues confronting a newly spinal cord injured (SCI) person are apprehension about the potential impact of the acquired disability on present or future intimate relationships.Objective: To summarize the research regarding partner relationships and SCI.Method: Medline, Psychlit and Cinahl database researches were undertaken.Results: Several studies have focused on the issue of marital status before and after the
Estrous cycle disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI) in female rats is a common phenomenon. It remains unknown, however, if the aberrant estrous cycle is a result of an injury to the spinal cord itself or due to the general stress associated with surgical interventions. We addressed this issue by determining estrous cyclicality in female rats after a spinal cord
Prithvi K. Shah; James Song; Samuel Kim; Hui Zhong; Roland R. Roy; V. Reggie Edgerton
After a complete spinal section, quadruped mammals (cats, rats, and mice) can generally regain hindlimb locomotion on a treadmill because the spinal cord below the lesion can express locomotion through a neural circuitry termed the central pattern generator (CPG). In this review, we propose that the spinal CPG also plays a crucial role in the locomotor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury.
G. Barriere (Universite de Montreal)
Traumatic spinal cord injury is frequently associated with brain injury and with alterations in respiratory and cardiovascular function that require critical care management. Complications include respiratory failure, atelectasis, pneumonia, neurogenic shock, autonomic dysreflexia, venous thromboembolism, and sepsis. While complications may be managed with supportive care, the goal of ameliorating neurologic outcome has proved elusive. Methylprednisolone, when instituted <8 hours after traumatic spinal cord injury, was associated in two clinical trials with statistically significant improvements in motor scores at 6 months and 1 year; however, critical reappraisal of these data raises questions about their validity and clinical relevance. Until more evidence of clinically effective therapies is available, acute management must be driven by pathophysiologic principles, with emphasis on interventions that attenuate secondary neurologic injury; these include the rational use of immobilization, cautious airway management, and promotion of cord perfusion and oxygenation with the appropriate level of hemodynamic and respiratory support. Clinical trials of pharmacologic neuroprotection have yielded disappointing results, but the ongoing elucidation of spinal cord repair and regenerative mechanisms suggests new therapeutic prospects. PMID:12826969
Stevens, Robert D; Bhardwaj, Anish; Kirsch, Jeffrey R; Mirski, Marek A
Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:21438715
Levine, Jonathan M; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Porter, Brian F; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J
Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation.
Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Porter, Brian F.; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.
In Italy, 60–70 thousand people are affected by spinal cord lesions, which have an incidence of 20/25 new cases per million per year and a male:female ratio of 4:1. The age group most affected is 10–40 years. In 65% of cases the origin of the lesion is traumatic. According to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale (AIS), the lesion is defined complete or incomplete, depending on whether or not partial conservation of sensory and/or motor functions is found below the level of the lesion in the first 24 hours following the trauma. Patients with spinal injuries show alterations of phosphocalcic metabolism, with osteoporosis, neurogenic para-osteo-arthropathy and renal calculi. Even though post-lesion osteoporosis is traditionally considered secondary to reduced loading, it has characteristics different from those of primary osteoporosis and osteoporosis caused by endocrine disorders or by simple disuse. Indeed, there is usually no significant demineralisation of the bone segments above the level of the neurological lesion and the site and entity of the bone resorption are influenced by factors such as age, sex, muscle spasticity, but above all by lesion site, lesion severity, and post-lesion period. Osteocytes (the mechanosensors in bone tissue), via extracellular and intracellular signal transmitters, transmit mechanical load signals to the osteoblasts, stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption by the osteoclasts. A spinal injury results in prolonged limitation of both the loading and the movement of the lower limbs; this leads to marked muscle atrophy, inhibition of the osteoblasts and activation of the osteoclasts, and an inevitable loss of bone tissue. The increase in bone resorption following a spinal injury is reflected in increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline and type I collagen C-telopeptide. Significantly increased expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in cultures of osteoblast-like cells from spinal injured rats has also been observed, while OPG expression is significantly reduced and osteoclastogenesis increased. Spinal lesions are also associated with supplementary production, in the bone marrow, of cytokines like IL-6, potential mediators of bone mass loss. Recent studies suggest that bone remodelling is also influenced by nervous signals: after denervation, due to a spinal lesion, there is a marked reduction in innervation density and in neuropeptides, such as VIP, PACAP, NPY, SP, CGRP, noradrenaline, glutamate and serotonin, mainly in bone segments below the level of the lesion; this upsets the balance between bone resorption and formation. In addition to its direct role in bone metabolism, denervation can induce alterations of vascular regulation: indeed, a complete spinal injury causes alterations of the sympathetic innervation with possible opening of intraosseous venous shunts that, leading to venous and capillary stasis with increase in local pressure, could favour the formation of osteoclasts, accelerating the process of bone resorption; osteopenia is indeed predominant in the meta-epiphyseal areas of long bones, which are highly vascularised. In the first months following the injury, the demineralisation generally affects mainly the distal femur and proximal tibia, segments rich in trabecular bone, while the femoral and tibial diaphyses, which are rich in cortical bone, are relatively spared. Paradoxically, in the lumbar spine, in which the trabecular component is prevalent, DXA scans do not reveal significant reductions in bone mineral density, independently of the lesion level or duration. This may be because the spinal column exerts an ongoing bodyweight-supporting action during wheelchair use. Nevertheless, on DXA studies, BMD at lumbar level can sometimes erroneously appear increased on account of the presence of osteophytes due to neuropathic spondylopathy. To overcome the limits of this approach, the most recent studies have used densitometric methods such as QCT (quantitative computerised tomography) t
Caracchini, G.; Cavalli, L.; Innocenti, P.; Brandi, M.L.
Motor but not sensory function has been described after spinal cord surgery in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. In the featured case, motor-related nerve roots as well as sensory spinal nerves distal to the dorsal root ganglion were reconnected to neurons in the ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord by implanting nerve grafts. Peripheral and sensory functions were assessed 10 years after an accident and subsequent spinal cord surgery. The biceps stretch reflex could be elicited, and electrophysiological testing demonstrated a Hoffman reflex, or Hreflex, in the biceps muscle when the musculocutaneous nerve was stimulated. Functional MR imaging demonstrated sensory motor cortex activities on active as well as passive elbow flexion. Quantitative sensory testing and contact heat evoked potential stimulation did not detect any cutaneous sensory function, however. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first time that spinal cord surgery could restore not only motor function but also proprioception completing a spinal reflex arch. PMID:21838504
Carlstedt, Thomas; Misra, V Peter; Papadaki, Anastasia; McRobbie, Donald; Anand, Praveen
In reports from the UK and New Zealand, it is noted that the incidence of rugby injuries to the cervical spinal cord has dropped and that the percentage of players injured in the tackle has similarly decreased. In contrast, this does not appear to be the pattern in South Africa and an analysis has therefore been made of 40 rugby players sustaining injuries to the spinal cord during the period 1985 to 1989. The radiological appearances on admission have been correlated with the circumstances of injury, associated orthopaedic injuries and neurological deficits. The tackle was responsible for the majority of injuries, causing more than the scrum. Tackles were also responsible for more cases of complete, permanent quadriplegia than the scrum. The commonest cause of injury in players being tackled was the high tackle around the neck, while the commonest cause of injury in players making the tackle was the dive tackle. This survey has shown that the tackle is now the major cause of spinal cord injury in South African rugby, in contrast to earlier analyses in which the scrum was identified as the most common cause. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Scher, A T
The forty-five papers, illustrations, references and discussion are reproduced. Presentations were made on spinal injuries centers in Victoria and Perth, Australia and in California. EEG patterns in sleep and wakefulness, properties of deafferented spinal...
During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate spinal cord injury is related to acute ischemia. And the delayed spinal cord injury involves both ischemic cellular death and reperfusion injury. Inflammation is a subsequent event of spinal cord ischemia and possibly a major contributor to spinal cord IRI. However, the development of inflammatory mediators is incompletely demonstrated. And treatments available for inflammation in spinal cord IRI are insufficient. Improved understanding about spinal cord IRI and the development of inflammatory cells and cytokines in this process will provide novel therapeutic strategies for spinal cord IRI. Inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-? and IL-1) may play an important role in spinal cord IRI. For treatment of several intractable autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), where inflammatory cytokines are involved in disease progression, anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist is now available. Hence, there is great potential of anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist for therapeutic use of spinal cord IRI. We here review the mediators and several possibilities of treatment in spinal cord IRI.
Zhu, Ping; Li, Jia-xin; Fujino, Masayuki; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS). It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI)) gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI. PMID:24701583
Song, Fahuan; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong
The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is capable of considerable plasticity, both in health and disease. After spinal neurotrauma, the degrees and extent of neuroplasticity and recovery depend on multiple factors, including the level and extent of injury, postinjury medical and surgical care, and rehabilitative interventions. Rehabilitation strategies focus less on repairing lost connections and more on influencing CNS plasticity for regaining function. Current evidence indicates that strategies for rehabilitation, including passive exercise, active exercise with some voluntary control, and use of neuroprostheses, can enhance sensorimotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by promoting adaptive structural and functional plasticity while mitigating maladaptive changes at multiple levels of the neuraxis. In this review, we will discuss CNS plasticity that occurs both spontaneously after SCI and in response to rehabilitative therapies.
Lynskey, James V.; Belanger, Adam; Jung, Ranu
A case of a pregnant woman with a subluxation of C-6 on C-7 with acute quadriplegia and sensory loss to the T-10 dermatome is described. Hemodynamic and fetal monitoring during the 3-week period of neurogenic shock resulted in good maternal and fetal outcomes. Pulmonary complications and anesthetic issues are important aspects of the care of these critically ill patients. Major trauma is a common cause of death and disability in young adults and may contribute to as much as 15 percent of nonobstetric maternal deaths. Spinal cord injuries involve young women in 15 percent of cases. The literature is replete with information on the obstetric management of patients with preexisting spinal cord injury (1-4) but there is little on the management and special problems of the pregnant patient with acute spinal cord trauma. We report here the management of a case of acute cord transection accompanied by spinal shock and discuss the specific maternal as well as fetal considerations in this syndrome. PMID:7566833
Gilson, G J; Miller, A C; Clevenger, F W; Curet, L B
Study design:Systematic review.Objectives:To review systematically fertility of persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and their partners.Methods:Reports from six databases (1966–2003), selected annual proceedings (1997–2002) and manufacturer's information were screened against eligibility criteria. Searches covered female obstetrical issues, and the efficacy of vibration and electroejaculation for males, as well as advanced fertility (AF) treatments for partners of SCI males. Data were
D DeForge; J Blackmer; C Garritty; F Yazdi; V Cronin; N Barrowman; M Fang; V Mamaladze; L Zhang; M Sampson; D Moher
Background: Acute abdominal emergencies are particularly dangerous in patients with impaired sensation.Methods: Thirty patients with spinal cord injury who later developed appendicitis were identified in Department of Veterans Affairs computer files over a 5-year period; 26 were evaluable.Results: The mean age was 55 years (range 27 to 79); all were males. Abdominal distention or discomfort was present in 16 of
Gregory R Strauther; Walter E Longo; Katherine S Virgo; Frank E Johnson
Study design:Literature review.Objectives:Critical review of the literature published on the physiological alterations caused by spinal cord injury (SCI) and their effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of commonly employed drugs. The review introduces the most recent treatment protocols of a variety of drugs, enabling the modern clinician to apply efficacious and cost-effective solutions to the pharmacological treatment of SCI patients.Methods:Studies published
H Mestre; T Alkon; S Salazar; A Ibarra
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Interest in systemic and local hypothermia extends back over many decades, and both have been investigated as potential neuroprotective interventions in a number of clinical settings, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, and both intracranial and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. The recent use of systemic hypothermia in an injured National Football League football player has focused a
Brian K. Kwon; Cody Mann; Hong Moon Sohn; Alan S. Hilibrand; Frank M. Phillips; Jeffrey C. Wang; Michael G. Fehlings; Heather Pavilion
Objective: To develop and validate a latent model of health outcomes among persons with spinal cord injury. Methods: Survey data were collected at a large specialty hospital in the southeastern USA from 1,388 adult participants with traumatic spinal cord injury of at least 1 year's duration. Multiple indicators of health outcomes were used, including general health ratings, days adversely affected by poor health and poor mental health, treatments and hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, symptoms of illness or infection (eg, sweats, chills, fever), and multiple individual conditions (eg, pressure ulcers, subsequent injuries, fractures, contractures). Results: We performed exploratory factor analysis on half of the sample and confirmatory factor analysis on the other. A 6-factor solution was the best overall solution, because there was an excellent fit with the exploratory factor analysis (root mean square error of approximation ?=? 0.042) and acceptable fit with the confirmatory factor analysis (root mean square error of approximation ?=? 0.065). Four of the factors were types of secondary conditions, including symptoms of illness or infection, orthopedic conditions, pressure ulcers, and subsequent injuries. The 2 remaining factors reflected global health and treatment. Gender, race-ethnicity, age, injury severity, and years of education were all significantly related to at least 1 factor dimension, indicating variations in health outcomes related to these characteristics. Conclusion: Identification of the 6 factors represents an improvement over the utilization of multiple individual indicators, because composite scores generated from multiple individual indicators provide more informative and stable outcome scores than utilization of single indicators.
Krause, James S; Reed, Karla S; McArdle, John J
Traumatic injury to the spinal cord often causes tissue degeneration and functional loss that may lead to permanent paralysis. There are about 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) annually in the U.S., and depending on the severity of injury, the estimated lifetime costs directly attributable to SCI can be more than $3 million per patient. Due to the
To provide a comprehensive insight into sexuality after spinal cord injury, 120 patients received a questionnaire to assess their sexual activities, abilities, desires, satisfaction and sexual adjustment after injury. In the 63 responding patients, spinal cord injury had a major impact on sexual function. Relationship to partner, social life, bladder management and physical well-being had a significant impact on quality
A Reitz; V Tobe; P A Knapp; B Schurch
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury is a serious disorder in which early prediction of ambulation is important to counsel patients and to plan rehabilitation. We developed a reliable, validated prediction rule to assess a patient's chances of walking independently after such injury. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal cohort study of adult patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, with early (within
Joost J van Middendorp; Allard JF Hosman; A Rogier T Donders; Martin H Pouw; John F Ditunno; Armin Curt; Alexander CH Geurts; Hendrik Van de Meent
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant effect of ?-Glucan in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Injury was produced using weight-drop technique in rats. ?-Glucan was given by intraperitoneal injection following trauma. The rats were sacrificed at the sixth day of injury. Oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring the spinal cord tissue content of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase
Hakan Kayali; M. Fatih Ozdag; Serdar Kahraman; Ahmet Aydin; Engin Gonul; Ahmet Sayal; Zeki Odabasi; Erdener Timurkaynak
Lymphocytes respond to myelin proteins after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may contribute to post-traumatic secondary degen- eration. However, there is increasing evidence that autoreactive T-lymphocytes may also convey neuroprotection and promote functional recovery after CNS injury. To clarify the role of myelin autoreactive lymphocytes after SCI, we performed contusion injuries in the thoracic spinal cord of transgenic (Tg) mice
T. Bucky Jones; D. Michele Basso; Ajeet Sodhi; Jonathan Z. Pan; Ronald P. Hart; Robert C. MacCallum; Sunhee Lee; Caroline C. Whitacre; Phillip G. Popovich
Cortical reorganization plays a significant role in recovery of function after injury of the central nervous system. The neural mechanisms that underlie this reorganization may be the same as those normally responsible for skilled behaviors that accompany extended sensory experience and, if better understood, could provide a basis for further promoting recovery of function after injury. The work presented here extends studies of spontaneous cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury to the role of rehabilitative strategies on cortical reorganization. We use a complete spinal transection model to focus on cortical reorganization in response to serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacotherapy without any confounding effects from spared fibers left after partial lesions. 5-HT pharmacotherapy has previously been shown to improve behavioral outcome after SCI but the effect on cortical organization is unknown. After a complete spinal transection in the adult rat, 5-HT pharmacotherapy produced more reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex than would be expected by transection alone. This reorganization was dose dependent, extended into intact (forelimb) motor cortex, and, at least in the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex, followed a somatotopic arrangement. Animals with the greatest behavioral outcome showed the greatest extent of cortical reorganization suggesting that the reorganization is likely to be in response to both direct effects of 5-HT on cortical circuits and indirect effects in response to the behavioral improvement below the level of the lesion. PMID:23262119
Ganzer, Patrick D; Moxon, Karen A; Knudsen, Eric B; Shumsky, Jed S
The development and testing of an observational gait assessment instrument, the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI) is described. To assess validity and reliability, 22 subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury were scored by four raters. Raters scored each subject three times, once live (LS) and twice from videotaped records (VS1, VS2). A moderate-good negative correlation (r = -0.742 and -0.700, for VS1 and VS2, respectively) was found between the gait score and time required to walk a demarcated path. Inter-rater reliability was moderate-good for the live score and the videotaped records (ICC = 0.703, 0.800, and 0.840, respectively). Intra-rater reliability was good (ICC = 0.903, 0.960, 0.942, and 0.850 for Raters 1-4, respectively). To assess sensitivity, another group of 19 subjects with SCI were assessed prior to and following participation in an intensive walking program. A moderate correlation was found between change in gait score and change in lower extremity strength (Pearson r = 0.58). These results indicate that the SCI-FAI is a reliable, valid and sensitive measure of walking ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. In addition, the results suggest that gait analysis using this instrument is equally reliable whether the observation is performed live or from videotaped records. PMID:11506216
Field-Fote, E C; Fluet, G G; Schafer, S D; Schneider, E M; Smith, R; Downey, P A; Ruhl, C D
The history of spinal cord injuries starts with the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus known as the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. The papyrus written about 2500 B.C.by the physician and architect of the Sakkara pyramids Imhotep, describes "crushed vertebra in his neck" as well as symptoms of neurological deterioration. An ailment not to be treated was the massage to the patients at that time. This fatalistic attitude remained until the end of World War II when the first rehabilitation centre focused on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients was opened. Our knowledge of the pathophysiological processes, both the primary as well as the secondary, has increased tremendously. However, all this knowledge has only led to improved medical care but not to any therapeutic method to restore, even partially, the neurological function. Neuroprotection is defined as measures to counteract secondary injury mechanisms and/or limit the extent of damage caused by self-destructive cellular and tissue processes. The co-existence of several distinctly different injury mechanisms after trauma has provided opportunities to explore a large number of potentially neuroprotective agents in animal experiments such as methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The results of this research have been very discouraging and pharmacological neuroprotection for patients with spinal cord injury has fallen short of the expectations created by the extensive research and promising observations in animal experiments. The focus of research has now, instead, been transformed to the field of neural regeneration. This field includes the discovery of regenerating obstacles in the nerve cell and/or environmental factors but also various regeneration strategies such as bridging the gap at the site of injury as well as transplantation of foetal tissue and stem cells. The purpose of this review is to highlight selected experimental and clinical studies that form the basis for undertaking future challenges in the research field of spinal cord injury. We will focus our discussion on methods either preventing the consequences of secondary injury in the acute period (neuroprotection) and/or various techniques of neural regeneration in the sub-acute and chronic phase and finally expose some thoughts about future avenues within this scientific field. PMID:18484069
Anderberg, Leif; Aldskogius, Håkan; Holtz, Anders
Study design:Prospective longitudinal study.Objectives:To investigate the responsiveness of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI II), 6-Min Walk (6MWT) and 10-Meter Walk Tests (10MWT) for the assessment of walking capacity in incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) and to validate these tests with the lower extremity motor score (LEMS).Setting:European Multicenter Study of Human Spinal Cord Injury.Methods:The walking tests of
H J A van Hedel; M Wirz; A Curt; HJA van Hedel
Study design: A retrospective study of spinal cord injury (SCI) treated with and without hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy.Objectives: To report on the use of HBO in spinal cord injury.Setting: Neurosurgical Unit, Tokyo, Japan.Methods: Thirty-four cases of hyperextension spinal cord injury without bone damage and previous history of surgical intervention were divided into two groups, with (HBO) or without (non-HBO) therapy.
S Asamoto; H Sugiyama; H Doi; M Iida; T Nagao; K Matsumoto
Objectives Estimate changes in prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) 1 to 5 years post spinal cord injury (SCI); Identify demographic, injury, and discharge factors associated with MDD at 1 and 5 years post-injury; Identify modifiers of changes in MDD. Design Retrospective. Setting: Model Spinal Cord Injury System. Participants: 2,256 adult participants enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center between 1999 and 2004. Main Outcome Measure: MDD as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results Prevalence of MDD was 11.9% at 1 year and 9.7% at 5 years post SCI. Odds of MDD decreased significantly 1 to 5 years post-injury (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.56). At 1 year post-injury, the odds of MDD was greater for persons 35–55 years old at injury, unemployed, having an indwelling catheter or voiding bladder management at discharge, and higher scores on ASIA motor index. At 5 years post-injury, the odds of MDD were greater for females, persons 35–55 years old at injury, those with a high school education or less, those having an indwelling catheter, voiding, and no bladder management at discharge, and higher scores on ASIA motor index. Sex was the only significant modifier. Conclusions MDD occurs commonly 1 to 5 years post SCI. Sociodemographic, injury, and discharge factors are associated with the development and changes in depression. Future research should expand upon current findings in order to identify, prevent, and reduce the prevalence of MDD after SCI.
Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Ketchum, Jessica M.; Starkweather, Angela; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Wilk, Amber R.
Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses exerted upon the spinal cord and brainstem. Furthermore, there is no current means to correlate these stress patterns with known spinal cord injuries and other clinical metrics such as neurological impairment. We have therefore developed the spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA) system, which uses imaging and finite element analysis to predict stretch injury. This system was tested on a small cohort of neurosurgery patients. Initial results show that the calculated stress values decreased following surgery, and that this decrease was accompanied by a significant decrease in neurological symptoms. Regression analysis identified modest correlations between stress values and clinical metrics. The strongest correlations were seen with the Brainstem Disability Index (BDI) and the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), whereas the weakest correlations were seen with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale. SCOSIA therefore shows encouraging initial results and may have wide applicability to trauma and degenerative disease involving the spinal cord and brainstem.
Wong, Kenneth H.; Choi, Jae; Wilson, William; Berry, Joel; Henderson, Fraser C., Sr.
In this study, we investigated the role of the spinal GABAergic system in central neuropathic painlike outcomes following spinal cord injury (SCI) produced by a spinal hemitransection at T13 of the rat. After SCI, mechanical allodynia develops bilaterally in both hind paws of the rat, lasting longer than 40 days, as evidenced by an increase in paw withdrawal frequency in response to a weak von Frey filament. In naive rats, intrathecal (i.t.) administration in the lumbar spinal cord of GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists, bicuculline (1-5 microg) and phaclofen (0.1-5 microg), respectively, causes a dose-dependent increase in the magnitude of mechanical allodynia. The SCI-induced mechanical allodynia in both hind-paws is attenuated by i.t. administration in the lumbar spinal cord of GABAA or GABAB receptor agonists, muscimol (1 microg) or baclofen (0.5 microg), respectively. In electrophysiological experiments, rats with SCI show a bilateral increase in hyperexcitability in response to natural stimuli in wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn. The topical application of muscimol (1 microg) or baclofen (0.5 microg) onto the lumbar cord surface reduce the SCIinduced increased responsiveness of WDR neurons. Inhibitory effects of muscimol and baclofen on both the behavioral mechanical allodynia and the hyperexcitability in WDR neuron with SCI compared to controls, were antagonized by pre-treatment of bicuculline (10 microg) and phaclofen (5 microg), respectively. This study provides behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for the important role of the loss of spinal inhibitory tone, mediated by activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors, in the development of central neuropathic pain following SCI. PMID:16866624
Gwak, Young Seob; Tan, Huai Yu; Nam, Taick Sang; Paik, Kwang Se; Hulsebosch, Claire E; Leem, Joong Woo
Although spine injuries are not always detectable on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), spinal hyperostosis, an important risk factor for spine injury, is relatively easily detectable on PMCT. We therefore examined the utility of the detection of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT as an indicator of spine injury. Full-body PMCT images of 88 autopsy cases with a bruise on the face or forehead but no identifiable skull fracture were reviewed prior to autopsy for the identification and classification of spinal hyperostosis. Spine injuries were observed in 56.0% of cases with spinal hyperostosis and 1.6% of cases without spinal hyperostosis. Among the cases with spinal hyperostosis, spine injuries were observed in 66.7% of cases at stage 2 or 3 and in 88.9% of cases at stage 3. Spine injuries were diagnosed on PMCT in 33.3% of cases prior to autopsy. A significant association was found between spinal hyperostosis and presence of spine injury that cannot be detected on PMCT, indicating that the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in detecting spine injuries. This finding suggests that investigation of the presence of spine injury based on the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in determining the correct cause of death by autopsy. PMID:24745992
Oshima, Toru; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Ohtani, Maki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Koichi; Otani, Takahiro; Koga, Makoto; Sugawara, Makoto; Mimasaka, Sohtaro
“Jason Hendrix,” a 21-year-old student majoring in economics, is injured in a serious motorcycle accident while on spring break in Florida. Students read the short case scenario, which provides a brief clinical history of the patient and a description of his injury, then answer a set of directed questions designed to probe the students’ knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology underlying the patient’s condition. The case study has been used in both a sophomore-level course in human anatomy and physiology and a senior-level course in general physiology.
Dean, David F.
A cross-sectional study of 2,305 persons enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center data set was conducted to identify risk factors for unplanned rehospitalizations during the most recent follow-up year. All injuries occurred between 1986 and 1992. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of each risk factor on the likelihood of rehospitalization. Overall, 26% of persons were hospitalized during the most recent follow-up year. Risk of rehospitalization declined 13% for each successive year postinjury (p < .05). Factors associated with increased likelihood of rehospitalization were lack of college education, indwelling urethral catheter, motor complete injuries, dependence in self-care, and dependence in ambulation. Because the overall model was only 60% sensitive and 63% specific, additional risk factors must be identified before the predictive model would be clinically useful. PMID:7979926
Ivie, C S; DeVivo, M J
We have previously investigated electromyographic (EMG) and transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) abnormalities after mechanical spinal cord injury. We now report thermally generated porcine spinal cord injury, characterized by spinal cord generated hindlimb EMG injury activity and spinal cord motor conduction block (MEP loss). Electrocautery (EC) was delivered to thoracic level dural root sleeves within 6-8 mm of the spinal cord (n = 6). Temperature recordings were made near the spinal cord. EMG and MEP were recorded by multiple gluteobiceps intramuscular electrodes before, during, and after EC. Duration of EC was titrated to an end-point of spinal motor conduction block (MEP loss). In 5/6 roots, ipsilateral EMG injury activity was induced by EC. In 4/5 roots, EMG injury activity was identified before MEP loss. In all roots, a minimum of 20 s EC and a temperature maximum of at least 57 °C at the dural root sleeve were required to induce MEP loss. Unexpectedly, conduction block was preceded by an enhanced MEP in 4/6 trials. EMG injury activity, preceding MEP loss, can be seen during near spinal cord EC. Depolarization and facilitation of lumbar motor neurons by thermally excited descending spinal tracts likely explains both hindlimb EMG and an enhanced MEP signal (seen before conduction block) respectively. A thermal mechanism may play a role in some unexplained MEP losses during intraoperative monitoring. EMG recordings might help to detect abnormal discharges and forewarn the monitorist during both mechanical and thermal injury to the spinal cord. PMID:23179021
Skinner, Stanley A; Hsu, Brian; Transfeldt, Ensor E; Mehbod, Amir A; Rippe, David M; Wu, Chunhui; Erkan, Serkan
LIN28, an RNA-binding protein, is known to be involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, such as embryonic stem cell proliferation, cell fate succession, developmental timing, and oncogenesis. However, its expression and function in central nervous system still unclear. In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of LIN28 expression in spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that LIN28 was present in normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 3 day, and then nearly declined to the basal level at 14 days after SCI. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that LIN28 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes and a handful of microglia. Interestingly, LIN28 expression was increased predominantly in astrocytes but not in neurons. Moreover, the colocalization of LIN28 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected after injury. Western blot showed that LIN28 participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced astrocytes inflammatory responses by NF-?B signaling pathway. These results suggested that LIN28 may be involved in the pathologic process of SCI, and further research is needed to have a good understanding of its function and mechanism. PMID:24700281
Yue, Ying; Zhang, Dongmei; Jiang, Shengyang; Li, Aihong; Guo, Aisong; Wu, Xinming; Xia, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Hongbing; Tao, Tao; Gu, Xingxing
A 49-year-old man received prolotherapy in the upper cervical region at a local medical clinic. Immediately after the procedure, he felt a sensation resembling an electric shock in his right upper and lower extremities, and continuously complained of numbness and discomfort in the right hemibody. He visited our clinic a week later. Upon physical examination, there were no significant abnormal findings. The visual analog scale was 60 points. T2-weight magnetic resonance images of the cervical spine showed a 0.7 cm sized bright oval spot on the right side of the spinal cord at the level of C4-C5 disc, suggesting spinal cord injury. There were no definite electrodiagnostic abnormalities. Digital infrared thermal images showed moderately decreased surface temperature on lateral aspect of the right forearm and dorsum of the right hand compared with the other side. Considering that very rare complications like spinal cord injury may develop after prolotherapy, we suggest that special interventions such as prolotherapy be performed by professional experts.
Yun, Hyun-Sik; Sun, Hyung-Seok; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Han, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Sung
A 49-year-old man received prolotherapy in the upper cervical region at a local medical clinic. Immediately after the procedure, he felt a sensation resembling an electric shock in his right upper and lower extremities, and continuously complained of numbness and discomfort in the right hemibody. He visited our clinic a week later. Upon physical examination, there were no significant abnormal findings. The visual analog scale was 60 points. T2-weight magnetic resonance images of the cervical spine showed a 0.7 cm sized bright oval spot on the right side of the spinal cord at the level of C4-C5 disc, suggesting spinal cord injury. There were no definite electrodiagnostic abnormalities. Digital infrared thermal images showed moderately decreased surface temperature on lateral aspect of the right forearm and dorsum of the right hand compared with the other side. Considering that very rare complications like spinal cord injury may develop after prolotherapy, we suggest that special interventions such as prolotherapy be performed by professional experts. PMID:22506175
Yun, Hyun-Sik; Sun, Hyung-Seok; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Han, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Sung; Lee, Sam-Gyu
CD36 is a pleiotropic receptor involved in several pathophysiological conditions, including cerebral ischemia, neurovascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis, and recent reports implicate its involvement in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR). We hypothesized that CD36 signaling contributes to the inflammation and microvascular dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Following contusive injury, CD36(-/-) mice demonstrated improved hindlimb functional recovery and greater white matter sparing than CD36(+/+) mice. CD36(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced macrophage, but not neutrophil, infiltration into the injury epicenter. Fewer infiltrating macrophages were either apoptotic or positive for the ERSR marker, phospho-ATF4. CD36(-/-) mice also exhibited significant improvements in injury heterodomain vascularity and function. These microvessels accumulated less of the oxidized lipid product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4HNE) and exhibited a reduced ERSR, as detected by vascular phospho-ATF4, CHOP and CHAC-1 expression. In cultured primary endothelial cells, deletion of CD36 diminished 4HNE-induced phospho-ATF4 and CHOP expression. A reduction in phospho-eIF2? and subsequent increase in KDEL-positive, ER-localized proteins suggest that 4HNE-CD36 signaling facilitates the detection of misfolded proteins upstream of eIF2? phosphorylation, ultimately leading to CHOP-induced apoptosis. We conclude that CD36 deletion modestly, but significantly, improves functional recovery from spinal cord injury by enhancing vascular function and reducing macrophage infiltration. These phenotypes may, in part, stem from reduced ER stress-induced cell death within endothelial and macrophage cells following injury. PMID:24690303
Myers, Scott A; Andres, Kariena R; Hagg, Theo; Whittemore, Scott R
Abstract Chronic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly prevalent clinical condition that is difficult to treat. Using both von Frey filaments and radiant infrared heat to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively, we have demonstrated that a one-time injection of fibronectin (50??g/mL) into the spinal dorsal column (1??L/min each injection for a total of 5??L) immediately after SCI inhibits the development of mechanical allodynia (but not thermal hyperalgesia) over an 8-month observation period following spinal cord dorsal column crush (DCC). DCC will only induce mechanical Allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia or overt motor deficits. By applying various fibronectin fragments as well as competitive inhibitors, these effects were shown to be dependent on the connecting segment-1 (CS-1) motif of fibronectin. Furthermore, we found that acute fibronectin treatment diminished inflammation and blood–spinal cord barrier permeability, which in turn leads to enhanced fiber sparing and sprouting. In particular, the reduction of serotonin (5-HT) in the superficial dorsal horn, an important descending brainstem system in the modulation of pain, was blocked with fibronectin treatment. We conclude that treatment of SCI with fibronectin preserves sensory regulation and prevents the development of chronic allodynia, providing a potential therapeutic intervention to treat chronic pain following SCI.
Lee, Yu-Shang; Lin, Vernon W.; Silver, Jerry
Objective: To delineate the natural history of ambulation of children and youth with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Design: Retrospective single-center. Participants/Methods: One hundred sixty-nine subjects who sustained SCI at 18 years of age or younger and who were followed up for at least 4 years. Results: Ambulation was significantly associated with age at injury and neurological impairment but not gender. Younger age at injury was associated with greater likelihood of ambulation, higher level of ambulation, and greater duration of ambulation. Lesser severity of neurological impairment was associated with greater likelihood of ambulation. Excluding ASIA D lesions, household ambulation was noted in 5% of subjects with tetraplegic, 26% with high thoracic, 30% with low thoracic, 44% with upper lumbar, and 33% with lower lumbar lesions. Of the 7 community-level ambulators with non-ASIA D lesions, none had cervical or high thoracic injuries, 3 had low thoracic, 1 had upper lumbar, and 3 had lower lumbar lesions. Using multiple regression analysis, predictive factors for ambulation were younger age at injury, total ASIA motor score, and ASIA impairment scale score. Less cumbersome orthotics were associated with higher levels of ambulation. Conclusion: Ambulation status is a function of neurological impairment, age at injury, and type of orthotic.
Vogel, Lawrence C; Mendoza, Melissa M; Schottler, Jennifer C; Chlan, Kathleen M; Anderson, Caroline J
This multi-centered study (7 performance sites) assesses the responsiveness of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale (NRS) for people with spinal cord injury. The NRS evaluates true recovery of pre-injury movement, rather than compensatory progress, during inp...
This multi-centered study (6 performance sites) assesses the responsiveness of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale (NRS) for people with spinal cord injury. The NRS evaluates true recovery of pre-injury movement, rather than compensatory progress, during inp...
A. L. Behrman C. Velozo D. M. Basso
This multi-centered study (6 performance sites) assesses the responsiveness of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale (NRS) for people with spinal cord injury. The NRS evaluates true recovery of pre-injury movement, rather than compensatory progress, during inp...
A. L. Behrman C. Velozo M. Basso
Antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in our previous studies to play an important role in protection against spinal cord injury (SCI) induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect the spinal cord against SCI-induced inflammatory damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. Three groups were analyzed: a sham group, a SCI group, and a SCI+rhEPO group (n=16 per group). We measured Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) binding activities by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we also measured hindlimb locomotion function by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The results showed that the induction of the Nrf2 activity by tBHQ markedly decreased NF-?B activation and inflammatory cytokines production in the injured spinal cord. Administration of tBHQ also significantly attenuated SCI induced hindlimb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. To conclude, pre-treatment with tBHQ could attenuate the spinal cord inflammatory response after SCI. PMID:24795053
Jin, Wei; Ni, Hongbin; Hou, Xiaoshan; Ming, Xing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhu, Tiansheng; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Handong; Liang, Weibang
Spinal cord injury triggers a series of complex biochemical alterations of nervous tissue. Up to now, such cellular events could not be studied without conventional tissue staining. The development of optical, label-free imaging techniques could provide powerful monitoring tools with the potential to be applied in vivo. In this work, we assess the ability of vibrational spectroscopy to generate contrast at molecular level between normal and altered regions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Using tissue sections, we demonstrate that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy are able to identify the lesion, the surrounding scar, and unharmed normal tissue, delivering insight into the biochemical events induced by the injury and allowing mapping of tissue degeneration. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic imaging provides the basis for fast multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, endogenous two-photon fluorescence, and second harmonic generation). The latter proves to be a fast tool for imaging of the lesion on unstained tissue samples, based on the alteration in lipid content, extracellular matrix composition, and microglia/macrophages distribution pattern. The results establish these technologies in the field of regeneration in central nervous system, with the long-term goal to extend them to intravital use, where fast and nonharmful imaging is required. PMID:22970705
Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Winterhalder, Martin J; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H; Geiger, Kathrin D; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Zumbusch, Andreas; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias
Schwann cells (SCs), when implanted in the injured spinal cord, support regeneration of axons, myelinate or ensheathe regenerated axons in a normal way, reduce cyst formation in the injured tissue, reduce secondary damage of tissue around the initial injury site, and modestly improve limb movements. If SC transplantation is combined with additional treatments such as methylprednisolone, neurotrophins, GDNF, olfactory ensheathing cells, chondroitinase, or elevation of cAMP levels, more axons (including those from neurons in the brainstem) regenerate into and out of the SC implant and further improve locomotion. Recent work to improve SC migration from the implant into the spinal cord by polysialylating NCAM on the SC surface has led to the novel finding that corticospinal axon growth is promoted by SCs. Recent studies are cited showing that when astrocytes extend slender processes into an implant instead of forming a sharp boundary they are permissive rather than inhibitory to axonal regrowth. The interfaces that comprise the "on-ramps" and the "off-ramps" are key to the success of a SC implant to span the injury site and to foster axon regeneration across the injury. PMID:23186720
Wiliams, Ryan R; Bunge, Mary Bartlett
Objective: The incidence of spinal cord injury is on the increase. It has been observed since World War II that proper initial management of the paralyzed bladder is a key factor in the prevention of complications of the urinary tract and renal function.Methods: All traumatic spinal cord–injured patients admitted to the Thuringian Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Center, Sülzhayn, Germany, between January
Heiko Wunderlich; Fadel Derry; Sigurd Schröder; Jörg Schubert
Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653
Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V
After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement.
Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert
Spinal cord injury causes rapid, severe osteoporosis with increased fracture risk. Mechanical unloading after paralysis results in increased osteocyte expression of sclerostin, suppressed bone formation, and indirect stimulation of bone resorption. At this time there are no clinical guidelines to prevent bone loss after SCI and fractures are common. More research is required to define the pathophysiology and epidemiology of SCI-induced osteoporosis. This review summarizes emerging therapeutics including anti-sclerostin antibodies, mechanical loading of the lower extremity with electrical stimulation, and mechanical stimulation via vibration therapy.
Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Lazzari, Antonio A.; Garshick, Eric; Morse, Leslie R.
Background Due to sympathetic de-centralization, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia, often\\u000a present with hypotension, worsened with upright posture. Several investigations in the non-SCI population have noted a relationship\\u000a between chronic hypotension and deficits in memory, attention and processing speed and delayed reaction times.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To determine cognitive function in persons with SCI who were normotensive or hypotensive
Adejoke B. Jegede; Dwindally Rosado-Rivera; William A. Bauman; Christopher P. Cardozo; Mary Sano; Jeremy M. Moyer; Monifa Brooks; Jill Maria Wecht
This is a case study for undergraduate students in anatomy, physiology, and/or anatomy and physiology. In particular this case study explores anatomy and physiology associated with spinal cord injury (plegia, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, dermatome, stretch reflex). Users of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, case study, teaching notes and answer key.
David Dean (Spring Hill College Biology)
Background Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of\\u000a the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS)\\u000a functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Forty rats
Berker Cemil; Kivanc Topuz; Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Gokhan Kurt; Kagan Tun; Murat Kutlay; Osman Ipcioglu; Zafer Kucukodaci
Abstract Amiloride is a drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, which has shown neuroprotective effects in different neuropathological conditions, including brain injury or brain ischemia, but has not been tested in spinal cord injury (SCI). We tested amiloride's therapeutic potential in a clinically relevant rat model of contusion SCI inflicted at the thoracic segment T10. Rats receiving daily administration of amiloride from 24?h to 35 days after SCI exhibited a significant improvement in hindlimb locomotor ability at 21, 28, and 35 days after injury, when compared to vehicle-treated SCI rats. Rats receiving amiloride treatment also exhibited a significant increase in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) levels 35 days after SCI at the site of injury (T10) when compared to vehicle-treated controls, which indicated a partial reverse in the decrease of MOG observed with injury. Our data indicate that higher levels of MOG correlate with improved locomotor recovery after SCI, and that this may explain the beneficial effects of amiloride after SCI. Given that amiloride treatment after SCI caused a significant preservation of myelin levels, and improved locomotor recovery, it should be considered as a possible therapeutic intervention after SCI.
Durham-Lee, Julieann C.; Mokkapati, Venkata Usha L.; Johnson, Kathia M.
Abstract Secondary injury, the complex cascade of cellular events following spinal cord injury (SCI), is a major source of post-insult neuron death. Experimental work has focused on the details of individual factors or mechanisms that contribute to secondary injury, but little is known about the interactions among factors leading to the overall pathology dynamics that underlie its propagation. Prior hypotheses suggest that the pathology is dominated by interactions, with therapeutic success lying in combinations of neuroprotective treatments. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive, system-level characterization of the entire secondary injury process using a novel relational model methodology that aggregates the findings of ~250 experimental studies. Our quantitative examination of the overall pathology dynamics suggests that, while the pathology is initially dominated by “fire-like,” rate-dependent interactions, it quickly switches to a “flood-like,” accumulation-dependent process with contributing factors being largely independent. Our evaluation of ~20,000 potential single and combinatorial treatments indicates this flood-like pathology results in few highly influential factors at clinically realistic treatment time frames, with multi-factor treatments being merely additive rather than synergistic in reducing neuron death. Our findings give new fundamental insight into the understanding of the secondary injury pathology as a whole, provide direction for alternative therapeutic strategies, and suggest that ultimate success in treating SCI lies in the pursuit of pathology dynamics in addition to individually involved factors.
Mitchell, Cassie S.
The latest revision of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) was available in booklet format in June 2011, and is published in this issue of the Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. The ISNCSCI were initially developed in 1982 to provide guidelines for the consistent classification of the neurological level and extent of the injury to achieve reliable data for clinical care and research studies. This revision was generated from the Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. This article details and explains the updates and serves as a reference for these revisions and clarifications.
Kirshblum, Steven C.; Waring, William; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen P.; Johansen, Mark; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel E.; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Mulcahey, M. J.; Krassioukov, Andrei
Ischemic preconditioning has been reported to protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To investigate this, Japanese white rabbits underwent I-R (30 min aortic occlusion followed by reperfusion), ischemic preconditioning (three cycles of 5 min aortic occlusion plus 5 min reperfusion) followed by I-R, or sham surgery. At 4 and 24 h following reperfusion, neurological function was assessed using Tarlov scores, blood spinal cord barrier permeability was measured by Evan's Blue extravasation, spinal cord edema was evaluated using the wet-dry method, and spinal cord expression of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were measured by Western blot and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. ZO-1 was also assessed using immunofluorescence. Spinal cord I-R injury reduced neurologic scores, and ischemic preconditioning treatment ameliorated this effect. Ischemic preconditioning inhibited I-R-induced increases in blood spinal cord barrier permeability and water content, increased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and reduced MMP-9 and TNF-? mRNA and protein expression. These findings suggest that ischemic preconditioning attenuates the increase in blood spinal cord barrier permeability due to spinal cord I-R injury by preservation of tight junction protein ZO-1 and reducing MMP-9 and TNF-? expression. PMID:23685868
Fang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Man; Sun, Xi-Jia; Bao, Na-Ren; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Huang-Wei; Ma, Hong
BACKGROUND: Previous analysis of the behavioural effects of spinal cord injury has focussed on coordination in the sagittal plane of movement between joints, limb girdle pairs or thoracic and pelvic limb pairs. In this study we extend the functional analysis of the consequences of clinical thoracolumbar spinal cord injury in dogs to quantify the well-recognised deficits in lateral stability during
Lindsay Hamilton; Robin JM Franklin; Nicholas D Jeffery
Background. The 10-meter walk test and 6-minute walk test are increasingly used to evaluate the recovery of walking in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. So far, there is no evidence whether the application of different walking dis- tances provides complementary information about ambula- tory capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Studies about testing preferred and maximum speeds
Hubertus J. A. van Hedel; Volker Dietz; Armin Curt
In the long term following spinal cord injury, bowel dysfunction causes major physical and psychological problems. A retrospective review of intestinal stomas performed in patients with spinal cord injury over a 10 year period was performed to investigate their role in alleviating these problems. Twelve patients underwent left iliac fossa end colostomy and two patients right iliac fossa end ileostomy.
SR Kelly; M Shashidharan; B Borwell; AM Tromans; D Finnis; DJ Grundy
Introduction: In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), serum creatinine does not accurately reflect the level of renal function. Therefore, in SCI patients, the dose of potentially nephrotoxic drugs should be adjusted on an individual basis from the estimated creatinine clearance. Case Report: A 41-year-old male with tetraplegia due to cervical spinal cord injury underwent extended pyelolithotomy for staghorn calculus
S Vaidyanathan; JWH Watt; G Singh; BM Soni; P Sett
Traumatic injury to the spinal cord initiates a series of destructive cellular processes which accentuate tissue damage at and beyond the original site of trauma. The cellular inflammatory response has been implicated as one mechanism of secondary degeneration. Of the various leukocytes present in the spinal cord after injury, macrophages predominate. Through the release of chemicals and enzymes involved in
Phillip G. Popovich; Zhen Guan; Ping Wei; Inge Huitinga; Nico van Rooijen; Bradford T. Stokes
Following injury to the spinal cord, secondary tissue damage leading to massive additional tissue loss and inflammatory reactions as well as scar formation takes place. The precise functions and effects of the inflammatory cells and their secreted factors are largely unclear. The present study investigates whether the exogenous local administration of pro-inflammatory cytokines to mice after spinal cord injury can
Isabel Klusman; Martin E Schwab
There are 10.000 new cases annually of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Eighty two percent of these cases are males and in their prime reproductive years (mean age, 26 years). Infertility is a significant and frustrating problem for men after spinal cord injury. The major causes are erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction and poor semen quality. Erectile dysfunction
Cristiano Utida; José Carlos Truzzi; Homero Bruschini; Rogério Simonetti; Agnaldo Cedenho; Miguel Srougi
Objectives: To disseminate the concept of community care waiting lists for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with particular reference to carer support for management of neuropathic bladder by a regime of intermittent catheterisation.Methodology: The surgical waiting list focuses only on operative procedures, and ignores the wider requirements for ensuring satisfactory rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury in the community.
S Vaidyanathan; BM Soni; P Mansour; CA Glass; G Singh; J Bingley; JWH Watt; P Sett
The study was designed to investigate the changes, both numerically and functionally, of the molecules critical to wound healing in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Spinal cord injury patients who demonstrated delayed healing of their pressure ulcers were used as study subjects. Age-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Adhesion molecule expression of the peripheral blood leukocytes, including lymphocytes and granulocytes,
J. M. Cruse; H. Wang; R. E. Lewis; J. Cespedes; R. S. Morrison; W. C. Lineaweaver; S. Dilioglou
Objectives: To review the outcomes of management of male infertility following spinal cord injury in a specialised fertility clinic. Study Design: Retrospective review of medical records. Setting: The Fertility Clinic of a 45-bed spinal cord injury service in New South Wales, Australia. Methods: The medical and fertility clinic records of 113 males who attended the clinic between 1987 and 1997
SB Rutkowski; TJ Geraghty; DL Hagen; DM Bowers; M Craven; JW Middleton
Pressure ulcer is a common complication developed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) when prolonged unrelieved pressure was applied to the body\\/skin and underlying tissues. The objective of this study is to assess the hyperemic response of the skin blood flowmotions in anesthetized rats with spinal cord injury subjected to prolonged pressure using spectral analysis based on wavelets transform
Zengyong Li; Eric W. C. Tam; Roy Y. C. Lau; Kwok-Fai So; Wutian Wu; Arthur F. T. Mak
On a daily basis, individuals with cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord injury face the challenge of managing their unstable blood pressure, which frequently results in persistent hypotension and\\/or episodes of uncontrolled hypertension. This chapter will focus on the clinical issues related to abnormal cardiovascular control in individuals with spinal cord injury, which include neurogenic shock, autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic
Andrei Krassioukov; Victoria E. Claydon
Objectives: To review the precautions to be observed before and during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with a cardiac pacemaker and the safety of bilateral ESWL performed on the same day.Design: A case report of bilateral ESWL in a SCI patient with a permanent cardiac pacemaker.Setting: The Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, the Lithotripsy
S Vaidyanathan; R Hirst; KF Parsons; G Singh; BM Soni; T Oo; A Zaidi; JWH Watt; P Sett
A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…
Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.
Operant conditioning protocols can modify the activity of specific spinal cord pathways and can thereby affect behaviors that use these pathways. To explore the therapeutic application of these protocols, we studied the impact of down-conditioning the soleus H-reflex in people with impaired locomotion caused by chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. After a baseline period in which soleus H-reflex size was measured and locomotion was assessed, subjects completed either 30 H-reflex down-conditioning sessions (DC subjects) or 30 sessions in which the H-reflex was simply measured (Unconditioned (UC) subjects), and locomotion was reassessed. Over the 30 sessions, the soleus H-reflex decreased in two-thirds of the DC subjects (a success rate similar to that in normal subjects) and remained smaller several months later. In these subjects, locomotion became faster and more symmetrical, and the modulation of EMG activity across the step-cycle increased bilaterally. Furthermore, beginning about halfway through the conditioning sessions, all of these subjects commented spontaneously that they were walking faster and farther in their daily lives, and several noted less clonus, easier stepping, and/or other improvements. The H-reflex did not decrease in the other DC subjects or in any of the UC subjects; and their locomotion did not improve. These results suggest that reflex conditioning protocols can enhance recovery of function after incomplete spinal cord injuries and possibly in other disorders as well. Because they are able to target specific spinal pathways, these protocols could be designed to address each individual’s particular deficits, and might thereby complement other rehabilitation methods.
Thompson, Aiko K.; Pomerantz, Ferne; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.
Operant conditioning protocols can modify the activity of specific spinal cord pathways and can thereby affect behaviors that use these pathways. To explore the therapeutic application of these protocols, we studied the impact of down-conditioning the soleus H-reflex in people with impaired locomotion caused by chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. After a baseline period in which soleus H-reflex size was measured and locomotion was assessed, subjects completed either 30 H-reflex down-conditioning sessions (DC subjects) or 30 sessions in which the H-reflex was simply measured [unconditioned (UC) subjects], and locomotion was reassessed. Over the 30 sessions, the soleus H-reflex decreased in two-thirds of the DC subjects (a success rate similar to that in normal subjects) and remained smaller several months later. In these subjects, locomotion became faster and more symmetrical, and the modulation of EMG activity across the step cycle increased bilaterally. Furthermore, beginning about halfway through the conditioning sessions, all of these subjects commented spontaneously that they were walking faster and farther in their daily lives, and several noted less clonus, easier stepping, and/or other improvements. The H-reflex did not decrease in the other DC subjects or in any of the UC subjects; and their locomotion did not improve. These results suggest that reflex-conditioning protocols can enhance recovery of function after incomplete spinal cord injuries and possibly in other disorders as well. Because they are able to target specific spinal pathways, these protocols could be designed to address each individual's particular deficits, and might thereby complement other rehabilitation methods. PMID:23392666
Thompson, Aiko K; Pomerantz, Ferne R; Wolpaw, Jonathan R
Significant vascular changes occur subsequent to spinal cord injury (SCI), which contribute to progressive pathophysiology. In the present study, we used female Wistar rats (300-350?g) and a 35-g clip-compression injury at T6 to T7 to characterize the spatial and temporal vascular changes that ensue post-SCI. Before sacrifice, animals were injected with vascular tracing dyes (2% Evans Blue (EB) or fluorescein isothiocyanate/Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin [FITC-LEA]) to assess blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity or vascular architecture, respectively. Spectrophotometry of EB tissue showed maximal BSCB disruption at 24?h postinjury, with significant disruption observed until 5 days postinjury (p<0.01). FITC-LEA-identified functional vasculature was dramatically reduced by 24?h. Similarly, RECA-1 immunohistochemistry showed a significant decrease in the number of vessels at 24?h postinjury, compared to uninjured animals (p<0.01), with slight increases in endogenous revascularization by 10 days postinjury. White versus gray matter (GM) quantification showed that GM vessels are more susceptible to SCI. Finally, we observed an endogenous angiogenic response between 3 and 7 days postinjury: maximal endothelial cell proliferation was observed at day 5. These data indicate that BSCB disruption and endogenous revascularization occur at specific time points after injury, which may be important for developing effective therapeutic interventions for SCI. PMID:24237182
Figley, Sarah A; Khosravi, Ramak; Legasto, Jean M; Tseng, Yun-Fan; Fehlings, Michael G
The aim of the study is to assess the changes in sexual life and sexual function in women after spinal cord injury using the\\u000a validated Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index. Thirty-three women with spinal cord injury from the Spinal Rehabilitation\\u000a Unit of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia participated in this study. A comparison was made between this group
Aiza Shafrina Othman; Julia Patrick Engkasan
BackgroundS100B is a biomarker that reflects injury to the central nervous system. As the spine is an integral part of the spinal cord, a study was undertaken to investigate whether serum S100B levels are associated with acute spinal fracture without head injury.MethodsThe study population consisted of 32 consecutive patients aged ?18 years in whom the emergency physicians suspected spinal fractures.
Sang Jin Lee; Chan Woong Kim; Kwang Jung Lee; Ju Won Choe; Sung Eun Kim; Je Hyeok Oh; Yong Soon Park
Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of neurons, cell membranes, axons, myelin, and endothelial cells. The aim\\u000a of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect of magnesium sulfate on the blood-spinal cord barrier after acute spinal\\u000a cord injury (SCI). This experiment was conducted in two parts. In the first, rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue\\u000a 2 h
Erkan Kaptanoglu; Etem Beskonakli; Ihsan Solaroglu; Asuman Kilinc; Yamac Taskin
Study Design:Retrospective data analysis.Objectives:To determine prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the acute rehabilitation period.Setting:Quaternary care spinal unit, Vancouver General Hospital, British Columbia, CanadaMethods:Eighty-nine patients with acute SCI stratified by neurological level (cervical, 55 (62%); upper thoracic, 12 (13%); lower thoracic, 22 (25%)), and graded by American Spinal Injury Association standards. Non-invasive measurement
E V Sidorov; A F Townson; M F Dvorak; B K Kwon; J Steeves; A Krassioukov
Traumatic injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response, increasing oxidative activity of circulating leukocytes and potentially exacerbating the original injury, as well as causing damage to initially unaffected organs. Although the importance of intraspinal inflammation after human spinal cord injury is appreciated, the role of the systemic inflammatory response to this injury is not widely recognised. We investigated oxidative activity
Feng Bao; Christopher S. Bailey; Kevin R. Gurr; Stewart I. Bailey; M. Patricia Rosas-Arellano; Gregory A. Dekaban; Lynne C. Weaver
Previous research has shown that small injuries early in development can alter adult pain reactivity and processing of stimuli presented to the side of injury. However, the mechanisms involved and extent of altered adult spinal function following neonatal injury remain unclear. The present experiments were designed to 1) determine whether the effects of neonatal injury affect processing contralateral to the
Erin E. Young; Kyle M. Baumbauer; Jessica E. Hillyer; Ann Marie Patterson; Kevin C. Hoy; Eric M. Mintz; Robin L. Joynes
This review sets out to provide an overview of the author’s approach to the management of the urinary tract in the patient who has suffered from an injury to their spinal cord. Emphasis is given to the need to understand the fundamental pathophysiological patterns that are seen with injuries that involve the sacral segments of the cord (the conus) and those that spare the conus but interrupt communication between the sacral parasympathetic and somatic centers and the brain (supraconal lesions). The importance of patient participation in management decisions is highlighted by considering the different ways in which the urinary tract can be managed and how the clinician needs to try to meet patient expectations and requirements while establishing safe urological management. Finally, consideration is given to the importance of establishing an appropriate follow up regime and managing urinary tract complications effectively.
Harrison, Simon C. W.
Adult CNS neurons exhibit a reduced capacity for growth compared to developing neurons, due in part to downregulation of growth-associated genes as development is completed. We tested the hypothesis that SnoN, an embryonically regulated transcription factor that specifies growth of the axonal compartment, can enhance growth in injured adult neurons. In vitro, SnoN overexpression in dissociated adult DRG neuronal cultures significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, TGF-?1, a negative regulator of SnoN, inhibited neurite outgrowth, and SnoN over-expression overcame this inhibition. We then examined whether SnoN influenced axonal regeneration in vivo: indeed, expression of a mutant form of SnoN resistant to degradation significantly enhanced axonal regeneration following cervical spinal cord injury, despite peri-lesional upregulation of TGF-?1. Thus, a developmental mechanism that specifies extension of the axonal compartment also promotes axonal regeneration after adult CNS injury.
Do, Jiun L.; Bonni, Azad; Tuszynski, Mark H.
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB). Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients' inspiratory function following a SCI.
Galeiras Vazquez, Rita; Rascado Sedes, Pedro; Montoto Marques, Antonio; Ferreiro Velasco, M. Elena
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB). Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients' inspiratory function following a SCI. PMID:24089664
Galeiras Vázquez, Rita; Rascado Sedes, Pedro; Mourelo Fariña, Mónica; Montoto Marqués, Antonio; Ferreiro Velasco, M Elena
Study design:Medical records review.Objective:To assess the effectiveness of the Memokath (Engineers & Doctors A\\/S, Denmark) thermosensitive stent as a ‘nondestructive’ means of reducing bladder outlet resistance by treating detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) of neurogenic bladder dysfunction associated with spinal cord injury.Setting:Spinal Injuries Unit, Sheffield, England.Methods:A medical records review was performed to examine our experience of Memokaths over the last 10
S S Mehta; P R Tophill
Neurotrophic factors have been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. The present study determined whether exogenous administration of one such factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could effect behavioral recovery and\\/or histopathological changes after spinal cord injury. Adult rats received a mild or moderate contusion injury or complete transection of the midthoracic spinal cord. Immediately
Lyn B. Jakeman; Ping Wei; Zhen Guan; Bradford T. Stokes
The role of free radical lipid peroxidation in spinal cord injury has been studied. A potentiating effect of ethanol was observed in both acute and chronic models of spinal cord injury. Lipid peroxidation following spinal cord injury was determined by mea...
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major unsolved challenge in medicine. Impact trauma to the spinal cord shears blood vessels, causing an immediate ‘primary hemorrhage’. During the hours following trauma, the region of hemorrhage enlarges progressively, with delayed or ‘secondary hemorrhage’ adding to the primary hemorrhage, and effectively doubling its volume. The process responsible for the secondary hemorrhage that results in early expansion of the hemorrhagic lesion is termed ‘progressive hemorrhagic necrosis’ (PHN). PHN is a dynamic process of auto destruction whose molecular underpinnings are only now beginning to be elucidated. PHN results from the delayed, progressive, catastrophic failure of the structural integrity of capillaries. The resulting ‘capillary fragmentation’ is a unique, pathognomonic feature of PHN. Recent work has implicated the Sur1-Trpm4 channel that is newly upregulated in penumbral microvessels as being required for the development of PHN. Targeting the Sur1-Trpm4 channel by gene deletion, gene suppression, or pharmacological inhibition of either of the two channel subunits, Sur1 or Trpm4, yields exactly the same effects histologically and functionally, and exactly the same unique, pathognomonic phenotype – the prevention of capillary fragmentation. The potential advantage of inhibiting Sur1-Trpm4 channels using glibenclamide is a highly promising strategy for ameliorating the devastating sequelae of spinal cord trauma in humans.
Simard, J Marc; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Aarabi, Bizhan; Gerzanich, Volodymyr
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying postinjury immune suppression are not known. Data presented herein indicate that AD causes immune suppression. Using in vivo telemetry, we show that AD develops spontaneously in SCI mice with the frequency of dysreflexic episodes increasing as a function of time postinjury. As the frequency of AD increases, there is a corresponding increase in splenic leucopenia and immune suppression. Experimental activation of spinal sympathetic reflexes in SCI mice (e.g., via colorectal distension) elicits AD and exacerbates immune suppression via a mechanism that involves aberrant accumulation of norepinephrine and glucocorticoids. Reversal of postinjury immune suppression in SCI mice can be achieved by pharmacological inhibition of receptors for norepinephrine and glucocorticoids during the onset and progression of AD. In a human subject with C5 SCI, stimulating the micturition reflex caused AD with exaggerated catecholamine release and impaired immune function, thus confirming the relevance of the mouse data. These data implicate AD as a cause of secondary immune deficiency after SCI and reveal novel therapeutic targets for overcoming infectious complications that arise due to deficits in immune function.
Zhang, Yi; Guan, Zhen; Reader, Brenda; Shawler, Todd; Mandrekar-Colucci, Shweta; Huang, Kun; Weil, Zachary; Bratasz, Anna; Wells, Jonathan; Powell, Nicole D.; Sheridan, John F.; Whitacre, Caroline C.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.; Nash, Mark S.
International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets include core, basic, and extended data sets. To date, 13 data sets have been published on the Web site of the International Spinal Cord Injury Society (ISCoS; www.iscos.org.uk), and several more are forthcoming. The data sets are constituted of data elements, which may be appropriate to use in trials conducted to test novel therapeutic candidates including neuroprotective drugs, various cell types, and rehabilitative strategies and devices. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), embarked on a Common Data Element (CDE) Project 5 years ago. The mission of the NINDS CDE Project is to develop data standards for clinical research. The NINDS CDE team has since developed variable names and database structures for the International SCI Data Sets (ie, the SCI CDEs; http://www.commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/SCI.aspx). Dataset variable names and database structure are exemplified with the International SCI Core Data Set and the International SCI Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set. The consistency of the data sets and the CDE format may improve the ability to transfer critical medical information electronically from one center to another. The goals of the SCI CDE initiative are to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies and clinical treatment, increase data quality, facilitate data sharing, and help educate new clinical investigators. Pilot testing the SCI CDEs is an important step to ensure the SCI CDE effort achieves its goals.
Biering-S?rensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; DeVivo, Michael J.; Grinnon, Stacie T.; Kleitman, Naomi; Lu, Yun; Odenkirchen, Joanne
Background and Purpose The long-term management following an hemicorporectomy (HCP) is not well documented in the scientific literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the 25-year history of a man with a spinal cord injury who experienced severe musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy. Case Description The client sustained T10 complete paraplegia at age 18 years, developed severe decubitus ulcers, and required an HCP as a lifesaving measure 13 years later. The authors describe the chronology of several rehabilitation and prosthetic strategies and speculate on factors that may have contributed to their successes and failures. Outcomes The client survived 12 years after the HCP and returned to independent mobility, self-care, and schooling despite complications with continued skin breakdown. Over the 12 years following discharge from the hospital after the spinal cord injury, he spent 749 days in the hospital. During the 12 years he lived after discharge from the hospital following the HCP, he was hospitalized 190 days. Discussion The authors discuss factors contributing to the client’s musculoskeletal deterioration including chronic wounds, postural deviations, and incomplete adherence to pressure-relief recommendations and raise considerations for physical therapists who treat patients after HCP.
Background The most frequent late complications in spinal cord injury result from arachnoiditis and consequent alterations in dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid flow. A surgical procedure carried out on patients with these alterations, resolved the various pathologies more efficiently in all cases. Methods From October 2000 to March 2006, 23 patients were selected for surgery: three showed signs of syringomyelia, three presented with microcystic lesions, three presented with arachnoid cysts in different locations but always confluent to the scar area, and 14 showed evidence of tethered cords. The surgery consisted of laminectomy at four levels, followed by dural opening in order to remove all the arachnoiditis at the level of the scar and to remove the altered arachnoid and its cysts, at least at two levels above and below the lesion. The dentate ligaments were cut at all exposed levels. Results The patients had no postoperative problems and not only retained all neurological functions but also showed neurological recovery. According to the motor and sensory scale of the American Spinal Injury Association, the recoveries were motor 20.6% (P < 0.001), touch 15.6% ((P < 0.001) and pinprick 14.4% (P < 0.001). These patients showed no signs of relapse at 4–66 month follow-up. Conclusion This alternative surgery resolved the pathologies provoking neurological deterioration by releasing the complete spinal cord at the level of the scar and the levels above and below it. It thus avoids myelotomies and the use of shunts and stents, which have a high long-term failure rate and consequent relapses. Nevertheless, this surgical procedure allows patients the chance to opt for any further treatment that may evolve in the future.
Reis, Antonio J
Objectives To identify: (a) the annual incidence of subsequent injury and injury related hospitalizations among individuals with pre-existing spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) risk and protective behaviors associated with differential risk of injury. Design Longitudinal, mailed survey. Participants were enrolled in 1997-1998, with a follow-up conducted 10 years later. Setting Data were collected from participants identified from a specialty hospital and analyzed at a medical university in the Southeastern United States. Participants There were 1386 participants during the baseline enrollment, 821 of whom also participated in the 10-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were: (1) traumatic SCI with residual impairment A-D, (2) non-surgical onset, (3) age 18 years or older, and (4) a minimum of 12 months post-SCI. Interventions Main Outcome Measures Number of injuries severe enough to require treatment in a clinic, emergency department, or hospital in the 12 months prior to the survey, and number of injury related hospitalizations. Predictor variables included selected items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, and prescription medication usage. Results Over 23% of participants reported at least 1 injury within the past year, an increase from that reported 10 years earlier by the same participants (19%), and 7% reported at least 1 injury related hospitalization. Those who reported a subsequent injury during the preliminary baseline data collection were about twice as likely to report at least 1 injury 10 years later. Binge drinking, psychotropic prescription medication use, and several personality characteristics were also related to injuries and/or injury hospitalization. Conclusions Risk of injury continues to be a significant concern in the years and decades after SCI onset. Behavioral and personality factors hold the key to prevention.
Krause, James S.
It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20471171
Soler, M D; Kumru, H; Vidal, J; Pelayo, R; Tormos, J M; Fregni, F; Navarro, X; Pascual-Leone, A
It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10 weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms.
Soler, M.D.; Kumru, H.; Vidal, J.; Pelayo, R.; Tormos, J.M.; Fregni, F.; Navarro, X.; Pascual-Leone, A.
The motor cortex and the corticospinal system contribute to the control of a precision grip between the thumb and index finger. The involvement of subcortical pathways during human precision grip remains unclear. Using noninvasive cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation, we examined motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the activity in intracortical and subcortical pathways targeting an intrinsic hand muscle when grasping a small (6 mm) cylinder between the thumb and index finger and during index finger abduction in uninjured humans and in patients with subcortical damage due to incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We demonstrate that cortical and cervicomedullary MEP size was reduced during precision grip compared with index finger abduction in uninjured humans, but was unchanged in SCI patients. Regardless of whether cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation was used, suppression of the MEP was only evident 1-3 ms after its onset. Long-term (?5 years) use of the GABAb receptor agonist baclofen by SCI patients reduced MEP size during precision grip to similar levels as uninjured humans. Index finger sensory function correlated with MEP size during precision grip in SCI patients. Intracortical inhibition decreased during precision grip and spinal motoneuron excitability remained unchanged in all groups. Our results demonstrate that the control of precision grip in humans involves premotoneuronal subcortical mechanisms, likely disynaptic or polysynaptic spinal pathways that are lacking after SCI and restored by long-term use of baclofen. We propose that spinal GABAb-ergic interneuronal circuits, which are sensitive to baclofen, are part of the subcortical premotoneuronal network shaping corticospinal output during human precision grip. PMID:24849366
Bunday, Karen L; Tazoe, Toshiki; Rothwell, John C; Perez, Monica A
Patient and physiological motion can cause artifacts in DTI of the spinal cord which can impact image quality and diffusion indices. The purpose of this investigation was to determine a reliable motion correction method for pediatric spinal cord DTI and show effects of motion correction on DTI parameters in healthy subjects and patients with spinal cord injury. Ten healthy subjects and ten subjects with spinal cord injury were scanned using a 3T scanner. Images were acquired with an inner field-of-view DTI sequence covering cervical spine levels C1 to C7. Images were corrected for motion using two types of transformation (rigid and affine) and three cost functions. Corrected images and transformations were examined qualitatively and quantitatively using in-house developed code. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) indices were calculated and tested for statistical significance pre- and post- motion correction. Images corrected using rigid methods showed improvements in image quality, while affine methods frequently showed residual distortions in corrected images. Blinded evaluation of pre and post correction images showed significant improvement in cord homogeneity and edge conspicuity in corrected images (p<0.0001). The average FA changes were statistically significant (p<0.0001) in the spinal cord injury group, while healthy subjects showed less FA change and were not significant. In both healthy subjects and subjects with spinal cord injury, quantitative and qualitative analysis showed the rigid scaled-least-squares registration technique to be the most reliable and effective in improving image quality. PMID:24629515
Middleton, Devon M; Mohamed, Feroze B; Barakat, Nadia; Hunter, Louis N; Shellikeri, Sphoorti; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Faro, Scott H; Shah, Pallav; Samdani, Amer F; Mulcahey, M J
A 65-year-old inebriated man crashed his car and presented with spinal shock and neurogenic shock from a cervical spinal cord injury without cervical spine fracture or dislocation. The lateral cervical spine radiography was initially read as normal, except for degenerative disk disease; however, Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spinal canal sagittal width indicated the spinal canal was congenitally narrow. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this and showed bulging and herniation of multiple invertebral disks between C2 and C7. This case illustrates the value of using Torg's ratio method of analyzing lateral cervical spine radiographs. Although Torg's method has not been prospectively validated, it may be useful to identify patients at risk for cervical spinal cord injuries without fractures or dislocations. An abnormal Torg's ratio may be the only clue to the fact that the patient is at higher risk of spinal cord injury when the patient's history or examination is questionable because of head injury, drug intoxication, or therapeutic sedation and paralysis. PMID:9472764
Bey, T; Waer, A; Walter, F G; Fortune, J; Seeger, J; Fryburg, K; Smith, W
Structural discontinuity in the spinal cord after injury results in a disruption in the impulse conduction resulting in loss\\u000a of various bodily functions depending upon the level of injury. This article presents a summary of the scientific research\\u000a employing electrical stimulation as a means for anatomical or functional recovery for patients suffering from spinal cord\\u000a injury. Electrical stimulation in the
Samar Hamid; Ray Hayek
Background: The western literature on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following spinal cord injury (SCI) report an alarmingly high incidence, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. The literature on incidence from the Asian subcontinent is scanty and from India is almost nonexistent. Materials and Methods: Seventy hospitalized acute SCI patients presenting within five days of the injury were included in the present analysis. Forty-two cases were subjected to color Doppler studies and 28 cases had to be subjected to venography due to lack of facility at some point of time. The clinical course of the patients was closely observed during the period of hospitalization. All except 14 were managed nonoperatively. Thromboprophylaxis was not given to any patient at any stage; however, treatment was instituted in those showing the features of DVT on investigations. Results: Twelve patients died during the period of hospitalization. Deep vein thrombosis could be detected in seven patients only, three in the proximal and four in the distal segment of the lower limb and of these three died. Based on the clinical course and positive investigation report in favor of DVT, we presumed that the cause of death in these three patients was pulmonary embolism. In the other nine, in the absence of an autopsy report, the cause of deaths was considered as pulmonary infection, asphyxia, diaphragmatic paralysis, hematemesis, cervicomedullary paralysis etc. Clinical features to diagnose DVT were of little help. Conclusions: There is a much lower incidence (10%) of DVT and PE following spinal cord injury (SCI) in India than what is reported from the western countries. Higher age group and quadriplegia were the only factors which could be correlated. Deep vein thrombosis extending proximal to the knee was significant. In the absence of autopsy and other screening tests like D-dimer test or 125I fibrogen uptake study, the true incidence of venous thromboembolism remains uncertain. Noninvasive screening of all patients for the detection of deep vein thrombosis in SCI patients is strongly recommended.
Saraf, Shyam K; Rana, Raj JB; Sharma, Om P
An estimated 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) occur every year in the United States. A small oxidative molecule responsible for secondary injury, acrolein, is an important target in SCI. Acrolein attacks essential proteins and lipids, creating a feed-forward loop of oxidative stress in both the primary injury area and the surrounding areas. A small molecule used and FDA-approved for hypertension, hydralazine, has been found to "scavenge" acrolein after injury, but its delivery and short half-life, as well as its hypertension effects, hinder its application for SCI. Nanomedical systems broaden the range of therapeutic availability and efficacy over conventional medicine. They allow for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to tissues of interest, reducing side effects of untargeted therapies in unwanted areas. Nanoparticles made from silica form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. To attenuate the acrolein cascade and improve therapeutic availability, we have used a one-step, modified Stober method to synthesize two types of silica nanoparticles. Both particles are "stealth-coated" with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) (to minimize interactions with the immune system and to increase circulation time), which is also a therapeutic agent for SCI by facilitating membrane repair. One nanoparticle type contains an amine-terminal PEG (SiNP-mPEG-Am) and the other possesses a terminal hydrazide group (SiNP-mPEG-Hz). The former allows for exploration of hydralazine delivery, loading, and controlled release. The latter group has the ability to react with acrolein, allowing the nanoparticle to scavenge directly. The nanoparticles have been characterized and are being explored using neuronal PC-12 cells in vitro, demonstrating the potential of novel silica nanoparticles for use in attenuating secondary injury after SCI.
White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.
Background Occupational therapy (OT) is a critical component of the rehabilitation process after spinal cord injury (SCI), the constitution of which has not been studied or documented in full detail previously. Objective To describe the type and distribution of SCI rehabilitation OT activities, including the amount of time spent on evaluation and treatment, and to discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time dedicated to OT treatment activities. Methods Six inpatient rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI in the first year of the SCIRehab. Occupational therapists documented 32 512 therapy sessions including time spent and specifics of each therapeutic activity. Analysis of variance and contingency tables/chi-square tests were used to test differences across neurologic injury groups for continuous and categorical variables. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 52 hours of OT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Statistically significant differences among four neurologic injury groups were seen in time spent on each OT activity. The activities that consumed the most OT time (individual and group sessions combined) were strengthening/endurance exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), range of motion (ROM)/stretching, education, and a grouping of ‘therapeutic activities’ that included tenodesis training, fine motor activities, manual therapy, vestibular training, edema management, breathing exercise, cognitive retraining, visual/perceptual training desensitization, and don/doff adaptive equipment. Seventy-seven percent of OT work occurred in individual treatment sessions, with the most frequent OT activity involving ADLs. The variation in time (mean minutes per week) spent on OT ROM/stretching, ADLs, transfer training, assessment, and therapeutic activities can be explained in part by patient and injury characteristics, such as admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, neurologic injury group, and the medical severity of illness score. Conclusion OT treatment patterns for patients with traumatic SCI show much variation in activity selection and time spent on activities, within and among neurologic level of injury groups. Some of the variation can be explained by patient and injury characteristics. Almost all patients with SCI participated in strengthening/endurance and ROM/stretching exercises during OT treatment and these two activities are where the most time was spent when therapy provided in individual and group settings was combined. ADL work consumed the most time in individual therapy sessions.
Foy, Teresa; Perritt, Ginger; Thimmaiah, Deepa; Heisler, Lauren; Offutt, Jennifer Lookingbill; Cantoni, Kara; Hseih, Ching-Hui; Gassaway, Julie; Ozelie, Rebecca; Backus, Deborah
Studies of experimental spinal cord injury began approximately 100 years ago, and since then many useful models of acute experimental spinal cord injury have been developed which stimulate many of the common types injuries in man. This review will describe some of these models and the information they have provided about the acute pathophysiological mechanisms in the injured spinal cord. There is good experimental evidence that the spinal cord suffers both a primary or mechanical injury and then a secondary injury which may worsen the prognosis for recovery. This review will emphasize the concept of the secondary injury, especially with respect to the vascular mechanisms. There is evidence from our laboratory and others to support the concept of the secondary injury and that the chief mechanism of the secondary injury is posttraumatic ischemia and infarction of the spinal cord. We have found evidence for the role of vascular mechanisms in three different injury models of acute spinal cord injury (A.S.C.I.) in three species of experimental animals. This review will describe the microangiographic and blood flow methods for assessing the microcirculation of the spinal cord after trauma. In addition, to these local vascular effects, this review will also describe the systemic vascular effects of A.S.C.I. which cause the neurogenic shock in this condition. It is our hypothesis that these local and systemic vascular effects are principal causes of the secondary injury leading to posttraumatic ischemia and infarction of the spinal cord after A.S.C.I. Furthermore, it is our hypothesis that early treatment of these microcirculatory changes and neurogenic shock can lead to improved recovery after A.S.C.I. PMID:1758561
Tator, C H
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious clinical situation for which no suitable drug therapy exists. SCI often results in paraplegia or quadriplegia and, apart from the personal trauma leads to huge costs to society for rehabilitation or day-to-day life support. Sensory motor dysfunction following SCI is mainly a consequence of the slowly progressing cord pathology after primary injury that worsens over tine. Thus, almost all sensory and motor nerve control and pathways passing through spinal cord and reflexes are compromised in SCI patients. As a result their peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous function and central nervous system regulations are adversely affected. Experiments carried out in our laboratory show that various therapeutic agents, if given within 10 to 30 minutes after primary SCI could correct morphological changes to a certain extent. In these rat models of SCI reduction in cord pathology, e.g., bloodspinal cord barrier (BSCB) breakdown, edema formation and cell injury by the neuroprotective agents that also limited sensory motor dysfunction and improved functional behavior. However, these drugs if given beyond 30 minutes after SCI showed a markedly reduced neuroprotective efficacy. Thus, new strategies are needed to enhance neuroprotection in SCI to prevent structural and functional changes over longer periods of time. To that end our laboratory has initiated a series of investigations in which nanowired delivery of various neurotherapeutic agents are applied after different time periods of SCI, that resulted in a much better outcome than with the parent compounds under identical conditions. The superior neuroprotective activity of nanowired compound delivery could be due to a reduced metabolism of active compounds in the central nervous system (CNS) or by sustained release of the drug for longer times. In addition, nanowired drugs may penetrate the CNS faster and could reach widespread areas once entering the spinal cord. Thus, nanowired drug delivery to treat SCI may have potential therapeutic value. These aspects of nanowired drug delivery to enhance neuroprotection in SCI are discussed in this review based on our own investigations. PMID:22385571
Tian, Z Ryan; Sharma, Aruna; Nozari, Ala; Subramaniam, Raman; Lundstedt, Torbjörn; Sharma, Hari Shanker
Background Spinal cord injuries are highly disabling and deadly injuries. Currently, few studies focus on non-traumatic spinal cord injuries, and there is little information regarding the risk factors for complete injuries. This study aims to describe the demographics and the injury characteristics for both traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injuries and to explore the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Methods A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 3,832 patients with spinal cord injuries who were first admitted to the sampled hospitals in Guangdong, China. The demographics and injury characteristics of the patients were described and compared between the different groups using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Results The proportion of patients increased from 7.0% to 14.0% from 2003 to 2011. The male-to-female ratio was 3.0?1. The major cause of spinal cord injuries was traffic accidents (21.7%). Many of the injured were workers (36.2%), peasants (22.8%), and unemployed people (13.9%); these occupations accounted for 72.9% of the total sample. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the OR (95% CI) for male gender compared to female gender was 1.25 (1.07–1.89), the OR (95%CI) for having a spinal fracture was 1.56 (1.35–2.60), the OR (95%CI) for having a thoracic injury was 1.23 (1.10–2.00), and the OR (95%CI) for having complications was 2.47 (1.96–3.13). Conclusion The proportion of males was higher than the proportion of females. Workers, peasants and the unemployed comprised the high-risk occupational categories. Male gender, having a spinal fracture, having a thoracic injury, and having complications were the major risk factors for a complete injury. We recommend that preventive measures should focus on high-risk populations, such as young males.
Wang, Peng; Huang, Lin; Tang, Yong; Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Keng; Ye, Jichao; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong
A biologically active tripeptide [phenylalanine glutamate glycine (feG)] derived from the submandibular gland has anti-inflammatory actions. We have shown that intravenous treatment with feG after spinal cord injury decreases the intraspinal infiltration of leukocytes and associated oxidative damage within 72 h after injury. The present study assessed effects of this treatment on chronic neurological outcomes after clip-compression spinal cord injury at the 12th thoracic segment. Locomotor scores of feG-treated rats were significantly higher than those of controls at 7 weeks after spinal cord injury. Treated rats had significantly less hind paw mechanical allodynia than controls at this time. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions of feG treatment correlate with improved neurological outcomes after spinal cord injury. PMID:17164666
John, Sunil M; Bao, Feng; Chen, Yuhua; Mathison, Ronald D; Weaver, Lynne C
Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients.
Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.
Since Böhler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review summarizes that a spinal injury classification system should be clinically relevant, reliable and accurate. The clinical relevance of a classification is directly related to its content validity. The ideal content of a spinal injury classification should only include injury characteristics of the vertebral column, is primarily based on the increasingly routinely performed CT imaging, and is clearly distinctive from severity scales and treatment algorithms. Clearly defined observation and conversion criteria are crucial determinants of classification systems’ reliability and accuracy. Ideally, two principle spinal injury characteristics should be easy to discern on diagnostic images: the specific location and morphology of the injured spinal structure. Given the current evidence and diagnostic imaging technology, descriptions of the mechanisms of injury and ligamentous injury should not be included in a spinal injury classification. The presence of concomitant neurologic deficits can be integrated in a spinal injury severity scale, which in turn can be considered in a spinal injury treatment algorithm. Ideally, a validation pathway of a spinal injury classification system should be completed prior to its clinical and scientific implementation. This review provides a methodological concept which might be considered prior to the synthesis of new or modified spinal injury classifications.
Audige, Laurent; Hanson, Beate; Chapman, Jens R.; Hosman, Allard J. F.
Spinal inhibition is significantly reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined if locomotor training can improve spinal inhibition exerted at a presynaptic level. Sixteen people with chronic SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days/wk, 1 h/day. The soleus H-reflex depression in response to low-frequency stimulation, presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferent terminals following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve, and bilateral EMG recovery patterns were assessed before and after locomotor training. The soleus H reflexes evoked at 1.0, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14, and 0.11 Hz were normalized to the H reflex evoked at 0.09 Hz. Conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the associated unconditioned H reflex evoked with subjects seated, while during stepping both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked after the test H reflex at each bin of the step cycle. Locomotor training potentiated homosynaptic depression in all participants regardless the type of the SCI. Presynaptic facilitation of soleus Ia afferents remained unaltered in motor complete SCI patients. In motor incomplete SCIs, locomotor training either reduced presynaptic facilitation or replaced presynaptic facilitation with presynaptic inhibition at rest. During stepping, presynaptic inhibition was modulated in a phase-dependent manner. Locomotor training changed the amplitude of locomotor EMG excitability, promoted intralimb and interlimb coordination, and altered cocontraction between knee and ankle antagonistic muscles differently in the more impaired leg compared with the less impaired leg. The results provide strong evidence that locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after SCI in humans at rest and during walking. PMID:24598526
Knikou, Maria; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K
This study analyzes 46 brain and 48 spinal-cord impact experiments. The velocity of brain impact was 2.0-10.0 m\\/s and displacement, 0.75-5.0 mm (5.3-33% compression) using a controlled pneumatic impact. The velocity of spinal-cord impact was 1.5-6.0 m\\/s and displacement, 1.25-3.25 mm (25-65% compression). Brain injury varied from cortical contusion, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), to fatalities, and spinal-cord injury from temporary
DAVID C. VIANO; PER LOVSUND
While the majority of human spinal cord injuries occur in the cervical spinal cord, the vast majority of laboratory research employs animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in which the thoracic spinal cord is injured. Additionally, because most human cord injuries occur as the result of blunt, non-penetrating trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accident, sporting injury) where the spinal cord is violently struck by displaced bone or soft tissues, the majority of SCI researchers are of the opinion that the most clinically relevant injury models are those in which the spinal cord is rapidly contused.1 Therefore, an important step in the preclinical evaluation of novel treatments on their way to human translation is an assessment of their efficacy in a model of contusion SCI within the cervical spinal cord. Here, we describe the technical aspects and resultant anatomical and behavioral outcomes of an unilateral contusive model of cervical SCI that employs the Infinite Horizon spinal cord injury impactor. Sprague Dawley rats underwent a left-sided unilateral laminectomy at C5. To optimize the reproducibility of the biomechanical, functional, and histological outcomes of the injury model, we contused the spinal cords using an impact force of 150 kdyn, an impact trajectory of 22.5° (animals rotated at 22.5°), and an impact location off of midline of 1.4 mm. Functional recovery was assessed using the cylinder rearing test, horizontal ladder test, grooming test and modified Montoya's staircase test for up to 6 weeks, after which the spinal cords were evaluated histologically for white and grey matter sparing. The injury model presented here imparts consistent and reproducible biomechanical forces to the spinal cord, an important feature of any experimental SCI model. This results in discrete histological damage to the lateral half of the spinal cord which is largely contained to the ipsilateral side of injury. The injury is well tolerated by the animals, but does result in functional deficits of the forelimb that are significant and sustained in the weeks following injury. The cervical unilateral injury model presented here may be a resource to researchers who wish to evaluate potentially promising therapies prior to human translation.
Lee, Jae H.T.; Streijger, Femke; Tigchelaar, Seth; Maloon, Michael; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Kwon, Brian K.
Permanent disruptions of gastrointestinal function are very common sequel of spinal cord injury (SCI). When motor and sensory nervous integrity are severely affected, neurogenic gastrointestinal dysfunction is an inevitable consequence. Autonomic nervous system miss function has significantly diminished or lost sensory sensations followed with incomplete evacuation of stool from the rectal vault, immobility, and reduced anal sphincter tone all of those predisposing to increased risk of fecal incontinence (FI). The FI is, beside paralysis of extremities, one of the symptoms most profoundly affecting quality of life (QOL) in patients with SCI. We are reviewing current perspectives in management of SCI, discussing some pathophysiology mechanisms which could be addressed and pointing toward actual practical concepts in use for evaluation and improvements necessary to sustain SCI patients QOL. PMID:24549854
Pan, Yuehai; Liu, Bin; Li, Ruijun; Zhang, Zhixin; Lu, Laijin
Context Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of function and sensation below the level of the lesion. Neuroprosthetic technology has been developed to help restore motor and autonomic functions as well as to provide sensory feedback. Findings This paper provides an overview of neuroprosthetic technology that aims to address the priorities for functional restoration as defined by individuals with SCI. We describe neuroprostheses that are in various stages of preclinical development, clinical testing, and commercialization including functional electrical stimulators, epidural and intraspinal microstimulation, bladder neuroprosthesis, and cortical stimulation for restoring sensation. We also discuss neural recording technologies that may provide command or feedback signals for neuroprosthetic devices. Conclusion/clinical relevance Neuroprostheses have begun to address the priorities of individuals with SCI, although there remains room for improvement. In addition to continued technological improvements, closing the loop between the technology and the user may help provide intuitive device control with high levels of performance.
Collinger, Jennifer L.; Foldes, Stephen; Bruns, Tim M.; Wodlinger, Brian; Gaunt, Robert; Weber, Douglas J.
Urolithiasis is a common condition in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Surgical management of stones in this population is more challenging and associated with lower clearance rates than the general population. The rate of complications - specifically infectious complications - is also high due to the chronic bacterial colonization. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has a low clearance rate of 44-73 %. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is indicated for larger nephrolithiasis, but multiple procedures may be required to clear the stones. Ureteroscopy has been associated with low success rates because of difficulty in obtaining ureteral access. Historically, bladder stones were managed with open surgery or SWL. Recently, good results have been reported with the combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Surgical management of urolithiasis in patients with SCI should be performed in high-volume centers in light of the technical challenges and higher rate of perioperative complications. PMID:24740271
Nabbout, Philippe; Slobodov, Gennady; Culkin, Daniel J
Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients’ rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders.
Gorgey, Ashraf S
Evidence suggests a proinflammatory role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in various pathologic abnormalities, including in the central nervous system. Herein, we describe LPA as an important mediator of inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in zebrafish and mice. Furthermore, we describe a novel monoclonal blocking antibody raised against LPA that potently inhibits LPA's effect in vitro and in vivo. This antibody, B3, specifically binds LPA, prevents it from interacting with its complement of receptors, and blocks LPA's effects on the neuronal differentiation of human neural stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating its specificity toward LPA signaling. When administered systemically to mice subjected to SCI, B3 substantially reduced glial inflammation and neuronal death. B3-treated animals demonstrated significantly more neuronal survival upstream of the lesion site, with some functional improvement. This study describes the use of anti-LPA monoclonal antibody as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of SCI.
Goldshmit, Yona; Matteo, Rosalia; Sztal, Tamar; Ellett, Felix; Frisca, Frisca; Moreno, Kelli; Crombie, Duncan; Lieschke, Graham J.; Currie, Peter D.; Sabbadini, Roger A.; Pebay, Alice
Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients' rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817
Gorgey, Ashraf S
The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the possible protective effects of dantrolene on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: Sham (no drug or operation, n = 8), Control (SCI + 1 mL saline intraperitoneally (i.p.), n = 8), and DNT (SCI + 10 mg/kg dantrolene in 1 mL, i.p., n = 8). Laminectomy was performed at T10 and balloon catheter was applied extradurally. Four and 24 h after surgery, rabbits were evaluated according to the Tarlov scoring system. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue sample from spinal cord were taken for measurements of antioxidant status or detection of apoptosis. After 4 h SCI, all animals in control or DNT-treated groups became paraparesic. Significant improvement was observed in DNT-treated group, 24 h after SCI, with respect to control. Traumatic SCI led to an increase in the lipid peroxidation and a decrease in enzymic or non-enzymic endogenous antioxidative defense systems, and increase in apoptotic cell numbers. DNT treatment prevented lipid peroxidation and augmented endogenous enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidative defense systems. Again, DNT treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number induced by SCI. In conclusion, experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with dantrolene possess potential benefits for traumatic SCI.
Cemek, Mustafa; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Altunbas, Korhan; Bas, Orhan; Yurumez, Yusuf; Cosar, Murat
Endotracheal intubation usually causes transient hy- pertension and tachycardia. We investigated whether the cardiovascular responses to intubation change as a functionofthetimeelapsedinpatientswithspinalcord injury. One-hundred-six patients with traumatic com- plete spinal cord injury were grouped into acute and chronic groups according to the time elapsed (less than and more than 4 wk after injury) and into those with quadriplegia and paraplegia according
Kyung Y. Yoo; Seong W. Jeong; Seok J. Kim; In H. Ha; JongUn Lee
The incidence of spinal cord injury in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been 3-5 % from recent major papers where sacrifice of the critical intercostal arteries is inevitable by a stent graft. Hemodynamic stability, which depends on a network of blood vessels around the cord is most important not only during but also after stent-graft deployment. High risk factors of spinal cord injury during endovascular aortic repair are (1) coverage of the left subclavian artery, (2) extensive coverage of long segments of the thoracic aorta, (3) prior downstream aortic repair, (4) compromising important intercostal (T8-L1), vertebral, pelvic and hypogastric collaterals, and (5) shaggy aorta. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative managements have been required to prevent spinal cord injury with TEVAR. For imaging assessment of blood supply to spinal cord including Adamkiewicz artery, prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid drainage is mandatory, and monitoring motor-evoked potential is recommended for high risk factors of spinal cord injury. Mean arterial pressure should be maintained over 90 mmHg after stent-graft placement for a while to prevent delayed spinal cord ischemia in high-risk patients of spinal cord ischemia. Finally, because spinal cord injury during TEVAR is not rare and negligible, perioperative care during TEVAR should be strictly performed according to the protocol proposed by each cardiovascular team. PMID:24696427
Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life. PMID:24621045
Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) dramatically disrupts synaptic inputs and triggers biochemical, as well as morphological, plasticity in relation to the phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) pool. Accordingly, our primary purpose was to determine if chronic SCI induces fundamental changes in the recruitment profile and discharge patterns of PhMNs. Individual PhMN action potentials were recorded from the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to lateral cervical (C2) hemisection injury (C2Hx) in anesthetized adult male rats at 2, 4 or 8 wks post-injury and in uninjured controls. PhMNs were phenotypically classified as early (Early-I) or late inspiratory (Late-I), or silent according to discharge patterns. Following C2Hx, the distribution of PhMNs was dominated by Late-I and silent cells. Late-I burst parameters (e.g., spikes per breath, burst frequency and duration) were initially reduced but returned towards control values by 8wks post-injury. In addition, a unique PhMN burst pattern emerged after C2Hx in which Early-I cells burst tonically during hypocapnic inspiratory apnea. We also quantified the impact of gradual reductions in end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PETCO2) on bilateral phrenic nerve activity. Compared to control rats, as PETCO2 declined, the C2Hx animals had greater inspiratory frequencies (breaths?min(-1)) and more substantial decreases in ipsilateral phrenic burst amplitude. We conclude that the primary physiological impact of C2Hx on ipsilateral PhMN burst patterns is a persistent delay in burst onset, transient reductions in burst frequency, and the emergence of tonic burst patterns. The inspiratory frequency data suggest that plasticity in brainstem networks is likely to play an important role in phrenic motor output after cervical SCI. PMID:23954215
Lee, Kun-Ze; Dougherty, Brendan J; Sandhu, Milapjit S; Lane, Michael A; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D
Objective To investigate the characteristics of community-dwelling spinal cord injury (SCI) persons with obesity, including diet, socioeconomic factors, weight reduction method, and frequency of body weight and abdominal circumference measurements. Methods We developed a questionnaire based on 'the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009'. A total of 371 community-dwelling SCI persons were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were SCI persons older than 20 years with more than 1 year elapsed since the injury. Trained investigators visited SCI persons' home to complete the questionnaire and measure abdominal obesity (AO) as defined by the waist circumference. Results Prevalence of AO was 29.2% in SCI persons and 27.4% in the general population (GP), showing no significant difference. Education showed correlation with AO in both SCI persons and the GP. The injury level, type of injury and income did not show any correlation with AO in SCI persons. Only 28.8% and 48.8% of SCI persons measured their waist circumference and body weight within the past year, respectively. Also, SCI persons with AO thought that their body was less obese compared to persons with AO in the GP (p<0.001). The method of weight reduction was diet modification in 53.6% of SCI persons with AO, which was higher than 37.1% of persons with AO in the GP. Conclusion In SCI persons, obesity perception as well as socioeconomic factors correlated with AO, but these were not relevant factors in the GP. Therefore, development of a specific and intensive weight control program for SCI persons is necessary.
Kim, Kwang Dong; Nam, Hyung Seok
On a daily basis, individuals with cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord injury face the challenge of managing their unstable blood pressure, which frequently results in persistent hypotension and/or episodes of uncontrolled hypertension. This chapter will focus on the clinical issues related to abnormal cardiovascular control in individuals with spinal cord injury, which include neurogenic shock, autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension. Blood pressure control depends upon tonic activation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons by descending input from the supraspinal structures (Calaresu and Yardley, 1988). Following spinal cord injury, these pathways are disrupted, and thus spinal circuits are solely responsible for the generation of sympathetic activity (Osborn et al., 1989; Maiorov et al., 1997). This results in a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities that have been well documented in human studies, as well as in animal models (Osborn et al., 1990; Mathias and Frankel, 1992a, b; Krassioukov and Weaver, 1995; Maiorov et al., 1997, 1998; Teasell et al., 2000). However, the recognition and management of these cardiovascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury represent challenging clinical issues. Moreover, cardiovascular disorders in the acute and chronic stages of spinal cord injury are among the most common causes of death in individuals with spinal cord injury (DeVivo et al., 1999). PMID:16198703
Krassioukov, Andrei; Claydon, Victoria E
We present a preliminary report of the discussion of the joint committee of the American Spinal Injury Associa- tion (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society concern- ing the development of assessment criteria for general autonomic function testing following spinal cord injury (SCI). Elements of this report were presented at the 2005 annual meeting of the ASIA. To improve the
Andrei V. Krassioukov; Ann-Katrin Karlsson; Jill M. Wecht; Lisa-Anne Wuermser; Christopher J. Mathias; Ralph J. Marino
The injured adult mammalian spinal cord shows little spontaneous recovery after injury. In the present study, the contribution of projections in the dorsal half of the spinal cord to functional loss after adult spinal cord injury was examined, together with the effects of transgenic cellular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on morphological and functional disturbances. Adult rats underwent bilateral dorsal column
R. Grill; K. Murai; A. Blesch; F. H. Gage; M. H. Tuszynski
The injury experience related to motor vehicle crashes on four bridges and one tunnel in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1978 to 1982, are described. Particular attention is given to the Jacques Cartier Bridge, publicly perceived as being excessively dangerous. Data from the Quebec Automobile Insurance Board and police reports confirm an excess of deaths (19/34; rate ratio = 4.5) and severe injuries (69/109; rate ratio = 6.2) on the Jacques Cartier Bridge, and the association of 74 per cent of the fatalities and 64 per cent of the severe-injury cases on this bridge with a single curve. Crashes follow a consistent pattern; vehicles fail to negotiate the curve and strike vehicles moving in the opposite direction. The demonstrated association between crashes and design factors provides a basis for identifying effective remedial and preventive measures. Images FIGURE 1
Brown, B P; Salmi, L R; Lecours, S; Battista, R N
Doctor–Patient Communication: Do people with spinal cord injury wish to receive written information about their medical condition from the physicians after an outpatient visit or after a readmission in the spinal unit?
Study design: A survey of spinal cord injury patients attending a follow-up clinic in a Regional Spinal Injuries Centre.Objectives: To investigate whether spinal cord injury patients wish to receive written information about any changes in their medical condition after an outpatient visit or, following readmission in a spinal unit.Setting: Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, United Kingdom.Methods: A questionnaire was developed
S Vaidyanathan; CA Glass; BM Soni; J Bingley; G Singh; JWH Watt; P Sett
A number of rat peripheral neuropathy models have been developed to simulate human neuropathic pain conditions. The current study sought to determine the relative importance of site versus type of peripheral nerve injury in eliciting mechanical allodynia and spinal glial responses. Rats received one of seven different surgical treatments at the L5 spinal level: spinal nerve cryoneurolysis, spinal nerve tight
R. W. Colburn; A. J. Rickman; J. A. DeLeo
The study was performed to investigate the effect of combination therapy with aminoguanidine (AG) and dexamethasone (DEX)\\u000a on the compression spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat. Compared to the control group, the combination therapy group with AG (75 mg\\/kg)\\u000a and DEX (0.025 mg\\/kg) significantly reduced the degree of (1) spinal cord edema, (2) the permeability of blood spinal cord\\u000a barrier (measured by
Wei-bing Xu; Gang Lv; Yan-feng Wang; Xu-hua Lu; Tao Huang; Yue Zhu; Lian-shun Jia
Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common problem among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) that results from a disruption\\u000a of coordinated control among the brain, spinal cord, and bladder. SCI initially induces areflexic bladder and urinary retention\\u000a followed by the emergence of automatic micturition mediated by spinal reflex pathways. Experimental research has permitted\\u000a insight into the pathophysiology of SCI
Darryl C. Baptiste; Mohamad Elkelini; Magdy Hassouna; Michael G. Fehlings
We studied both the clinical features and computed tomography (CT) findings in 25 patients with a cervical spinal injury\\u000a related to diving. In all patients the X-rays, including anteroposterior, lateral and open mouth views, were normal. The clinical\\u000a features included headache, dizziness, without an alteration in the state of consciousness. In 5 patients, the CT spinal scan\\u000a revealed cervical spinal
M. Kligman; C. Vasili; M. Roffman
In this conceptual review, we highlight our strategy for, and progress in the development of corticospinal neuroprostheses for restoring locomotor functions and promoting neural repair after thoracic spinal cord injury in experimental animal models. We specifically focus on recent developments in recording and stimulating neural interfaces, decoding algorithms, extraction of real-time feedback information, and closed-loop control systems. Each of these complex neurotechnologies plays a significant role for the design of corticospinal neuroprostheses. Even more challenging is the coordinated integration of such multifaceted technologies into effective and practical neuroprosthetic systems to improve movement execution, and augment neural plasticity after injury. In this review we address our progress in rodent animal models to explore the viability of a technology-intensive strategy for recovery and repair of the damaged nervous system. The technical, practical, and regulatory hurdles that lie ahead along the path toward clinical applications are enormous - and their resolution is uncertain at this stage. However, it is imperative that the discoveries and technological developments being made across the field of neuroprosthetics do not stay in the lab, but instead reach clinical fruition at the fastest pace possible. PMID:24135130
Borton, David; Bonizzato, Marco; Beauparlant, Janine; DiGiovanna, Jack; Moraud, Eduardo M; Wenger, Nikolaus; Musienko, Pavel; Minev, Ivan R; Lacour, Stéphanie P; Millán, José del R; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire
Sleep-disordered breathing has been shown to be more prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) than the general population. The pathogenesis of increased sleep-disordered breathing in individuals with chronic SCI is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SCI level affects upper airway (UA) collapsibility and neuromuscular compensatory responses to obstruction. Twenty-four participants (8 cervical SCI, 8 thoracic SCI, and 8 controls) were studied. The ventilation, timing, UA resistance, and pharyngeal collapsibility, defined by critical closing pressure, were determined during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Inspiratory duty cycle and minute ventilation were observed in response to increasing severity of UA obstruction. Compared with controls, both cervical and thoracic SCI participants demonstrated elevated passive critical closing pressure (0.5 ± 2.2 and 0.9 ± 2.7 vs. -2.5 ± 1.0 cmH2O, respectively; P = 0.01). No difference in UA resistance was observed between groups. Cervical and thoracic SCI individuals exhibited a similar degree of hypoventilation and dose-dependent increase in inspiratory duty cycle in response to UA obstruction. Passive UA collapsibility is increased in both cervical and thoracic SCI compared with control. The neuromuscular compensatory responses to UA obstruction during sleep are preserved in chronic SCI and are independent of the level of injury. PMID:24744387
Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy T; Badr, M Safwan
Objective We investigated longitudinal risk factors of hospitalization for circulatory and pulmonary diseases among veterans with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Circulatory and respiratory system illnesses are leading causes of death in chronic SCI patients, yet risk factors for related hospitalizations have not been characterized. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Veterans Affairs (VA) Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts. Participants / Data Source(s) 309 veterans ? 1 year post-SCI from the VA-Boston Chronic SCI cohort who completed a health questionnaire and underwent spirometry at study entry. Baseline data was linked to 1996–2003 hospitalization records from the VA National Patient Care Database. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cardiopulmonary hospital admissions, the predictors of which were assessed by Multivariate Cox regression. Results Of 1,478 admissions observed, 143 were due to cardiopulmonary (77 circulatory and 66 respiratory) illnesses. Independent predictors were greater age (3% increase /year), hypertension, and if in the lowest BMI quintile (<22.4 kg/m2). A greater %-predicted FEV1 was associated with reduced risk. SCI level and completeness of injury was not statistically significant after adjusting for these risk factors. Conclusion Cardiopulmonary hospitalization risk in persons with chronic SCI is related to greater age and medical factors that, if recognized, may result in strategies for reducing future hospitalizations.
Waddimba, Anthony C.; Jain, Nitin; Stolzmann, Kelly; Gagnon, David R.; Burgess, James F.; Kazis, Lewis E.; Garshick, Eric
Background: In individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory complications arise within hours to days of injury. Paralysis of the respiratory muscles predisposes the patient toward respiratory failure. Respiratory complications after cervical SCI include hypoventilation, hypercapnea, reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Ultimately, the patient must use increased work to breathe, which results in respiratory fatigue and may eventually require intubation for mechanical ventilation. Without specialized respiratory management for individuals with tetraplegia, recurrent pneumonias, bronchoscopies, and difficulty in maintaining a stable respiratory status will persist. Objective: This retrospective analysis examined the effectiveness of specialized respiratory management utilized in a regional SCI center. Methods: Individuals with C1-C4 SCI (N = 24) were the focus of this study as these neurological levels present with the most complicated respiratory status. Results: All of the study patients’ respiratory status improved with the specialized respiratory management administered in the SCI specialty unit. For a majority of these patients, respiratory improvements were noted within 1 week of admission to our SCI unit. Conclusion: Utilization of high tidal volume ventilation, high frequency percussive ventilation, and mechanical insufflation– exsufflation have demonstrated efficacy in stabilizing the respiratory status of these individuals. Optimizing respiratory status enables the patients to participate in rehabilitation therapies, allows for the opportunity to vocalize, and results in fewer days on mechanical ventilation for patients who are weanable.
Wong, Sandra Lynn; Shem, Kazuko; Crew, James
It was aimed to measure the quality of life of adults with spinal cord injury and identify domains that affect the quality of life of these individuals. Epidemiological study, conducted in 2007-2008 in Health Basic Units of Campina Grande/PB. There were 47 participants. It was used a questionnaire composed by: sociodemographic variables, etiology of injury; validated instrument to measure quality of life containing four domains: Physical Health, Environmental, Social Relationships and Psychological with their respective facets. The data collected were processed using descriptive and statistical analysis. The domains with lowest scores were: Environmental (55.20 points), Physical health (58.59 points). The facets that compromise the domains: mobility (55.3%), work capacity (55.3%), Financial resources (80.9%), Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills (51%), Participation in and opportunities for recreation/leisure activities (68.1%) and Sexual activity (34%). Results express the dissatisfaction of participants with quality of life. Nurses should contribute to rehabilitation and social reinsertion of those people, respecting their limitations, emphasizing the remaining potential and capacity for self-care. PMID:23781737
de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; de Almeida, Paulo César; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag
Injuries at the cervical level of the spinal cord, depending on the completeness of the lesion, can lead to tetraplegia, loss of sensory function, and paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Patients with paralyzed respiratory muscles (principally the diaph...
B. B. Hamilton D. B. Matchar G. P. Samsa J. A. Govert J. T. Kolimaga R. E. Goslin
U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO
Persistent pain is a common reason for reduced quality of life after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Biomarkers of neuropathic pain may facilitate translational research and the understanding of underlying mechanisms. Research suggests that pain and affective...
E. Widerstroem-Noga E. R. Felix P. M. Pattany S. Perez Y. Cruz-Almeida
An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.
da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, Joao Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio
A major consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is the development of a glial scar. Although the scar has benefits for tissue repair, it also blocks neural regeneration. Inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are elevated in the glial scar a...
D. Snow T. M. Hering
Spinal cord injury is a devastating neurological trauma, often resulting in the impairment of bladder, bowel, and sexual function as well as the loss of voluntary control of muscles innervated by spinal cord segments below the lesion site. Research is ongoing into several classes of therapies to restore lost function. These include the encouragement of neural sparing and regeneration of
Jeremy A. Bamford; Vivian K. Mushahwar
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is most often the result of a trauma to the spinal cord, but can also be associated with congenital or degenerative disease. In the United States alone, there are currently approximately a quarter million people with SCI. Sexual d...
D. Moher H. M. Schachter
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a transverse spinal cord lesion on cerebral energy metabolism in view of sensorimotor reorganisation. METHODS: PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose were used to study resting cerebral glucose metabolism in 11 patients with complete paraplegia or tetraplegia after spinal cord injury and 12 healthy subjects. Regions of interest analysis was performed to determine global glucose metabolism (CMRGlu).
U Roelcke; A Curt; A Otte; J Missimer; R P Maguire; V Dietz; K L Leenders
Here we review mechanisms and molecules that necessitate protection and oppose axonal growth in the injured spinal cord, representing not only a cast of villains but also a company of therapeutic targets, many of which have yet to be fully exploited. We next discuss recent progress in the fields of bridging, overcoming conduction block and rehabilitation after spinal cord injury
L M Ramer; M S Ramer; J D Steeves
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which induces excessive elevation of blood pressure, is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency that occurs in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) at or above the mid-thoracic spinal cord segment. Since the most comm...
Less than 10% of men with complete spinal cord injury experience ejaculation in intercourse. Vibratory stimulation of the penis triggers a predictable series of body reactions in most men with lessions above the thoracic 11th spinal cord level. These reactions are very similar to the physical manifestations of the sexual response in men with intact nervous systems. Between half and
George Szasz; Chris Carpenter
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at Th13 was induced in female Wistar rats, and changes in the urinary bladder were examined during the acute phase of SCI. Wet weights of the spinal bladders increased twofold over controls by 7 days after SCI. Intravesical volumes increased sixfold over control values by day 3, and then decreased 7 days after the injury. Maximal pressure within the bladder decreased in all spinal rats compared with controls. Smooth muscle cells were isolated from the urinary bladder, and their total protein and DNA content were measured by multiparametric cytofluorometry. DNA content of isolated smooth muscle cells decreased by day 3 and remained 7 days after the spinal injury. Total protein content of isolated smooth muscle cells was decreased 1 day after and increased 7 days after the spinal injury, just when spinal reflex of the bladder recovered. These findings suggest that hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells in urinary bladder is related to the activity of peripheral autonomic nerve and that smooth muscle cells already begin to hypertrophy during the spinal shock period to adjust themselves to the new state, that is, the spinal bladder. PMID:8351761
Mimata, H; Satoh, F; Tanigawa, T; Nomura, Y; Ogata, J
Blood flow, cardiac output, blood pressure, indicator mixing time and blood volume were measured in rats before and after spinal cord injury. After cutting off the spinal cord blood flow decreases markedly in the paraplegic area but also in the main organs of the animals. Only the blood supply of the lung increases by this manipulation. As blood volume and
J Seifert; G Lob; J Probst; W Brendel
Patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury and fibromyalgia patients display exaggerated pain after sensory stimulation. Because evident tissue damage is usually lacking, this exaggerated pain perception could be explained by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (a spinal reflex) may be used to study the excitability state of spinal cord neurons. We tested the hypothesis
Borut Banic; Steen Petersen-Felix; Ole K. Andersen; Bogdan P. Radanov; P. M. Villiger; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Michele Curatolo
Background: Combined injuries to the spinal cord and brachial plexus present challenges in the detection of both injuries as well as to subsequent treatment. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical factors of concomitant spinal cord injuries in patients with a known brachial plexus injury. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who were evaluated for a brachial plexus injury in a tertiary, multidisciplinary brachial plexus clinic from January 2000 to December 2008. Patients with clinical and/or imaging findings for a coexistent spinal cord injury were identified and underwent further analysis. Results: A total of 255 adult patients were evaluated for a traumatic traction injury to the brachial plexus. We identified thirty-one patients with a combined brachial plexus and spinal cord injury, for a prevalence of 12.2%. A preganglionic brachial plexus injury had been sustained in all cases. The combined injury group had a statistically greater likelihood of having a supraclavicular vascular injury (odds ratio [OR] = 22.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9, 271.9) and a cervical spine fracture (OR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.6, 7.5). These patients were also more likely to exhibit a Horner sign (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 7.2) and phrenic nerve dysfunction (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0, 5.8) compared with the group with only a brachial plexus injury. Conclusion: Heightened awareness for a combined spinal cord and brachial plexus injury and the presence of various associated clinical and imaging findings may aid in the early recognition of these relatively uncommon injuries. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Rhee, Peter C.; Pirola, Elena; Hebert-Blouin, Marie-Noelle; Kircher, Michelle F.; Spinner, Robert J.; Bishop, Allen T.; Shin, Alexander Y.
Abstract The current study was undertaken to follow the time course of bone loss in the proximal tibia of rats over several weeks following thoracic contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) of varying severity. It was hypothesized that bone loss would be more pronounced in the more severely injured animals, and that hindlimb weight bearing would help prevent bone loss. Twenty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats (200–225?g, 6–7 weeks old) received standard thoracic (T9) injuries at energies of 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50?g-cm. The rats were scored weekly for hindlimb function during locomotion. At 0, 2 or 3, and 8 weeks, high-resolution micro-CT images of each right tibia were obtained. Mechanical indentation testing was done to measure the compressive strength of the cancellous bone structure. The 6.25?g-cm group showed near normal locomotion, the 12.5 and 25?g-cm groups showed the ability to frequently or occasionally generate weight-supported plantar steps, respectively, and the 50?g-cm group showed only movement without weight-supported plantar stepping. The 6.25, 12.5 and 25?g-cm groups remained at the same level of bone volume fraction (cancBV/TV=0.24±0.07), while the 50?g-cm group experienced severe bone loss (67%), resulting in significantly lower (p<0.05) bone volume fraction (cancBV/TV=0.11±0.05) at 8 weeks. Proximal tibia cancellous bone strength was reduced by approximately 50% in these severely injured rats. Instead of a linear proportionality between injury severity and bone loss, there appears to be a distinct functional threshold, marked by occasional weight-supported stepping, above which bone loss does not occur.
Brown, Edward H.; Xu, Qian; Waddell, Seid W.; Burden, Robert L.; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, David S.K.
As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (?46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (?25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity.
Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.
AimSystematic review of ‘What are the clinical and radiological characteristics of inflicted spinal injury?’MethodsLiterature search of 20 electronic databases, websites, references and bibliographies (1950–2009) using selected keywords. Critical appraisal: by two trained reviewers, (a third review, if discrepant). Inclusion criteria: primary studies of inflicted spinal injury in children <18 years, alive at presentation, with a high surety of diagnosis of
A. M. Kemp; A. H. Joshi; M. Mann; V. Tempest; A. Liu; S. Holden; S. Maguire
Summary The correlation between the anatomic site of spinal cord injury and real-time conditions of bladder and urethral function\\u000a was assessed in order to provide a reasonable basis for the clinical treatment of neurogenic bladder. A total of 134 patients\\u000a with spinal cord injuries (105 males, 29 females; averaged 34.1 years old) were involved in this retrospective analysis, including\\u000a urodynamic evaluation,
Zhong Chen; Shuangquan Sun; Rongjin Deng; Dan Cai; Xiaoyi Yuan; Guanghui Du; Weimin Yang; Zhangqun Ye
Lin VW, Hsiao IN, Zhu E, Perkash I. Functional magnetic stimulation for conditioning of expiratory muscles in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:162-6. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) in conditioning expiratory muscles patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: A prospective before-after trial. Setting: The Functional Magnetic Stimulation Laboratory of the
Vernon W. Lin; Ian N. Hsiao; Ercheng Zhu; Inder Perkash
McKinley W, Meade MA, Kirshblum S, Bar- nard B. Outcomes of early surgical management versus late or no surgical intervention after acute spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1818-25. Objective: To compare neurologic, medical, and functional outcomes of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) un- dergoing early (24h and 24 -72h) and late (72h) surgical spine intervention versus
William McKinley; Michelle A. Meade; Steven Kirshblum; Barbara Barnard
Janssen-Potten YJM, Seelen HAM, Drukker J, Reulen JPH. Chair configuration and balance control in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:401-8. Objective: To study whether chair configuration influences sitting balance in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional group study. Setting: Rehabilitation centers and hospital rehabilitation departments. Patients: Ten complete high thoracic SCI (level T2-T8) patients,
Yvonne J. M Janssen-Potten; Henk A. M Seelen; Jan Drukker; Jos P. H Reulen
Widerstr[ouml ]m-Noga EG, Felipe-Cuervo E, Yezierski RP. Chronic pain after spinal injury: interference with sleep and daily activities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1571-7. Objectives: To determine how chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) interfered with sleep, exercise, work, household chores, and other daily activities and to define which clinical aspects of pain and psychosocial factors best predicted the extent
Ernesto Felipe-Cuervo; Robert P. Yezierski
Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade continence enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade continence enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:
Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens
Background:Cross-sectional studies suggest that colorectal dysfunction after spinal cord injuries (SCI) worsens as time goes by. However, follow-up studies are needed to prove this.Study design:Prospective study.Objective:To describe long-term colorectal function in SCI patients.Setting:Members of the Danish Spinal Cord Injuries Association.Methods:In 1996, 424 members of the Danish Paraplegic Association answered a detailed questionnaire describing their colorectal function. In 2006, those who
P M Faaborg; P Christensen; N Finnerup; S Laurberg; K Krogh
Study design:Retrospective Case Review.Objectives:To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy (SPAM). A rare complication of spinal cord injury.Setting:National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, UK.Materials and methods:A retrospective review of the case notes and MRI studies of 11 cases with typical MRI features of ascending myelopathy presenting
A C Planner; P M Pretorius; A Graham; T M Meagher
The purpose of the present study was to explore factors that influence the occurrence of the Babinski sign (BS) in complete\\u000a spinal cord injury patients. At Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, thirty-five subjects suffering from a complete\\u000a traumatic spinal cord injury (ASIA A) were examined for the occurrence of the BS, tendon reflex excitability and spastic muscle\\u000a tone (Modified Ashworth
Jens A. Petersen; Martin Schubert; Volker Dietz
Study Design:Prospective, non-randomized study.Objectives:To assess the incidence of urinary tract infection after urodynamics in patients with spinal cord injury.Setting:Outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Germany.Methods:Urinary tract infection and clinical symptoms in 109 consecutive outpatients with spinal cord injury following urodynamic evaluation were studied.Results:Data from 72 patients were evaluable. Of these, seven patients (9.7%) developed a significant urinary tract infection.
J Pannek; M Nehiba
Objective: To determine the relation between various components of spasticity evaluated clinically in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).Design: Case series evaluating spasticity using clinical scales commonly referenced in contemporary literature, including the Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, the Ashworth Scale, and standard scales of tendon caps, clonus, and plantar stimulation.Setting: A Veterans Affairs Medical Center Spinal Cord Injury Center.Patients: Eighty-five
Michael M. Priebe; Arthur M. Sherwood; John I. Thornby; Noshir F. Kharas; Janusz Markowski
Objectives. To investigate the significance of categorizing detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) by type in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.Methods. A retrospective review of the charts, video-urodynamic studies, and upper tract radiographic studies of 269 patients with post-traumatic, suprasacral spinal cord injuries was performed. The patients were categorized according to the DSD type (intermittent or continuous), level and completeness of
Kyle J Weld; Marshall J Graney; Roger R Dmochowski
Chan K-T, Korivi N. Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm in traumatic spinal cord injury: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:455-7. Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare vascular complication of trauma. This case report concerns a 24-year-old man with a lumbar-level spinal cord injury (SCI) secondary to a gunshot wound who developed severe exacerbation of low back and flank pain during
Kwai-Tung Chan; Naveen Korivi
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammation with activation of innate immune responses that contribute to secondary injury including oligodendrocyte apoptosis, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal death. Macrophage activation, accumulation, and persistent inflammation occur in SCI. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells with extensive functional plasticity and have the capacity to switch phenotypes by factors present in the inflammatory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord. This review will discuss the role of different polarized macrophages and the potential effect of macrophage-based therapies for SCI.
Ren, Yi; Young, Wise
Nine patients were examined in the chronic stage of spinal cord injury (12 to 56 months postinjury). Surface lumbosacral spinal cord evoked potentials (LSEPs) were obtained using electrodes placed over the S1, L2, L4, and T12 vertebral levels, referenced to a T6 surface electrode. Epidural LSEPs were obtained using a multielectrode lead placed percutaneously into the epidural space for evaluation of the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation for modification of pain and spasticity. The LSEPs resulting from supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa were composed of propagating and stationary action potential components. Based on the surface LSEP amplitudes and latencies established in healthy subjects, the data was divided into normal (less than 2 SD), marginal (between 2 and 2.5 SD), and abnormal (greater than 2.5 SD) categories. Comparison of surface and epidural LSEPs at the T12 vertebral level for the normal group (n = 6, 4 incomplete and 2 complete) revealed a mean epidural/surface amplitude ratio of 9.44 and a latency for the major negative component of 15.2 +/- 0.6 ms for the epidural versus 14.8 +/- 0.6 ms for the surface LSEP. In cases where the lead was progressively removed and LSEPs recorded (n = 4) the propagating components rapidly attenuated and increased in duration while the stationary components attenuated but did not change in duration. The LSEPs for the marginal group (n = 2, 1 incomplete and 1 complete) showed similar epidural/surface amplitude ratios. In the abnormal case (n = 1, complete) surface LSEPs were absent but epidural LSEPs were present but with stationary and propagating components of low amplitude. This study demonstrates the ability of the epidural LSEP to provide more information than the surface LSEP of the functional condition of the lumbosacral spinal cord, particularly regarding the character of the propagating action potentials and in cases when the surface LSEPs appear to be of very low amplitude or absent. PMID:8258844
St?tkárová, I; Halter, J A; Dimitrijevic, M R
Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (HO) is the ectopic formation of lamellar bone in non-osseous tissues following traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. The associated complications affect greatly their quality of life. This fact has shifted the focus of scientific effort towards the investigation and understanding of related risk factors and the pathophysiological mechanisms. Recent advancements include the investigation for genetic predisposition and association various biomarkers. In the present article we will analyze the current concepts on this topic, based on clinical and physiological evidence and we will discuss the potential areas for future research on this field. PMID:23196266
Sakellariou, V I; Grigoriou, E; Mavrogenis, A F; Soucacos, P N; Papagelopoulos, P J
...rehabilitation services to individuals with spinal cord injuries and conducts spinal cord research, as specified in 34 CFR 359.10 and...developing methods, procedures, and rehabilitation technologies that advance a wide range of independent...
Significant cardiovascular and autonomic dysfunction occurs after era spinal cord injury (SCI). Two major conditions arising from autonomic dysfunction are orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia (i.e., severe acute hypertension). Effective regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential to offset these drastic changes in cerebral perfusion pressure. In the context of orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the mechanisms underlying effective CBF after an SCI and propose future avenues for research. Although only 16 studies have examined CBF control in those with high-level SCI (above the sixth thoracic spinal segment), it appears that CBF regulation is markedly altered in this population. Cerebrovascular function comprises three major mechanisms: (1) cerebral autoregulation, (i.e., ?CBF/? blood pressure); (2) cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in PaCO2 (i.e. ?CBF/arterial gas concentration); and (3) neurovascular coupling (i.e., ?CBF/? metabolic demand). While static cerebral autoregulation appears to be well maintained in high-level SCI, dynamic cerebral autoregulation, cerebrovascular reactivity, and neurovascular coupling appear to be markedly altered. Several adverse complications after high-level SCI may mediate the changes in CBF regulation including: systemic endothelial dysfunction, sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, decentralization of sympathetic control, and dominant parasympathetic activity. Future studies are needed to describe whether altered CBF responses after SCI aid or impede orthostatic tolerance. Further, simultaneous evaluation of extracranial and intracranial CBF, combined with modern structural and functional imaging, would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of CBF regulatory processes. We are only beginning to understand the functional effects of dysfunctional CBF regulation on brain function on persons with SCI, which are likely to include increased risk of transient ischemic attacks, stroke, and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23758347
Phillips, Aaron A; Ainslie, Philip N; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Warburton, Darren E R
Objective To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries.Design Ecological study.Setting New Zealand rugby union. Participants Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. Intervention From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby
Kenneth L Quarrie; Simon M Gianotti; Will G Hopkins; Patria A Hume
The spinal cord is well known to undergo inflammatory reactions in response to traumatic injury. Activation and proliferation of microglial cells, with associated proinflammatory cytokines expression, plays an important role in the secondary damage following spinal cord injury. It is likely that microglial cells are at the center of injury cascade and are targets for treatments of CNS traumatic diseases.
Dai-shi Tian; Min-jie Xie; Zhi-yuan Yu; Qiang Zhang; Yi-hui Wang; Bin Chen; Chen Chen; Wei Wang
Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice.
Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.
Inflammation is a major factor shaping outcome during the early, acute phase of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is known that pro-inflammatory signaling within the injured spinal cord drives pathological alterations in neurosensory processing and shapes functional outcome early after injury. However, it is unclear whether inflammation persists into the chronic phase of injury or shapes sensory processing long after injury. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have performed biochemical and behavioral assessments 9 months after moderate thoracic spinal contusion injury in the rat. We have found that levels of the pro-inflammatory lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 are elevated in the chronic spinal cord lesion site. Additionally, using metabolomic profiling, we have detected elevated levels of pro-oxidative and inflammatory metabolites, along with alterations in multiple biological pathways within the chronic lesion site. We found that 28-day treatment of chronically-injured rats with the dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor licofelone elevated levels of endogenous anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory metabolites within the lesion site. Furthermore, licofelone treatment reduced hypersensitivity of hindpaws to mechanical, but not thermal, stimulation, indicating that mechanical sensitivity is modulated by pro-inflammatory signaling in the chronic phase of injury. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of inflammation and oxidative stress within spinal cord tissue far into the chronic phase of SCI, and demonstrate a role for inflammatory modulation of mechanical sensitivity in the chronic phase of injury.
Dulin, Jennifer N.; Karoly, Edward D.; Wang, Ying; Strobel, Henry W.; Grill, Raymond J.
Fluorescent imaging technique is a promising method and has been developed for in vivo applications in cellular biology. In particular, nonlinear optical imaging technique, multi-photon microscopy has make it possible to analyze deep portion of tissues in living animals such as axons of spinal code. Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are usually caused by contusion damages. Therefore, observation of spinal cord tissue after the contusion injury is necessary for understanding cellular dynamics in response to traumatic SCI and development of the treatment for traumatic SCI. Our goal is elucidation of mechanism for degeneration of axons after contusion injuries by establishing SCI model and chronic observation of injured axons in the living animals. Firstly we generated and observed acute SCI model by contusion injury. By using a multi-photon microscope, axons in dorsal cord were visualized approximately 140 micron in depth from the surface. Immediately after injury, minimal morphological change of spinal cord was observed. At 3 days after injury, spinal cord was swelling and the axons seem to be fragmented. At 7 days after injury, increased degradation of axons could be observed, although the image was blurred due to accumulation of the connective tissue. In the present study, we successfully observed axon degeneration after the contusion SCI in a living animal in vivo. Our final goal is to understand molecular mechanisms and cellular dynamics in response to traumatic SCIs in acute and chronic stage.
Oshima, Y.; Horiuchi, H.; Ogata, T.; Hikita, A.; Miura, H.; Imamura, T.
Spinal reflex conditioning changes reflex size, induces spinal cord plasticity, and modifies locomotion. Appropriate reflex conditioning can improve walking in rats after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reflex conditioning offers a new therapeutic strategy for restoring function in people with SCI. This approach can address the specific deficits of individuals with SCI by targeting specific reflex pathways for increased or decreased responsiveness. In addition, once clinically significant regeneration can be achieved, reflex conditioning could provide a means of re-educating the newly (and probably imperfectly) reconnected spinal cord.
Chen, Xiang Yang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Thompson, Aiko; Carp, Jonathan S.; Segal, Richard L.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.
Study Objectives: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with 2-5 times greater prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) than the general population. The contribution of SCI on sleep and breathing at different levels of injury using two scoring methods has not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep disturbances in the SCI population and the associated physiological abnormalities using quantitative polysomnography and to determine the contribution of SCI level on the SDB mechanism. Methods: We studied 26 consecutive patients with SCI (8 females; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; BMI 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m2; 15 cervical and 11 thoracic levels) by spirometry, a battery of questionnaires and by attended polysomnography with flow and pharyngeal pressure measurements. Inclusion criteria for SCI: chronic SCI (> 6 months post injury), level T6 and above and not on mechanical ventilation. Ventilation, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), variability in minute ventilation (VI-CV) and upper airway resistance (RUA) were monitored during wakefulness and NREM sleep in all subjects. Each subject completed brief history and exam, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Berlin questionnaire (BQ) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). Sleep studies were scored twice, first using standard 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and second using new 2012 recommended AASM criteria. Results: Mean PSQI was increased to 10.3 ± 3.7 in SCI patients and 92% had poor sleep quality. Mean ESS was increased 10.4 ± 4.4 in SCI patients and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ? 10) was present in 59% of the patients. Daytime fatigue (FSS > 20) was reported in 96% of SCI, while only 46% had high-risk score of SDB on BQ. Forced vital capacity (FVC) in SCI was reduced to 70.5% predicted in supine compared to 78.5% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Likewise forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) was 64.9% predicted in supine compared to 74.7% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Mean AHI in SCI patients was 29.3 ± 25.0 vs. 20.0 ± 22.8 events/h using the new and conventional AASM scoring criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). SCI patients had SDB (AHI > 5 events/h) in 77% of the cases using the new AASM scoring criteria compared to 65% using standard conventional criteria (p < 0.05). In cervical SCI, VI decreased from 7.2 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.3 L/min, whereas PETCO2 and VI-CV, increased during sleep compared to thoracic SCI. Conclusion: The majority of SCI survivors have symptomatic SDB and poor sleep that may be missed if not carefully assessed. Decreased VI and increased PETCO2 during sleep in patients with cervical SCI relative to thoracic SCI suggests that sleep related hypoventilation may contribute to the pathogenesis SDB in patients with chronic cervical SCI. Citation: Sankari A; Bascom A; Oomman S; Badr MS. Sleep disordered breathing in chronic spinal cord injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):65-72.
Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy; Oomman, Sowmini; Badr, M. Safwan
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major health burden and currently there is no effective medical intervention. Research performed over the last decade revealed that cells surrounding the central canal of the adult spinal cord and forming the ependymal layer acquire stem cell properties either in vitro or in response to injury. Following SCI activated ependymal cells generate progeny cells which migrate to the injury site but fail to produce the appropriate type of cells in sufficient number to limit the damage, rendering this physiological response mainly ineffective. Research is now focusing on the manipulation of ependymal cells to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage which are primarily lost in such a situation leading to secondary neuronal degeneration. Thus, there is a need for a more focused approach to understand the molecular properties of adult ependymal cells in greater detail and develop effective strategies for guiding their response during SCI.
Panayiotou, Elena; Malas, Stavros
Background Calcium channel blockers such as conotoxins have shown a great potential to reduce brain and spinal cord injury. MVIIC neuroprotective effects analyzed in in vitro models of brain and spinal cord ischemia suggest a potential role of this toxin in preventing injury after spinal cord trauma. However, previous clinical studies with MVIIC demonstrated that clinical side effects might limit the usefulness of this drug and there is no research on its systemic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of MVIIC on organs and to evaluate clinical and blood profiles of rats submitted to spinal cord injury and treated with this marine toxin. Rats were treated with placebo or MVIIC (at doses of 15, 30, 60 or 120 pmol) intralesionally following spinal cord injury. Seven days after the toxin administration, kidney, brain, lung, heart, liver, adrenal, muscles, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and intestine were histopathologically investigated. In addition, blood samples collected from the rats were tested for any hematologic or biochemical changes. Results The clinical, hematologic and biochemical evaluation revealed no significant abnormalities in all groups, even in high doses. There was no significant alteration in organs, except for degenerative changes in kidneys at a dose of 120 pmol. Conclusions These findings suggest that MVIIC at 15, 30 and 60 pmol are safe for intralesional administration after spinal cord injury and could be further investigated in relation to its neuroprotective effects. However, 120 pmol doses of MVIIC may provoke adverse effects on kidney tissue.
Objective: Prediction of outcome of ambulatory capacity in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) protocol and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP).Design: Correlational study on a prospective cohort.Setting: Spinal cord injury center, university hospital.Patients: Consecutively sampled, 70 acute and 34 chronic SCI patients.Main outcome measures: (1) ASIA motor and sensory scores; (2) tibial and
Armin Curt; Volker Dietz
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of injury perceptions and hope for recovery with life satisfaction, purpose in life, and depressive symptoms measured during inpatient rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Participants included adults hospitalized for SCI inpatient rehabilitation (N = 208), each of whom completed a modified version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire and three outcome measures: the Purpose in Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the abbreviated version of the Patient Health Questionnaire. Results: Principal components analysis indicated an SCI perceptions factor regarding severity, permanence, and cure control of SCI, and a second factor related to hope for recovery. Whereas hope for recovery was nearly universal, injury perceptions were more varied. Favorable injury perceptions of SCI were predictive of purpose in life, whereas hope for recovery was predictive of life satisfaction. Conclusions: Hope for recovery and favorable SCI perceptions were related to positive psychological outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation, although the strength of the relationship was limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24661029
Krause, James S; Edles, Philip A
Objectives To assess the risk factors associated with hospitalization and the relationship of individual health behaviors with hospitalizations following spinal cord injury (SCI). Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting A large specialty hospital in the Southeastern USA. Methods Persons with SCI responded (n=1386) to a mail survey assessing various aspects of their health including health behaviors and number of hospitalizations in the past year. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between biographic, injury, educational, and health behavior factors with hospitalization in the past year. Results Overall, 36.6% of participants were hospitalized on at least one occasion during the previous year. Two biographic and injury characteristics were associated with hospitalization: race and SCI severity. Specifically, minorities and persons with non-motor functional high cervical or non-cervical SCI (ASIA grades A–C) were more likely to be hospitalized. Three behavioral factors were significantly associated with hospitalization after controlling for biographic and injury characteristics. Persons who used prescription medications, those who engaged more in smoking behaviors, and persons who reported more SCI specific health behaviors were more likely to be hospitalized. Conclusion Specific health behaviors are associated with increased hospitalization among persons with SCI. Future research is needed to assessing the time-sequence of these relationships.
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee L.
Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified for its critical function in regulating production and survival of erythrocytes, is a member of the type 1 cytokine superfamily. Recent studies have shown that EPO has cytoprotective effects in a wide variety of cells and tissues. Here is presented the analysis of EPO effects on spinal cord injury (SCI), considering both animal experiments concerning to mechanisms of neurodegeneration in SCI and EPO as a neuroprotective agent, and some evidences coming from ongoing clinical trials. The evidences underling that EPO could be a promising therapeutic agent in a variety of neurological insults, including trauma, are mounting. In particular, it is highlighted that administration of EPO or other recently generated EPO analogues such as asialo-EPO and carbamylated-EPO demonstrate interesting preclinical and clinical characteristics, rendering the evaluation of these tissue-protective agents imperative in human clinical trials. Moreover the demonstration of rhEPO and its analogues' broad neuroprotective effects in animal models of cord lesion and in human trial like stroke, should encourage scientists and clinicians to design clinical trials assessing the efficacy of these pharmacological compounds on SCI.
Carelli, Stephana; Marfia, Giovanni; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Ghilardi, Giorgio; Gorio, Alfredo
Background: Dysphagia is a relatively common secondary complication that occurs after acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The detrimental consequences of dysphagia in SCI include transient hypoxemia, chemical pneumonitis, atelectasis, bronchospasm, and pneumonia. The expedient diagnosis of dysphagia is imperative to reduce the risk of the development of life-threatening complications. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dysphagia after SCI and associated respiratory considerations in acute cervical SCI. Methods: Bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) was conducted in 68 individuals with acute cervical SCI who were admitted to an SCI specialty unit. Videofluroscopy swallow study was conducted within 72 hours of BSE when possible. Results: This prospective study found dysphagia in 30.9% (21 out of 68) of individuals with acute cervical SCI. Tracheostomy (P = .028), ventilator use (P = .012), and nasogastric tube (P = .049) were found to be significant associated factors for dysphagia. Furthermore, individuals with dysphagia had statistically higher occurrences of pneumonia when compared with persons without dysphagia (P < .001). There was also a trend for individuals with dysphagia to have longer length of stay (P = .087). Conclusion: The role of respiratory care practitioners in the care of individuals with SCI who have dysphagia needs to be recognized. Aggressive respiratory care enables individuals with potential dysphagia to be evaluated by a speech pathologist in a timely manner. Early evaluation and intervention for dysphagia could decrease morbidity and improve overall clinical outcomes.
Chaw, Edward; Shem, Kazuko; Castillo, Kathleen; Wong, Sandra Lynn; Chang, James
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in widespread variation in muscle function. Review of motor unit data shows that changes in the amount and balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs after SCI alter management of motoneurons. Not only are units recruited up to higher than usual relative forces when SCI leaves few units under voluntary control, the force contribution from recruitment increases due to elevation of twitch/tetanic force ratios. Force gradation and precision are also coarser with reduced unit numbers. Maximal unit firing rates are low in hand muscles, limiting voluntary strength, but are low, normal or high in limb muscles. Unit firing rates during spasms can exceed voluntary rates, emphasizing that deficits in descending drive limit force production. SCI also changes muscle properties. Motor unit weakness and fatigability seem universal across muscles and species, increasing the muscle weakness that arises from paralysis of units, motoneuron death and sensory impairment. Motor axon conduction velocity decreases after human SCI. Muscle contractile speed is also reduced, which lowers the stimulation frequencies needed to grade force when paralysed muscles are activated with patterned electrical stimulation. This slowing does not necessarily occur in hind limb muscles after cord transection in cats and rats. The nature, duration and level of SCI underlie some of these species differences, as do variations in muscle function, daily usage, tract control and fibre-type composition. Exploring this diversity is important to promote recovery of the hand, bowel, bladder and locomotor function most wanted by people with SCI. PMID:23901835
Thomas, C K; Bakels, R; Klein, C S; Zijdewind, I
The management of chronic respiratory insufficiency and/or long-term inability to breathe independently has traditionally been via positive-pressure ventilation through a mechanical ventilator. Although life-sustaining, it is associated with limitations of function, lack of independence, decreased quality of life, sleep disturbance, and increased risk for infections. In addition, its mechanical and electronic complexity requires full understanding of the possible malfunctions by patients and caregivers. Ventilator-associated pneumonia, tracheal injury, and equipment malfunction account for common complications of prolonged ventilation, and respiratory infections are the most common cause of death in spinal cord–injured patients. The development of functional electric stimulation (FES) as an alternative to mechanical ventilation has been motivated by a goal to improve the quality of life of affected individuals. In this article, we will review the physiology, types, characteristics, risks and benefits, surgical techniques, and complications of the 2 commercially available FES strategies – phrenic nerve pacing (PNP) and diaphragm motor point pacing (DMPP).
Jarosz, Renata; Littlepage, Meagan M.; Creasey, Graham; McKenna, Stephen L.
Axon regeneration is hindered by a decline of intrinsic axon growth capability in mature neurons. Reversing this decline is associated with the induction of a large repertoire of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs), but the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the transcriptional changes are largely unknown. Here, we establish a correlation between diminished axon growth potential and histone 4 (H4) hypoacetylation. When neurons are triggered into a growth state, as in the conditioning lesion paradigm, H4 acetylation is restored, and RAG transcription is initiated. We have identified a set of target genes of Smad1, a proregenerative transcription factor, in conditioned DRG neurons. We also show that, during the epigenetic reprogramming process, histone-modifying enzymes work together with Smad1 to facilitate transcriptional regulation of RAGs. Importantly, targeted pharmacological modulation of the activity of histone-modifying enzymes, such as histone deacetylases, leads to induction of multiple RAGs and promotion of sensory axon regeneration in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. Our findings suggest epigenetic modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance axon regeneration.
Finelli, Mattea J.; Wong, Jamie K.
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects over 200,000 people in the USA and is a major source of morbidity, mortality, and societal cost. Management of SCI includes several components. Acute management includes medical agents and surgical treatment that usually includes either all or a combination of reduction, decompression, and stabilization. Physical therapy and rehabilitation and late onset SCI problems also play a role. A review of the literature in regard to surgical management of SCI patients in the acute setting was undertaken. The controversy surrounding whether reduction is safe, or not, and whether prereduction magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to rule out traumatic disc herniation is essential is discussed. The controversial role of timing of surgical intervention and the choice of surgical approach in acute, incomplete, and acute traumatic SCI patients are reviewed. Surgical treatment is an essential tool in management of SCI patients and the controversy surrounding the timing of surgery remains unresolved. Presurgical reduction is considered safe and essential in the management of SCI with loss of alignment, at least as an initial step in the overall care of a SCI patient. Future prospective collection of outcome data that would suffice as evidence-based is recommended and necessary.
Raslan, Ahmed M.; Nemecek, Andrew N.
Bowel problems occur in 27% to 62% of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI), most commonly constipation, distention, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, hemorrhoids, bowel accidents, and autonomic hyperreflexia. The acute abdomen, with a mortality of 9.5%, does not present with rigidity or absent bowel sounds but rather with dull/poorly-localized pain, vomiting, or restlessness, with tenderness, fever, and leukocytosis in up to 50% of patients. Fecal impaction may present with anorexia and nausea. Methods used for bowel care include laxatives, anal massage, manual evacuation, and enemas. Randomized, double-blind studies demonstrated the effectiveness of neostigmine, which increases cholinergic tone, combined with glycopyrrolate, an anticholinergic agent with minimal activity in the colon that reduces extracolonic side-effects. Improved bowel function occurs with anterior sacral root stimulators which may be combined with an S2 to S4 posterior sacral rhizotomy which interrupts the reflex arc by cutting the posterior roots carrying the spasticity-causing sensory nerves. For severe constipation, a colostomy reduces time for bowel care, providing a clean environment so decubitus ulcers may heal. Gallstones occur in 17% to 31% of patients, and acalculous cholecystitis in 3.7% of patients with acute SCI. A high index of suspicion is needed to properly diagnose bowel problems in SCI. PMID:22457863
As part of a broad study on the body composition of patients with extensive muscular paralysis, total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF), exchangeable sodium (Nae), and exchangeable potassium (Ke) were measured in 22 paraplegic and 23 quadriplegic patients. These data were compared with similar measurements obtained on 12 healthy men. Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) showed a drastic loss of K+, more pronounced in quadriplegic than in paraplegic patients. Sodium was retained and associated with a relatively increased ECF volume. The high correlation between TBW and total "exchangeable base" (Nae + Ke) reported in previous studies on healthy subjects and patients with varied diseases was also observed in SCI patients. Analysis of the present data suggests that the physiologic mechanism which maintains the tonicity of the body fluids is not affected in SCI. This analysis does not provide any clue as to the identification of the mechanism that might explain the relative expansion of the extracellular space in the presence of K+ depletion. PMID:3977567
Cardús, D; McTaggart, W G
A number of mechanisms have been elucidated that maintain neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). While target-based therapeutics are being developed based on elucidation of these mechanisms, treatment for neuropathic SCI pain has not been entirely satisfactory due in part to the significant convergence of neurological and inflammatory processes that maintain the neuropathic pain state. Thus, a combination drug treatment strategy, wherein several pain-related mechanism are simultaneously engaged, could be more efficacious than treatment against individual mechanisms alone. Also, by engaging several targets at once, it may be possible to reduce the doses of the individual drugs, thereby minimizing the potential for adverse side effects. Positive preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated improved efficacy of combination drug treatment over single drug treatment in neuropathic pain of peripheral origin, and perhaps such combinations could be utilized for neuropathic SCI pain. At the same time, there are mechanisms that distinguish SCI from peripheral neuropathic pain, so novel combination therapies will be needed.
Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline
Background Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability that has no clinically accepted treatment. Functional decline following spinal cord injury is caused by mechanical damage, secondary cell death, reactive gliosis and a poor regenerative capacity of damaged axons. Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that play key roles in different developmental processes although little is known of the expression patterns and functions of Wnts in the adult central nervous system in normal or diseased states. Findings Using qRT-PCR analysis, we demonstrate that mRNA encoding most Wnt ligands and soluble inhibitors are constitutively expressed in the healthy adult spinal cord. Strikingly, contusion spinal cord injury induced a time-dependent increase in Wnt mRNA expression from 6 hours until 28 days post-injury, and a narrow peak in the expression of soluble Wnt inhibitors between 1 and 3 days post-injury. These results are consistent with the increase in the migration shift, from day 1 to 7, of the intracellular Wnt signalling component, Dishevelled-3. Moreover, after an initial decrease by 1 day, we also found an increase in phosphorylation of the Wnt co-receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, and an increase in active ?-catenin protein, both of which suffer a dramatic change, from a homogeneous expression pattern in the grey matter to a disorganized injury-induced pattern. Conclusions Our results suggest a role for Wnts in spinal cord homeostasis and injury. We demonstrate that after injury Wnt signalling is activated via the Wnt/?-catenin and possibly other pathways. These findings provide an important foundation to further address the function of individual Wnt proteins in vivo and the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury.
Fernandez-Martos, Carmen Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez, Pau; Maqueda, Alfredo; Arenas, Ernest; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier
Using a meta-analysis, we identified 392 published cases of patients recently diagnosed with spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORA) and studied the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and radiologic data. To describe those at risk for this uncommon syndrome, mainly pediatric patients (90% of the cases) who sustain serious trauma in car accidents, serious falls, sports injuries, or child abuse, we
Franck Launay; Arabella I Leet; Paul D Sponseller
Spinal cord injury (SCI) has a significant impact on quality of life, expectancy, and economic burden, with considerable costs associated with primary care and loss of income. The complex pathophysiology of SCI may explain the difficulty in finding a suitable therapy for limiting neuronal injury and promoting regeneration. Although innovative medical care, advances in pharmacotherapy have been limited. The aim
Emanuela Esposito; Irene Paterniti; Emanuela Mazzon; Tiziana Genovese; Rosanna Di Paola; Maria Galuppo; Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Multiple communicative pathways among nervous, endocrine, and immune systems facilitate physiological immunoregulation. Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients had strikingly decreased natural and adaptive immune responses by 2 weeks post injury. While NK-cell function was decreased, plasma ACTH and urine-free cortisol levels were in creased. T cell function and activation were both diminished. With rehabilitation therapy, NK and T function increased;
J. M. Cruse; R. E. Lewis; D. L. Roe; S. Dilioglou; M. C. Blaine; W. F. Wallace; R. S. Chen
Previously, we demonstrated using a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that bladder wall tissue compliance significantly increased within the first 2 weeks following injury. In order to explore the potential molecular-level mechanisms of this event, the present study quantified molecules pertinent to bladder tissue remodeling and changes in mechanical properties. An initial gene array analysis followed by real-time
Jiro Nagatomi; Fernando DeMiguel; Kazumasa Torimoto; Michael B. Chancellor; Robert H. Getzenberg; Michael S. Sacks
Summary Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is recognised to cause hypotension and bradycardia (neu- rogenic shock). Previous studies have shown that the incidence of this in the emergency department (ED) may be low. However these studies are relatively small and have included a mix of blunt and penetrating injuries with measurements taken over different time frames. The aim was to
H. R. Gul; O. Bouamra; F. E. Leck
There are approximately 11,000 new spinal cord injury cases per year, the majority of these cases occurring in males (80%) between the ages of 16 and 30. Tetraplegia and paraplegia each accounts for approximately 50% of patient outcomes. The functional outcome of SCI is determined by the cumulative cell death resulting from both the acute phase of injury, involving mechanical
Justine J. Overman; Leon L. Hall
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a number of physiological and neurological changes resulting in loss of sensorimotor function. Recent work has shown that the central nervous system is capable of plastic behaviors post-injury, including axonal regrowth and cortical remapping. Functional integrity of afferent sensory pathways can be quantified using cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded upon peripheral limb stimulation. We
Faith A. Bazley; Angelo H. All; Nitish V. Thakor; Anil Maybhate
Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…
The two most commonly used injury criteria for Spinal injuries today are Dynamic Response Index (DRI) related to structural accelerations, usually of the seat pan, or even more directly, lumbar force measurements taken within the Hybrid-III ATD as the eva...
J. Ramalingam, K. B. Kulkarni, R. Thyagarajan
Traumatic spinal cord injuries resulting from criminal violence is a growing public health concern. Citing the criminal justice system's failure to reduce violence and the costs of treating injuries, a public health-education approach is advocated. Approaches to prevention, gun control, and a comprehensive family policy are discussed. (Author/EMK)
Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry
Symptoms of neuropathic spinal cord injury (SCI) pain include evoked cutaneous hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain, which can be present below the level of the injury. Adverse side-effects obtained with currently available analgesics complicate effective pain management in SCI patients. Voltage-gated Na+ channels expressed in primary afferent nociceptors have been identified to mediate persistent hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons,
Aldric T. Hama; Ann Woodhouse Plum; Jacqueline Sagen
We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…
Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne
The use of methylprednisolone after acute spinal cord injury has been under discussion for more than 20 years. There is ongoing debate about the efficacy and clinical impact of methylprednisolone in recovery from spinal cord injury, and studies show considerable variability in practice patterns among surgeons. Consensus statements consider methylprednisolone as a treatment option for acute spinal cord injury, but not a standard of care based on available evidence. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials of methylprednisolone in adults and teenagers after spinal cord injury, consensus statements on the use of methylprednisolone, and practice variability in North America and the United Kingdom over time. PMID:23128657
Breslin, Kristen; Agrawal, Dewesh
Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the gold standard for imaging neurological tissues including the spinal cord. The use of MRI for imaging in the acute management of patients with spinal cord injury has increased significantly. This paper used a vigorous literature review with Downs and Black scoring, followed by a Delphi vote on the main conclusions. MRI is strongly recommended for the prognostication of acute spinal cord injury. The sagittal T2 sequence was particularly found to be of value. Four prognostication patterns were found to be predictive of neurological outcome (normal, single-level edema, multi-level edema, and mixed hemorrhage and edema). It is recommended that MRI be used to direct clinical decision making. MRI has a role in clearance, the ruling out of injury, of the cervical spine in the obtunded patient only if there is abnormality of the neurological exam. Patients with cervical spinal cord injuries have an increased risk of vertebral artery injuries but the literature does not allow for recommendation of magnetic resonance angiography as part of the routine protocol. Finally, time repetition (TR) and time echo (TE) values used to evaluate patients with acute spinal cord injury vary significantly. All publications with MRI should specify the TR and TE values used.
Bozzo, Anthony; Marcoux, Judith; Radhakrishna, Mohan; Pelletier, Julie
Study design:Cross-sectional observation.Objectives:To explore the association between muscle size and function, and indices of bone strength among a sample of adults with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Ontario, Canada.Methods:Sixty-five participants (n=47 men) with chronic SCI (C1-T12 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A–D) were recruited, mean±s.d. age 49.4±12.8 years and years post-injury 14.3±10.7. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and indices of
J O Totosy de Zepetnek; B C Craven; L M Giangregorio; JO Totosy de Zepetnek
While axonal regeneration after CNS injury is limited, partial injury is frequently accompanied by extensive functional recovery. To investigate mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury, adult rhesus monkeys underwent C7 spinal cord hemisections, with subsequent analysis of behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical adaptations. We found remarkable spontaneous plasticity of corticospinal projections, with reconstitution of fully 60% of pre-lesion axon density arising from sprouting of spinal cord midline-crossing axons. This extensive anatomical recovery was associated with improvement in coordinated muscle recruitment, hand function and locomotion. These findings identify what may be the most extensive natural recovery of mammalian axonal projections after nervous system injury observed to date, highlighting an important role for primate models in translational disease research.
Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Courtine, Gregoire; Jindrich, Devin L.; Brock, John H.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Strand, Sarah C.; Nout, Yvette S.; Roy, Roland R.; Miller, Darren M.; Beattie, Michael S.; Havton, Leif A.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tuszynski, Mark H.
Objective: To perform an evidence-based review of the literature on neuroimaging techniques utilized in spinal cord injury clinical practice and research. Methods: A search of the medical literature for articles on specific neuroimaging techniques used in SCI resulted in 2,302 published reports. Review at the abstract and full report level yielded 99 clinical and pre-clinical articles that were evaluated in detail. Sixty nine were clinical research studies subjected to quality of evidence grading. Twenty-three articles were drawn from the pre-clinical animal model literature and used for supportive evidence. Seven review articles were included to add an element of previous syntheses of current thinking on neuroimaging topics to the committee process (the review articles were not graded for quality of evidence). A list of clinical and research questions that might be answered on a variety of neuroimaging topics was created for use in article review. Recommendations on the use of neuroimaging in spinal cord injury treatment and research were made based on the quality of evidence. Results: Of the 69 original clinical research articles covering a range of neuroimaging questions, only one was judged to provide Class I evidence, 22 provided Class II evidence, 17 Class III evidence, and 29 Class IV evidence. Recommendations: MRI should be used as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the spinal cord after injury. CT and plain radiography should be used to assess the bony anatomy of the spine in patients with SCI. MRI may be used to identify the location of spinal cord injury. MRI may be used to demonstrate the degree of spinal cord compression after SCI. MRI findings of parenchymal hemorrhage/contusion, edema, and spinal cord disruption in acute and subacute SCI may contribute to the understanding of severity of injury and prognosis for neurological improvement. MRI-Diffusion Weighted Imaging may be useful in quantifying the extent of axonal loss after spinal cord injury. Functional MRI may be useful in measuring the anatomic functional/metabolic correlates of sensory-motor activities in persons with SCI. MR Spectroscopy may be used to measure the biochemical characteristics of the brain and spinal cord following SCI. Intraoperative Spinal Sonography may be used to identify spinal and spinal cord anatomy and gross pathology during surgical procedures. Further research in these areas is warranted to improve the strength of evidence supporting the use of neuroimaging modalities. Positron Emission Tomography may be used to assess metabolic activity of CNS tissue (brain and spinal cord) in patients with SCI.
Lammertse, Daniel; Dungan, David; Dreisbach, James; Falci, Scott; Flanders, Adam; Marino, Ralph; Schwartz, Eric
Myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) was identified as a tetraspan proteolipid that is highly expressed by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells as a component of compact myelin. It has also been reported to be a tumour suppressor and induces apoptosis through the Fas pathway. However, its expression and function in spinal cord injury are still unclear, especially in gray matter. In this study, we performed a spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) model in adult rats and detected the dynamic changes of MAL expression in spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MAL was present in gray and white matter of normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, got a peak at 1 day, and then declined to basal levels after spinal cord injury. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that MAL immunoreactivity was found in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, MAL expression was increased predominantly in neurons rather than oligodendrocytes. We also examined the expression profiles of active caspase-3, whose changes were correlated with the expression profiles of MAL. Moreover, co-localization of MAL with active caspase-3 was detected. In conclusion, this is the first description of MAL expression changes in gray matter after spinal cord injury. Our results prompted that MAL might participate in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:23196718
Zhang, Jinlong; Cui, Zhiming; Shen, Aiguo; Li, Weidong; Xu, Guanhua; Bao, Guofeng; Sun, Yuyu; Wang, Lingling; Gu, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Zhiming
Study design:This case study outlines an individual with a T4 complete level injury with Ashworth scale grade 4 spasticity of the lower extremities.Objective:To discuss a treatment option for this individual with spinal cord injury (SCI) who had a variety of functional impairments, disabilities, and medical complications based on his level of injury.Setting:The department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at Kaiser
M S Jaffe
We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the onset of neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord crush injury in rats. A few TUNEL-positive cells were first observed within and surrounding the lesion area 4 h after injury, with the largest number observed 24–48 h after injury. Double-labeling of cells using cell type-specific markers revealed that
Young B. Lee; Tae Y. Yune; Seoung Y. Baik; Young H. Shin; Shen Du; Hyewhon Rhim; Eunhee B. Lee; Young C. Kim; Moon L. Shin; George J. Markelonis; Tae H. Oh
The neurotrophin receptor p75 is induced by various injuries to the nervous system, but its role after injury has remained unclear. Here, we report that p75 is required for the death of oligodendrocytes following spinal cord injury, and its action is mediated mainly by proNGF. Oligodendrocytes undergoing apoptosis expressed p75, and the absence of p75 resulted in a decrease in
Michael S Beattie; Anthony W Harrington; Ramee Lee; Ju Young Kim; Sheri L Boyce; Frank M Longo; Jacqueline C Bresnahan; Barbara L Hempstead; Sung Ok Yoon
OBJECTIVES—To verify the applicability and validity of time-frequency analysis (TFA) of evoked potential (EP) signals in detecting the integrity of spinal cord function and preventing spinal cord injury.?METHODS—The spinal cord was simulated during surgery in 20 mature rats by mechanically damaging the spinal cord. Cortical somatosensory evoked potential (CSEP), spinal somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), cortical motor evoked potential (CMEP), and spinal cord evoked potential (SCEP) were used to monitor spinal cord function. Short time Fourier transform (STFT) was applied to the CSEP signal, and cone shaped distribution (CSD) was used as the TFA algorithm for SSEP, CMEP, and SCEP signals. The changes in the latency and amplitude of EP signals were measured in the time domain, and peak time, peak frequency, and peak power were measured in the time-frequency distribution (TFD).?RESULTS—The TFDs of EPs were found to concentrate in a certain location under normal conditions. When injury occurred, the energy decreased in peak power, and there was a greater dispersion of energy across the time-frequency range. Strong relations were found between latency and peak time, and amplitude and peak power. However, the change in peak power after injury was significantly larger than the corresponding change in amplitude (p<0.001 by ANOVA).?CONCLUSIONS—It was found that TFA of EPs provided an earlier and more sensitive indication of injury than time domain monitoring alone. It is suggested that TFA of EP signals should therefore be useful in preventing spinal cord injury during surgery.??
Hu, Y; Luk, K; Lu, W; Holmes, A; Leong, J
The H-reflex habituates at relatively low frequency (10 Hz) stimulation in the intact spinal cord, but loss of descending inhibition resulting from spinal cord transection reduces this habituation. There is a return towards a normal pattern of low-frequency habituation in the reflex activity with cycling exercise of the affected hind limbs. This implies that repetitive passive stretching of the muscles in spinalized animals and the accompanying stimulation of large (Group I and II) proprioceptive fibers has modulatory effects on spinal cord reflexes after injury. To test this hypothesis, we induced pyridoxine neurotoxicity that preferentially affects large dorsal root ganglia neurons in intact and spinalized rats. Pyridoxine or saline injections were given twice daily (IP) for 6 weeks and half of the spinalized animals were subjected to cycling exercise during that period. After 6 weeks, the tibial nerve was stimulated electrically and recordings of M and H waves were made from interosseous muscles of the hind paw. Results show that pyridoxine treatment completely eliminated the H-reflex in spinal intact animals. In contrast, transection paired with pyridoxine treatment resulted in a reduction of the frequency-dependent habituation of the H-reflex that was not affected by exercise. These results indicate that normal Group I and II afferent input is critical to achieve exercise-based reversal of hyper-reflexia of the H-reflex after spinal cord injury.
Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Keeler, Benjamin E.; Siegfried, Rachel; Houle, John D.; Lemay, Michel A.
High doses of methylprednisolone (MPSS) came into use as part of a therapeutic protocol for acute spinal cord injuries following the published results from the NASCIS II study in 1992; they soon became a standard of care around the world. However, the results of this study have been critically reviewed and questioned by many authors since the beginning. The major argument is based on the fact that its effectiveness in reducing post-injury neurological damage has not been conclusively proved; in addition, there has been increasing evidence of serious side effects of steroids administered at high doses. In the Czech Republic, as part of pre-hospital care, MPSS according to the NASCIS II (or NASCIS III) protocol is used in all regional centres of emergency medical service. In the Czech spinal surgery centres involved in treating acute spinal cord injuries, there are 19 of them, attitudes towards the use of MPSS vary. In 16% of the centres a certainty of its beneficial effect is still maintained, faith in its effect together with fear of a "non-lege artis" procedure is the reason for MSPP use in 21%, and the fear of sanctions only leads to its use in 63% of the centres. There is no standard practice in application of the NASCIS II and NASCIS III protocols and no standard exclusion criteria exist. The two protocols are used equally, and one institution has its own modification. The recommended MPSS dose is administered with no exception in 63% of the centres; dose adjustment is employed according to the form of spinal cord lesion in 11%, the level of spinal cord injury in 5%, associated diseases in 16% and patient age in 11% of the spinal surgery centres. After the results of studies on MPSS administration in acute spinal cord injury have been analysed, many medical societies have changed their recommendations. In view of later relevant publications it is no longer possible to regard MPSS administration as a standard of cure for acute spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that MPSS administration in a 24-hour regimen after an initial dose given within 8 hours of injury is the therapeutic procedure that needs individual consideration in each patient according to their state of health and potential complications. MPSS administration at an interval longer than 8 hours after injury and for more than 24 hours is not justified, nor is it justified to use a high MPSS dose at the place of injury by an emergency ambulance crew. Key words: corticosteroids, methylprednisolone, spinal cord trauma, neurological damage. PMID:21888840
Lukáš, R; Zýková, I; Barsa, P; Srám, J
People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may demonstrate action planning disorders and limb apraxia. Many patients, who sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI), sustain a co-occurring TBI (11-29 percent of people with SCI) and therefore are at risk for limb apraxia. People with SCI and TBI (SCI/TBI) rely on powered assistive devices which amplify movement. Their ability to learn complex motor compensatory strategies, that is, limb praxis, is critical to function. We wished to identify methods of screening for apraxia in patients with SCI/TBI. We reviewed instruments available for limb praxis assessment, presenting information on psychometric development, patient groups tested, commercial/clinical availability, and appropriateness for administration to people with motor weakness. Our review revealed that insufficient normative information exists for apraxia assessment in populations comparable to SCI/TBI patients who are typically young adults at the time of injury. There are few apraxia assessment instruments which do not require a motor response. Non-motoric apraxia assessments would be optimal for patients with an underlying motor weakness.
McKenna, Cristin; Thakur, Uma; Marcus, Bradley; Barrett, Anna Mariya
Abstract Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in the pediatric population is relatively rare but carries significant psychological and physiological consequences. An interdisciplinary group of experts composed of medical and surgical specialists treating patients with SCI formulated the following questions: 1) What is the epidemiology of pediatric spinal cord injury and fractures?; 2) Are there unique features of pediatric SCI which distinguish the pediatric SCI population from adult SCI?; 3) Is there evidence to support the use of neuroprotective approaches, including hypothermia and steroids, in the treatment of pediatric SCI? A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases was undertaken to evaluate these three specific questions. A search strategy composed of specific search terms (Spinal Cord Injury, Paraplegia, Quadriplegia, tetraplegia, lapbelt injuries, seatbelt injuries, cervical spine injuries and Pediatrics) returned over 220 abstracts that were evaluated and by two observers. Relevant abstracts were then evaluated and papers were graded using the Downs and Black method. A table of evidence was then presented to a panel of experts using a modified Delphi approach and the following recommendation was then formulated using a consensus approach: Pediatric patients with traumatic SCI have different mechanisms of injury and have a better neurological recovery potential when compared to adults. Patients with SCI before their adolescent growth spurt have a high likelihood of developing scoliosis. Because of these differences, traumatic SCI should be highly suspected in the presence of abnormal neck or neurological exam, a high-risk mechanism of injury or a distracting injury even in the absence of radiological anomaly.
Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Sosa, Jose Felix; Labelle, Hubert
It has been shown previously that after spinal cord injury, the loss of grey matter is relatively faster than loss of white matter suggesting interventions to save white matter tracts offer better therapeutic possibilities. Loss of white matter in and around the injury site is believed to be the main underlying cause for the subsequent loss of neurological functions. In this study we used a series of techniques, including estimations of the number of axons with pathology, immunohistochemistry and mapping of distribution of pathological axons, to better understand the temporal and spatial pathological events in white matter following contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. There was an initial rapid loss of axons with no detectable further loss beyond 1 week after injury. Immunoreactivity for CNPase indicated that changes to oligodendrocytes are rapid, extending to several millimetres away from injury site and preceding much of the axonal loss, giving early prediction of the final volume of white matter that survived. It seems that in juvenile rats the myelination of axons in white matter tracts continues for some time, which has an important bearing on interpretation of our, and previous, studies. The amount of myelin debris and axon pathology progressively decreased with time but could still be observed at 10 weeks after injury, especially at more distant rostral and caudal levels from the injury site. This study provides new methods to assess injuries to spinal cord and indicates that early interventions are needed for the successful sparing of white matter tracts following injury.
Ek, C. Joakim; Habgood, Mark D.; Dennis, Ross; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Mallard, Carina; Wheaton, Benjamin; Saunders, Norman R.
Object Autophagy is a cellular mechanism of maintaining balance between protein synthesis and degradation; the latter can be induced by starvation and neurodegenerative disease. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces necrosis and apoptosis. Autophagic flux has not yet been defined, especially the potential role of autophagy in relation to apoptosis in different tissue cells. The object of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autophagic flux and the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis post-SCI in rats. Methods Following creation of SCI in rats, activation of autophagic flux was detected at the protein (LC3, beclin1, and p62) and mRNA (beclin1) levels and on electron microscopy images. Distribution of LC3, colocalization of activated caspase-3, and changes in expression levels of bcl-2 and Bax were assessed to investigate the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and T9-10 hemitransection was performed. Expression levels of LC3, beclin1, p62, bcl-2, and Bax were assessed by Western blot analysis, and beclin1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Distribution of LC3 and colocalization of activated caspase-3 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Autophagosome formation was investigated by electron microscopy. Results The authors found a dramatic elevation in LC3 and beclin1 levels near the scar region. Using double staining, they observed that upregulation of LC3 started at 4 hours in neurons and at 3 days in astrocytes after SCI. Confocal images indicated that the percentage of neurons with apoptosis was reduced, while the percentage of astrocytes with apoptosis was high at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 1 day post-SCI but decreased sharply at 3 days. Electron microscopy images provided evidence of autophagosome formation. Elimination of p62 indicated occurrence of autophagic flux. Expression levels of bcl-2 and Bax were increased and decreased, respectively, near the injury site. Conclusions The results of this research demonstrated that autophagic flux is activated after SCI. Potentially, inhibition of apoptosis could be a target to promote neural recovery. PMID:24559459
Hou, Hongping; Zhang, Lihai; Zhang, Licheng; Tang, Peifu
Objective To characterize neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to classification used in the study by Baron et al. (Baron classification), a classification of neuropathic pain based on the mechanism. To also compare the patterns of neuropathic pain in SCI patients with those in patients with other etiologies and to determine the differences in patterns of neuropathic pain between the etiologies. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We used the Baron classification to investigate the characteristics of neuropathic pain in SCI. Sixty-one SCI patients with neuropathic pain (The Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs score ?12) were enrolled in this study between November 2012 and August 2013, after excluding patients <20 of age, patients with visual analog scale (VAS) score <3, pregnant patients, and patients with systemic disease or pain other than neuropathic pain. Results The most common pain characteristic was pricking pain followed by electrical pain and numbness. The mean VAS score of at-level neuropathic pain was 7.51 and that of below-level neuropathic pain was 6.83. All of the patients suffered from rest pain, but 18 (54.6%) patients with at-level neuropathic pain and 20 (50.0%) patients with below-level neuropathic pain suffered from evoked pain. There was no significant difference in between at-level and below-level neuropathic pains. Conclusion The result was quite different from the characteristics of post-herpetic neuralgia, but it was similar to the characteristics of diabetic neuropathy as shown in the study by Baron et al., which means that sensory nerve deafferentation may be the most common pathophysiologic mechanism of neuropathic pain after SCI. Since in our study, we included short and discrete symptoms and signs based on diverse mechanisms, our results could be helpful for determining further evaluation and treatment.
Jang, Joon Young; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, MinYoung
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major focus for stem cell therapy (SCT). However, the science of SCT has not been well matched with an understanding of perspectives of persons with SCI. The online advocacy community is a key source of health information for primary stakeholders and their caregivers. In this study, we sought to characterize the content of SCI advocacy websites with respect to their discussion of SCT and stem cell tourism. We performed a comprehensive analysis of SCI advocacy websites identified through a web search and verified by expert opinion. Two independent researchers coded the information for major themes (e.g., scientific & clinical facts, research & funding, policy, ethics) and valence (positive, negative, balanced, neutral). Of the 40 SCI advocacy websites that met inclusion criteria, 50% (N=20) contained information about SCT. Less than 18% (N=7) contained information on stem cell tourism. There were more than ten times as many statements about SCT with a positive valence (N=67) as with a negative valence (N=6). Ethics-related SCT information comprised 20% (N=37) of the total content; the largest proportion of ethics-related content was devoted to stem cell tourism (80%, N=30 statements). Of those, the majority focused on the risks of stem cell tourism (N=16). Given the still-developing science behind SCT, the presence of cautionary information about stem cell tourism at advocacy sites is ethically appropriate. The absence of stem cell tourism information at the majority of advocacy sites represents a lost educational opportunity. PMID:21161442
Parke, Sara; Illes, Judy
Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury and statistical power needed for therapeutic clinical trials
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis (ICCP) supported an international panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the first of four papers. Here, we examine the spontaneous rate of recovery after SCI and resulting consequences for achieving statistically
J W Fawcett; A Curt; J D Steeves; W P Coleman; M H Tuszynski; D Lammertse; P F Bartlett; A R Blight; V Dietz; J Ditunno; B H Dobkin; L A Havton; P H Ellaway; M G Fehlings; A Privat; R Grossman; J D Guest; N Kleitman; M Nakamura; M Gaviria; D Short
Spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury is limited. Transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into lesioned adult rat spinal cord results in only partial functional recovery, and most transplanted cells tend to differentiate predominantly into astrocytes. In order to improve functional recovery after transplantation, it is important that transplanted neural precursor cells appropriately differentiate into cell lineages required for spinal
Takao Setoguchi; Kinichi Nakashima; Takumi Takizawa; Makoto Yanagisawa; Wataru Ochiai; Masaru Okabe; Kazunori Yone; Setsuro Komiya; Tetsuya Taga
Background In vivo preclinical imaging of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodent models provides clinically relevant information in translational research. This paper uses multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neurovascular pathology and changes in blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability following SCI in a mouse model of SCI. Methods C57BL/6 female mice (n = 5) were subjected to contusive injury at the thoracic T11 level and scanned on post injury days 1 and 3 using anatomical, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The injured cords were evaluated postmortem with histopathological stains specific to neurovascular changes. A computational model was implemented to map local changes in barrier function from the contrast enhancement. The area and volume of spinal cord tissue with dysfunctional barrier were determined using semi-automatic segmentation. Results Quantitative maps derived from the acquired DCE-MRI data depicted the degree of BSCB permeability variations in injured spinal cords. At the injury sites, the damaged barriers occupied about 70% of the total cross section and 48% of the total volume on day 1, but the corresponding measurements were reduced to 55% and 25%, respectively on day 3. These changes implied spatio-temporal remodeling of microvasculature and its architecture in injured SC. Diffusion computations included longitudinal and transverse diffusivities and fractional anisotropy index. Comparison of permeability and diffusion measurements indicated regions of injured cords with dysfunctional barriers had structural changes in the form of greater axonal loss and demyelination, as supported by histopathologic assessments. Conclusion The results from this study collectively demonstrated the feasibility of quantitatively mapping regional BSCB dysfunction in injured cord in mouse and obtaining complementary information about its structural integrity using in vivo DCE-MRI and DTI protocols. This capability is expected to play an important role in characterizing the neurovascular changes and reorganization following SCI in longitudinal preclinical experiments, but with potential clinical implications.
Study design: Prospective controlled study.Objectives: To assess the prevalence of cholelithiasis among chronic spinal spinal cord injured (SCI) male patients of the ACHS (Asociación Chilena de Seguridad). To evaluate statistically the prevalence of cholelithiasis among SCI patients compared to a control group and to the general male Chilean population. To assess the correlation between cholelithiasis in chronic SCI patients and
K P Rotter; C G Larraín
Study design:A standardized rat model of compression spinal cord injury (SCI) was used to test the effect of transient systemic hyperthermia on long-term behavioural and morphometric outcomes.Objective:To determine the effect of hyperthermia on the development of spinal cord lesion after SCI.Setting:Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Republic.Methods:Male Wistar rats (n=30) weighing between 300 and 330 g were used in the study. After
L Urdzíková; I Vanický
The complete restoration of movements lost due to a spinal cord injury (SCI) is the greatest hope of physicians, therapists\\u000a and certainly of the patients themselves. Particularly, in patients with lesions of the cervical spinal cord every little\\u000a improvement of missing or weak grasp function will result in a large gain in quality of life. Despite the fact that novel
Rüdiger Rupp; H. J. Gerner
Study design:A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Objective:A hemisection of the spinal cord is a frequently used animal model for spinal cord injury (SCI), the corresponding human condition, that is, the Brown-Sequard syndrome (BS), is relatively rare as compared with the central cord syndrome (CC). The time course of neurological deficit, functional recovery, impulse conductivity and rehabilitation length of stay
M Wirz; B Zörner; R Rupp; V Dietz
Secondary injury exacerbates the extent of spinal cord insults, yet the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon has largely been unexplored. Here we report that broad regions of the peritraumatic zone are characterized by a sustained process of pathologic, high ATP release. Spinal cord neurons expressed P2X7 purine receptors (P2X7R), and exposure to ATP led to high-frequency spiking, irreversible increases in
Xiaohai Wang; Gregory Arcuino; Takahiro Takano; Jane Lin; Wei Guo Peng; Pinglan Wan; Pingjia Li; Qiwu Xu; Qing Song Liu; Steven A Goldman; Maiken Nedergaard
Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces acute hemodynamic alterations through disruption of sympathetic output of the autonomic\\u000a nervous system and places individuals with SCI at high risk of secondary ischemic insult to the spinal cord as well as to\\u000a other organs. The purpose of this study was to examine hemodynamics and serum vasopressin concentration in the acute period\\u000a following complete cervical
Michael ZahraAmer; Amer Samdani; Kurt Piggott; Manuel Gonzalez-Brito; Juan Solano; Roosevelt De Los Santo; Juan C. Buitrago; Farid Alam; Dansha He; John P. Gaughan; Randal Betz; Dalton Dietrich; John Kuluz
Study design:Review by the spinal cord outcomes partnership endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations.Objectives:Assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies.Methods:a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric
M S Alexander; K D Anderson; F Biering-Sorensen; A R Blight; R Brannon; T N Bryce; G Creasey; A Catz; A Curt; W Donovan; J Ditunno; P Ellaway; N B Finnerup; D E Graves; B A Haynes; A W Heinemann; A B Jackson; M V Johnston; C Z Kalpakjian; N Kleitman; A Krassioukov; K Krogh; D Lammertse; S Magasi; M J Mulcahey; B Schurch; A Sherwood; J D Steeves; S Stiens; D S Tulsky; H J A van Hedel; G Whiteneck
. \\u000a Objective. This study examines the effects of agents purported to improve recovery following spinal cord trauma, methylprednisolone\\u000a sodium succinate, dextromethorphan, and the combination of both, on the post-traumatic alterations of membrane lipid metabolism.\\u000a Methods. After sparing ten rats for a control group (G1) and performing T3–T6 laminectomies in 150 rats, spinal cord injuries were\\u000a accomplished in 120 of 150
Cahide Topsakal; Fatih S. Erol; Faik M. Ozveren; Nejat Yilmaz; Nevin Ilhan
Severe spinal cord injuries above mid-thoracic levels can lead to a potentially life-threatening hypertensive condition termed autonomic dysreflexia that is often triggered by painful distension of pelvic viscera (bladder or bowel) and consequent sensory fiber activation, including nociceptive C-fibers. Interruption of tonically active medullo-spinal pathways after injury causes disinhibition of thoracolumbar sympathetic preganglionic neurons, and intraspinal sprouting of nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive primary afferent fibers is thought to contribute to their hyperactivity. We investigated spinal levels that are critical for eliciting autonomic dysreflexia using a model of noxious colorectal distension (CRD) after complete spinal transection at the 4th thoracic segment in rats. Post-traumatic sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive primary afferent fibers was selectively altered at specific spinal levels caudal to the injury with bilateral microinjections of adenovirus encoding the growth-promoting NGF or growth-inhibitory semaphorin 3A (Sema3a) compared to control green fluorescent protein (GFP). Two weeks later, cardio-physiological responses to CRD were assessed among treatment groups prior to histological analysis of afferent fiber density at the injection sites. Dysreflexic hypertension was significantly higher with NGF over-expression in lumboscral segments compared to GFP, whereas similar over-expression of Sema3a significantly reduced noxious CRD-evoked hypertension. Quantitative analysis of CGRP immunostaining in the spinal dorsal horns showed a significant correlation between the extent of fiber sprouting into the spinal segments injected and the severity of autonomic dysreflexia. These results demonstrate that site-directed genetic manipulation of axon guidance molecules after complete spinal cord injury can alter endogenous circuitry in order to modulate plasticity-induced autonomic pathophysiology.
Cameron, Adrian A.; Smith, George M.; Randall, David C.; Brown, David R.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.
Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries\\u000a of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures\\u000a in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and
Joost J. van MiddendorpGonzalo; Gonzalo M. Sanchez; Alwyn L. Burridge
Damage from oxidative stress plays a critical role in spinal cord injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf-2) signaling pathway can be activated by cellular oxidative stress. Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound found in red wine, has antioxidant properties. In the present study, we have examined the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol and the role of Nrf-2 in spinal cord hypoxic injury. The spinal cord was removed from adult male Wistar rats from T2-T10 and the dorsal column was used to induce hypoxic injury in vitro with and without treatment with resveratrol (50?M). Significant changes were found in the compound action potential (CAP) of spinal cord dorsal column, and hematoxyline and eosin (H&E) staining showed that resveratrol significantly improved neuronal injury. The biochemical assays showed significant changes in lipid peroxidase (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl (PC), mitochondrial ATP content, and mitochondrial Ca(++). Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry and Western blot, we found that after resveratrol treatment during hypoxic injury there was a significant activation of NrF-2 and down regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) content. The results show that resveratrol treatment has neuroprotective effects on CAP, Ca(++) loading, and biochemical parameters after hypoxic injury. The neuroprotective effect is likely to be exerted by increased activation of transcription factor Nrf-2 by resveratrol along with its direct antioxidant effect to ameliorate the oxidative damage and preserve mitochondrial function. PMID:23523995
Kesherwani, V; Atif, F; Yousuf, S; Agrawal, S K
Abstract Activity-based therapies such as passive bicycling and step-training on a treadmill contribute to motor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to a greater number of steps performed, improved gait kinematics, recovery of phase-dependent modulation of spinal reflexes, and prevention of decrease in muscle mass. Both tasks consist of alternating movements that rhythmically stretch and shorten hindlimb muscles. However, the paralyzed hindlimbs are passively moved by a motorized apparatus during bike-training, whereas locomotor movements during step-training are generated by spinal networks triggered by afferent feedback. Our objective was to compare the task-dependent effect of bike- and step-training after SCI on physiological measures of spinal cord plasticity in relation to changes in levels of neurotrophic factors. Thirty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal transection at a low thoracic level (T12). The rats were assigned to one of three groups: bike-training, step-training, or no training. The exercise regimen consisted of 15?min/d, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks, beginning 5 days after SCI. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus foot muscles following stimulation of the tibial nerve at 0.3, 5, or 10?Hz. The animals were sacrificed and the spinal cords were harvested for Western blot analysis of the expression of neurotrophic factors in the lumbar spinal cord. We provide evidence that bike- and step-training significantly increase the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and NT-4 in the lumbar enlargement of SCI rats, whereas only step-training increased glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels. An increase in neurotrophic factor protein levels that positively correlated with the recovery of H-reflex frequency-dependent depression suggests a role for neurotrophic factors in reflex normalization.
Cote, Marie-Pascale; Azzam, Gregory A.; Lemay, Michel A.; Zhukareva, Victoria
The results of combined cystometry and perineal electromyography were reviewed retrospectively in 75 consecutive, traumatic spinal cord-injured patients to predict lower urinary tract dysfunctions. In patients with vertebral spinal injuries at vertebral level T7 or above a reflex neurogenic bladder eventually developed. In those with vertebral level injuries T11 or below a lower motor neuron bladder dysfunction developed. Injuries at the vertebral levels T8, T9, and T10 represent a gray zone; and, depending on adjacent soft tissue injury, in these patients an upper or lower motor neuron bladder dysfunction developed. In transition from spinal shock (areflexia) to reflex neurogenic (hyperreflexia) bladder occurred at different times in different patients and could not be correlated to level of injury or its severity. The periurethral striated muscle was generally denervated if a lower motor neuron bladder dysfunction existed, however, rarely, dissociation may occur. When a reflex neurogenic bladder existed, sphincter dyssynergia was present 68 per cent of the time. This also could not be correlated with time after injury, level of injury, or severity of injury. PMID:7198327
Perlow, D L; Diokno, A C
Proper movement execution relies on precise input processing by spinal motoneurons (MNs). Spinal MNs are activated by limb joint rotations. Typically, their movement-related receptive fields (MRRFs) are sharply focused and joint-specific. After acute spinal transection MRRFs become wide, but their manifestation is not apparent, as intrinsic excitability, primarily resulting from the loss of persistent inward currents (PICs), dramatically decreases. PICs undergo a remarkable recovery with time after injury. Here we investigate whether MRRFs undergo a recovery that parallels that of the PIC. Using the chronic spinal cat in acute terminal decerebrate preparations, we found that MRRFs remain expanded 1 month after spinal transaction, whereas PICs recovered to >80% of their preinjury amplitudes. These recovered PICs substantially amplified the expanded inputs underlying the MRRFs. As a result, we show that single joint rotations lead to the activation of muscles across the entire limb. These results provide a potential mechanism for the propagation of spasms throughout the limb.
Kajtaz, Elma; Cain, Charlette M.; Heckman, C.J.
Severe spinal cord injury in humans leads to a progressive neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. This dysfunction is characterized by premature exhaustion of muscle activity during assisted locomotion, which is associated with the emergence of abnormal reflex responses. Here, we hypothesize that undirected compensatory plasticity within neural systems caudal to a severe spinal cord injury contributes to the development of neuronal dysfunction in the chro