Note: This page contains sample records for the topic vein vascular malformation from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Occult vascular malformations and seizures.  

PubMed

Occult vascular malformations are frequently associated with intractable seizures and are a common cause of lesional epilepsy. MR imaging can identify and characterize these lesions with accuracy. The presurgical evaluation must be tailored to the individual patient's presentation and circumstances. Surgical results following lesionectomy plus corticectomy may be slightly superior to lesionectomy alone, but the overall prognosis is excellent. PMID:10419577

Cosgrove, G R

1999-07-01

2

Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations  

PubMed Central

Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist.

Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.

2011-01-01

3

Spinal epidural angiomatous malformations draining into intrathecal veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine angiomatous malformations situated on the outer surface of the dura and one situated in the pelvis, from which draining veins pierced the dura and joined the coronal venous plexus are described. The clinical manifestations and myelographic appearances are similar to those of the majority of intradural angiomatous malformations. This suggests that neurological deficiencies with both types of malformation are

B. E. Kendall; V. Logue

1977-01-01

4

Pathologie neurovasculaire malformative de l'enfant : malformations anévrismales de la veine de Galien (MAVG), malformations artérioveineuses piales (MAVP), malformations des sinus duraux (MSD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the cerebral and spinal cord pediatric malformations; we particularly describe three of them: Vein of Galen arteriovenous Malformation, Pial Arteriovenous Malformation, and Dural Sinus Malformation. We report the experience of Bicêtre since 1981 to 2003, with 317 VGAM, 302 Pial AVM and 30 DSM. We describe natural history, clinical

A. Ozanne; H. Alvarez; T. Krings; P. Lasjaunias

2007-01-01

5

Complex combined vascular malformations and vascular malformation syndromes affecting the extremities in children.  

PubMed

Complex combined vascular malformations affecting extremities are an interesting group of vascular malformations because, in addition to the vascular channel anomalies present, they can be associated with other tissue changes and sometimes altered limb growth. At present, magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard imaging tool to evaluate such complex conditions in children because of its inherent tissue specificity and vascular capabilities that enables characterization of tissues and the vascular channel anomalies both for diagnosis and management of the patient. A brief review of some of these conditions is presented, including Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, Parkes Weber syndrome, extensive diffuse low-flow venous malformations, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, Maffucci's syndrome, and Gorham-Stout disease. PMID:19724993

Lobo-Mueller, Edrise; Amaral, Joao G; Babyn, Paul S; Wang, Qiuyan; John, Philip

2009-09-01

6

Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience  

SciTech Connect

The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

2013-06-15

7

Peripheral vascular malformations: imaging, treatment approaches, and therapeutic issues.  

PubMed

Peripheral vascular malformations are now described according to some accepted guidelines, and the principle of proper treatment (nidus ablation) is becoming clear. An appropriate classification scheme for vascular anomalies and definite indications for treatment are important to successful treatment overall. The findings from noninvasive imaging (ie, Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) in association with clinical findings are critical in establishing the diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the malformation, and planning appropriate treatment. Direct opacification of the nidus is useful, not only in making a correct diagnosis, but also in treating the lesion with sclerotherapy. In most cases, conservative treatment is recommended, but when a patient suffers clinical complications (eg, ulceration, pain, hemorrhage, cardiac failure, or unacceptable cosmetic consequences), the nidus sclerotherapy becomes mandatory. If the vascular malformation has blood outflow to a drainage vein during nidus opacification, flow control (with balloon occlusion, tourniquet, or embolization) is necessary to achieve sclerosant stasis within the nidus. Embolotherapy (with a coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or small particles) should be used for subsequent multifaceted palliative therapy. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed in the treatment of a high-flow lesion, and a dedicated team approach is necessary for appropriate management in most cases. PMID:16227489

Hyodoh, Hideki; Hori, Masakazu; Akiba, Hidenari; Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Hyodoh, Kazusa; Hareyama, Masato

2005-10-01

8

Anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein mimicking pulmonary arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Anomalies involving the pulmonary vein are so rare that most of them have been reported as a case or a series of several cases. Some of them often simulate pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and patients undergo pulmonary angiography for embolization. Herein we report a case of anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein that was confirmed on pulmonary angiography after initial diagnosis of pulmonary AVM on contrast medium-enhanced chest computed tomography. PMID:23989502

Hyun, Dongho; Do, Young Soo; Lim, Seong Joo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo

2014-06-01

9

The anatomy of a novel malformation of the cardinal vein system.  

PubMed

Anomalies of the cardinal vein system (CVS) are uncommon but if unidentified can lead to life-threatening complications. We report a case with a novel malformation of the CVS. Autopsy with in situ dissection of heart and large vessels in a 25-day-old infant was performed. The infant was diagnosed with congenital heart disease, and systemic venous malformations were suspected by imaging. Correlation between premortem imaging and postmortem anatomy was performed. The superior and inferior left venous systems developed abnormally. A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) drained into the right atrium via the coronary sinus. A persistent left inferior vena cava (PLIVC) continued with the hemiazygos vein (HV), which drained into the PLSVC. The innominate vein was absent. The left renal vein was connected to the HV. Two common iliac veins were identified. The left drained into the PLIVC and the right into the right inferior vena cava (IVC). Perinatal echocardiography identified only the dilated HV draining to an LSVC and a small IVC. Congenital heart disease included hypoplastic left ventricle with hypoplastic aortic arch and subaortic stenosis, which were diagnosed by fetal ultrasound. Remodeling of components of CVS takes place during development, and unknown mechanisms guide this process. Defects of this process can lead to variable malformations, as demonstrated by this case. To our knowledge, the combination of complex malformations of both superior and IVC systems that extends to the common iliac veins has not been reported. We recommend identifying vascular anomalies in situ during autopsy before anatomic relationships are altered. PMID:19863444

Castro, Eumenia C C; Devine, William; Galambos, Csaba

2010-01-01

10

Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations  

PubMed Central

Background: Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). Aims: To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Materials and Methods: All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. Results: A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 – 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. Conclusions: AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow.

Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

2013-01-01

11

Detachable balloon occlusion of vascular malformations in young patients.  

PubMed

Two patients (11 and 23 months old, respectively) had successful transcatheter occlusion of congenital arterio-venous or veno-venous malformations using detachable silicone balloons. Patient 1 with a cervicofacial hemangioma had selective embolization of the feeding artery with two balloons. Patient 2, with a veno-venous malformation between a systemic vein and pulmonary vein also had selective embolization of the lesion with two balloons. Follow-up examinations confirm a successful outcome in both cases. PMID:8894781

Sreeram, N; Miller, P; John, P

1996-10-11

12

Laser treatment of oral vascular malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral Vascular Malformations (OVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by morph-structural and/or functional changes of nature in severity and extension. OVM can affect any type of vessels arterial, venous or lymphatic and any capillary or anatomical. They are divided into two categories: low and high flow. In this study were treated 40 patients with OVM with a range size from 2 mm to 44 mm; they were subjected to clinical examination supported by Colour-Doppler Ultrasound instrumental examination and only for doubt cases the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was prescribed. Only low flow venous and capillary malformations were treated by GaAlAs laser (Wiser®, Lambda, Brindole,Italy, 980nm) and KTP laser (SmartLite®, DEKA, Florence, Italy, 532nm) with two different techniques: the Transmucosal Thermophotocoagulation (TMT) and the Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). These techniques permitted a good control of haemostasis, avoiding bleeding both during surgery and in the postoperative. It is obtained an excellent and good healing respectively in 10% and 60% of cases, a moderate and poor resolution respectively in 22.5% and 7.5% of cases. A clear diagnosis allowed the management of Venous malformations (VM) by laser devices with wavelengths highly absorbed in haemoglobin in safety and efficacy and according to the principles of minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to verify if the laser is effective in the treatment of OVM for the purpose of the clinical findings and the postoperative course. The Authors concluded that the laser can be considered the "gold standard" for treating OVM.

Romeo, U.; Gaimari, G.; Mohsen, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.

2014-01-01

13

Vascular Remodeling in Varicose Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the histopathologic aspects of varicose (n=29; mean age, 52 ± 12 years) and normal saphenous veins (n=17; mean age, 51 ± 12 years) of patients from a similar age group. We focused on the changes that occur in the circular layer of the venous wall. We examined the venous walls by light microscopy and transmission electronmicroscopy.

Mark M. Kockx; Michiel W. M. Knaapen; Hilde E. Bortier; Kristel M. Cromheeke; Odile Boutherin-Falson; Michel Finet

1998-01-01

14

Childhood cerebrovascular diseases not associated with vascular malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 76 patients in the pediatric age group suffering from cerebrovascular diseases treated in the years 1970–1983, 26 patients (34%) did not harbor intracranial vascular malformations (aneurysms or arterovenous malformations). Two groups of patients were identified: (a) those suffering from a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (16 cases); (b) those suffering from an ischemic stroke (10 cases). Of those with spontaneous intracranial

C. Mazza; A. Pasqualin; P. Cavazzani; B. Dalla Bernardina; R. Pian

1985-01-01

15

MRI characteristics and classification of peripheral vascular malformations and tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular malformations and tumors comprise a broad spectrum of lesions that can cause significant morbidity and even mortality\\u000a in children and adults. Classification of vascular malformations into high flow and low flow has significant impact on management\\u000a since the main treatment of the former is transarterial embolization and the later percutaneous sclerotherapy. Magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive effective

Hicham Moukaddam; Jeffrey Pollak; Andrew H. Haims

2009-01-01

16

Caroli disease associated with vein of galen malformation in a male child.  

PubMed

We report the first case of a male child with both Caroli disease and vein of Galen malformation. The neonate presented to our department with congestive heart failure as a result of the intracranial arteriovenous high-flow shunt. Over time, several endovascular embolizations led to a complete angiographic occlusion of the shunt. Additionally, the diagnosis of Caroli disease was made at the age of 2 months. He developed choledocholithiasis necessitating endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. As a prolonged medical treatment he received ursodeoxycholic acid and antibiotics. A coincidence of Caroli disease and vein of Galen malformation has not yet been described. Both diseases are very rare, leading to the question of whether there is a link in the pathogenesis. Based on the few previously described underlying mechanisms, we develop hypotheses about the relationship between both rare diseases. We consider overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors as a possible common molecular mechanism in their pathogenesis. We also highlight the critical role of increased expression of the Notch ligand Jagged 1 both in the development of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in general and in the formation of dilated intrahepatic bile ducts (eg, in Caroli disease). PMID:24958584

Grieb, Dominik; Feldkamp, Axel; Lang, Thomas; Melter, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Brassel, Friedhelm; Meila, Dan

2014-07-01

17

Embolization of Vascular Malformations in Head and Neck Regions  

PubMed Central

Summary The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of embolization of each type of vascular malformation. Thirty three patients with a diagnosis of vascular malformations in head and neck regions who were treated by embolization at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between 1997-2002 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 19 arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), two arteriolar-capillary types, ten venous malformations, one veno-lymphatic malformation and one mixed capillary and venous types. The goal of treatment is to restore function and to prevent bleeding complications with particularly good cosmetic results. The technique and therapeutic agents depended on the types and flow characteristics of each malformation. Transarterial embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate were used in AVMs, unless no arterial route approach, then direct puncture was tried. This was carried out in five patients with AVMs. Polyvinyl alcohol was used in two capillary lesions. All venous malformations were treated by absolute alcohol injection, percutaneously. All had good outcome without serious complications. Two patients had further plastic surgery, one was AVM of eyelid and the other was facial venolymphatic malformation. Embolization is considered to be the primary treatment by eradication of those abnormal vessels directly at the target, whereas delayed plastic surgery may be needed later.

Churojana, A.; Chiewwit, P.; Chuangsuwanich, A.; Aojanepong, C.; Chawalaparit, O.; Suthipongchai, S.

2004-01-01

18

A review of contemporary options for medical management of hemangiomas, other vascular tumors, and vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies include vascular tumors and vascular malformations. With growing pharmacologic options and parallels to cancer treatment and biology, the hematologist-oncologist has assumed a more prominent role in clinical care and research relating to these diagnoses. This also is a growing area for targeted therapies and drug repositioning. We performed a review of contemporary options for medical management of these lesions. PubMed was searched for "vascular anomaly", "hemangioma", "vascular malformation", "arteriovenous malformation", "capillary malformation", "cerebral cavernous malformation", "lymphatic malformation", and "venous malformation", each with "drug treatment" as a modifier. Manuscripts were reviewed to verify diagnoses, indications for treatment, dose-schedules, evidence of effectiveness, toxicities, and mechanisms of action. ClinicalTrials.gov also was reviewed for relevant trials. More than 20 agents were identified which have been used to treat vascular anomalies. Rigorous studies are lacking for many of these. The rarity of these tumors has limited development of medical approaches to treatment. Cooperative group trials will be needed to prove the effectiveness of drugs which have shown promise in cases and small series. The observant clinician remains a powerful tool for identifying potential new treatments for vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:23665062

Blatt, Julie; McLean, Thomas W; Castellino, Sharon M; Burkhart, Craig N

2013-09-01

19

Vascular access outcomes using the transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although the transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula (TBAVF) is increasingly performed for hemodialysis vascular access in patients lacking adequate superficial veins, little is known about the long-term patency or risk factors for failure.

Jonathan H. Segal; Liise K. Kayler; Peter Henke; Robert M. Merion; Sean Leavey; Darrell A. Campbell

2003-01-01

20

Spinal vascular malformations in non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   In patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and no evidence for a cerebral aneurysm on angiography, a frequent\\u000a cause of the hemorrhage is perimesencephalic hemorrhage or other cerebral vascular pathology. In some patients no cause is\\u000a found. The exact incidence of a spinal vascular malformation (SVM) as the origin for the SAH is not known. We assessed the\\u000a occurrence

M. R. Germans; F. A. Pennings; M. E. S. Sprengers; W. P. Vandertop

2008-01-01

21

The use of laser and Varioscope in the management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular lesions are common in infants and children and can be grouped into two main classifications: vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Hemangiomas are proliferative lesions characterized by increased endothelial cell turnover. Vascular malformations are congenital abnormalities involving capillaries, veins and/or lymphatics. A multidisciplinary approach regarding diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies in children is crucial. Several options are available for the treatment of hemangiomas. Since January 2003, 14 cases of hemangioma located in the cervicofacial region were treated at "La Sapienza" University. Seven patients underwent surgical resection, using Varioscope, and seven laser therapy. The Varioscope is an operating microscope, which is mounted on the head. Specific advantages convinced the authors to use the Varioscope initially. Autofocus, a magnification range between 3.6-7.2X and automatic parallax control allow unlimited freedom of movement which alleviates the discomfort of keeping the same distance for a long time. Laser therapy can selectively destroy specific targets within the skin by using an appropriate wavelength and pulse duration. Laser treatment parameters are based on several factors, including lesion location, lesion morphology, and patient skin type. The purpose of our study was aesthetic and functional improvement in patients comparing surgical and laser therapy. We obtained an aesthetic improvement in 11 patients and local pain control in all patients. Analysis of the cosmetic results was subjective but all parents indicated satisfaction with their decision regarding their child's treatment. PMID:16722347

Chiummariello, S; Mezzana, P; Fioramonti, P; Onesti, M G; Alfano, C; Scuderi, N

2006-01-01

22

Multiple vascular malformations in head and neck - Rare case report  

PubMed Central

Multiple venous malformations (VMs) pose some of the most difficult challenges in the practice of medicine today. Clinical manifestations of these lesions are extremely protean. Because of the rarity of these lesions, experience in their diagnosis and management by most clinicians is limited. This augments the enormity of the problem and can lead to misdiagnoses, inadequate treatment, high complication rates and poor patient outcomes. Because these lesions can recur, removal of the nidus is the main priority. Vascular malformations are best treated in medical centers where patients with these maladies are seen regularly and the team approach is utilized. The presence of intralesional nerve in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and sometimes in VMs, as reported in this study, provides an additional diagnostic criterion that is simple and reliable and can be readily used to differentiate VMs from hemangiomas.

Lakkasetty, Yogesh T; Malik, Sangeeta; Shetty, Akshay; Nakhaei, Kourosh

2014-01-01

23

Diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb: part I. Clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

There is significant confusion in the literature when describing vascular anomalies, and vascular malformations are often misnamed or incorrectly classified. Part I of this two-part series on the diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs will discuss the dermatologist's role in the diagnosis of these lesions. At least nine types of vascular malformations with specific clinical and radiologic characteristics must be distinguished in the lower limbs: Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, port-wine stain with or without hypertrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, macrocephaly-capillary malformation, Parkes Weber syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, venous malformation, glomuvenous malformation, and lymphatic malformation. This article highlights the differences in clinical appearance and discusses the differential diagnosis of extensive vascular malformations in an attempt to ensure earlier diagnosis and better outcomes for these patients. PMID:22000870

Redondo, Pedro; Aguado, Leyre; Martínez-Cuesta, Antonio

2011-11-01

24

Transvenous Onyx embolization of a subependymal deep arteriovenous malformation with a single drainage vein: technical note.  

PubMed

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon. Treatment options include embolization, radiosurgery and surgery, separately or combined, the final goal being complete occlusion of the malformation. We describe the case of a symptomatic small subependymal AVM with a single deep drainage vein previously treated unsuccessfully by radiosurgery and transarterial embolization. The AVM was successfully embolized transvenously using Onyx, achieving complete occlusion in a single treatment session. PMID:23542648

Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Saura, Pedro; Saura, Javier; Muñiz, Jesus; Albisua, Julio; Pérez-Higueras, Antonio

2013-01-01

25

Transvenous Onyx embolization of a subependymal deep arteriovenous malformation with a single drainage vein: technical note.  

PubMed

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon. Treatment options include embolization, radiosurgery and surgery, separately or combined, the final goal being complete occlusion of the malformation. We describe the case of a symptomatic small subependymal AVM with a single deep drainage vein previously treated unsuccessfully by radiosurgery and transarterial embolization. The AVM was successfully embolized transvenously using Onyx, achieving complete occlusion in a single treatment session. PMID:24610142

Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Saura, Pedro; Saura, Javier; Muñiz, Jesus; Albisua, Julio; Pérez-Higueras, Antonio

2014-04-01

26

Multiple Vascular Anomalies Involving Testicular, Suprarenal Arteries and Lumbar Veins  

PubMed Central

Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

Jyothsna, P; Mohandas Rao, KG; Somayaji, SN; Ashwini, LS

2012-01-01

27

Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins.  

PubMed

Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity. PMID:22454832

Jyothsna, P; Mohandas Rao, Kg; Somayaji, Sn; Ashwini, Ls

2012-03-01

28

Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes vascular remodeling in vein graph in mice.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role and mechanism of Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) on vascular remodeling in mice. We assessed the effect of HHcy on vascular remodeling using a carotid arterial vein patch model in mice with the gene deletion of cystathionine-beta-synthase (Cbs). Vein grafts were harvested 4 weeks after surgery. Cross sections were analyzed using Verhoeff-van Gieson staining, Masson`s Trichrome staining, and immunostaining for morphological analysis and protein level assessment. The effect of Hcy on collagen secretion was examined in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). We found that Cbs-/- mice with severe HHcy exhibited thicker neointima and a higher percentage of luminal narrowing in vein grafts. In addition, severe HHcy increased elastin and collagen deposition in the neointima. Further, severe HHcy increases CD45 positive cells and proliferative cells in vein grafts. Finally, Hcy increases collagen secretion in RASMC. These results demonstrate that HHcy increases neointima formation, elastin and collagen deposition following a carotid arterial vein patch. The capacity of Hcy to promote vascular fibrosis and inflammation may contribute to the development of vascular remodeling. PMID:24896329

Tan, Hongmei; Shi, Chengwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Lavelle, Muriel; Yu, Caijia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

2014-01-01

29

A girl with sternal malformation/vascular dysplasia association  

PubMed Central

Sternal malformation/vascular dysplasia association is a rare congenital dysmorphology, which has not yet been reported in Korea. Its typical clinical features include a sternal cleft covered with atrophic skin, a median abdominal raphe extending from the sternal defect to the umbilicus, and cutaneous craniofacial hemangiomata. We report a case of a full-term newborn who presented with no anomalies at birth, except for a skin defect over the sternum and a supraumbilical raphe. Multiple hemangiomas appeared subsequently on her chin and upper chest wall, and respiratory distress due to subglottic hemangioma developed during the first 2 months of life. Her symptoms were controlled with oral prednisolone administration. No respiratory distress have recurred during the 3-year follow-up period.

Lee, Na Yong; Cho, Hye Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

2013-01-01

30

Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with a Dominant Outflow Vein: Results of Ethanol Embolization  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess retrospectively the treatment results of ethanol embolization of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV). Materials and Methods Nineteen patients who had peripheral AVMs with a DOV were enrolled in this study (mean age, 29.7 years; range, 15-42 years). Fifty-one ethanol embolizations (mean, 2.7; range, 1-8) were performed by direct puncture (n = 29), the transarterial approach (n = 13), the transvenous approach (n = 5), or a combination of methods (n = 4) under general anesthesia. Coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization of the DOV or another flow occlusion technique (i.e., use of an external pneumatic pressure cuff) to achieve vascular stasis were required in all patients during ethanol embolization. Clinical follow-up (mean, 22.2 months; range, 1-53 months) was performed for all patients, and imaging follow-up (mean, 22.1 months; range, 2-53 months) from the last treatment session was performed for 14 patients. The therapeutic outcome (cure, improvement, no change, or aggravation) was assessed according to the clinical response and the degree of devascularization at angiography. Results Ethanol embolization was considered as an effective procedure in all patients. Thirteen (68%) of 19 patients were cured and six displayed improvement. Three of six patients with improvement needed further treatment sessions for residual AVMs. Four patients (21%) experienced a total of eight complications. Five complications (three events of a distal embolism and one event each of a urinary bladder necrosis and a brain infarct related to the accidental cannulation of the common carotid artery during insertion of the Swan-Ganz catheter) were major and three complications (skin necrosis) were minor. Conclusion Peripheral AVMs with a DOV can be effectively treated with a high cure rate by the use of ethanol embolization alone or in conjunction with the use of coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization.

Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Young Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Ko, Justin Sang; Lee, Ae Ryoung; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook

2008-01-01

31

Stenting of a Venous Stenosis in Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a high flow arteriovenous shunt at the choroidal level In the neonatal period, it typically presents with cardiac failure. Venous stenoses; occlusions and anomalies are often present. In the absence of adequate venous outflow pathways, severe, irreversible cerebral parenchymal damage may occur due to intracranial venous hypertension, altered hydrodynamics and ischaemia. We present a case of deployment of a stent across a focal superior jugular bulb stenosis in an effort to avert this outcome.

Brew, S.; Taylor, W.; Reddington, A.

2001-01-01

32

Coexistence of cavernous hemangioma and other vascular malformations of the orbit. A report of three cases.  

PubMed

Coexistence of orbital cavernous hemangioma and other vascular malformations is unusual and few cases have been reported. We describe the clinical and radiological features of three cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas associated with other vascular malformations, selected reviewing a series of 181 cases of cavernous hemangiomas. All patients were males (age ranging from 43 to 67 years) without vascular systemic disorders and/or a clinical syndrome. They experienced slow progressive exophthalmos. One of them developed acute pulsatile proptosis (case 2), while another experienced slow progressive diplopia (case 3). In one case vascular lesions were bilateral (case 3) and in two patients two different lesions coexisted in the same orbit (cases 1 and 2). All patients underwent surgical excision, which was partial in two cases. Two patients had cavernous hemangiomas in association with a venous malformation (a varix in case 1 and a lymphangioma in case 2), while in the other ones (case 3) cavernous hemangioma was associated with a low-flow arteriovenous malformation. No patient denied visual impairment postoperatively. Few cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas coexisting with other vascular malformations have been reported in the literature. This entity seems to be an association of different variants of orbital vascular malformations, presenting with a wide spectrum of clinical forms and probably with the same pathogenesis. PMID:24750713

Strianese, Diego; Napoli, Manuela; Russo, Carmela; D'Errico, Arianna; Scotti, Nadia; Puoti, Gianfranco; Bonavolontà, Giulio; Tranfa, Fausto; Briganti, Francesco

2014-04-30

33

Diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb: part II. Systemic repercussions [corrected], diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

At least nine types of vascular malformations with specific clinical and radiologic characteristics must be distinguished in the lower limbs: Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, port-wine stain with or without hypertrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, macrocephaly-capillary malformation, Parkes Weber syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, venous malformation, glomuvenous malformation, and lymphatic malformation. Extensive vascular malformations are often more complex than they appear and require a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Vascular malformations may be associated with underlying disease or systemic anomalies. Part II of this two-part series on the diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb highlights the systemic repercussions [corrected] (bone, articular, visceral, and hematologic involvement), diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. PMID:22000871

Redondo, Pedro; Aguado, Leyre; Martínez-Cuesta, Antonio

2011-11-01

34

Pediatric Vascular Malformations: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and the Role of Interventional Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mulliken and Glowacki classification (1982) differentiated vascular anomalies into two groups based on their endothelial\\u000a characteristics: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Vascular anomalies are localized defects of the vasculature that\\u000a affect a limited number of vessels in a restricted area of the body. These defects are secondary to errors in vascular morphogenesis.\\u000a Depending on the type of vessel involved, the

Anne Marie Cahill; Els Louisa Francine Nijs

35

[Quality standards for ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral vascular malformations and vascular tumors. Report of the French Society for Vascular Medicine].  

PubMed

THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF THE FRENCH SOCIETY OF VASCULAR MEDICINE FOR THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS ARE BASED ON THE TWO FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS: Technical know-how: mastering the use of ultrasound devices and the method of examination. Medical know-how: ability to adapt the methods and scope of the examination to its clinical indication and purpose, and to rationally analyze and interpret its results. AIMS OF THE QUALITY STANDARDS: To describe an optimal method of examination in relation to the clinical question and hypothesis. To achieve consistent practice, methods, glossary, and reporting. To provide good practice reference points, and promote a high-quality process. ITEMS OF THE QUALITY STANDARDS: The three levels of examination; their clinical indications and goals. The reference standard examination (level 2), its variants according to clinical needs. The minimal content of the examination report; the letter to the referring physician (synthesis, conclusion and proposal for further investigation and/or therapeutic management). Commented glossary (anatomy, hemodynamics, semiology). Technical bases. Settings and use of ultrasound devices. Here, we discuss the methods of using ultrasonography for the assessment of peripheral vascular malformations and tumors. PMID:23312609

Laroche, J-P; Becker, F; Khau-Van-Kien, A; Baudoin, P; Brisot, D; Buffler, A; Coupé, M; Jurus, C; Mestre, S; Miserey, G; Soulier-Sotto, V; Tissot, A; Viard, A; Vignes, S; Quéré, I

2013-02-01

36

Two vascular variations in one patient of the hepatogastric trunk and retro-aortic left renal vein  

PubMed Central

This study reports the case of a 61-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain who underwent abdominal computed tomography examination. A solid lesion originating from the biliary tract was detected on the images. While evaluating the vascular structures, the splenic artery was seen to directly originate from the abdominal aorta. Retro-aortic left renal vein was also seen on computerised tomography. Splenic artery originating from the abdominal aorta is a rare variation. The retro-aortic left renal vein is a malformation characterized by the presence of a vessel that drains the left renal blood up to the inferior vena cava crossing behind the aortic artery. Such anatomical variations are important for surgeons to be aware of.

Ibrahim, Guler; Yamp;?lmaz, Mehmet Tugrul; Keskin, Suat; Aramp;?bas, Alpay; Akamp;?n, Dondu; Akcan, Mustafa; Salbacak, Ahmet

2013-01-01

37

Biological distinctions between juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and vascular malformation: An immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact nature of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is still in dispute. In recent years, the main controversy of its nature has focused on hemangioma and vascular malformation. In this study, the immunolocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-1\\/fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (VEGFR-1\\/Flt-1), VEGF receptor-2\\/fetal liver kinase-1 (VEGFR-2\\/Flk-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and CD34 was investigated in 28

Mengjun Zhang; Xicai Sun; Huapeng Yu; Li Hu; Dehui Wang

2011-01-01

38

Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to describe the morphological features of gastrointestinal vascular malformations (VM) and of hemangiolymphangiomas (HLA) and to establish correlations with clinical characteristics. Significant findings: Fifteen VMs and 12 HLAs that were encountered over a period of 22 years, were retrospectively analyzed. The VMs often involved the colon, small intestine, but also the stomach, whereas none of the HLAs arose in the stomach. VMs were more frequently associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcer and were larger than HLAs (p<0.01 for all comparisons). Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis were associated with VM (p=0.02 and p=0.05). Surgical resection was performed for 1 HLA and 14 VMs. Vessel abnormalities such as shunt vessels, wall tufts (excrescences) and arterialized veins were more frequent in VMs (p=0.01, p=0.04 and <0.01, respectively) whereas aneurysm-like cavities were observed in both lesion types. Mucosal abnormal vessels were observed only in VMs, whereas HLAs were associated with mucosal lymphatic clusters (p<0.01). Most HLAs contained a D2-40 hetero-geneously positive lymphatic component, were Glut-1 negative and CD31 reactive. There was no statistical difference in occurrence of associated autoimmune, tumoral and cardiovascular conditions between the two patient groups. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that morphological features such as increased size, ulcer, thrombosis, hemorrhage and presence of aberrant mucosal vessels favor the diagnosis of VM. Co-existence of other clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, encountered in association with both lesion types, might exacerbate a tendency towards hemorrhage.

Handra-Luca, Adriana; Montgomery, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

39

Rivaroxaban for the treatment of consumptive coagulopathy associated with a vascular malformation.  

PubMed

The localized activation of coagulation in vascular malformations can lead to a consumptive coagulopathy characterized by elevated D-dimers and a consumption of fibrinogen and platelets, eventually giving rise to a bleeding tendency. By reducing coagulation activation, anticoagulant treatment with heparin is able to limit this haemostatic dysregulation and the associated bleeding diathesis. Here, we present a case of a consumptive coagulopathy due to a large venous malformation with a sustained correction of the fibrinogen depletion and associated bleeding tendency both with subcutaneous enoxaparin and with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. PMID:24202701

Vandenbriele, Christophe; Vanassche, Thomas; Peetermans, Marijke; Verhamme, Peter; Peerlinck, Kathelijne

2014-07-01

40

Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: Diagnosis and Treatment of 13 Children with Extended Clinical Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We herein present our experience in diagnosing and treat- ing 13 children with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM), with an emphasis on possible prognostic indicators, endovascular strategies, factors affecting treatment during the neonatal period, and long-term follow-up. With this review, we hope to identify those factors that have the most significant prognostic value in determining long-term

Blaise V. Jones; William S. Ball; Thomas A. Tomsick; Justin Millard; Kerry R. Crone

41

Co-occurrence of a cerebral cavernous malformation and an orbital cavernous hemangioma in a patient with seizures and visual symptoms: Rare crossroads for vascular malformations  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are angiographically occult vascular malformations of the central nervous system. As a result of hemorrhage and mass effect, patients may present with focal neurologic deficits, seizures, and other symptoms necessitating treatment. Once symptomatic, most often from hemorrhage, CCMs are treated with microsurgical resection. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCHs) are similar but distinct vascular malformations that present within the orbital cavity. Even though CCMs and OCHs are both marked by dilated endothelial-lined vascular channels, they are infrequently seen in the same patient. Case Description: We provide a brief overview of the two related pathologies in the context of a patient presenting to our care with concomitant lesions, which were both resected in full without complication. Conclusion: This is the first known report that describes a case of concomitant CCM and OCH and explores the origins of two pathologies that are rarely encountered together in neurosurgical practice. Recognition of disparate symptomatologies is important for properly managing these patients.

Choudhri, Omar; Feroze, Abdullah H.; Lad, Eleonora M.; Kim, Jonathan W.; Plowey, Edward D.; Karamchandani, Jason R.; Chang, Steven D.

2014-01-01

42

[Superficial and peripheral vascular malformations. Role of interventional radiology and of embolization].  

PubMed

Embolization plays a major role in the management of arteriovenous malformations and fistulae on one hand, and of venous malformations and cystic lymphangiomas on the other hand. The treatment of arteriovenous fistulae today resorts to a primarily endovascular technique including the insertion under controlled flow of a releasable balloon or of a metallic coil positioned in the area of the fistula. Of course, this is possible only if there is a gap between the arterial and venous pathways. When the vessels are in direct contact, surgery must be preferred. In cases of arteriovenous malformations, embolization currently plays a great role; either it is performed with particles in the immediate preoperative period, two or three days before surgery, or as a definitive curative treatment with a polymerizing substance applied in situ. The use of flexible microcatheters allows penetrating into most of these vascular malformations and scattering polymerizing material all over the shunting areas. This is possible for superficial malformations, as is now performed, for instance, for brain AVMs. This embolization obviously can be contemplated only after a decision to treat these malformations has been made, knowing that they may be silent or acquire an uncontrollable evolution potential. This therefore is a collegial decision. As far as venous hemangiomas and cystic lymphangiomas are concerned, the greatest basic therapeutic means today is direct puncture and the in situ injection of a fibrosing substance under angiographic monitoring: the use of Ethibloc or, failing this, of absolute alcohol, has dramatically transformed the prognosis of these malformations, for which the surgical difficulties are well known (easy rupture, blood that often fails to coagulate, life-long progressive evolution).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1588233

Merland, J J; Marache, P; Herbreteau, D; Pruvo, J P; Aymard, A; Lacroix, X; Gobin, Y P; Casasco, A

1992-01-01

43

Stabiliztin of VEGFR2 Signaling by Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 is Critical for Vascular Development  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are human vascular malformations caused by mutations in three genes of unknown function: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. CCM3, also known as PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10), was initially identified as a messenger RNA whose abundance was induced by apoptotic stimuli in vitro. However, the in vivo function of CCM3 has not been determined. Here, we describe mice with a deletion of the CCM3 gene either ubiquitously or specifically in the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, or neurons. Mice with global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of CCM3 exhibited defects in embryonic angiogenesis and died at an early embryonic stage. CCM3 deletion reduced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling in embryos and endothelial cells. In response to VEGF stimulation, CCM3 was recruited to and stabilized VEGFR2, and the carboxyl-terminal domain of CCM3 was required for the stabilization of VEGFR2. Indeed, the CCM3 mutants found in human patients lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain were labile and were unable to stabilize and activate VEGFR2. These results demonstrate that CCM3 promotes VEGFR2 signaling during vascular development.

Y He; H Zhang; L Yu; M Gunel; T Boggon; H Chen; W Min

2011-12-31

44

Colonic arteriovenous malformation in a child misinterpreted as an idiopathic colonic varicosis on angiography: remarks on current classification of childhood intestinal vascular malformations.  

PubMed

A case of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a child caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the colon is presented. On diagnostic angiography, the lesion was misinterpretated as an idiopathic colonic varicosis because none of the characteristic features of an AVM were present. The role of angiography and shortcomings in nomenclature and classification of intestinal vascular anomalies in childhood are discussed. PMID:15018179

Defreyne, Luc; Meersschaut, Valerie; van Damme, Sofie; Berrevoet, Frido; Robberecht, Eddy; Praet, Marleen

2003-12-01

45

Arteriovenous Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

... system. The vascular system includes arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to ... organs; veins carry blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect the arteries and veins. An AVM is ...

46

Clinical effects and safety of interventional therapy for parenchyma vascular malformation.  

PubMed

Parenchyma vascular malformation (VM) is a common disease in modern society. Here, we investigated the clinical effects and safety of interventional therapy (IT) on the treatment of parenchyma VM. From January 1998 to December 2010, 31 patients with VM who elected IT were investigated, including 11 cases of venous VM and 20 cases of arteriovenous malformation. There were 19 males and 12 females, ranging from 12 to 51 years in age. VM often occurred in the four limbs and other areas, such as the trunk and reproductive organs. Under the guidance of digital subtraction angiography, vascular hardener was injected into the VM spot via percutaneous puncture. Then, embolotherapy was conducted via the transcatheter feeding artery. We found that, in all cases, the malformed vessels were completely or partially blocked. After treatment, the local swelling of vessels was alleviated and the diabrosis and bleeding ceased. The soft tissue lump shrank, then stiffened and became fixed. There was no occurrence of severe intraoperative or postoperative complications in any patient. In summary, IT is an effective method for treating parenchyma VM, causes only a minor operative wound, and should be viewed as the first choice intervention. PMID:24535912

Cai, M J; Liang, W X; Mai, W W; He, W L; Kuang, H X

2014-01-01

47

Diffuse cerebral arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Diffuse cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare disorder of the brain and defined as diffuse infiltration of brain by complex vascular structures. It is usually associated with hereditary syndromes and presented with hemorrhage or seizure. We report a 20-year-old male patient who presented with drooping of the left eyelid. He had no skin lesion. The ophthalmological examination was within normal limits except periorbital bruit on oscultation. Radiological examination revealed a diffuse AVM comprising multiple arteriovenous shunts, draining bihemispherically through numerous dilated veins but without a typical arteriovenous malformation nidus. No hereditary disorder was detected. No treatment was performed and the patient is still under follow-up. PMID:20963707

Solmaz, Ilker; Secer, Halil Ibrahim; Tehl?, Ozkan; Tem?z, Caglar; Izc?, Yusuf; Gonul, Engin

2010-10-01

48

Investigation of vascular changes following penile vein ligation.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize the changes in penile vasculature that occur following penile vein ligation, we performed pharmaco-cavernosometry and pharmaco-cavernosography on 20 patients after penile vein ligation for comparison with preoperative studies. Three patients with return of erectile function underwent repeat study: 2 were completely normal and 1 had a mild leak from the deep dorsal vein. The remaining 17 patients had continued complaints of erectile impairment. Of these studies 4 showed no evidence of venous leakage, 11 identified a new site of leakage (7 corporo-spongiosal shunts, 2 crural veins and 2 with multiple sites of involvement) and 1 revealed persistent leak through the proximal stump of the resected deep dorsal vein, while 1 patient had an iodine allergy and underwent pharmaco-cavernosometry only. A repeat study in the latter patient showed flow volumes consistent with continued venous leakage. In summary, penile vein ligation appears to be effective at correcting venous leakage noted on cavernosography. However, new sites of leakage frequently appear postoperatively. A corporo-spongiosal shunt was the most frequent site of recurrent venous leakage. A surprisingly high percentage of patients with continued complaints of erectile dysfunction following penile vein ligation demonstrate no venous leakage on subsequent pharmaco-cavernosography. PMID:8051743

Kerfoot, W W; Carson, C C; Donaldson, J T; Kliewer, M A

1994-09-01

49

Overexpression of Notch1 Ectodomain in Myeloid Cells Induces Vascular Malformations through a Paracrine Pathway  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that truncation of Notch1 (N1) by provirus insertion leads to overexpression of both the intracellular (N1IC) and the extracellular (N1EC) domains. We produced transgenic (Tg) mice expressing N1EC in T cells and in cells of the myeloid lineage under the regulation of the CD4 gene. These CD4C/N1EC Tg mice developed vascular disease, predominantly in the liver: superficial distorted vessels, cavernae, lower branching of parenchymal vessels, capillarized sinusoids, and aberrant smooth muscle/endothelial cell topography. The disease developed in lethally irradiated normal mice transplanted with Tg bone marrow or fetal liver cells as well as in Rag?/? Tg mice. In nude mice transplanted with fetal liver cells from (ROSA26 × CD4C/N1EC) F1 Tg mice, abnormal vessels were of recipient origin. Transplantation of Tg peritoneal macrophages into normal recipients also induced abnormal vessels. These Tg macrophages showed impaired functions, and their conditioned medium inhibited the proliferation of liver sinusoid endothelial cells in vitro. The Egr-1 gene and some of its targets (Jag1, FIII, FXIII-A, MCP-1, and MCP-5), previously implicated in hemangioma or vascular malformations, were overexpressed in Tg macrophages. These results show that myeloid cells can be reprogrammed by N1EC to induce vascular malformations through a paracrine pathway.

Li, Xiujie; Calvo, Ezequiel; Cool, Marc; Chrobak, Pavel; Kay, Denis G.; Jolicoeur, Paul

2007-01-01

50

Amplatzer vascular plug IV for occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with cryptogenic stroke  

PubMed Central

Paradoxical embolism resulting in cryptogenic stroke has received much attention recently, with the primary focus on patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, it is essential to be vigilant in the search for other causes of paradoxical embolic events, such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). We describe successful closure of pulmonary AVM with a St Jude Medical (Plymouth, MN) Amplatzer™ vascular plug IV. The newer AVP-IV devices can be used for successful embolization of tortuous pulmonary AVM in remote locations where use of other traditional devices may be technically challenging.

Veeram Reddy, Surendranath R; Patel, Vishal G; Gualano, Sarah K

2014-01-01

51

Amplatzer vascular plug IV for occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with cryptogenic stroke.  

PubMed

Paradoxical embolism resulting in cryptogenic stroke has received much attention recently, with the primary focus on patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, it is essential to be vigilant in the search for other causes of paradoxical embolic events, such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). We describe successful closure of pulmonary AVM with a St Jude Medical (Plymouth, MN) Amplatzer™ vascular plug IV. The newer AVP-IV devices can be used for successful embolization of tortuous pulmonary AVM in remote locations where use of other traditional devices may be technically challenging. PMID:24987264

Veeram Reddy, Surendranath R; Patel, Vishal G; Gualano, Sarah K

2014-05-01

52

Vascular structure and binomial statistics for response modeling in radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has a slow and progressive vaso-occlusive effect. Some studies suggested the possible role of vascular structure in this process. A detailed biomathematical model has been used, where the morphological, biophysical and hemodynamic characteristics of intracranial AVM vessels are faithfully reproduced. The effect of radiation on plexiform and fistulous AVM nidus vessels was simulated using this theoretical model. The similarities between vascular and electrical networks were used to construct this biomathematical AVM model and provide an accurate rendering of transnidal and intranidal hemodynamics. The response of different vessels to radiation and their obliteration probability as a function of different angiostructures were simulated and total obliteration was defined as the probability of obliteration of all possible vascular pathways. The dose response of the whole AVM is observed to depend on the vascular structure of the intra-nidus AVM. Furthermore, a plexiform AVM appears to be more prone to obliteration compared with an AVM of the same size but having more arteriovenous fistulas. Finally, a binomial model was introduced, which considers the number of crucial vessels and is able to predict the dose response behavior of AVMs with a complex vascular structure.

Andisheh, Bahram; Bitaraf, Mohammad A.; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Brahme, Anders; Lind, Bengt K.

2010-04-01

53

Clinical course and medical management of neonates with severe cardiac failure related to vein of Galen malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Neonatal presentation of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) with intractable cardiac failure is considered a poor prognostic sign. Interventional neuroradiology with embolisation has been shown to control cardiac failure, but there is a perception that neurological outcome in survivors is poor. Objective: To determine if aggressive intensive care and anaesthetic management of cardiac failure before urgent embolisation can influence morbidity and mortality. Patients: Nine newborns (four boys, five girls) were diagnosed with symptomatic vein of Galen malformations in the neonatal period during the period 1996–2001. Eight developed intractable high output cardiac failure requiring initial endovascular treatment in the first week of life. Results: The immediate outcome after a series of endovascular procedures was control of cardiac failure and normal neurological function in six (66%) patients, one death from intractable cardiac failure in the neonatal period, and two late deaths with severe hypoxic-ischaemic neurological injury (33% mortality). Clinical review at 6 months to 4 years of age showed five infants with no evidence of neurological abnormality or cardiac failure and one child with mild developmental delay (11%). Conclusions: Aggressive medical treatment of cardiac failure and early neurointervention combined with modern neuroanaesthetic care results in good survival rates with low morbidity even in cases of high risk VGAM presenting in the immediate perinatal period with cardiac failure. Systemic arterial vasodilators improve outcome in neonates with cardiac failure secondary to VGAM. Excessive ß adrenergic stimulation induced by conventional inotropic agents may exacerbate systemic hypoperfusion.

Frawley, G; Dargaville, P; Mitchell, P; Tress, B; Loughnan, P

2002-01-01

54

[Pregnancy follow-up and outcome in women with superficial vascular malformations].  

PubMed

Superficial vascular malformations (MAV), so far called "superficial angioma", are uncommon and often unknown. The last classification, done by the "International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies", is essential to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes. Extramedullar localisations are rare. The coexistence of a pregnancy and a MAV states two problems: the medical and paraclinic supervision of the volume of the MAV and its risk of thrombosis with the choice of thrombosis prevention, and the mode of delivery and type of anaesthesia depending on its anatomical location. We revised the management of pregnant women with a MAV illustrating possible troubles to deal with. We reported the cases of two women having for the first one a pharyngolaryngeal MAV, the second a cutaneous MAV located on the leg and needing a multidisciplinary management with obstetricians, anaesthesists, hematologists, dermatologists, ENT, radiologists and pediatricians. PMID:20430676

Lousquy, R; Morel, O; Bisdorff, A; Drouet, L; Rossignol, M; Barranger, E

2010-05-01

55

The use of adenosine in the treatment of a high-flow vein of Galen malformation in an adult.  

PubMed

The treatment of high-flow vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) remains a therapeutic challenge for the neurosurgeon and the neurointerventionalist, as it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates despite recent advances in open cranial surgery and interventional neuroradiology. A 37-year-old patient presented with a history of non-specific headaches. He had a history of heart failure since birth that was caused by an untreated VGAM. Intravenous boluses of adenosine were injected as an attempt to slow down the arteriovenous shunting of a VGAM prior to endovascular treatment. Adenosine can be a very useful adjunct in patients with extremely high arteriovenous shunting. n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) should be the embolic material of choice due to its quick polymerization and adhesive properties. PMID:24491583

Tsimpas, Asterios; Chalouhi, Nohra; Halevy, Jonathan D; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Monteith, Stephen J; Dumont, Aaron S; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

2014-07-01

56

Biological distinctions between juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and vascular malformation: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The exact nature of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is still in dispute. In recent years, the main controversy of its nature has focused on hemangioma and vascular malformation. In this study, the immunolocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-1/fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1), VEGF receptor-2/fetal liver kinase-1 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and CD34 was investigated in 28 cases of JNA and 20 cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCH). The immunostaining levels of VEGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1 were higher and more frequent in vascular endothelial cells of JNA than those of OCH (p<0.05). The average microvessel density (MVD) marked by CD34 in JNA was (49.3 ± 9.1)/HPF (high power field), which was higher than OCH (29.1 ± 6.7)/HPF (p<0.05). Immunoreactivity of PCNA was localized in both endothelial and stromal cell components of JNA, but was predominantly seen in the stromal cells. However, no PCNA immunoreactivity was identified in any of the stromal and endothelial cells in cases of OCH. The immunostaining levels of CD34, VEGF, Flt-1, Flk-1, and PCNA in JNA were higher than those in OCH. These data support the view that JNA has biological characteristics of an angiogenic histogenetic tumor. In the future, anti-angiogenic therapy may represent a novel treatment strategy for JNA. PMID:20688360

Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Xicai; Yu, Huapeng; Hu, Li; Wang, Dehui

2011-10-01

57

Plexiform nerve sheath tumor or vascular malformation--role of advanced MR neurography and diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

The authors report a vascular malformation mimicking a plexiform peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Three Tesla magnetic resonance neurography with high-resolution anatomic and advanced functional diffusion tensor imaging was helpful in evaluating full extent of the lesion and characterizing its internal architecture.

Jalali-Farahani, Sahar; Blakeley, Jaishri O.; Belzberg, Allan J.; Carrino, John A.

2014-01-01

58

HIV-related primary Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower eyelids mimicking a vascular malformation in an otherwise asymptomatic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient presenting with reddish-blue nodules on both the lower eyelids and no other lesion is reported. The nodules were compressible and promptly resumed their original size and shapes upon removing the pressure. At first sight, these lesions were clinically suggestive of a vascular malformation. Carotid angiograms supported this diagnosis. However, the analysis of the serum samples of the patient

A. Bortolani; D. Barisoni; A. Mombello

1996-01-01

59

Optimizing treatment parameters for the vascular malformations using 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared Nd:YAG pulsed laser treatment had been proved to be an efficient method to treat large-sized vascular malformations like leg telangiectasia for deep penetrating depth into skin and uniform light distribution in vessel. However, optimal clinical outcome was achieved by various laser irradiation parameters and the key factor governing the treatment efficacy was still unclear. A mathematical model in combination with Monte Carlo algorithm and finite difference method was developed to estimate the light distribution, temperature profile and thermal damage in epidermis, dermis and vessel during and after 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Simulation results showed that epidermal protection could be achieved during 1064 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. However, optimal vessel closure and blood coagulation depend on a compromise between laser spot size and pulse duration.

Gong, Wei; Lin, He; Xie, Shusen

2010-02-01

60

[Superficial venous malformations].  

PubMed

Superficial venous malformations are part of a larger group now called superficial vascular anomalies and previously known as angiomas. These include vascular tumors or infantile hemangioma, low-flow vascular malformations (capillary, lymphatic, and superficial venous malformations) and high-flow vascular malformations (arteriovenous malformations). Some of these lesions are complex. This classification facilitates their multidisciplinary therapeutic management. Embolization is an effective curative treatment for malformations of small and intermediate size. The objective for large or complex malformations is to restore anatomic function and improve cosmetic results. PMID:20304597

Barbier, Charlotte; Martin, Arnaud; Papagiannaki, Chrisanti; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Lorette, Gérard; Herbreteau, Denis

2010-04-01

61

Transhepatic Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug: Report of Four Cases  

SciTech Connect

The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a device originally intended for arterial and venous embolization in peripheral vessels. From December 2004 to March 2007 we implanted a total of 8 AVPs in the portal venous system in our institution for preoperative portal vein embolization in 4 patients (55-71 years) prior to right hemihepatectomy. AVP implantation was successful in all patients. Total occlusion of the embolized portal vein branches was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications associated with the embolization.

Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de; Weidemann, Juergen; Rosenthal, Herbert; Keberle, Marc [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie (Germany); Chavan, Ajay [Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH (Germany); Baus, Stefan; Galanski, Michael [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie (Germany)

2007-11-15

62

A Systematic Classification of the Congenital Bronchopulmonary Vascular Malformations: Dysmorphogeneses of the Primitive Foregut System and the Primitive Aortic Arch System  

PubMed Central

Purpose We reviewed the cases of 33 patients from our clinic and 142 patients from the literature with congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations (BPVM), systematically analyzed the bronchopulmonary airways, pulmonary arterial supplies, and pulmonary venous drainages, and classified these patients by pulmonary malinosculation (PM). Materials and Methods From January 1990 to January 2007, a total of 33 patients (17 men or boys and 16 women or girls), aged 1 day to 24 years (median, 2.5 months), with congenital BPVM were included in this study. Profiles of clinical manifestations, chest radiographs, echocardiographs, esophagographs, computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), cardiac catheterizations with angiography, contrast bronchographs, bronchoscopies, chromosomal studies, surgeries, and autopsies of these patients were analyzed to confirm the diagnosis of congenital BPVM. A total of 142 cases from the literature were also reviewed and classified similarly. Results The malformations of our 33 patients can be classified as type A isolated bronchial PM in 13 patients, type B isolated arterial PM in three, type C isolated venous PM in two, type D mixed bronchoarterial PM in five, type F mixed arteriovenous PM in one, and type G mixed bronchoarteriovenous PM in nine. Conclusion Dysmorphogeneses of the primitive foregut system and the primitive aortic arch system may lead to haphazard malinosculations of the airways, arteries, and veins of the lung. A systematic classification of patients with congenital BPVM is clinically feasible by assessing the three basic bronchovascular systems of the lung independently.

Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Chiu, Han-Yao; Tsao, Lon-Yen; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Yang, Albert D.

2008-01-01

63

Successful Embolization of a Large Vein of Galen Malformation in a Premature Infant Presenting with Congestive Heart Failure and Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a premature infant with a vein of Galen malformation (VGM) who presented with high-output heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and respiratory distress. An echocardiogram showed normal cardiac anatomy, patent ductus arteriosus, and retrograde flow in the descending aorta. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of head confirmed the diagnosis of a large VGM. The patient developed multiorgan failure. Endovascular embolization of the VGM was successfully performed with an excellent outcome.

Aly, Ashraf M.; Garcia, Clarisa Y.; von Ritschl, Rudiger

2012-01-01

64

Disorganized vascular structures in sporadic venous malformations: a possible correlation with balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are among the most common slow-flow vascular malformations characterized by irregular venous channels, luminal thrombi, and phleboliths. To systematically manifest the disorganized vascular structures in sporadic VMs, we initially evaluated histopathological characteristics, perivascular cell coverage, adhesion molecules expression and vascular ultrastructures. Then, the expression of Tie2 and TGF-? in VMs was detected. Meanwhile, the in vitro studies were performed for mechanism investigation. Our data showed that the perivascular ?-SMA+ cell coverage and expression of adhesion molecules in VMs were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal skin tissues. We also found that the expression and phosphorylation levels of Tie2 were upregulated, whereas TGF-? was downregulated in VMs, and they were negatively correlated. Moreover, the in vitro results also revealed a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, as demonstrated by the findings that Ang-1 (agonist of Tie2) treatment significantly downregulated TGF-? expression, and treatment with recombinant TGF-? could also suppress Tie2 expression and phosphorylation. This study provided strong evidence supporting the disorganized vascular structures and dysregulation of related molecules in sporadic VMs, and demonstrated a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, which might help to develop novel therapeutics for vascular disorganization-related disorders.

Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yan-Fang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Li, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yi-Fang

2014-01-01

65

Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ? VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ? Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

Kim, Se-Hee [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States) [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Holland, Melinda B. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kim, Jun-Dae [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)] [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jin, Suk-Won, E-mail: suk-won.jin@yale.edu [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)] [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

2013-01-25

66

[Arteriovenous malformations].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations are serious high-flow vascular malformations. Four progressive stages have been described: dormancy, expansion, destruction and heart failure. Progression from one stage to another is not systematic but depends on events - physiological or traumatic, sometimes iatrogenic. Pulsed Doppler imaging of venous waveforms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most informative examinations for both diagnosis and follow-up of arteriovenous malformations.Arteriography and angio-MRI help guide treatment decisions. Treatment of the malformation must not be envisioned until it reaches a symptomatic stage. It most often combines an endovascular procedures and wide surgical excision. A syndromic form must be considered in cases of systemic angioma. PMID:20206460

Naouri, Michael; Lorette, Gérard; Barbier, Charlotte; Zakine, Gilbert; Herbreteau, Denis

2010-04-01

67

Histological study on the treatment of vascular malformations resistant to pulsed dye laser  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: The pulsed dye laser (PDL) is recognized both as an effective treatment for vascular malformations and the as first treatment of choice for these lesions. However, PDL irradiation has poor efficacy in some patients, particularly the elderly. The present study histologically assessed such patients to try to elucidate the reason. Materials and Methods: A pulsed dye laser was used in 3 subjects in whom previous laser treatment was ineffective. Three-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained before laser treatment, 1 week and 3 months after the laser treatment. Each specimen was stained with toluidine blue and examined under light microscopy followed by electron microscopy with oolong tea extract (OTE) staining. Results: Microscopy revealed an increase in the vasculature at baseline and an increased number of dermal fibroblasts. One week post-irradiation, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed together with extensive interstitial perivascular edema. At 1 week and 3 months after laser irradiation, normal structures were observed for both blood vessels and capillary endothelial cells. Mild changes were noted in other interstitial features, but findings obtained 3 months after irradiation were almost similar to those before irradiation. Conclusions: The lower efficacy of PDL treatment in the elderly was possibly due to the markedly low amount of red blood cells in our subjects' blood vessels, a major chromophore for the PDL, was markedly low. It is possible that age-related denaturation of dermal matrix collagen plays some role in maintaining the vasculature in the interstitium with edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration could lead to the cellular release of some cytokines which favor reconstruction of the vasculature.

Seiji, Kawana; Sato, Shigeru; Naito, Zenya

2013-01-01

68

Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Hoekstra, L. T. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bennink, R. J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)] [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)

2013-12-15

69

Percutaneous Transsplenic Access to the Portal Vein for Management of Vascular Complication in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein for management of vascular complication in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Between Sept 2009 and April 2011, percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein was attempted in nine patients with chronic liver disease. Splenic vein puncture was performed under ultrasonographic guidance with a Chiba needle, followed by introduction of a 4 to 9F sheath. Four patients with hematemesis or hematochezia underwent variceal embolization. Another two patients underwent portosystemic shunt embolization in order to improve portal venous blood flow. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver. The percutaneous transsplenic access site was closed using coils and glue. Results: Percutaneous transsplenic splenic vein catheterization was performed successfully in all patients. Gastric or jejunal varix embolization with glue and lipiodol mixture was performed successfully in four patients. In two patients with a massive portosystemic shunt, embolization of the shunting vessel with a vascular plug, microcoils, glue, and lipiodol mixture was achieved successfully. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver; however, only one patient was treated successfully. Complete closure of the percutaneous transsplenic tract was achieved using coils and glue without bleeding complication in all patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein can be an alternative route for portography and further endovascular management in patients for whom conventional approaches are difficult or impossible.

Chu, Hee Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

70

The influence of steroids on vascular tension of isolated superficial veins of the nose and face during the estrous cycle of gilts.  

PubMed

The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus and through the facial vein into the external jugular vein. The current study was designed to determine whether estradiol and progesterone affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in cycling gilts (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors and estradiol receptors in these veins. The influence of hormones on vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel and the phase of the estrous cycle. Estradiol decreased vascular tension in the nasal vein during the follicular phase (P<0.05) and increased tension in the frontal vein during the luteal phase (P<0.05). Progesterone increased the vascular tension of the frontal vein (P<0.05) and decreased the tension of the other veins (P<0.05) in both phases of the cycle. Expression of estradiol receptor beta but not of progesterone receptor was observed in the superficial veins of the nose and face. In conclusion, the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on the vascular tension of the superficial veins of the nose and face in female pigs as well as the reactivity of these veins to steroid boar pheromones can affect the blood supply from the nasal cavity to the venous cavernous sinus. We propose that the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins may also influence the action of boar pheromones absorbed into the nasal mucosa in gilts and may reach the brain via local destination transfer. PMID:19878982

Grzegorzewski, W J; Ch?opek, J; Tabecka-?onczy?ska, A; Stefa?czyk-Krzymowska, S

2010-01-15

71

Venous Grafts Procured During the Learning Curve for Endoscopic Veins Harvesting Show Compromised Vascular Remodeling  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Endoscopic vein harvest (EVH) is the US standard of care for CABG but recent comparisons to open harvest suggest that conduit quality and outcomes may be compromised. To test the hypothesis that problems with EVH may relate to its learning curve and conduit quality, we analyzed the quality and early function of conduits procured by technicians with varying EVH experience. METHODS EVH was performed during CABG by “experienced” (>900 cases, n=55 patients) vs. “novice” (<100 cases, n=30 patients) technicians. Afterwards, conduits were and examined for vascular injury using optical coherence tomography (OCT), with segments identified as injured further examined for gene expression using a tissue injury array. Conduit diameter was measured intra- and postoperatively (day 5 and 6 months) using OCT and Computed-Tomography angiography. RESULTS EVH performed by novice harvesters resulted in increased number of discrete graft injuries and higher expression of tissue injury genes. Regression analysis revealed an association between shear stress and early dilation (positive remodeling) (R2 =0.48, p <0.01). Injured veins showed blunted positive remodeling at 5 days and a greater degree of late lumen loss at 6 months. CONCLUSION Under normal conditions, intraluminal shear stress leads vein grafts to develop positive remodeling over the first postoperative week. Injury to conduits, a frequent sequela of the learning curve for EVH, was a predictor of early graft failure, blunted positive remodeling and greater negative remodeling. Given the ongoing annual volume of EVH cases, rigorous monitoring of the learning curve represents an important and unrecognized public health issue.

Kiani, Soroosh; Desai, Pranjal H.; Thirumvalavan, Nannan; Kurian, Dinesh John; Flynn, Mary Margaret; Zhao, XiaoQing

2011-01-01

72

Pulmonary varix mimicking arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

We report here a case of a 44-year-old female with a pulmonary varix. The patient was asymptomatic; a routine chest X-ray incidentally revealed a serpiginous mass in the left hilar region. Computed tomography revealed a serpiginous, dilated vascular structure in the left upper lobe that continued into the lower lobe and was suggestive of an arteriovenous malformation. Pulmonary angiography revealed no arterial abnormality; however, the filling of an abnormally dilated pulmonary vein was observed. Angiography is considered to be the most useful method for the confirmatory diagnosis of pulmonary varices. PMID:18164399

Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Komori, Masashi; Ochiai, Reiji; Egashira, Ryoko; Nakazono, Takahiko; Kudo, Sho

2008-01-01

73

Transcatheter Occlusion of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare entity with well-described signs, symptoms, and complications. Pulmonary\\u000a AVMs can be congenital or acquired. They have been described in the setting of severe liver disease and after palliation with\\u000a a Glenn shunt in which the hepatic venous blood flow has been excluded from the pulmonary blood flow. A variety of surgical\\u000a and transcatheter

H. Farra; D. T. Balzer

2005-01-01

74

Accelerated ischemic vascular retinopathy after intravitreally injected bevacizumab for central retinal vein occlusion in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Ischemic changes in the retinal circulation are an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA/Roche, Basel, Switzerland) for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). In the two cases reported here, ischemic changes in the retina vasculature following intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO were observed with the aim of describing the clinical and angiographic features of these changes. Methods: Two elderly patients with recent-onset CRVO received one off-label intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 0.05 mL/1.25 mg. Results: In Case 1, the patient’s pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/400. At 3 weeks post injection, the patient could count fingers at a distance of 1 ft (30 cm) and fluorescein angiography showed reduction in intraretinal hemorrhages and areas of retinal non-perfusion. However, at 6 weeks these were markedly increased compared with those seen in the photograph taken 3 weeks after treatment. In Case 2, the patient’s pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/200. At 1 month post injection, vision had decreased to 20/400 and fluorescein angiography showed severe macular ischemia with a remarkable capillary dropout throughout the macula. Conclusion: Ischemic retinal injury may be an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO. Although progression of retinal ischemia in CRVO could be observed shortly after intravitreal bevacizumab, whether this is a drug- or procedure-related effect or part of the natural history of the condition remains uncertain.

Isola, Vincenzo; Pece, Alfredo; Massironi, Claudio; Reposi, Simone; Dimastrogiovanni, Fabio

2013-01-01

75

Abernethy malformation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Abernethy malformation is a very rare congenital vascular malformation defined by diversion of portal blood away from liver. It is commonly associated with multiple congenital anomalies. We present a case of Abernethy malformation, without associated congenital anomalies from India. Case presentation A 5-year-old female child presented with short history of jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis was made in view of clinical presentation and local endemicity of viral hepatitis A. Persistence of jaundice on follow up after 4?weeks led to detailed investigations. Ultrasound and doppler study of abdomen revealed drainage of portal vein into inferior vena cava. CT angiography was performed which confirmed the diagnosis of Type 1 b Abernethy malformation without associated major anomalies. We discuss the common clinical presentations, associated anomalies, diagnostic workup and treatment options of this disorder. Conclusion The treatment of the patients with congenital porto-systemic shunts depends on the site of the shunt, associated congenital anomalies and the extent of liver damage but the prognosis depends on the complications irrespective of anatomical type. However, the extent of associated abnormalities should not deter paediatricians to refer patients for treatment. Whenever possible closure of the shunt should be advised for cure or to prevent complications. Only symptomatic type I patients with absence of possibility to close the shunt may require liver transplant. Long-term follow-up is indicated for all patients.

2012-01-01

76

Prenatal Diagnosis of Unusual Fetal Pial Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (C-AVMs) are rarely diagnosed in utero. Most prenatal imaging of intracranial vascular malformations relates to Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) or Dural Arteriovenous Malformations (D-AVMs). We report a case of a fetal pial AVF with multiple fistulae and venous pouches, which appeared as an anechoic lesion on the prenatal ultrasound scan. The patient was asymptomatic with normal postnatal growth. No haemodynmaic disturbance was evident. Postnatal Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and catheter Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) confirmed the presence of a pial AVF. The angiographic findings and family history of nose bleeds suggests the diagnosis of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia. The largest AVF was embolized with tissue adhesive; the residual AVF subsequently removed by surgical excision.

Auyeung, K.M.; Laughlin, S.; TerBrugge, K.G.

2003-01-01

77

What Is Vascular Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... DVT) Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Pulmonary Embolism Stroke Varicose Veins Diabetes and Vascular Disease Kidney Failure and Vascular ... vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and varicose veins. Everyone is at risk of vascular disease , and ...

78

Vein Graft-Coated Vascular Stents: A Feasibility Study in a Canine Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate different vein grafts for luminal coating of endovascular stents in normal canine arteries. Methods: Twenty-four tantalum Strecker stents were coated with either autologous (n= 10), denatured heterologous (n= 11), or denatured homologous vein grafts (n= 3). The carotid artery (n= 11) and the iliac artery (n= 13) were stented using a transfemoral approach. Angiograms were performed at days 0, 7, and 21, and months 3, 6, and 9. All grafts underwent histological examination. Results: Eight of 10 autologous vein grafts showed patency during the whole observation period of 9 months, without histological signs of inflammation. Denatured heterologous vein grafts revealed acute (n= 3), subacute (n= 5), or delayed (n= 3) vessel occlusion. Hyaloid transformation of the vein graft and lympho-plasmacellular formations were seen. Denatured homologous vein grafts showed acute vessel occlusion. Although significant inflammatory tissue response was seen, no host-versus-graft reaction was present. Conclusion: Autologous vein graft-coated stents showed good biocompatibility in canine arteries. Preparation was cumbersome and required surgical venae-sectio. Denatured vein grafts, however, were limited by inflammatory reactions.

Schellhammer, Frank [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann Strasse 9, D-50931 Cologne (Germany); Haberstroh, Joerg [Department of Surgical Research, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Wakhloo, Ajay K. [Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, NY 14209 (United States); Gottschalk, Eva; Schumacher, Martin [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany)

1998-03-15

79

IR-webcam imaging and vascular pattern analysis towards hand vein authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches

A. Shrotri; S. C. Rethrekar; M. H. Patil; S. N. Kore

2010-01-01

80

Current status of endoscopic vein harvest in cardiac and peripheral vascular surgery.  

PubMed

Endoscopic harvesting of the saphenous vein (EVH) has been shown to minimize the morbidity associated with saphenous vein harvest for either coronary artery bypass or lower extremity bypass. However, the long-term benefit of a bypass procedure is predicated on conduit patency. Several studies suggest decreased patency with EVH compared with open vein harvest. Possible reasons for this discrepancy have been investigated by microscopic, electron microscopic, and functional studies of venous endothelium and contractile function of harvested veins with conflicting results. This review details the results of these studies. In addition, the clinical results of coronary bypass graft and lower extremity bypass with open vein harvest and EVH are described in regard to early wound complications and short- and long-term patency. PMID:22418247

Dao, Kimberly; Malgor, Rafael D; Montecalvo, JoAnn; Hines, George

2012-01-01

81

Real-time ultrasonography as a monitoring technique for interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluminous vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are still treated with conventional surgery although Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy is an effective treatment method. One hundred thirty give patients with voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations were treated with interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy, partly complemented by a non-contact mode Nd:YAG laser light application. The vascular tumors had a diameter of more than 3 cm in two or all three dimensions. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual control. Nearly 60% of the patients showed a complete clinical regression of the vascular tumor, a third of the patients had a partial regression and were satisfied with the treatment outcome. Four patients were treated unsuccessfully with the laser and three of them subsequently underwent conventional surgery. Only 10 patients showed cosmetic and functional deficits. These results on the interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations in a large patient group demonstrated the high effectiveness of this novel and innovative therapy modality.

Werner, Jochen A.; Gottschlich, Stefan; Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.

1998-01-01

82

Prox-1 and VEGFR3 antibodies are superior to D2-40 in identifying endothelial cells of lymphatic malformations--a proposal of a new immunohistochemical panel to differentiate lymphatic from other vascular malformations.  

PubMed

We previously reported that D2-40 antibody identifies lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of lymphatic malformations (LM) with high specificity but only moderate sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the markers Prospero-related homeobox gene-1 (Prox-1) and VEGFR3 to those of D2-40 for LECs in LM. Seventeen LM and 6 other vascular malformations with venous component (VM) were stained with D2-40, Prox-1, VEGFR3, CD31, and CD34 antibodies. The staining characteristics of vessels by each marker were assessed. Prox-1 and VEGFR3 specificity for LECs was examined by endothelial staining of VMs. Prox-1 and VEGFR3 stained substantially more large vessels than did D2-40 (15 of 17 cases). Small vessel staining was uniformly positive with all vascular markers except CD34, which did not stain lymphatic vessels. Eight cases had no or minimal D2-40 staining of large vessels, but the selected D2-40-vessels stained positive with VEGFR3, and 7 of 8 vessels were Prox-1 positive. Nine cases had variable D2-40 staining of large vessels; the selected D2-40 channels were all Prox-1 positive, and 8 of 9 were VEGFR3 positive. Two had rare vascular channels with no lymphatic marker stain but were positive for CD31 and CD34. Endothelial cells of VM had no Prox-1 but were VEGFR3/CD31/CD34 positive. VEGFR3 and Prox-1 antibodies have greater sensitivity for large lymphatic vessels than does D2-40. All lymphatic markers have high sensitivity for LECs of small lymphatic channels. Prox-1 has superior sensitivity and specificity to LECs. We recommend utilizing an immunohistochemical panel consisting of Prox-1, VEGFR3, CD31, and CD34 antibodies to differentiate lymphatic from venous malformations in pathologic practice. PMID:18937526

Castro, Eumenia Costa da Cunha; Galambos, Csaba

2009-01-01

83

Renal transplantation without sutures using the vascular clipping system for renal artery and vein anastomosis--a new technique.  

PubMed

A cadaveric renal transplant was performed on a 63-year-old woman. The donor renal artery and vein were anastomosed to the recipient external iliac vessels using the vascular clipping system. These vascular anastomoses were performed with four stay sutures and several clips for each anastomosis, without a continuous vascular suture. The time taken was 8 min for each anastomosis. There were no postoperative complications and the patient went home after 6 days in the hospital. At 1 month follow-up her serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dl. We conclude that cadaveric renal transplantation can be performed using clips for the vascular anastomoses. This technique permits an expeditious, interrupted anastomosis. Since the arcuate legged clips are nonpenetrating, there is minimum trauma to the vascular intima. In pediatric transplantation this interrupted technique may be of special importance, since it should allow the anastomoses to grow with time. The ability to quickly perform this type of anastomosis may reduce warm ischemia time as well. The safety and technical ease of this technique should allow its application in the anastomosis of other tubular structures as well. This might further improve the currently excellent outcomes of solid organ transplantation. PMID:8900320

Mital, D; Foster, P F; Jensik, S C; del Rio, J V; Sankary, H N; McChesney, L P; Williams, J W

1996-10-27

84

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal vascular structures that most often connect a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary bed and resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. As a consequence, patients with PAVM can have hypoxemia and paradoxical embolization complications, including stroke and brain abscess. PAVMs may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and simple or complex. Most PAVMs are hereditary and occur in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, an autosomal dominant vascular disorder, and screening for PAVM is indicated in this subgroup. PAVMs may also be idiopathic, occur as a result of trauma and infection, or be secondary to hepatopulmonary syndrome and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunting. Diagnostic testing involves identifying an intrapulmonary shunt, with the most sensitive test being transthoracic contrast echocardiography. Chest CT scan is useful in characterizing PAVM in patients with positive intrapulmonary shunting. Transcatheter embolotherapy is the treatment of choice for PAVM. Lifelong follow-up is important because recanalization and collateralization may occur after embolization therapy. Surgical resection is rarely necessary and reserved for patients who are not candidates for embolization. Antibiotic prophylaxis for procedures with a risk of bacteremia (eg, dental procedures) is recommended in all patients with PAVM because of the risk of cerebral abscess. PMID:24008954

Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Swanson, Karen L; Krowka, Michael J

2013-09-01

85

Arteriovenous malformation of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumors. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. Arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck is a rare vascular anomaly but when present is persistent and progressive in nature and can represent a lethal benign disease. Here we present a case report of a 25-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation involving the base of tongue. PMID:24660070

Manjunath, S M; Shetty, Sujan; Moon, Ninad J; Sharma, Bhushan; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Goyal, Sandeep; Singh, Simranjit

2014-01-01

86

Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Corky split vein caused by boron (B) deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st) phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd) and 3(rd) phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study. PMID:23755275

Yang, Cheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Zhong; An, Ji-Cui; Li, Shuang; Jin, Long-Fei; Zhou, Gao-Feng; Wei, Qing-Jiang; Yan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Nan-Nan; Fu, Li-Na; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Ting-Shuai; Peng, Shu-Ang

2013-01-01

87

Vascular anomalies and the growth of limbs: a review.  

PubMed

Growth of the limb in a child can be impaired, with the coexistence of a vascular malformation. In these vascular bone syndromes, altered growth is manifest as overgrowth or hypotrophy. The vascular malformation is usually complex and gets progressively worse with time. The two types of vascular anomalies in limbs, fast-flow and slow-flow, can be associated with limb length discrepancies. The fast-flow vascular malformations together with arteriovenous fistulae are part of Parkes Weber syndrome, characterized by congenital red cutaneous staining, hypertrophy in girth and increasing of limb length, lymphedema, increasing skin alterations due to a distal vascular steal, and pain, all of which develop during childhood. Treatment is generally conservative. An affected lower extremity can be complicated by pelvic tilting and scoliosis because leg length discrepancy may reach 10 cm. To avoid such a course, stapling epiphysiodesis of the knee cartilages is often performed, but this orthopedic procedure may augment the worsening of the arterial venous malformation in the limb. Therefore, less aggressive orthopedic management is preferable. Slow-flow vascular anomalies associated with limb growth alteration include (1) a diffuse capillary malformation (port-wine stain) with congenital hypertrophy of the involved extremity which is non-progressive; (2) purely venous malformations invading skin, muscles and joints, with pain, functional impairment, a chronic localized intravascular coagulopathy requiring distinctive management, and usually a slight undergrowth of the affected extremity and progressing amyotrophy; (3) the triad of a port-wine stain, anomalous veins and overgrowth of the limb, often known as Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, which requires orthopedic management to decide the optimal timing for epiphysiodesis (i.e. when leg length discrepancy is >2.5 cm). Varicose veins are sometimes surgically removed after ultrasonographic and Doppler evaluation has confirmed a normal deep venous system. Capillary malformations can be effectively treated with pulsed dye laser, but results are usually poor in distal extremities. PMID:15599224

Enjolras, Odile; Chapot, René; Merland, Jean Jacques

2004-11-01

88

'Real' Epidemiology of Varicose Veins and Chronic Venous Diseases: The San Valentino Vascular Screening Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of venous diseases and the role of concomitant\\/risk factors for varicose veins (VV) or chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The study was based in San Valentino in Central Italy and was a real whole-population study. The study included 30,000 subjects in eight villages\\/towns evaluated with clinical assessment and duplex

M. R. Cesarone; G. Belcaro; A. N. Nicolaides; G. Geroulakos; M. Griffin; L. Incandela; M. T. De Sanctis; M. Sabetai; G. Agus; P. Bavera; E. Ippolito; G. Leng; A. Di Renzo; M. Cazaubon; S. Vasdekis; D. Christopoulos; M. Veller

2002-01-01

89

Functional Characterization of cis-Elements Conferring Vascular Vein Expression of At4g34880 Amidase Family Protein Gene in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The expression of At4g34880 gene encoding amidase in Arabidopsis was characterized in this study. A promoter region of 1.5 kb on the upstream of the start codon of the gene (referred as AmidP) was fused with uidA (GUS) reporter gene, and transformed into Arabidopsis plant for determining its spatial expression. The results indicated that AmidP drived GUS expression in vascular system, predominately in leaves. Truncation analysis of AmidP demonstrated that VASCULAR VEIN ELEMENT (VVE) motif with a region of 176 bp sequence (?1500 to ?1324) was necessary and sufficient to direct the vascular vein specific GUS expression in the transgenic plant. Tandem copy of VVE increased vascular system expression, and 5?- and 3?- deletions of VVE motif in combination with a truncated ?65 CaMV 35S minimal promoter showed that 11bp cis-acting element, naming DOF2 domain, played an essential role for the vascular vein specific expression. Meanwhile, it was also observed that the other cis-acting elements among the VVE region are also associated with specificity or strength of GUS activities in vascular system.

Wu, Xuelong; Huang, Ruizhi; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

90

Prevention of coronary in-stent restenosis and vein graft failure: does vascular gene therapy have a role?  

PubMed

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including stent insertion, are established therapies in both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and symptomatic chronic coronary artery disease refractory to pharmacological therapy. These continually advancing treatments remain limited by failure of conduit grafts in CABG and by restenosis or thrombosis of stented vessel segments in PCI caused by neointimal hyperplasia, impaired endothelialisation and accelerated atherosclerosis. While pharmacological and technological advancements have improved patient outcomes following both procedures, when grafts or stents fail these result in significant health burdens. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology of vein graft disease and in-stent restenosis, gene therapy vector development and design, and translation from pre-clinical animal models through human clinical trials. We identify the key issues that are currently preventing vascular gene therapy from interfacing with clinical use and introduce the areas of research attempting to overcome these. PMID:22796519

Robertson, Keith E; McDonald, Robert A; Oldroyd, Keith G; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

2012-10-01

91

Aneurysms of the vein of Galen in infants aged 2 to 15 months. Diagnosis and natural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of seven cases of aneurysm of the vein of Galen (AVG) with a review of the clinical and radiological aspects of 48 cases in the literature. The natural evolution and pathophysiology of this vascular malformation are discussed. The clinical signs of this condition are often misleading. The appearance of AVG on CT is pathognomic. Surveillance of

C. Diebler; O. Dulac; Dominique Renier; C. Ernest; G. Lalande

1981-01-01

92

Vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation in human central retinal vein occlusion 1 1 The authors have no proprietary interest in any of the materials used in this study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveVascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key mediator of intraocular neovascularization, is triggered by hypoxia and has been shown in the eyes of animal models of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). However, there is little information on CRVO in humans, in particular, the identity of VEGF-producing cells.

Jacob Pe’er; Robert Folberg; Ahuva Itin; Hadassah Gnessin; Itzhak Hemo; Eli Keshet

1998-01-01

93

Behaviour of the iris vasculature in central retinal vein occlusion: a fluorescein angiographic study of the vascular response of the retina and the iris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings in iris fluorescein angiograms of 48 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) were correlated with the predominant retinal vascular response. In 24 eyes with the non-ischaemic type of CRVO there were no or only minimal iris vessel changes, whereas in all 24 eyes with ischaemic type of CRVO there was iris vessel dilatation and leakage with or

L Laatikainen; R K Blach

1977-01-01

94

Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein  

PubMed Central

Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

Luo, Xiao-Li; Qian, Gen-Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun-Lei

2012-01-01

95

Locally released norepinephrine in the oxygen-dependent regulation of vascular tone of human umbilical vein.  

PubMed

In a previous study, human umbilical vein preparations constricted at PO(2) values above the physiologic intrauterine PO(2) range and dilated at hypoxia. Denudation of the endothelium reversed the hypoxic vasodilatation only, suggesting the release of a nonendothelial vasoconstrictor. We therefore hypothesized that norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminals could be responsible for the observed constricting effects. We measured intracellular membrane potential and isometric tension of human umbilical vein strips with and without functional adrenergic denervation by 6-OH-dopamine during variation of PO(2). With PO(2) increasing from 5 to 104 mm Hg, intact preparations depolarized of from -58.6 +/- 1.1 mV (SEM) to -53.3 +/- 1.0 mV (p < 0.001) and isometric tension increased from 0.673 +/- 0.037 g to 0.825 +/- 0.044 g (p < 0.02). Intact preparations pretreated with 6-OH-dopamine depolarized from -58.0 +/- 0.5 mV to -55.8 +/- 0.6 mV (p < 0.01), and isometric tension increased from 0.598 +/- 0.040 g to 0.661 +/- 0.018 g (p < 0.02). At Po(2) values above the physiologic intrauterine umbilical venous Po(2) range, membrane potential and isometric tension were significantly lower in preparations with 6-OH-dopamine pretreatment compared with matched controls (p < 0.05). Denudation of the endothelium reversed the hypoxic hyperpolarization and vasodilatation observed in intact preparations. However, membrane potential and isometric tension were not different between endothelium-denuded preparations with and without 6-OH-dopamine pretreatment. We conclude that locally released norepinephrine contributes to the depolarization and vasoconstriction of the human umbilical vein at hyperoxia but does not antagonize the endothelium-dependent vasodilation at hypoxia. PMID:14605241

Mildenberger, Eva; Siegel, Günter; Versmold, Hans T

2004-02-01

96

[Vascular ultrasonography].  

PubMed

Vascular ultrasound plays an important role in the visual depiction of arteries, veins, and changes of tissue in lymphatic diseases. In the case of arteries, this ranges from endothelial dysfunction over measuring the increase of intima media thickness to the detection of stenoses, occlusion, or aneurysm. Ultrasound helps to differentiate in functional arterial diseases such as primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome as well as arterial compression syndromes like entrapment syndrome of different arterial regions or the chronic exceptional compartment syndrome of the lower leg. Ultrasound plays a central role in the diagnosis of rare arterial diseases like large vessel vasculitis, arterial dissection, cystic adventitial degeneration, and the differentiation of vascular malformation especially in children, thus, permitting ultrasound-guided intervention and follow-up controls. In venous thrombosis, sonography is the primary imaging method, while follow-up controls help in the prediction of recurrent venous thrombosis. Ultrasound is a tool to determine the cause and severity of chronic venous insufficiency and allows different therapeutic procedures for the treatment of varicose veins to be visually monitored. PMID:22358939

Stiegler, H

2012-03-01

97

Vascular resection in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with portal or superior mesenteric vein invasion  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate long-term survival after the Whipple operation with superior mesenteric vein/portal vein resection (SMV/PVR) in relation to resection length. METHODS: We evaluated 118 patients who underwent the Whipple operation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at our Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery between 2005 and 2010. Fifty-eight of these patients were diagnosed with microscopic PV/SMV invasion by frozen-section examination and underwent SMV/PVR. In 28 patients, the length of SMV/PVR was ? 3 cm. In the other 30 patients, the length of SMV/PVR was > 3 cm. Clinical and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: SMV/PVR was performed successfully in 58 patients. There was a significant difference between the two groups (SMV/PVR ? 3 cm and SMV/PVR > 3 cm) in terms of the mean survival time (18 mo vs 11 mo) and the overall 1- and 3-year survival rates (67.9% and 14.3% vs 41.3% and 5.7%, P < 0.02). However, there was no significant difference in age (64 years vs 58 years, P = 0.06), operative time (435 min vs 477 min, P = 0.063), blood loss (300 mL vs 383 mL, P = 0.071) and transfusion volume (85.7 mL vs 166.7 mL, P = 0.084) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent the Whipple operation with SMV/PVR ? 3 cm had better long-term survival than those with > 3 cm resection.

Pan, Gang; Xie, Kun-Lin; Wu, Hong

2013-01-01

98

Early experience on peripheral vascular application of the vascular plugs  

PubMed Central

Background Transcatheter closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with Amplatzer Vascular plugs I and II has been established. Here we present our experience with device closure. Materials and methods Between October 2006 and August 2012, nine (three males and six females) patients aged between 11 months and 62 years (mean age 19 years) underwent percutaneous device closure with AVP I and II vascular plugs for congenital and acquired arteriovenous malformation and cardiac diverticulum are presented here. Results One case of coronary cameral fistula, four cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, one case of large major aortopulmonary collaterals (in tetralogy of Fallot closed before intracardiac repair), one case of congenital cardiac diverticulum, one case of fistula between external carotid artery and internal jugular vein and one case of iatrogenic carotid jugular fistula were successfully closed with AVP I and II plugs. Overall in nine cases, 16 AVP I and II plugs were deployed to occlude feeding vessels and one cardiac diverticulum. The technical success rate was 100%. No major complications were observed. Conclusion Amplatzer vascular plugs can be used successfully for closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with good result.

Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Sinha, Alok Kumar; Kamana, Naveen Krishna

2013-01-01

99

Arnold-Chiari malformation.  

PubMed

Arnold-Chiari malformation is a congenital malformation of the skull near the foramen magnum in which the cerebellum and the medulla are caudally displaced. This herniation of the brainstem causes down-beat nystagmus and oscillopsia, the most commonly presenting sign and symptom, respectively. Differential diagnoses for the Arnold-Chiari malformation include, but are not limited to, demyelinating disease, tumor, and vascular disorders. Symptoms will generally worsen with time and may even be brought on during exercise or valsalva maneuvers. A correct diagnosis can lead to timely surgical intervention which can improve the quality of eye movements. Treatment generally involves the surgical decompression of the surrounding spinal tissue. PMID:1565422

Russell, G E; Wick, B; Tang, R A

1992-03-01

100

Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach in Preventing Severe Hemorrhage during Extirpation of Deep Vascular Malformations of the Face  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemorrhage is a serious challenge in vascular malformations (VMs). This problem makes the surgical excision of the lesions difficult and sometimes impossible. Objective: The objective was to design a technique that will meet with the challenges of hemorrhage while performing surgery in such lesions in our environment. Patients and Methods: Seven patients with deep and moderately large VMs of the facial region were selected and treated with hot 7.5% hypertonic saline after compressing the feeder vessels. This was then complemented with surgical excisions. Results: There were successful surgical extirpations of the lesions without eventful hemorrhage. Conclusion: Hot 7.5% hypertonic saline injected into VMs after emptying their hematic content caused sclerosis of the anomalous vessels. This made bleeding during surgery uneventful.

Mgbeokwere, U; Egwuom, O

2012-01-01

101

Comparisons between prosthetic vascular graft and saphenous vein graft in femoro-popliteal bypass  

PubMed Central

Purpose Infrainguinalfemoropopliteal bypass (IFPB) is recommended to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with a long occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). The aims of our study were to determine the patency of graft materials, and identify the risk factors of graft failure. Methods From January 1995 to April 2011, we had performed 380 IFPBs in 351 patients, including 302 femoro-above the knee (AK) bypasses and 78 femoro-below the knee (BK) bypasses. We compare age, sex, severity of ischemia between polytetra-uoroethylene (PTFE) graft and saphenous vein (SV) graft, and evaluate patency rate rates of the two groups. Results The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 76 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 226 limbs) in AK were 85.2% and 64.5% (log rank = 0.03), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in AK were 88.2% and 79.0% (log rank = 0.13). The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 50 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 28 limbs) in BK were 63.2% and 40.0% (log rank = 0.08), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in BK were 71.6% and 55.5% (log rank = 0.18). Conclusion There was no statistical significant difference in secondary patency rates between SV and PTFE in IFPB. PTFE grafts as SV grafts can be a good alternative bypass material in IFPB instead of SV grafts.

Park, Keun-Myoung; Kim, Young Wook; Yang, Shin-Seok

2014-01-01

102

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

103

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator injected into the vitreous cavity may penetrate the retinal veins of a porcine model of vascular occlusion  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine if recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) injected into the vitreous cavity can penetrate the retinal vessels of porcine eyes with or without vascular occlusion. Methods Eight eyes (group I) of four pigs underwent clamping of the optic nerve flush with the globe for 90?minutes. One hour after reperfusion, one eye of each pig was injected with 75??g of rtPA, and the fellow eye was injected with balanced salt solution (BSS). Eyes were processed for immunohistochemistry. Four additional eyes (group II) of two pigs were subjected to the same injections, but without optic nerve clamping. Results After reperfusion, the clinical picture was similar to that of a central retinal vein occlusion. Immunoperoxidase staining showed rtPA only in the retinal veins but not the retinal arteries in all eyes injected with rtPA in both groups I and II. Those eyes also showed intense rtPA staining at the level of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). No staining was seen at the level of the ILM or inside the retinal vessels in the BSS injected eyes. Immunofluorescence staining showed intense staining at the level of the ILM, but not inside the retinal vessels in the rtPA?injected eyes. Conclusions rtPA may penetrate the retinal veins, but not the arteries of porcine eyes with and without vascular occlusion. The ILM may play a part in preventing rtPA penetration.

Mahmoud, T H; Peng, Y-W; Proia, A D; Davidson, M; Deramo, V A; Fekrat, S

2006-01-01

104

Amphibian malformations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frog malformations have been reported from 42 states. The broad geographic distribution of these malformations warrants national attention. Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin are studying this problem in an effort to document its scope and to determine the causes of the observed malformations.

National Wildlife Health Center

1998-01-01

105

Ligation of the Renal Vein During Laparoscopic Nephrectomy: An Effective And Reliable Method to Replace Vascular Staplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeApplication of the endovascular gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler has become a standard procedure to control renal vein during laparoscopic nephrectomy. However, device malfunction resulting in significant complications has been reported. We present a safe and cost-effective technique for renal vein ligation during laparoscopic nephrectomy.

GÜNTER JANETSCHEK; FARIBORZ BAGHERI; ALAA ABDELMAKSOUD; CHANDRA SHEKHAR BIYANI; KARL LEEB; STEPHAN JESCHKE

2003-01-01

106

Giant cell angiofibroma misdiagnosed as a vascular malformation and treated with absolute alcohol for one year: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present the clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistochemical features of giant cell angiofibroma (GCA). Case presentation In this paper we report an atypical case of a GCA extending from the parotid to the parapharyngeal space. The lesion was being treated as a vascular malformation for one year prior to surgical removal. We summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging, pathological and molecular features of this rare disease. After complete surgical removal of the tumor, immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positivity for the mesenchymal markers vimentin, CD34, CD31 and CD99 in neoplastic cells. Tumor proliferation antigen marker Ki67 was partly positive (<5% of cells). Tumor cells were negative for muscle-specific actin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin pan, S100, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, myogenin, MyoD1 and F8. The morphological and immunohistochemical profile was consistent with the diagnosis of GCA. Conclusion GCA is a rare soft tissue tumor that can easily be misdiagnosed in the clinical preoperative setting. In view of the clinical, pathological and molecular features of the tumor, complete surgical removal is the current optimal treatment option, providing accurate diagnosis and low to minimal recurrence rate.

2014-01-01

107

The use of the laser in the treatment of arterio-venous malformations and vascular tumours of the liver.  

PubMed

Vascular tumours of the liver present variously in the paediatric age group. Their clinical course depends on tumour size, its growth characteristics, localization and complications. The most feared complications are cardiac failure and the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome which may occur in up to 50% of affected children. In haemangioendotheliomata and capillary haemangiomata spontaneous regression can be expected. Regression may be stimulated by x-ray radiation therapy, corticosteroids, Endoxane or alpha Interferon. Emergency percutaneous catheter embolization or operation must be carried out in the event of such complications. The Nd:YAG laser is particularly well suited for these cases. In all events, careful interdisciplinary cooperation among paediatricians, radiologists, cardiologists, oncologists and paediatric surgeons is required owing to threatening complications which mostly occur in neonates and infants. PMID:8218073

Waldschmidt, J; Schier, F; Bein, U; Soerensen, M

1993-08-01

108

Malformed Frogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into using indicator species to assess the health of an environment. Groups of learners will collect as many frogs as they can from a pond, looking for malformations, which will be documented and further sorted as either symmetrical or asymmetrical. This data will then be graphed to identify a prevalent trend and possible cause of malformations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

109

Anaesthetic management of a child with massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

Vascular tumors affect the head and neck commonly but arteriovenous malformations are rare. Vascular malformations are often present at birth and grow with the patient, usually only becoming significant later in childhood. Embolization has been the mainstay of treatment in massive and complex arteriovenous malformations. We present a case of massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 7-year-old boy causing significant workload on right heart and respiratory distress. The management of angioembolization under general anaesthesia and anaesthetic concerns are presented.

Shamim, Faisal; Ullah, Hameed; Rehman, Azhar

2012-01-01

110

What is a capillary malformation?  

PubMed

Today, the designation "capillary malformation" is widely used as a modern name for what was formerly called a nevus flammeus or port-wine stain. This new terminology, however, is inaccurate and ambiguous. There are at least nine different skin disorders fulfilling the criteria of a capillary malformation. Examples include nevus anemicus, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, angiokeratoma circumscriptum, and several vascular lesions that, in the author's view, do not represent nevi, such as the nuchal or glabellar salmon patch and the cutaneous changes of Rendu-Osler disease. Hence, I propose that we should use "capillary malformation" as an umbrella term and not as a name for a specific cutaneous entity. PMID:19022106

Happle, Rudolf

2008-12-01

111

Permanent Occlusion of Feeding Arteries and Draining Veins in Solid Mouse Tumors by Vascular Targeted Photodynamic Therapy (VTP) with Tookad  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAntiangiogenic and anti-vascular therapies present intriguing alternatives to cancer therapy. However, despite promising preclinical results and significant delays in tumor progression, none have demonstrated long-term curative features to date. Here, we show that a single treatment session of Tookad-based vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) promotes permanent arrest of tumor blood supply by rapid occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries (FA)

Noa Madar-Balakirski; Catherine Tempel-Brami; Vyacheslav Kalchenko; Ori Brenner; David Varon; Avigdor Scherz; Yoram Salomon; Timothy W. Secomb

2010-01-01

112

Complex vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

The classification system for vascular anomalies now used by experts worldwide comprises two distinct disease entities that differ in their biologic and pathologic features: vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors include infantile and congenital hemangiomas, tufted angiomas, and kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. Infantile hemangiomas, the most common vascular anomaly, generally have a predetermined life cycle (proliferation and subsequent involution). GLUT-1, a glucose transporter, is a marker for these specific lesions during all phases of development. Vascular malformations are classified according to their vascular tissue of origin and include capillary, venous, arteriovenous, lymphatic, and mixed malformations. Complex lymphatic malformations and complex mixed malformations, which may have most vascular components, are the most difficult vascular malformations to successfully treat. These lesions are present at birth and often expand or grow in response to trauma, infection, or hormonal changes. Imaging advancements have enabled more accurate assessments and improved management of vascular anomalies. In addition, many lesions are now being managed with targeted pharmacologic therapy. Propranolol and steroids are used for complex or disfiguring tumors, and new anti-angiogenesis inhibitors such as sirolimus are selectively used to treat lymphatic and venous lymphatic malformations that are poorly responsive to sclerotherapy, embolization, and surgical excision. Multimodal therapies are often essential for complex lesions and require the combined expertise of an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23989523

Azizkhan, Richard G

2013-10-01

113

Posterior nutcracker syndrome associated with interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein.  

PubMed

Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography. PMID:22563273

Luo, Xiao-Li; Qian, Gen-Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun-Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

2012-01-01

114

[Anorectal malformations].  

PubMed

Anorectal malformations (ARM) are the result of an abnormal development of the terminal part of the digestive tract interesting anus and/or rectum that occur early between the sixth and tenth week of embryonic development. They carry a malformation spectrum of severity depending on the level of disruption of the anorectal canal and of the associated caudal malformations (sacrum and spine). ARM are associated in over half the cases with other malformations that can be integrated in some cases in known syndromes. If surgical treatment to restore anatomy as normal as possible is indispensable, post-operative care is essential for these patients whose defecation mechanisms are altered, to reach if not continence, at least a socially acceptable cleanliness. PMID:23992833

Cretolle, C; Rousseau, V; Lottmann, H; Irtan, S; Lortat-Jacob, S; Alova, I; Michel, J L; Aigrain, Y; Podevin, G; Lehur, P A; Sarnacki, S

2013-09-01

115

Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions

Beverley Newman

2006-01-01

116

Vascular endothelial growth factor C is required for sprouting of the first lymphatic vessels from embryonic veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphatic vessels are essential for immune surveillance, tissue fluid homeostasis and fat absorption. Defects in lymphatic vessel formation or function cause lymphedema. Here we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is required for the initial steps in lymphatic development. In Vegfc?\\/? mice, endothelial cells commit to the lymphatic lineage but do not sprout to form lymph vessels.

Marika J Karkkainen; Paula Haiko; Kirsi Sainio; Juha Partanen; Jussi Taipale; Tatiana V Petrova; Michael Jeltsch; David G Jackson; Marja Talikka; Heikki Rauvala; Christer Betsholtz; Kari Alitalo

2003-01-01

117

Absence of retromandibular vein associated with atypical formation of external jugular vein in the parotid region  

PubMed Central

Veins of the head and neck exhibiting anatomical variations or malformations are clinically significant. Anatomical variation in the external jugular vein is very common. However, anatomical variation in the retromandibular vein is rare. In this paper, we report a rare case of complete absence of the retromandibular vein. In the absence of the retromandibular vein, the maxillary vein divided into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division joined the superficial temporal vein to form an atypical external jugular vein, and the anterior division joined the facial vein to form an anonymous vein. In clinical practice, radiologists and surgeons use the retromandibular vein as a guide to expose the branches of the facial nerve during superficial parotidectomy. Therefore, absence of the retromandibular vein is a hurdle during this procedure and may affect the venous drainage pattern from the head and neck.

Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S.; D'Souza, Melanie R.; Guru, Anitha; Nayak, Satheesha B.

2014-01-01

118

Inhibitory effect of indigo naturalis on tumor necrosis factor-?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The use of indigo naturalis to treat psoriasis has proved effective in our previous clinical studies. The present study was designed to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of indigo naturalis in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Pretreatment of cells with indigo naturalis extract attenuated TNF-?-induced increase in Jurkat T cell adhesion to HUVECs as well as decreased the protein and messenger (m)RNA expression levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on HUVECs. Indigo naturalis extract also inhibited the protein expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1)/c-Jun, a critical transcription factor for the activation of VCAM-1 gene expression. Since the reduction of lymphocyte adhesion to vascular cells by indigo naturalis extract could subsequently reduce the inflammatory reactions caused by lymphocyte infiltration in the epidermal layer and help to improve psoriasis, this study provides a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effect of indigo naturalis extract in psoriasis. PMID:20877233

Chang, Hsin-Ning; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su; Yang, Sien-Hung; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chiang, Chi-Hsin; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lin, Yin-Ku

2010-09-01

119

Management of vascular perforations that occur during neurointerventional procedures.  

PubMed

This article describes a number of treatment strategies for the management of perforations that occur during neurointerventional procedures. During the past 5 years, we have performed over 1200 endovascular procedures to treat vascular disorders involving the brain and spinal cord (400 cerebral arteriovenous malformations, 230 tumors, 197 carotid cavernous fistulas, 183 aneurysms, 130 dural fistulas, 80 spinal arteriovenous malformations, 18 vein of Galen aneurysms, and 20 cases of vasospasm). Fifteen patients (1.1%) sustained a vascular perforation as a direct result of these procedures. Among these 15 patients, indications for endovascular treatment were six symptomatic arteriovenous malformations, two spinal cord arteriovenous malformations, two cavernous sinus dural fistulas, one transverse sinus fistula, one case of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage, one direct carotid cavernous fistula, one vein of Galen malformation, and one ruptured basilar artery aneurysm. The vascular perforations were grouped into three probable mechanisms: mechanical perforation of a normal vessel (six patients), mechanical disruption of a dysplastic vessel or aneurysm (five patients), and fluid overinjection (four patients). Treatment of the perforations included immediate reversal of anticoagulants (12 patients) and direct closure of the perforation site with coils (five patients). In addition, closure of the intravascular compartment adjacent to the perforation was achieved with coils (six patients), liquid adhesives (four patients), balloons (two patients), or particles (two patients). In two patients a detachable balloon was placed transiently across the perforation site for several minutes, deflated, and removed when no further extravasation was noted. Five patients were started on anticonvulsant therapy, two of whom have had a new onset seizure related to the perforation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1902036

Halbach, V V; Higashida, R T; Dowd, C F; Barnwell, S L; Hieshima, G B

1991-01-01

120

Vascular effects of singlet oxygen (1O2) generated by photo-excitation on adrenergic neurotransmission in isolated rabbit mesenteric vein.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone. However, the nature of ROS effects on vascular sensitivity remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ROS, especially 1O2, on neurotransmission at the sympathetic neurovascular junction. Basal noradrenaline (NA) release, release of NA induced by electrical stimulation (ES), and resting NA release at the sympathetic nerve terminals were determined using a superfusion technique. The amount of NA was determined by HPLC; isometric tension changes evoked by ES were also recorded simultaneously. 1O2 was generated from Rose Bengal by photo-activation. The generation of 1O2 in the superfusate was monitored by electron spin resonance (ESR) using the spin trap 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol throughout the experimental time course. The ESR results confirmed that 1O2 was generated by photo-activation of Rose Bengal via the formation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxyl-piperidinyloxy. Exposure of helical strips of rabbit mesenteric vein to 1O2 induced a significant increase in tension and NA release during the basal period, but had no effect on ES-induced release. L-histidine, an 1O2 scavenger, significantly inhibited the observed effects on vascular tension and NA release in response to 1O2. These results suggest that 1O2 may induce NA-mediated vasoconstriction at the postjunctional site, and may be associated with Ca(2+)-independent NA release from the prejunctional site of adrenergic neurotransmission. PMID:12688507

Yoshino, Fumihiko; Shoji, Hirofumi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

2002-01-01

121

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

122

Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study  

SciTech Connect

Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

2013-10-15

123

Anorectal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. They occur in approximately 1 in 5000 live births. Defects range from the very minor and easily treated with an excellent functional prognosis, to those that are complex, difficult to manage,

Marc A Levitt; Alberto Peña

2007-01-01

124

Arteriovenous Malformation Management  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular lesions that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. In our institutions, initial workup consists of a clinical exam, color Doppler imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. After the initial noninvasive workup, arteriography, at times closed system venography, and ethanol endovascular repair of the AVM is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the lesion, additional Swan-Ganz line and arterial line monitoring are performed. Patients are usually observed overnight and uneventfully discharged the following day if no complication occurs. Patients are followed at periodic intervals despite cure of their lesion. Long-term follow-up is essential in AVM management.

Yakes, Wayne F. [Interventional Radiology and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiology Imaging Associates, P.C., Colorado NeurologicalInstitute, Swedish Medical Center, 501 E. Hampden Avenue, Englewood, CO 80110 (United States); Rossi, Plinio [Department of Radiology, Universita Degli Studi Di Roma, 'La Sapienza', 00161 Rome (Italy); Odink, Henk [Department of Radiology, De Wever Hospital, Henri Dunanstrat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen (Netherlands)

1996-11-15

125

Portal Vein Embolization Using a Nitinol Plug (Amplatzer Vascular Plug) in Combination with Histoacryl Glue and Iodinized Oil: Adequate Hypertrophy with a Reduced Risk of Nontarget Embolization  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to assess whether portal vein embolization (PVE) using a nitinol vascular plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil minimizes the risk of nontarget embolization while obtaining good levels of future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy. Between November 2005 and August 2008, 16 patients (8 females, 8 males; mean age, 63 {+-} 3.6 years), each with a small FLR, underwent right ipsilateral transhepatic PVE prior to major hepatectomy. Proximal PVE was initially performed by placement of a nitinol vascular plug, followed by distal embolization using a mixture of histoacryl glue and iodinized oil. Pre- and 6 weeks postprocedural FLR volumes were calculated using computed tomographic imaging. Selection for surgery required an FLR of 0.5% of the patient's body mass. Clinical course and outcome of surgical resection for all patients were recorded. At surgery, the ease of hepatectomy was subjectively assessed in comparison to previous experience following PVE with alternative embolic agents. PVE was successful in all patients. Mean procedure time was 30.4 {+-} 2.5 min. Mean absolute increase in FLR volume was 68.9% {+-} 12.0% (p = 0.00005). There was no evidence of nontarget embolization during the procedure or on subsequent imaging. Nine patients proceeded to extended hepatectomy. Six patients demonstrated disease progression. One patient did not achieve sufficient hypertrophy in relation to body mass to undergo hepatic resection. At surgery, the hepatobiliary surgeons observed less periportal inflammation compared to previous experience with alternative embolic agents, facilitating dissection at extended hepatectomy. In conclusion, ipsilateral transhepatic PVE using a single nitinol plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil simplifies the procedure, offering short procedural times with minimal risk of nontarget embolization. Excellent levels of FLR hypertrophy are achieved enabling safe extended hepatectomy.

Bent, Clare L., E-mail: clare_bent@yahoo.co.uk; Low, Deborah; Matson, Matthew B.; Renfrew, Ian; Fotheringham, Tim [Barts and The London NHS Trust, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

126

Inhibitory effects of sepiapterin on vascular endothelial growth factor-A-induced proliferation and adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) has been known to be an essential cofactor for the activities of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, which are involved in physiological and pathological processes. In the present study, we report that sepiapterin, the more stable form of BH4 precursor, modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-induced cell proliferation and adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The antiproliferative activity of sepiapterin in VEGF-A-treated HUVECs is associated with inhibition of the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) such as Cdk4 and Cdk2. Pretreatment with NO synthase inhibitor does not abrogate the ability of sepiapterin to inhibit VEGF-A-induced cell proliferation and adhesion, indicating that the suppressive effects of sepiapterin on VEGF-Ainduced responses are mediated by NO-independent mechanism. Finally, we show that sepiapterin modulates VEGF-A-induced cell proliferation and adhesion through down-regulation of VEGF receptor-2 downstream signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings represent a novel function of sepiapterin in the regulation of angiogenesis, supporting further development and evaluation of sepiapterin as an antiangiogenic agent. PMID:21975820

Kim, Soo Hyeon; Cho, Young-Rak; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Shin Wook; Seo, Dong-Wan

2011-09-01

127

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Varicose Veins? Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are swollen, twisted ... can form in other parts of the body. Varicose veins are a common condition. They usually cause few ...

128

Abnormal continuation of umbilical vein into extra-hepatic portal vein: Report of three cases.  

PubMed

Anomalies of the umbilical venous system are perplexing essentially due to dissection errors and vascular connection delineation failure. Continuation of umbilical vein into the extra-hepatic portal vein is classified as group IV umbilical vein anomaly and involves the vitelline vein or its remnants. Despite this categorization most examiners ascribe fetal extra hepatic abdominal vascular abnormality as an umbilical vein anomaly. Since these anomalies involve vitelline vein, the term "umbilical vein anomaly" is inappropriate and should be referred to as "vitelline vein abnormalities". Vitelline vein abnormalities are exceedingly rare and to the best of our knowledge only three cases have been reported prenatally. We report three cases presenting with intrauterine fetal demise and on perinatal autopsy demonstrating aneurysmally dilated group IV umbilical vein anomaly. Review of the literature, embryological basis and clinical implications of persistent vitelline vein and its varix are discussed. PMID:24712478

Jaiman, Sunil; Nalluri, Hima Bindu

2013-12-01

129

Congenital pseudoarthrosis associated with venous malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital pseudoarthrosis is a pathologic entity that may be isolated, or may be associated with neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 3-year-old female with congenital pseudoarthrosis involving the right tibia and fibula. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and complementary magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) revealed a lobulated mass with vivid enhancement, which led to the diagnosis of venous malformation. This is the first report of congenital pseudoarthrosis caused by the presence of a vascular malformation. PMID:16967289

Al-Hadidy, A; Haroun, A; Al-Ryalat, N; Hamamy, H; Al-Hadidi, S

2007-06-01

130

Muscle Hemangiomatosis Presenting as a Severe Feature in a Patient with the Pten Mutation: Expanding the Phenotype of Vascular Malformations in Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is a rare autosomal, dominantly-inherited, hamartoma syndrome with distinct phenotypic features. Mutations in the PTEN gene have been identified in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Our aim was to determine the correlation of phenotype-genotype relationships in a BRRS case. We have evaluated a PTEN mutation in a patient with vascular anomalies and the phenotypic findings of BRRS. We described an 8-year-old girl with the clinical features of BRRS, specifically with vascular anomalies. The mutation in the PTEN gene was identified by DNA sequencing. In our patient, we defined a de novo nonsense R335X (c.1003 C>T) mutation in exon 8, which results in a premature termination codon. Due to vascular anomalies and hemangioma, the patient’s left leg was amputated 1 year after the hemangioma diagnosis. Bannayan - Riley - Ruvalcaba syndrome patients with macrocephaly and vascular anomalies should be considered for PTEN mutation analysis and special medical care.

Soysal, Y; Acun, T; Lourenco, CM; Marques, W; Yak?c?er, MC

2012-01-01

131

A Meta-Analysis of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Remedy for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associates with severe vision outcome and no proven beneficial treatment. Our meta-analysis intended to appraise the efficacy and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents in macular edema (ME) following CRVO. Methods Data were collected and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2.1. We employed a random-effects model to eliminate between-study heterogeneity. Nfs (called fail-safe number) was calculated to evaluate the publication bias. Results We included 5 trials consisting 323 cases and 281 controls. Primary outcomes showed that overall comparison of anti-VEGF agents with placebo control yielded a 374% and 136% increased tendency for a gain of 15 letters or more on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.43–9.23; P<0.00001; I2?=?59%, 95% CI: 1.60–3.49; P<0.0001; I2?=?0%, respectively) at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes showed that a 90% and 77% decreased risk at 6 and 12 months for a loss of 15 letters or more. The overall mean difference showed a statistically significance in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) on each time point. However, changes of central retinal thickness (CRT) lost significance at 12 months after 6-month as-needed treatment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) had no statistical difference between anti-VEGF and placebo groups. Subgroup analyses indicated that patients receiving Aflibercept got the highest tendency to gain 15 letters or more (OR?=?9.78; 95% CI: 4.43–21.56; P<0.00001). Age controlled analysis suggested a weaken tendency of BCVA improvement in age over 50 (MD?=?12.26; 95% CI: 7.55–16.98; P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis by clinical classification showed a strengthen difference of BCVA changes at 6 months in ischemic type (MD?=?19.65 letters, 95% CI: 13.15 to 26.14 letters, P<0.00001). Conclusions Our results showed that anti-VEGF agents were superior to placebo in CRVO-ME treatment with no statistically significant AEs, especially in younger people and for ischemic type.

Huang, Peirong; Niu, Wenquan; Ni, Zhentian; Wang, Renzuo; Sun, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

132

Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Superficial Venous Malformation: A New Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Superficial venous malformations (SVM) are the most frequent vascular malformations. Outpatient percutaneous treatment with ethanol injection has rarely been described. Objective: To analyze the results from treating SVM patients with ethanol sclerotherapy. Methods: 81 patients were followed up prospectively over a median period of 18 months. 47 were female and 34 were male with a median age of 21

José Luiz Orlando; Jose Guilherme Mendes Pereira Caldas; Heloisa Galvão do Amaral Campos; Kenji Nishinari; Nelson Wolosker

2010-01-01

133

Anthelmintic induced congenital malformations in sheep embryos using netobimin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzimidazole compounds have teratogenic effects in domestic and experimental animals. In this study, 14 Manchega ewes were treated orally, under controlled conditions, with 20 mg netobimin (a prodrug of a benzimidazole compound) per\\/kg bodyweight on the 17th day of pregnancy. Congenital malformations and abortions affected 60 per cent of the lambs. The main malformations were skeletal and renal, but vascular

M. Navarro; C. Cristofol; A. Carretero; M. Arboix; J. Ruberte

1998-01-01

134

Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcellulose–ethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area.

Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

2011-01-01

135

Varicose Veins and Spider Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin. Symptoms include skin redness; a firm, tender, warm vein; and sometimes pain and swelling. • Deep ... The vein has become swollen, red, or very tender or warm to the touch • There are sores ...

136

Anorectal malformations  

PubMed Central

Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. They occur in approximately 1 in 5000 live births. Defects range from the very minor and easily treated with an excellent functional prognosis, to those that are complex, difficult to manage, are often associated with other anomalies, and have a poor functional prognosis. The surgical approach to repairing these defects changed dramatically in 1980 with the introduction of the posterior sagittal approach, which allowed surgeons to view the anatomy of these defects clearly, to repair them under direct vision, and to learn about the complex anatomic arrangement of the junction of rectum and genitourinary tract. Better imaging techniques, and a better knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the pelvic structures at birth have refined diagnosis and initial management, and the analysis of large series of patients allows better prediction of associated anomalies and functional prognosis. The main concerns for the surgeon in correcting these anomalies are bowel control, urinary control, and sexual function. With early diagnosis, management of associated anomalies and efficient meticulous surgical repair, patients have the best chance for a good functional outcome. Fecal and urinary incontinence can occur even with an excellent anatomic repair, due mainly to associated problems such as a poorly developed sacrum, deficient nerve supply, and spinal cord anomalies. For these patients, an effective bowel management program, including enema and dietary restrictions has been devised to improve their quality of life.

Levitt, Marc A; Pena, Alberto

2007-01-01

137

Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins Many vein problems are ... have varicoceles, see your doctor. Other Related Vein Problems Other types of varicose veins include venous lakes, ...

138

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations (dAVMs) are rare lesions that have a high mortality rate and require complex management. The authors report 3 cases of pediatric dAVMs that presented with macrocrania and extracranial venous distension. Dural sinus thrombosis developed in 2 of the cases prior to any intervention, which is an unusual occurrence for this particular disease. All 3 cases were treated using staged endovascular embolization with a favorable outcome in 1 case and a poor outcome in the other 2 cases. Complications developed in all cases and included dural sinus thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage, intracranial venous hypertension, and seizures. The strategies and challenges used in managing these patients will be presented and discussed, along with a review of the literature. While outcomes remain poor, the authors conclude that prompt treatment with endovascular embolization provides the best results for children with these lesions. A well-established venous collateral circulation draining directly to the internal jugular veins may further improve the rate of favorable outcome after embolization. PMID:24867128

Appaduray, Shaun P; King, James A J; Wray, Alison; Lo, Patrick; Maixner, Wirginia

2014-07-01

139

Evaluation and Treatment of Musculoskeletal Vascular Anomalies in Children: An Update and Summary for Orthopaedic Surgeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of vascular anomalies can be catego- rized as either hemangiomas or vascular malformations. Heman- giomas are the most common benign soft tissue tumors of child- hood, occurring in 4%-10% of children (16). Vascular malforma- tions represent a separate group of congenital vascular anomalies. Both hemangiomas and vascular malformations are often located deep to the deep fascia in the

J. A. MCCARRON; D. R. JOHNSTON; B. G. HANNA; D. W. LOW; J. S. MEYER; M. SUCHI; J. P. DORMANS

140

Posterior nutcracker phenomenon in patient with renal arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of gross hematuria. Radiologic examinations with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed renal arteriovenous malformation in the right kidney and an entrapped retroaortic left renal vein. Because the patient was free of hematuria, she refused additional treatment for economic reasons. Renal arteriovenous malformation associated with the posterior nutcracker phenomenon is a very rare condition. PMID:23031411

Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Jiang, Hai

2012-12-01

141

Focus on Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

What are varicose veins? Varicose veins are the visible and large, bulging, surface veins, felt under the skin. They generally are larger ... and treatment Focus on Varicose Veins How are varicose veins diagnosed? The diagnosis of varicose veins is made ...

142

What Causes Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

143

Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis  

MedlinePLUS

... back in. This opening is called a vascular access. ... There are 3 main types of vascular access for hemodialysis. Fistula: An artery in your forearm is sewed to a vein nearby. This allows needles to be inserted into the vein ...

144

Complex malformation of the inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

Malformations of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare presentations, exceptional in children, and are usually asymptomatic.They are caused by disturbances in the embryological formation of the venous system or can develop as a result of perinatal venous thrombosis with secondary impairment of the venous development. We report the case of a 14 year old boy,admitted for pediatric evaluation before undergoing plastic surgery in order to remove superficial varicose veins of the lower abdomen. The patient presents with inequality in circumference and length of the legs. Laboratory investigations are normal and the abdominal ultrasound describes hypoplasia of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava. The diagnosis of complex malformation of the abdominal deep venous system (retrohepatic vena cava atresia, cavo-caval anastomosis through azygos veins, abnormal formation of the inferior vena cava with the absence of the left iliac vein) was established through a CT angiography. The presence of abdominal varicose dilations should indicate the necessity to closely look for malformations of the portal and/or caval venous systems. PMID:24742422

Lesanu, G; Balanescu, R; Pacurar, D; Iaru, O; Vlad, R M; Topor, L; Oraseanu, D

2014-01-01

145

Klippel-trénaunay syndrome with intracranial arteriovenous malformation: a rare presentation.  

PubMed

Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare vascular congenital anomaly affecting less than 200,000 people in the United States. Vascular malformations associated with KTS tend to affect slow flow systems: venous, capillary, and lymphatic systems. The nature of the syndrome leads to a higher risk for the development of arteriovenous malformations. Our case presentation describes a patient with KTS and an associated rare presentation of intraventricular arteriovenous malformation (AVM). PMID:24653849

Sadiq, Mahniya F; Shuaib, Waqas; Tiwana, Muhammad H; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

2014-01-01

146

Klippel-Tr?naunay Syndrome with Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare vascular congenital anomaly affecting less than 200,000 people in the United States. Vascular malformations associated with KTS tend to affect slow flow systems: venous, capillary, and lymphatic systems. The nature of the syndrome leads to a higher risk for the development of arteriovenous malformations. Our case presentation describes a patient with KTS and an associated rare presentation of intraventricular arteriovenous malformation (AVM).

Sadiq, Mahniya F.; Tiwana, Muhammad H.; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

2014-01-01

147

An Unusual Presentation of Type II Abernethy Malformation.  

PubMed

Abernethy malformation is a rare anomaly of the splanchnic venous system. We report a case of an unusual portosystemic shunt via a dilated inferior mesenteric vein. A 20-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with complains of nonspecific abdominal pain for almost 3 years and hematochezia since 15 months old. Computed tomography and further transhepatic splenoportography revealed a hypoplastic portal vein and a giant inferior mesenteric vein, via which part of the portal venous blood drained into the inferior vena cava. The patient underwent a surgical ligation of the portocaval shunt and recovered well. We believe that this is the first case of type II Abernethy malformation presenting as a portosystemic shunt via the giant inferior mesenteric vein. PMID:24530574

Lu, Jingbo; Lin, Zhiqi; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zhengjun

2014-08-01

148

Pineal Cavernous Malformations: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Pineal hemorrhage only occurs in rare cases, and this known to have several different causes such as germ cell tumors, pineal cysts and vascular malformations, including the cavernous malformations. Pineal cavernous malformations are extremely rare: to date only fifteen cases have been reported worldwide. Although the diagnosis of pineal cavernous malformation is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. Case 1. A 42-year- old man presented with a limitation in his upward gazing. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the pineal region. He underwent ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting but the patient's condition deteriorated after the shunting surgery. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. Case 2. A 37-year-old man presented with diplopia. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the third ventricle. He underwent VP shunting, and after this procedure the diplopia was aggravated. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. If there is no doubt about the pineal cavernous malformation on MR imaging, we strongly recommend early surgical intervention without performing a risky biopsy. In this study, we describe our experiences for the diagnosis of cavernous malformations in the pineal region with special emphasis on the radiological aspects and the clinical course of this disease.

Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Gon; Chang, Jong-Hee; Park, Yong-Gou

2005-01-01

149

Pineal cavernous malformations: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Pineal hemorrhage only occurs in rare cases, and this known to have several different causes such as germ cell tumors, pineal cysts and vascular malformations, including the cavernous malformations. Pineal cavernous malformations are extremely rare: to date only fifteen cases have been reported worldwide. Although the diagnosis of pineal cavernous malformation is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. Case 1. A 42-year- old man presented with a limitation in his upward gazing. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the pineal region. He underwent ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting but the patient's condition deteriorated after the shunting surgery. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. Case 2. A 37-year-old man presented with diplopia. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the third ventricle. He underwent VP shunting, and after this procedure the diplopia was aggravated. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. If there is no doubt about the pineal cavernous malformation on MR imaging, we strongly recommend early surgical intervention without performing a risky biopsy. In this study, we describe our experiences for the diagnosis of cavernous malformations in the pineal region with special emphasis on the radiological aspects and the clinical course of this disease. PMID:16385664

Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Gon; Chang, Jong-Hee; Park, Yong-Gou; Choi, Joong-Uhn

2005-12-31

150

Orbital Congestion Complicating Treatment of Cerebral Vascular Anomalies.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The decision between conservative management and invasive treatment of juxtaorbital intracranial vascular anomalies can be challenging. Whereas arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can lead to vision loss and are potentially life-threatening if they rupture, invasive endovascular and surgical procedures also carry risks. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Two patients developed blinding orbital congestion soon after they were treated successfully for cerebral vascular anomalies. The first patient, a 36 year-old man, underwent partial embolization followed by resection of a congenital frontal-lobe AVM. The second patient, a 62 year-old woman, underwent embolization of a periorbital/skull base dural arteriovenous malformation. After intervention, both patients developed unilateral vision loss proptosis, chemosis, complete ophthalmoplegia, and increased intraocular pressure. The first patient suffered from acute orbital compartment syndrome in the absence of any acute localized hemorrhage or thrombosis. The second patient experienced refractory acute glaucoma from orbital congestion, secondary hyphema, and angle closure caused by superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus thromboses. CONCULSIONS: These cases highlight the potential for orbital congestion to worsen acutely after invasive treatment of juxtaorbital cerebral vascular anomalies and suggest diverse mechanisms of resultant visual and orbital compromise. The first case represents the first report of orbital compartment syndrome after resection of a congenital AVM. PMID:23369940

Levin, Marc H; Moss, Heather E; Pineles, Stacy L; Bagley, Linda J; Heuer, Gregory G; Zager, Eric L; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Vagefi, M Reza

2013-01-28

151

Dural sinus malformation with arteriovenous fistulae in a newborn: positive outcome following endovascular management.  

PubMed

Dural sinus malformation (DSM) is an extremely rare and congenital cerebrovascular malformation that is associated with dural arteriovenous fistula and a large dural lake, which may mimic the clinical malformations of an infantile dural arteriovenous shunt or the vein of Galen. Early diagnosis and treatment of DSM is crucial in order to avoid irreversible brain injuries or heart failure. Here, we report an unusual case of extensive DSM that showed good clinical and angiographic results after endovascular embolization. PMID:22240537

Liu, Chien-An; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Luo, Chao-Bao; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Mu-Huo Teng, Michael; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Chang, Cheng-Yen

2012-01-01

152

Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins.

Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

2010-01-01

153

Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins  

MedlinePLUS

Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins • Overview Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment used to treat varicose and spider veins. The ... cramps. It is the primary treatment for small varicose veins in the legs. top of page • Preparation You ...

154

Congenital malformations in Utah.  

PubMed

The rate of malformed children in Utah of 11.7 per 1,000 liver births, derived from 128,857 birth certificates, ws not high compared with other non-Utah studies. Rates of selected malformations also were not high. The rate of malformed children varied by county of residence. San Juan County reported the highest percentage of mothers receiving late or infrequent prenatal care, the lowest mean level of public education, and the highest rate of malformed children in the state. The rate was not significantly associated with the large population of Indians residing in that county since by controlling for residence, the variation by race was eliminated. The overall rate was positively associated with maternal age rimarily due to an increased frequency of Down's syndrome. The impact of the "maternal age effect" on the state malformation rate, however, was not large. By controlling for maternal age, the slight association between increased rate of malformed children and increasing birth order was eliminated. The rate of malformed children was higher for parents having a low level of education, infrequent prenatal care, or who were not married. There was also a strong negative association of birth weight with the rate of malformation. Analysis of rates of selected malformations suggested that the low birth weight was a sequela to intrauterine growth retardation caused by severe congenital malformation. The validity and etiologic implications of these results await further investigation. PMID:6449752

Seegmiller, R E; Hansen, W N

1980-10-01

155

Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches.  

PubMed

The term vascular anomaly represents a broad spectrum of vascular pathology, including proliferating vascular tumours and vascular malformations. While the treatment of most vascular anomalies is multifactorial, interventional radiology procedures, including embolic therapy, sclerotherapy and laser coagulation among others, are playing an increasingly important role in vascular anomaly management. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of common vascular malformations, with emphasis on the technique, efficacy and complications of different interventional radiology procedures. PMID:24588666

Mulligan, P R; Prajapati, H J S; Martin, L G; Patel, T H

2014-03-01

156

Recognizing and managing retinal vein occlusion.  

PubMed

Retinal vein occlusion is the second most common retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy and represents a significant cause of irreversible sight loss and disability in persons over the age of 50 years (The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group, 1984). PMID:24402030

Arunakirinathan, Meena; Aj Ting, Michelle; Crawley, Laura

2014-01-01

157

Maternal Psychological Distress and Placental Circulation in Pregnancies after a Previous Offspring with Congenital Malformation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. Methods This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal). Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. Results Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively). Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. Conclusions In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that was higher than expected for the size of the fetus. The results do not support placental blood flow reduction as a pathway between maternal distress and reduced birthweight.

Helbig, Anne; Kaasen, Anne; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Haugen, Guttorm

2014-01-01

158

Multiple Venous Malformations with Phleboliths: Radiological-Pathological Correlation  

PubMed Central

Vascular malformations are congenital lesions that are present at birth and do not regress. However, they often present later in life. They are subdivided into two categories: (1) slow- or low-flow and (2) fast- or high-flow malformations. Low-flow malformations contain combinations of capillary, venous, and lymphatic components. Venous malformations can occur anywhere in the body, but are most frequently seen in the head and neck (40%). These lesions present in a variety of ways, from a vague blue patch to a soft blue mass, which may be single isolated or may occur in multiple areas. Treatment depends on the type of lesion, the location, degree of involvement, and the clinical symptoms. Here we are report the imaging and histopathologic findings in a patient with multiple venous malformations affecting the left side of the face and trunk.

Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Shankar, Ashwini Naveen; Vemanna, Naveen Shankar; Cholleti, Sudheer Kumar

2013-01-01

159

Embolization and radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires a multidisciplinary management including microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). This article reviews the recent advancements in the multimodality treatment of patients with AVMs using endovascular neurosurgery and SRS. We describe the natural history of AVMs and the role of endovascular and radiosurgical treatment as well as their interplay in the management of these complex vascular lesions. Also, we present some representative cases treated at our institution.

Plasencia, Andres R.; Santillan, Alejandro

2012-01-01

160

Maternal diabetes mellitus and congenital malformation. Survey of 205 cases.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five out of 205 (i.e. 12%) babies born to diabetic mothers in the Birmingham Maternity Hospital in the period 1969-1974 were malformed as against 6% in a control group. The incidence was highest in the group where mothers were on insulin at the time of conception (17 out of 117, i.e. 15%). No correlation was observed between major malformation in this group and age of onset or duration of the diabetes, progressive vascular complications, maternal age, or parity. Cardiovascular malformations were over-represented.

Day, R E; Insley, J

1976-01-01

161

Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.  

PubMed

Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome. PMID:23813023

Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

2014-05-01

162

Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

163

Magnetic resonance imaging signatures of vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Venous vascular contributing factors to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been known for some time. Only recently has the scope of their potential role become more apparent with the theory of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). As research expands to further explore the role of vascular pathology in the MS population, it is expedient to review the evidence from an imaging perspective. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as applied to imaging MS patients and CCSVI. This includes evaluating imaging signatures of vascular structure and flow as well as brain iron content. Upon review of the literature, we find that extracranial venous anomalies including stenosis, venous malformations, and collateralization of flow in the major veins of the neck have been observed to be prevalent in the MS population. Abnormal flow has been reported in MS patients both in major vessels using phase-contrast flow quantification and in the brain using perfusion-weighted imaging. We discuss the role of quantitative flow imaging and its potential in assessing possible biomarkers for abnormal flow. Finally, it has been suggested that the presence of high iron content may indirectly indicate progression of existing vascular pathology. To that end, we review the use of susceptibility-weighted imaging in monitoring iron in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and MS lesions. PMID:22971468

Utriainen, David; Trifan, Gabriela; Sethi, Sean; Elias, Saba; Hewett, Joseph; Feng, Wei; Haacke, E Mark

2012-10-01

164

Chiasmal apoplexy: haemorrhage from a cavernous malformation in the optic chiasm.  

PubMed Central

We present a patient who experienced sudden onset of orbital headache, visual loss and bitemporal visual field defect. MRI of the optic chiasm suggested a diagnosis of haemorrhage and hence a vascular malformation. Pterional craniotomy revealed an intrachiasmatic haematoma with a cavernous angioma. The malformation was totally excised and vision improved after surgery. The syndrome of chiasmal apoplexy is discussed. Images

Regli, L; de Tribolet, N; Regli, F; Bogousslavsky, J

1989-01-01

165

Haemangiomas and Associated Congenital Malformations in a Large Population-Based Sample of Infants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Haemangiomas are common, benign, vascular tumors, observed in 4-12 percent of infants during the first year of life. Most cases progress without complication, yet a small proportion experience life-threatening complications. Concomitant congenital malform...

A. T. Bukowinski C. J. Sevick D. J. Slymen J. E. Alcaraz M. A. Ryan

2008-01-01

166

Embryonic development and malformation of lymphatic vessels.  

PubMed

In the human, malformations of lymphatic vessels can be observed as lymphangiectasia, lymphangioma and lymphangiomatosis, with a prevalence of 1.2-2.8 per thousand. Their aetiology is unknown and a causal therapy does not exist. We investigated the origin of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in avian and murine embryos, and compared the molecular profile of LECs from normal and malformed lymphatics of children. In avian embryos, Prox1+ lymphangioblasts are located in the confluence of the cranial and caudal cardinal veins, where the jugular lymph sac (JLS) forms. Cell lineage studies show that the JLS is of venous origin. In contrast, the lymphatics of the dermis are derived from mesenchymal lymphangioblasts located in the dermatomes, suggesting a dual origin of LECs in avian embryos. The same may hold true for murine embryos, where Lyve1+ LEC precursors are found in the cardinal veins, and in the mesenchyme. The mesenchymal cells express the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, indicating a cell type with lymphendothelial and leukocyte characteristics. In the human, such cells might give rise to Kaposi's sarcoma. Microarray analyses of LECs from lymphangiomas of children show a large number of regulated genes, such as VEGFR3. Our studies show that lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis occur simultaneously in the embryo, and suggest a function for VEGFR3 in lymphangiomas. PMID:18300425

Wilting, Jörg; Buttler, Kerstin; Rössler, Jochen; Norgall, Susanne; Schweigerer, Lothar; Weich, Herbert A; Papoutsi, Maria

2007-01-01

167

[A surgical case of tectal cavernous malformation presented by hydrocephalus].  

PubMed

We report a surgical case of tectal cavernous malformation presented by hydrocephalus. This 30-year-old man suffered from headache and nausea due to an obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a cavernous malformation in the tectum. Magnetic resonance (MR) images on admission showed a small lesion depicted as isointensity on the T1-weighted image, hyperintensity on the T2-weighted image, and accompanied with peripheral low-signal intensity rim, suggesting a tectal cavernous malformation. After admission, ventricular drainage was performed and the patient's symptoms improved immediately. He underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt ten days after the ventricular drainage. Postoperative CT scan showed an enlargement of the tectal mass with hemorrhagic change, but there was no deterioration in his neurological status. Cerebral angiography demonstrated no vascular stain or venous malformation. Microsurgical removal of the tectal mass was then performed via an occipital transtentorial approach. Histopathology proved a cavernous malformation and MR images at follow-up demonstrated total excision. Postoperatively, an upward gaze palsy appeared, but gradually improved within a month. Management strategy of brain stem cavernous malformation is controversial. Occasionally, brain stem hemorrhage may become critical. Therefore, we recommend aggressive surgical extirpation of symptomatic brain stem cavernous malformation, if it is accessible, if hemorrhage is present, and if the patient's condition permits it. PMID:11806112

Fujiwara, Satoshi; Ohta, Masahiro; Takeda, Tetsuji; Kohno, Kanehisa; Takechi, Akihiko; Kawada, Yasuchika; Shinohara, Naoki; Sasaki, Ushio

2002-01-01

168

Sudden death from ruptured choroid plexus arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Brain vascular malformations are recognized as having potential to produce hemorrhage, but leading to sudden death in children is uncommon. Arteriovenous malformations may be situated in any region of the brain, but very rarely, they can be restricted to the choroid plexus. We report here a rare case of sudden death in a child, caused by a ruptured vascular malformation with an unusual location, which was not identified grossly but only on histological examination. The size and the location of the lesion, as well as the age of our patient, were contributing factors of the massive bleeding. Autopsy remains an important tool because it provides valuable information about the etiology of such bleedings, improves knowledge about these lesions, and enhances epidemiologic data. PMID:24781402

Cioca, Andreea; Gheban, Dan; Perju-Dumbrava, Dan; Chiroban, Ovidiu; Mera, Mihaela

2014-06-01

169

Combined treatment of a dural arteriovenous malformation of the lateral sinus using transarterial and direct lateral sinus embolisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 80-year-old man presented with a dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVM) involving the left lateral sinus. A carotid angiogram showed the lateral sinus to be occluded proximally and distally, with unusual retrograde venous outflow from the residual sinus to the cortical veins, including a dilated vein of Labbé. Single photon emission computed tomography showed reduced left frontal and temporal cerebral blood

K. Kasai; H. Iwasa; N. Yamada; S. Asamoto; T. Abe; S. Nemoto

1996-01-01

170

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma encasing the left brachiocephalic vein  

PubMed Central

Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas are rare vascular tumors, often arising from medium to large veins in the extremities. Symptoms of these tumors vary depending upon location. Rarely, tumors may arise in chest and involve large vessels in the mediastinum. We present a case of a 17-year-old male presenting with compressive symptoms of the left upper extremity who was found to have a large epithelioid hemangioendothelioma encasing the left brachiocephalic vein.

Long, Kristin; Skinner, Sean; Martin, Jeremiah

2014-01-01

171

The double retro-aortic left renal vein  

PubMed Central

The renal veins drain the kidney into the inferior vena cava and unite in a variable fashion to form the renal vein. The left renal vein is normally located in front of the aorta. However, the retro-aortic renal vein may course posterior to the aorta due to embryological developmental anomalies. During educational dissection, a rare variation of the left renal vein was found in a 66-year old male cadaver. The double retro-aortic renal veins coursed behind the aorta to drain into the inferior vena cava. The superior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the lower border of the L2 vertebra, and the inferior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the upper border of the L4 vertebra. Such a variant is rare, and is a clinically important observation which should be noted by vascular surgeons, oncologists, and traumatologists.

Kyung, Dong-Soo; Lee, Jae-Ho; Shin, Deuk-Yong; Kim, Dae-Kwang

2012-01-01

172

Standard anticoagulation for mesenteric vein thrombosis, revealing a 'zebra' diagnosis: hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia--the dripping truth!  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man was treated in the hospital for mesenteric vein thrombosis and discharged home on anticoagulation. On warfarin the patient started to bleed profusely from the nose and tongue. He was evaluated by ENT (ears, nose and throat); a nasal endoscopy revealed several vascular ectasias. Subsequent detailed history and general physical examination established the diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. On further evaluation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were diagnosed on imaging and treated by intervention radiology. In hindsight, the diagnosis could have been made in the general practitioner's office with just a routine thorough history and a physical examination at a new patient visit. We report this case to stress upon the importance of vigilant clinical, medical and family history and a thorough examination to establish an early diagnosis of this not-so-rare entity. PMID:24165501

Aggarwal, Aakash; Kahlon, Arundeep Singh; Rane, Meghan; Banas, Emerald

2013-01-01

173

Portal vein gas in emergency surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%). This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%), obstruction and dilatation (9.03%), sepsis (6.6%), iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01%) and cancer (1.8%). Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%). Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

Hussain, Abdulzahra; Mahmood, Hind; El-Hasani, Shamsi

2008-01-01

174

Genetic malformations of cortical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malformations of the cerebral cortex represent a major cause of developmental disabilities, severe epilepsy and reproductive disadvantage. The advent of high-resolution MRI techniques has facilitated the in vivo identification of a large group of cortical malformation phenotypes. Several malformation syndromes caused by abnormal cortical development have been recognised and specific causative gene defects have been identified. Periventricular nodular heterotopia

Renzo Guerrini; Carla Marini

2006-01-01

175

Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

... veins include: Age Previous history of DVT or PE Metastatic malignancy Vein disease (such as varicose veins) ... lungs, where it is called a pulmonary embolism (PE). A pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal condition ...

176

Renal vein thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. ... Renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon disorder that may be caused by: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Clotting disorders Dehydration (mostly in infants) ...

177

Retinal vein occlusion  

MedlinePLUS

... small veins that carry blood away from the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back ... smaller veins (branch veins or BRVO) in the retina often occurs when retinal arteries that have been ...

178

Reoperation for Chiari Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We undertook this study to characterize those patients who required reoperations for Chiari malformation and to determine whether modifications in surgical technique at the initial procedure might have obviated the need for repeat surgery. Methods: We reviewed the hospital records, imaging studies, operative reports, and follow-up data of those patients who were undergoing a second operation as part of

David Sacco; R. Michael Scott

2003-01-01

179

Endovascular management of spinal arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (sAVMs) are rare vascular lesions whose natural history remains incompletely defined. Several classification schemes for sAVMs have evolved based on an improved understanding of the anatomic characteristics as well as pathophysiologic behavior of these arteriovenous shunts. Advances in endovascular technology have inspired the adoption of interventional techniques both as stand-alone treatment and as part of a multi-modality management paradigm for sAVMs. Further refinements in liquid embolic agents as well as improved microcatheter navigability will contribute to an ever-expanding role for endovascular intervention in the management of these lesions. PMID:22935350

Ducruet, Andrew F; Crowley, R Webster; McDougall, Cameron G; Albuquerque, Felipe C

2013-11-01

180

Congenital absence of the portal vein associated with focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and cystic dysplasia of the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital absence of portal vein is a rare malformation. To date, 16 cases have been reported – all in association with\\u000a other anomalies, i.e. benign or malignant hepatic neoplasms in 6 cases and cardiac malformations in 12. This case report described\\u000a a girl with congenital absence of portal vein, focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and cystic kidney dysplasia. Angiography

G. Guariso; S. Fiorio; G. Altavilla; P. G. Gamba; T. Toffolutti; M. Chiesura-Corona; U. Tedeschi; L. Zancan

1998-01-01

181

Neurocutaneous vascular syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been significant recent advances in the past several years in the field of neurocutaneous vascular syndromes, including\\u000a the development of more stringent diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the renaming of macrocephaly-cutis marmorata telangiectatica\\u000a congenita to macrocephaly-capillary malformation to accurately reflect the true nature of the syndrome, and discovery of new\\u000a genetic mutations such as RASA-1. There have also

Katherine B. Puttgen; Doris D. M. Lin

2010-01-01

182

Vascular lesions of the hand.  

PubMed

The vascular malformations are not uncommon on the hand and offer diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Enjolras and Mulliken's classification is exposed. Their depiction and pretreatment assessment may benefit from non-invasive imaging as color-Doppler ultrasound and MRI combined with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Some chronic traumatic vascular injuries as the hypothenar hammer syndrome may also take advantage of these imaging modalities. PMID:16298677

Drapé, Jean-Luc; Feydy, Antoine; Guerini, Henri; Desmarais, Eric; Godefroy, Didier; Le Viet, Dominique; Chevrot, Alain

2005-12-01

183

Altered Vascular Expression of EphrinB2 and EphB4 in a Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

EphrinB2 ligands and EphB4 receptors are expressed on endothelial cells (EC) of arteries and veins respectively, and are essential for vascular development. To understand how these molecules regulate retinal neovascularization (NV), we evaluated their expression in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). EphrinB2 and EphB4 were expressed on arterial and venous trunks respectively, and on a subset of deep capillary vessels. EphB4 expression was reduced following hyperoxia, while ephrinB2 expression remained unaltered. In addition, a subset of EphB4 positive veins regressed in a caspase-3 dependent manner during hyperoxia. Arteriovenous malformations were also observed with loss of arterial-venous boundaries. Finally, both ephrinB2 and EphB4 were expressed on a subset of neovascular tufts following hyperoxia. These data confirm the contribution of ECs from both venous and arterial origins to the development retinal NV.

Davies, Michael H.; Stempel, Andrew J.; Hubert, Kristin E.; Powers, Michael R.

2011-01-01

184

Improving the management of varicose veins.  

PubMed

Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux. PMID:24555256

Onida, Sarah; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

2013-01-01

185

Cardiovascular and thrombophilic risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a relatively common disease that is often associated with a variety of systemic disorders including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and systemic vasculitis. There are various types of RVO, categorized on the basis of the site of occlusion and on the type of consequent vascular damage. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is the most frequently

Domenico Prisco; Rossella Marcucci; Laura Bertini; Anna Maria Gori

2002-01-01

186

Uncommon cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm: a case report  

PubMed Central

Cavernous malformation (CM) is a vascular malformation disorder characterized by a berry-like mass of expanded blood vessels. CM, originating from the optic chiasm. usually leads to chiasma syndrome presenting with bitemporal hemianopsia. We report a 28-year-old male presenting with left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an occupied lesion located in the right side of the optic chiasm, and a clinical diagnosis of chiasmal CM was made. Microsurgical excision was performed via anterolateral pterional craniotomy. The patient showed good recovery with slight improvement of the visual field deficits after the operation. No CM recurrence was discovered during the follow-up MRI scans.

2012-01-01

187

Vascular origin of Poland syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascularization of the arms has been studied by impedance plethysmography (rheography) in eight children with Poland syndrome, a common malformation characterized by unilateral hand anomaly and ipsilateral aplasia of the inferior head of the pectoralis major muscle. A marked decrease of the velocity of the systolic increase in the arterial volume (Velm) was shown in the affected arms, and the

Jean-Pierre Bouvet; Denis Leveque; Francine Bernetieres; Jean-Jacques Gros

1978-01-01

188

Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)? Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which blood clots (or thrombi) form in deep veins in the legs ... and Gynecologists f AQ • What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)? • How does a clot form in a ...

189

Congenital uterine malformations.  

PubMed

With the advent of newer imaging techniques, the radiologist is now able to make very precise and accurate diagnoses of congenital uterine malformations and their complications. Because these anomalies are associated with reproductive dysfunction, they are often discovered during an infertility evaluation. By imaging parallel to the long axis of the uterus, the external contour can be evaluated, obviating laparoscopy for differentiating septate from bicornuate uteri. Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies (e.g., hematometros, hematometrocolpos), an important complication of abnormal müllerian duct development, can occur at any time from the newborn period to adulthood. Determining the site of obstruction is imperative for planning the proper surgical approach. To understand these malformations better, we review the relevant embryology. The most widely accepted classification scheme is discussed in detail, with an emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic options. PMID:8536487

Woodward, P J; Sohaey, R; Wagner, B J

1995-01-01

190

Central retinal vein occlusion and thrombophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central retinal vein occlusion is one of the commonest vascular diseases of the eye. The pathogenesis is multifactorial with both local factors and systemic diseases being aetiologically important. Many thrombophilic conditions have recently been identified and studies looking at their potential role in CRVO have been undertaken. The aim of this review is to critically appraise these studies as to

C D Fegan

2002-01-01

191

Treatment of congenital malformations.  

PubMed

The prevalence of müllerian malformations is 1 in 200, or 0.5%. A third of the anomalies are septate, a third bicornuate uteri, 10% arcuate uterus, 10% didelphis and unicornuate uterus, and < 5% uterine and vaginal aplasia. Correct diagnosis of the malformation is most important but often very difficult. Correct treatment can only be performed if the malformation is clear. Longitudinal vaginal septums have to be removed due to potential obstetric problems. Transverse vaginal septums can cause hematocolpos and pain and have to be incised crosswise and excised so as not to shorten the vagina at the same time. Congenital vaginal agenesis occurs in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome patients and in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The first choice for surgical treatment should be the new laparoscopic-assisted creation of a neovagina. Septate uterus has to be distinguished from a bicornuate uterus. Even if it is not proven to be a cause for infertility, the chance of miscarriage can be diminished by performing hysteroscopic metroplasty. Repair of a uterine septum in infertility patients often improves pregnancy rates. In contrast, surgical repair of a bicornuate uterus requires an abdominal metroplasty. This should only be performed if the patient has recurrent fetal loss due to the uterine structural defect. In a unicornuate uterus it is most important to determine if there is a second uterine horn that can cause cyclic pain if it has functioning endometrium. The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively. PMID:21437824

Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Rall, Katharina; Campo, Rudi; Oppelt, Peter; Isaacson, Keith

2011-03-01

192

Use of meso-Rex shunt with transposition of the coronary vein for the management of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction  

PubMed Central

The meso-Rex shunt is used to safely and effectively treat patients with portal hypertension due to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. In the standard meso-Rex shunt technique, the patient's own internal jugular vein is used as a vascular autograft. Inevitably, such a procedure requires neck exploration and sacrifice of the internal jugular vein. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old man with idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, who was treated with a new technique of transposition of the coronary vein, which is enlarged in most cases of portal hypertension, as an alternative to the standard meso-Rex shunt technique. The transposition of the coronary vein into the Rex recessus is more efficient and less invasive than harvesting an autologous vein graft. Therefore, this technique simplifies the procedure and should be used when possible.

Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

2014-01-01

193

The Importance of Preoperative Evaluation of the Subclavian Vein in Dialysis Access Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate venous outflow is critical to the proper function of a vascular-access graft (artenovenous fistula) used for chronic hemodialysis. Stenosis of the subclavian vein can significantly compromise this venous outflow. The development of such subclavian vein stenoses has been associated with the prior placement of temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. We evaluated the importance of preoperative detection of these stenoses

R. Stephen Surratt; Daniel Picu; Marshall E. Hicks; Michael D. Darcy; Michael Kleinhoffer; Martin Jendrisak

194

The evaluation of the superior ophthalmic vein on the carotid angiogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 504 carotid angiograms investigated by subtraction technique observation of the superior ophthalmic vein is of clinical value. It was shown that in normal cases this vein can only rarely be demonstrated. In pathological cases however (i.e. brain tumours, cerebral bleedings, vascular deseases, sinus thrombosis etc.), the superior ophthalmic vein shows up in the angiograms with a varying frequency. The

K. Tornow; K. Piscol

1971-01-01

195

Congenital malformations in the newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  5,376 consecutive births were examined for the presence of congenital malformations, to find out its incidence and to determine\\u000a the role of environmental factors in the causation of these anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a The incidence was 13.76 per one thousand births. Males dominated among the malformed infants with an incidence of 67.56 per\\u000a cent. The maximum number of malformed children were born to

K. K. Khanna; L. S. N. Prasad

1967-01-01

196

Sclerotherapy of varicose veins in dermatology.  

PubMed

Venous disorders rank among the most frequent diseases in the German population. Early diagnostic investigation and treatment can prevent their progression and may reduce the risk for secondary diseases. The therapeutic spectrum for varicose veins includes conservative as well as interventional and surgical methods. Because it is minimally invasive and well-tolerated, sclerotherapy represents an important treatment method for venous insufficiency, recurrent varicosis and venous malformations. We review the role of sclerotherapy as a treatment option of chronic venous insufficiency in dermatology. PMID:24797742

Lorenz, Marthe Barbara; Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Görge, Tobias

2014-05-01

197

Cytokines and the early vein graft: strategies to enhance durability.  

PubMed

This brief review focuses on experimental studies linking the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha to accelerated vein graft failure in the broader historical context of vein graft research. From some perspectives, the field appears ripe for transfer of cytokine knowledge and therapeutic approaches that have evolved in other systems to vascular surgery problems. However, the complexity of vein graft disease suggests that more robust research approaches, such as broadening of the scope beyond focus on single mediators and neointimal hyperplasia, will be necessary to reach translatable strategies to prolong human vein graft durability. PMID:17544029

Ozaki, C Keith

2007-06-01

198

Local Model of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Human Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular diseases of the human brain are one of the reasons of deaths and people's incapacitation not only in Russia, but also in the world. The danger of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is in premature rupture of pathological vessels of an AVM which may cause haemorrhage. Long-term prognosis without surgical treatment is unfavorable. The reduced impact method of AVM treatment is embolization of a malformation which often results in complete obliteration of an AVM. Pre-surgical mathematical modeling of an arteriovenous malformation can help surgeons with an optimal sequence of the operation. During investigations, the simple mathematical model of arteriovenous malformation is developed and calculated, and stationary and non-stationary processes of its embolization are considered. Various sequences of embolization of a malformation are also considered. Calculations were done with approximate steady flow on the basis of balanced equations derived from conservation laws. Depending on pressure difference, a fistula-type AVM should be embolized at first, and then small racemose AVMs are embolized. Obtained results are in good correspondence with neurosurgical AVM practice.

Nadezhda Telegina, Ms; Aleksandr Chupakhin, Mr; Aleksandr Cherevko, Mr

2013-02-01

199

Optociliary veins and central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a follow up of 94 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) whose onset had taken place less than 1 year earlier, optociliary veins (OCVs) were found in 7.4% at first examination. Among the 79 eyes in which the fundus of the eye was very visible after a follow up of more than 1 year OCVs were found in

G Giuffrè; C Palumbo; G Randazzo-Papa

1993-01-01

200

Congestive hepatopathy secondary to large renal arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset dyspnoea, and was found to have signs of pulmonary congestion on clinical examination. Imaging revealed cardiomegaly and coincident congestive hepatopathy, secondary to a left renal arteriovenous malformation. The presence of a high flow vascular shunt in the left kidney was possibly the causative factor behind both the high-output cardiac failure and congestive hepatopathy. PMID:23349173

Khalife, Mohammad; Faraj, Walid; Salah, Fatima; Haydar, Ali A

2013-01-01

201

Clinical syndromes of arteriovenous malformations of the transverse-sigmoid sinus.  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations or fistulae shunting arterial blood from branches of the external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries into the transverse-sigmoid sinus may produce different clinical syndromes. The literature is reviewed with 96 patients including six personal cases. Usually these malformations have a congenital origin and only in 4% of the series was there a previous history of a severe head injury. Clinical groups are defined and the role of angiography assessed. Direct surgical approach with occlusion or removal of the vascular malformation is the treatment of choice. Possible methods of treatment by selective embolization are discussed. Images

Obrador, S; Soto, M; Silvela, J

1975-01-01

202

Macrocephaly-capillary malformation: a report of four Chinese patients and literature review.  

PubMed

We report a series of four patients with macrocephaly-capillary malformation (M-CM) who are the first ever reported M-CM patients among Chinese individuals. The salient clinical features and recent diagnostic criteria are discussed. M-CM is a multisystem disease characterized by macrocephaly and cutaneous vascular malformation. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities such as developmental delay, structural brain malformation, and hydrocephalus are common, and thus vigilant clinical and neuroradiological assessment is essential during the first few years of life. Cardiac and tumour surveillance would also be beneficial in selected cases. PMID:22258436

Luk, Ho Ming; Lo, Ivan F M; Lai, Carman W S; Yeung, Wai Lan; Lam, Stephen T S

2012-04-01

203

Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... venous system. Varicose Vein Treatments Minimally Invasive Vein Ablation Treatment Endovenous (or vein) ablation is a minimally ... leg, re-establishing normal flow. Benefits of Vein Ablation Treatment The treatment takes less than an hour ...

204

Endoscopic Saphenous Vein Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of arterial conduit has decreased the amount of saphenous vein required for routine coronary artery bypass grafting, the saphenous vein as a bypass conduit remains an essential component of most practices. We describe the technique of endoscopic vein harvest that, in our initial experience with 30 patients, has improved patient satisfaction and decreased the complications associated with

Keith B Allen; Carl J Shaar

1997-01-01

205

Clinical-radiological evaluation of sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations  

SciTech Connect

Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery has been used to treat 322 patients with surgically-inaccessible intracranial vascular malformations. (The clinical results of this method for the treatment of angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain are described in separate reports of this symposium). The great majority of patients have had an uneventful post-treatment course with satisfactory health outcomes. However, several categories of delayed sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery have been identified, involving the vascular structures essential for the integrity of the brain tissue and the brain parenchyma directly. These categories reflect both reaction to injury and to alterations in regional hemodynamic status, and include vasogenic edema, occlusion of functional vasculature, radiation necrosis, and local or remote effects on cerebral arterial aneurysms. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.

1989-12-01

206

Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma due to arteriovenous malformation in a child  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity, especially in infants, in whom only a few cases have been reported. In a paediatric emergency setting, SSEH should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for acute extremity weakness and paraesthesia. Epidural vascular malformations are often suspected in these cases but have rarely been demonstrated. The authors report herein a case of SSEH in a 9-year-old boy arising from an epidural vascular malformation. He initially presented with sudden intense cervicodorsal pain followed by hypotonic lower extremities and progressive motor weakness, with no sensory change. The MRI showed an acute extradural haematoma extending from C7 to T4 with compression of the spinal cord. After submission to decompression surgery, he presented full recovery in 1 month. The histopathological analysis revealed a vascular malformation.

Cabral, Antonio Jorge; Barros, Andreia; Aveiro, Cristina; Vasconcelos, Rui

2011-01-01

207

Isolated and Complex Scimitar Vein Anomalies and Their Differentiation from the Meandering Right Pulmonary Vein  

PubMed Central

Purpose Four pediatric patients with isolated (the adult form) and complex (the infantile form) scimitar vein anomalies were reviewed and compared with patients with meandering right pulmonary veins. Materials and Methods From January 1990 to December 2006, 4 female patients, aged 2 days to 3.5 years, with isolated and complex scimitar vein anomalies were retrospectively studied. The clinical features, chest radiographs, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, computer tomography, bronchography, cardiac catheterization with angiography, surgery, and autopsy were reviewed to substantiate the diagnosis of isolated and complex scimitar vein anomalies. Results Clinical manifestations were lung infections with radiographic scimitar signs in 4 patients (3 right; 1 left), respiratory distress, congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and/or cyanosis in 3 patients, dextrocardia, heterotaxy, and/or right atrial isomerism in 2 patients, as well as dextroversion, right bronchial isomerism, bronchial stenosis, and/or sepsis in 1 patient. Two patients with right atrial isomerism expired. Conclusion The clinical discrimination between scimitar vein anomaly with and without cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary malformations is crucial for the outcomes vary.

2007-01-01

208

Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a little known condition of which, to date, very few cases have been described. It has a very diverse symptomatology, even though in most cases, it is diagnosed during a severe and acute haemorrhagic event. Its treatment can vary from expectant management to hysterectomy; however, current evidence suggests that the embolisation of uterine arteries is the most effective approach, especially if fertility is to be preserved. We present a case report classified as AVM, with additional images that show the appearance of this pathology in a short span of time. This case has a number of peculiarities: unusual persistence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (?-HCG), asymptomatic patient, quick establishment of the lesion and its duration with unchanging characteristics and finally its spontaneous resolution without further consequences. This entity shows an aetiopathogenesis, that is, not well established or described. We discuss its physiopathology and aetiopathogenesis. PMID:23396842

Sellers, Francisco; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Moliner, Belen; Bernabeu, Rafael

2013-01-01

209

Controversies in Chiari I malformations  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis and management of Chiari I malformations (CMI) remains controversial, particularly since it is often an incidental finding on cervical MR scans performed for neck pain and/or headaches. Recently, some surgeons “over-operated” on asymptomatic patients with Chiari I malformations, or even on those without the requisite radiographic diagnostic features for Chiari I malformations: unfortunately, only a subset were admonished for indiscriminate surgery. Nevertheless, when this hindbrain malformation is truly symptomatic, contributing to impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, various valid surgical management strategies may be adopted. Methods: This review focuses on the current literature regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical management of Chiari I malformation. Variations in the surgical technique are also presented and critiqued. Results: The recommended treatment for Chiari I malformations I consists of decompressive suboccipital craniectomy and duroplasty when abnormal cine-flow MRI is observed preoperatively and blockage of CSF flow persists intraoperatively despite bony decompression. Conclusions: Controversy continues regarding the optimal surgical technique to address Chiari malformations I. Proper diagnostic studies and patient selection are needed to optimize patient outcomes, while avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures.

Baisden, Jamie

2012-01-01

210

Patterning of Leaf Vein Networks by Convergent Auxin Transport Pathways  

PubMed Central

The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

Sawchuk, Megan G.; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

2013-01-01

211

Retrograde pulmonary embolectomy by flushing of the pulmonary veins.  

PubMed

A glue embolization of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation in a 3-year-old boy was complicated by a massive pulmonary embolus due to glue entering the venous circulation. Attempted pulmonary embolectomy via pulmonary arteriotomy after emergency cardiopulmonary bypass was unsuccessful. However, retrograde flushing of the pulmonary veins with cold saline solution produced large quantities of embolus through the pulmonary arteriotomy. Bypass was discontinued uneventfully with no residual cardiopulmonary problems. PMID:8526638

John, L C; Awad, W I; Anderson, D R

1995-11-01

212

Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rare but potential life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can be lead to massive hemorrhage. Case: We describe here a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A 32-year-old woman presented abnormal vaginal bleeding following the induced abortion. A diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation made on the basis of Doppler ultrasonraphy was confirmed through pelvic angiography. The embolization of bilateral uterine arteries was performed successfully. Conclusion: Uterine arteriovenous malformation should be suspected in patient with abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially who had the past medical history incluing cesarean section, induced abortion, or Dillation and Curethage and so on. Although angiography remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is also a good noninvasive technique. The transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective treatment

Chen, Yan; Wang, Guoyun; Xie, Fubo; Wang, Bo; Tao, Guowei; Kong, Beihua

2013-01-01

213

Donor gonadal vein reconstruction for extension of the transected renal vessels in living renal transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Donor gonadal vein is a readily available vascular reconstruction material for vascular reconstruction, for difficult situations, in living related renal transplantation. Vein extension with the gonadal vein has been described as a simple and safe method to elongate renal vein especially in right living donor kidneys. We applied the donor gonadal vein for lacerated accessory renal artery and renal vein reconstruction. Materials and Methods: The donor gonadal vein was used to reconstruct the lacerated accessory renal artery in one patient. The donor gonadal vein was isolated, used as an interposition graft to bridge the gap between transected accessory renal artery and external iliac artery of the recipient. In another patient, gonadal vein was used to reconstruct short right renal vein, which got damaged during retrieval. Results: This technique resulted in a tension-free anastomosis. There were no procedure related complications. The ischemia time remained within acceptable limits and grafts showed excellent outcomes. Conclusions: The use of gonadal vein for renal vascular reconstruction seems to be an acceptable option during living related renal transplantation, lest the need arise, with no increased graft morbidity.

Veeramani, Muthu; Jain, Vikas; Ganpule, Arvind; Sabnis, R. B.; Desai, Mahesh R.

2010-01-01

214

MRCP of congenital pancreaticobiliary malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a Background  Congenital pancreaticobiliary malformations are sometimes associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis and biliary carcinoma. Currently, MRCP is one of the first choices for investigating and diagnosing pancreaticobiliary diseases noninvasively. We compared the accuracy of conventional MRCP and ERCP in making the diagnosis of congenital pancreaticobiliary malformations.Methods  In patients with pancreas divisum (n = 17), pancreaticobiliary maljunction (n = 12), choledochocele (n = 2) and annular pancreas

T. Kamisawa; Y. Tu; N. Egawa; K. Tsuruta; A. Okamoto; N. Kamata

215

Congenital malformations of human dermatoglyphs  

PubMed Central

A classification for congenital malformations of dermatoglyphs is presented, dividing them into ridge aplasia, ridge hypoplasia, ridge dissociation, ridges-off-the-end, and a combination of the last two. The medical and genetic significance of these are considered in the light both of previous published cases and of new material. Malformations of dermatoglyphs are important as physical signs in paediatric diagnosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

David, T. J.

1973-01-01

216

Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

Kohli, Vikas, E-mail: vkohli_md@yahoo.co [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Unit (India); Wadhawan, Manav [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (India); Gupta, Subhash [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Liver Transplant (India); Roy, Vipul [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Cardiology (India)

2010-02-15

217

Supraclavicular flap: reconstructive strategy for massive facial arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis. Hemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. The successful treatment of vascular anomalies depends on the profound knowledge of the biologic behavior of vascular lesions and their correct classification. Vascular malformations that persist lifelong require treatment in most cases, especially when clinical symptoms occur. On the basis of individual parameters such as the diameter, location, or growth behavior, different therapeutic options such as cryotherapy, corticosteroids, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, surgical intervention, and/or embolization can be performed successfully. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolization (superselective) followed by complete resection 24 to 48 hours later. Reconstructive procedures in the head and neck region use a wide range of flaps for defect closure. The methods range from local, mostly fasciocutaneous flaps and skin grafts, to free microsurgical flaps. To ensure a satisfactory functional and aesthetic result, good texture and color of the flap are always essential. Moreover, the donor-site defect needs to be reduced, with no resulting functional or aesthetic impairment. The supraclavicular flap has been used successfully for difficult facial reconstruction cases, providing acceptable results without using microsurgical techniques. We treated 2 patients with facial AVM by this method. Both of the lesions were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure-related complications, and the cosmetic results were excellent. PMID:21558921

Hormozi, Abdoljalil Kalantar; Shafii, Mohammad Reza

2011-05-01

218

Cervicofacial Venous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary We retrospectively evaluated 53 consecutive patients with cervicofacial venous malformation who had sclerotherapy. This review included a demographic analysis, MRI reexamination and tabulation of interventional therapeutic strategies. All patients whose MRI studies were included in this review demonstrated characteristic findings: space occupying lesion with hyperintense T2 signal abnormality, patchy contrast enhancement, and no flow signal on the gradient echo images. We concluded that a complete MRI work-up of these patients requires post-contrast scanning and gradient-echo imaging in addition to the standard T1 and T2 weighted spin echo imaging. The majority of patients had sporadic (non-familial) venous anomalies. Sinus pericranii (SP) was identified in six patients (11%) and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRB-NS) was found in two patients (4%). MRI findings of sinus pericranii are discussed in detail. Although sodium tetradecyl and/or absolute ethanol are the most commonly used sclerosants, a wide variety of therapeutic strategies (depending on the nature of the abnormality) are also needed for these patients.

Konez, O.; Burrows, P. E.; Mulliken, J.B.

2002-01-01

219

Progressive tentorial cavernous malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Because extra-axial cavernous malformations (CMs) are rare, the common clinical course remains unclear. We report the case of a patient with progressive CM originating from the cerebellar tentorium. Case Description: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of diplopia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a lesion attached to the left cerebellar tentorium, close to the cerebral peduncle. This well-demarcated lesion rapidly enlarged for 3 months and eroded into the midbrain. Cerebral angiography showed a branch of the middle meningeal artery supplying the lesion and pooling of the contrast medium in the venous phase. A dark reddish and mulberry-like mass of the tentorium was observed intraoperatively, allowing the diagnosis of a tentorial CM. The feeding artery was identified in the tentorium and was coagulated. Postoperative MR imaging showed remarkable mass reduction and central necrosis of the lesion. However, the lesion recurred in 3 months; consequently, gamma knife radiosurgery was performed. After an additional 2 months, the lesion shrank in response to the radiosurgery. Conclusions: We report an extremely rare case of tentorial CM which showed rapid growth in a short period. Coagulation of the feeding artery was not sufficient to control the lesion. Gamma knife radiosurgery may prove highly effective for recurrent lesions.

Furuta, Takuya; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

2012-01-01

220

[The iliac vein occlusion].  

PubMed

Basing on roentgenological and morphological investigations the causes of the iliac veins passability disorder were studied up. In 45.1% of observations the stenosis was revealed of the left and in 1.2% of the right common iliac vein. Among the stenosis causes were osteal or cartilagenous prominences of vertebral column, intravascular structures (webs, membranes) in the left common iliac vein, the external iliac vein squeeze by internal iliac artery, retroperitoneal fibrosis, the right common iliac artery aneurysm, anomalous branching of parietal pelvic artery. PMID:10370311

Baeshko, A A; Rogov, Iu I; Kriukov, A G; Sysoev, A V; Puchkov, A F; Berlov, G A

1999-01-01

221

Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:Previous studies have documented that elevated plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for vascular disease. This study was performed to determine whether hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for central retinal vein occlusion.METHODS:In a case-control study, data from 74 patients with documented central retinal vein occlusion were reassessed. Control subjects consisted of individuals referred to the same clinic for assessment

Andrew K Vine

2000-01-01

222

Genetic malformations of cortical development.  

PubMed

The malformations of the cerebral cortex represent a major cause of developmental disabilities, severe epilepsy and reproductive disadvantage. The advent of high-resolution MRI techniques has facilitated the in vivo identification of a large group of cortical malformation phenotypes. Several malformation syndromes caused by abnormal cortical development have been recognised and specific causative gene defects have been identified. Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a malformation of neuronal migration in which a subset of neurons fails to migrate into the developing cerebral cortex. X-linked PNH is mainly seen in females and is often associated with focal epilepsy. FLNA mutations have been reported in all familial cases and in about 25% of sporadic patients. A rare recessive form of PNH due ARGEF2 gene mutations has also been reported in children with microcephaly, severe delay and early seizures. Lissencephaly-pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are disorders of neuronal migration and represent a malformative spectrum resulting from mutations of either LIS1 or DCX genes. LIS1 mutations cause a more severe malformation in the posterior brain regions. Most children have severe developmental delay and infantile spasms, but milder phenotypes are on record, including posterior SBH owing to mosaic mutations of LIS1. DCX mutations usually cause anteriorly predominant lissencephaly in males and SBH in female patients. Mutations of DCX have also been found in male patients with anterior SBH and in female relatives with normal brain magnetic resonance imaging. Autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, accompanied by severe delay, hypotonia, and seizures, has been associated with mutations of the reelin (RELN) gene. X-linked lissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis and ambiguous genitalia in genotypic males is associated with mutations of the ARX gene. Affected boys have severe delay and seizures with suppression-burst EEG. Early death is frequent. Carrier female patients can have isolated corpus callosum agenesis. Among several syndromes featuring polymicrogyria, bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria shows genetic heterogeneity, including linkage to chromosome Xq28 in some pedigrees, autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance in others, and an association with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion in some patients. About 65% of patients have severe epilepsy. Recessive bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria has been associated with mutations of the GPR56 gene. Epilepsy is often present in patients with cortical malformations and tends to be severe, although its incidence and type vary in different malformations. It is estimated that up to 40% of children with drug-resistant epilepsy have a cortical malformation. However, the physiopathological mechanisms relating cortical malformations to epilepsy remain elusive. PMID:16724181

Guerrini, Renzo; Marini, Carla

2006-08-01

223

3D MR angiographic visualization and artery-vein separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common approach for artery-vein separation applies a presaturation pulse to obtain different image intensity representations in MRA data for arteries and veins. However, when arteries and veins do not run in opposite directions as in the brain, lungs, and heart, this approach fails. This paper presents an image processing approach devised for artery-vein separation. The anatomic separation utilizes fuzzy connected object delineation. The first step of this separation method is the segmentation of the entire vessel structure from the background via absolute connectedness by using scale-based affinity. The second step is to separate artery from vein via relative connectedness. After 'seed' points are specified inside artery and vein in the vessel- only image, the operation is performed in an iterative fashion. The small regions of the bigger aspects of artery and vein are separated in the initial iteration. Further regions are added with the subsequent iterations so that the small aspects of artery and vein are included in alter iterations. Shell rendering is used for 3D display. Combining the strengths of fuzzy connected object definition, object separation, and shell rendering, high- quality volume rendering of vascular information in MRA data has been achieved. MS-325 contrast-enhanced MRA were used to illustrate this approach. Several examples of 3D display of arteries and veins are included to show the considerable promise of this new approach.

Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Odhner, Dewey

1999-05-01

224

Vascular anomalies of the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies of the upper extremity are a surgical challenge to the hand surgeons. The treatment modality varies with respect to the presentation, extent of the lesion, progression and their complications. Based on our experience in treating patients with vascular malformations, a protocol has been formulated for their management, which we have found to be very useful and successful. With the use of the tumescent technique and good planning, haemangiomas are best excised in infancy or early childhood. Investigations like contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgery for venous malformations. Embolisation seems to be a safe option in arteriovenous malformations.

Balakrishnan, G.

2011-01-01

225

Use of endovascular embolization to treat a ruptured arteriovenous malformation in a pregnant woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnancy has been linked to increased rates of arteriovenous malformation rupture. This link remains a matter of debate and very few studies have addressed the management of arteriovenous malformation in pregnancy. Unruptured arteriovenous malformations in pregnant woman generally warrant conservative management due to the low rupture risk. When pregnant women present with ruptured arteriovenous malformation, however, surgery is often indicated due to the increased risk of re-rupture and associated mortality. Endovascular embolization is widely accepted as an important component of contemporary, multimodal therapy for arteriovenous malformations. Although rarely curative, embolization can facilitate subsequent surgical resection or radiosurgery. No previous reports have been devoted to the endovascular management of an arteriovenous malformation in a pregnant woman. Case presentation A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented with headache and visual disturbance after the rupture of a left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation in the 22nd week of her pregnancy. After involving high-risk obstetric consultants and taking precautions to shield the fetus from ionizing radiation, we proceeded with a single stage of endovascular embolization followed soon after by open surgical resection of the arteriovenous malformation. There were several goals for the angiography in this patient: to better understand the anatomy of the arteriovenous malformation, including the number and orientation of feeding arteries and draining veins; to look for associated pre-nidal or intra-nidal aneurysms; and to partially embolize the arteriovenous malformation via safely-accessible feeders to facilitate surgical resection and minimize blood loss and operative morbidity. Conclusion From our experience and review of the literature, we maintain that ruptured arteriovenous malformations in pregnancy may be managed in a similar manner to those in non-gravid women. Precautions should be taken to reduce the operative time and exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation and contrast agents.

2012-01-01

226

Hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia in Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus: Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus is commonly seen in clinical experience. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are most commonly related to vascular compression of the root entry/enter zone (REZ). Until now, TN and HFS associated with hydrocephalus caused by Chiari's malformation have not been reported. The patient was a 24-year old male with left HFS and ipsilateral TN. Arnold-Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus and platybasia were found in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. We underwent a programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunt with complete resolution of all symptoms. This is the first report of one case only presenting as coexistent ipsilateral TN and HFS secondary to Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus. PMID:24908219

Liu, Jiang; Yuan, Yue; Zang, Li; Fang, Ying; Liu, Hongjun; Yu, Yanbing

2014-07-01

227

Neurocutaneous vascular syndromes.  

PubMed

There have been significant recent advances in the past several years in the field of neurocutaneous vascular syndromes, including the development of more stringent diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the renaming of macrocephaly-cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita to macrocephaly-capillary malformation to accurately reflect the true nature of the syndrome, and discovery of new genetic mutations such as RASA-1. There have also been advances in the understanding and management of Sturge-Weber syndrome.PHACE syndrome is a constellation of neurologic, arterial, cardiac, ophthalmologic, and sternal abnormalities associated with infantile hemangiomas. PHACE is an acronym for Posterior fossa malformation, Hemangioma, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta, Eye abnormalities. Some authors include an "S" for PHACE(S) to denote the association of ventral defects including Sternal clefting and Supraumbilical raphe.The accurate diagnosis and work-up of these patients require coordination of care across multiple disciplines, including neuroradiology, radiology, dermatology, neurology, surgery, and interventional radiology, among others.This paper is meant to update clinicians and researchers about important advances in these rare, important vascular syndromes, to improve care, and lay the foundation for future directions for research. PMID:20582592

Puttgen, Katherine B; Lin, Doris D M

2010-10-01

228

Deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a thrombus or blood clot that can occur in any of the deep veins in the body. DVTs occur most commonly in the leg or pelvis but also travel to the lungs, causing pulmonary embolism. PMID:24938985

Jackson, Mike

2014-06-18

229

Recurrent varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Doppler ultrasound was introduced for the assessment of patients with varicose veins, a more accurate clinical appraisal of the pathophysiology of this condition became possible. In particular, it enabled identification of those patients with recurrent varicose veins who had had inappropriate or inadequate initial treatment. It facilitated planning of appropriate further treatment.

John P. Royle

1986-01-01

230

Macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome: description of a case and review of clinical diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

Macrocephaly-capillary malformation (M-CM) is characterized by prenatal overgrowth, variable somatic and cerebral asymmetry, primary megalencephaly, characteristic facial features, an abnormal neurocognitive profile and cutaneous vascular malformations. It was previously known under the name macrocephaly-cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenital (M-CMTC). However a recent review of the previously reported cases has suggested that the vascular anomalies are not true CMTC but rather capillary malformations. The diagnosis is primary clinical and different criteria have been proposed for this purpose. However, M-CM is frequently associated with structural brain abnormalities that should be properly investigated and monitored because of their possible progressive development. We report the neuroradiological and morphological features observed in a girl with M-CM and we compared them with proposed diagnostic criteria found in the literature. PMID:21354731

Papetti, Laura; Tarani, Luigi; Nicita, Francesco; Ruggieri, Martino; Mattiucci, Chiara; Mancini, Francesca; Ursitti, Fabiana; Spalice, Alberto

2012-02-01

231

Arteriovenous malformation of the mandible and parotid gland.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the jaws are relatively rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Their real importance lies in their potential to result in exsanguination, which usually follows an unrelated treatment, such as tooth extraction, surgical intervention, puncture wound or blunt injury in involved areas, with the dentist unaware of the existence of the AVM. The present case illustrates an AVM in an 18-year-old female with swelling on the right side of the face. This case report is unique because although there was no history of bleeding episodes, thorough examination and investigation diagnosed it as high-flow vascular malformation. We ascertain the importance of dentists' awareness of the fatal outcome of these lesions and emphasize that, prior to performing any procedure, necessary investigations should always be done. PMID:22282511

Shailaja, S R; Manika; Manjula, M; Kumar, L V

2012-10-01

232

Arteriovenous malformation of the mandible and parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the jaws are relatively rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Their real importance lies in their potential to result in exsanguination, which usually follows an unrelated treatment, such as tooth extraction, surgical intervention, puncture wound or blunt injury in involved areas, with the dentist unaware of the existence of the AVM. The present case illustrates an AVM in an 18-year-old female with swelling on the right side of the face. This case report is unique because although there was no history of bleeding episodes, thorough examination and investigation diagnosed it as high-flow vascular malformation. We ascertain the importance of dentists' awareness of the fatal outcome of these lesions and emphasize that, prior to performing any procedure, necessary investigations should always be done.

Shailaja, S R; Manika; Manjula, M; Kumar, L V

2012-01-01

233

How Are Varicose Veins Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Varicose Veins Treated? Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. ... relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve appearance. If varicose veins cause few symptoms, your doctor may simply suggest ...

234

Completely extradural intraspinal arteriovenous malformation in the lumbar spine: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spinal vascular malformations can be classified in arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, and capillary telangiectasias. Arteriovenous malformations are the most common spinal vascular anomaly and may be located intra- and/or perimedullary. According to their nidus type and hemodynamic flow patterns, they can be differentiated into fistulous, glomerular and juvenile categories. In our case, a hyperintense extradural mass was misinterpreted as a neurinoma. The histological analysis revealed typical signs of an arteriovenous malformation. Case presentation A 57-year-old Caucasian woman presented with back pain and hypesthesia in digiti two to four of her left foot. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a long-segment intraspinal extradural soft-tissue mass in the left L4 - S1 paravertebral region with homogeneous enhancement of contrast medium. Due to another similar lesion in the lower ankle and additional cutaneous manifestations, the suspected diagnosis was a systemic disease with neurinomas (e.g. Recklinghausen’s disease). To clear up the origin and type of this lesion exploratory surgery with a hemilaminectomy of L5 was performed. This showed abnormally arterialized, dilated, and tortuous vessels. After complete resection, the intra-operative impression of an arteriovenous malformation was confirmed by a neuropathologist. Conclusions Completely extradural intraspinal arteriovenous malformations in the lumbar spine are extremely rare. In magnetic resonance imaging they are often misinterpreted as a tumor. Arteriovenous malformations can cause compression and venous congestion, or mask symptoms like a spinal disk herniation. In cases presenting with these symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings, an extradural intraspinal arteriovenous malformation should be considered as a possible diagnosis. Pre-operative angiography or magnetic resonance imaging angiography can be used to verify the diagnosis.

2014-01-01

235

Combined laser and surgical treatment of giant port wine stain malformation - Case report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background:Port-wine stains (PWS) are vascular malformations of the skin concerning about 0,3% of the population. Though various laser systems have been used for various treatment regimens the treatment of PWS of large size is especially difficult and demanding from aesthetic and psychological point of view.

Siewiera, I.; Drozdowski, P.; Wójcicki, P.

2012-09-01

236

Why study human limb malformations?  

PubMed Central

Congenital limb malformations occur in 1 in 500 to 1 in 1000 human live births and include both gross reduction defects and more subtle alterations in the number, length and anatomy of the digits. The major causes of limb malformations are abnormal genetic programming and intra-uterine disruption to development. The identification of causative gene mutations is important for genetic counselling and also provides insights into the mechanisms controlling limb development. This article illustrates some of the lessons learnt from the study of human limb malformation, organized into seven categories. These are: (1) identification of novel genes, (2) allelic mutation series, (3) pleiotropy, (4) qualitative or (5) quantitative differences between mouse and human development, (6) physical and teratogenic disruption, and (7) unusual biological phenomena.

Wilkie, Andrew OM

2003-01-01

237

Radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina mimicking carcinomatous or infectious meningitis. A case report.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina in a patient with a remote history of testicular cancer and extended field radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated multiple nodular areas of enhancement coating the nerve roots of the cauda equina, mimicking an aggressive leptomeningeal process such as carcinomatous or infectious meningitis. Biopsy of one of these lesions revealed ectatic vascular channels devoid of intervening neuroglial tissue consistent with cavernous malformation. PMID:21707824

Farid, Nikdokht; Zyroff, Jack; Uchiyama, Christopher M; Thorson, Phataraporn K; Imbesi, Steven G

2014-01-01

238

Reconstruction of portal vein and superior mesenteric vein after extensive resection for pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tumor invasion to the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) can be encountered during the surgery for pancreatic cancer. Venous reconstruction is required, but the optimal surgical methods and conduits remain in controversies. Methods From January 2007 to July 2012, 16 venous reconstructions were performed during surgery for pancreatic cancer in 14 patients. We analyzed the methods, conduits, graft patency, and patient survival. Results The involved veins were 14 SMVs and 2 PVs. The operative methods included resection and end-to-end anastomosis in 7 patients, wedge resection with venoplasty in 2 patients, bovine patch repair in 3 patients, and interposition graft with bovine patch in 1 patient. In one patient with a failed interposition graft with great saphenous vein (GSV), the SMV was reconstructed with a prosthetic interposition graft, which was revised with a spiral graft of GSV. Vascular morbidity occurred in 4 cases; occlusion of an interposition graft with GSV or polytetrafluoroethylene, segmental thrombosis and stenosis of the SMV after end-to-end anastomosis. Patency was maintained in patients with bovine patch angioplasty and spiral vein grafts. With mean follow-up of 9.8 months, the 6- and 12-month death-censored graft survival rates were both 81.3%. Conclusion Many of the involved vein segments were repaired primarily. When tension-free anastomosis is impossible, the spiral grafts with GSV or bovine patch grafts are good options to overcome the size mismatch between autologous vein graft and portomesenteric veins. Further follow-up of these patients is needed to demonstrate long-term patency.

Kim, Suh Min; Park, Daedo; Min, Sang-Il; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon

2013-01-01

239

Surgical removal of striate arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Some arteriovenous malformations fed by the striate arteries and lying within the claustrolenticular region can be excised by using microsurgical techniques. Three patients operated on with successful removal of the malformation are discussed here. PMID:7444736

Viale, G L; Turtas, S; Pau, A

1980-11-01

240

MRCP of congenital pancreaticobiliary malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Congenital pancreaticobiliary malformations are sometimes associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis and biliary carcinoma.\\u000a Currently, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is one of the first choices for investigating and diagnosing\\u000a pancreaticobiliary diseases noninvasively. We compared the accuracy of conventional MRCP and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography\\u000a (ERCP) in making the diagnosis of congenital pancreaticobiliary malformations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In patients with pancreas divisum (n = 17),

T. Kamisawa; Y. Tu; N. Egawa; K. Tsuruta; A. Okamoto; N. Kamata

2007-01-01

241

[Clinical aspects of capillary malformations].  

PubMed

Capillary malformations (CM) are defects of the dermal capillary bed. These slow-flow malformations can affect any part of the body and are always lateralized, despite Unna's naevus. Present at birth, they grow proportionally with the child. In rare instance, they can be part of a more complex syndrome such as Sturge-Weber syndrome. Ectatic CMs of telangiectatic types can be cutaneous, isolated, multiples, diffuse or generalized. In rare instance, they can be associated with epidermal modifications. They can also be part of a syndrome such as Fabry disease, Osler-Weber-Rendu disorder or Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC). This chapter details the various clinical aspects of CMs. PMID:17007980

Bataille, A-C; Boon, L-M

2006-01-01

242

Aorto-Left Renal Vein Fistula Caused by a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Retroaortic left renal vein is a malformation in which the left renal vein courses dorsal to the abdominal aorta. In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, an aorto-left renal vein fistula can form if the left renal vein is sandwiched between the aneurysm wall and lumbar vertebrae. The patient was an 84-year-old man with lower back pain. We performed a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), although renal dysfunction was noted. The CT showed a ruptured juxta-renal abdominal aortic with aorto-left renal vein fistula. This clinical condition can cause severe renal dysfunction, in spite of which an enhanced contrasted CT scan would be extremely informative preoperatively.

2013-01-01

243

Congenital malformations associated with anencephaly and iniencephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necropsy reports of 294 cases of anencephaly and 50 cases of iniencephaly have been examined, and a tubulated list of associated malformations produced. Cases were divided by sex and the presence or absence of spina bifida. Forty-one per cent of the series had other malformations, and other malformations were more common in those cases with spina bifida than in

T J David; A Nixon

1976-01-01

244

Finger vein recognition using weighted local binary pattern code based on a support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finger vein recognition is a biometric technique which identifies individuals using their unique finger vein patterns. It\\u000a is reported to have a high accuracy and rapid processing speed. In addition, it is impossible to steal a vein pattern located\\u000a inside the finger. We propose a new identification method of finger vascular patterns using a weighted local binary pattern\\u000a (LBP) and

Hyeon Chang Lee; Byung Jun Kang; Eui Chul Lee; Kang Ryoung Park

2010-01-01

245

[Antiepileptic drugs and congenital malformations].  

PubMed

BACKGROUND In pregnant women with epilepsy the use of antiepileptic drugs may increase the risk of harming the foetus. For the treating neurologist it may be challenging to find a balance between optimal seizure control and the lowest possible drug dosage. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and type of congenital malformations in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy.MATERIAL AND METHOD In Norway we have prospectively followed 813 pregnancies in women with epilepsy as part of an international cohort study. The women had three check-ups during the pregnancy, and the children were followed up twice during their first year of life.RESULTS We found a total of 34 congenital malformations in the children, of which 12 were heart defects, yielding a malformation rate of 4.5 %. Six of the malformations (18 %) were detected prenatally, 20 (59 %) were reported immediately after birth, and eight (24 %) were discovered during the child's first year of life.INTERPRETATION Our study shows that 95.5 %.of the women included who used antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy gave birth to a healthy child. This Norwegian cohort is too small to evaluate the teratogenic risk associated with the individual drugs. PMID:24989202

Nakken, Karl O; Lillestølen, Kari Mette; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Svendsen, Torleiv; Haggag, Kathrine Johannessen; Taubøll, Erik

2014-07-01

246

Reconstruction of middle ear malformations.  

PubMed

Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

Schwager, Konrad

2007-01-01

247

Giant non-traumatic arteriovenous malformation of the scalp  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the scalp is an uncommon entity. Its management is difficult because of its high shunt flow, complex vascular anatomy, and possible cosmetic complications. The etiology of scalp AVMs may be spontaneous or traumatic. Clinical symptoms frequently include pulsatile mass, headache, local pain, tinnitus; and less frequently, hemorrhage and necrosis. Selective angiography is the most significant diagnosis method. Surgical excision is especially effective in AVMs and the most frequently used treatment method. In this article, we discussed the clinical features and surgical management of scalp AVMs.

Hasturk, Askin Esen; Erten, Fuat; Ayata, Tulu

2012-01-01

248

Deep vein thrombosis - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is when a blood clot forms in a vein that is not on the surface of the ... al. Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis. 9th ed. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence- ...

249

Tumors of the Pulmonary Vascular Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary or secondary tumors of the lung can affect all levels of the pulmonary vascular bed, including the pulmonary arteries,\\u000a veins, and capillaries. Most primary tumors of the pulmonary vasculature are poorly differentiated, highly fatal sarcomas\\u000a of the large main pulmonary arteries and veins. Pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) is far more prevalent than its venous counterpart,\\u000a although both arterial and

Eunhee S. Yi

250

Hepatic vein obstruction due to Swan-Ganz catheter placement.  

PubMed

Complications from Swan-Ganz catheters during insertion, long-term placement, or removal have been known since its development. I describe the unusual presentation of a pacing Swan-Ganz catheter mispositioned into the hepatic vein producing vascular obstruction, yet with adequate cardiac pacing. PMID:7774345

Davis, M S

1994-08-01

251

Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin [Interventional Radiology, Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa (Spain); Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio [Interventional Radiology, State University Health Sciences Center (United States)

2004-09-15

252

The Horizon for Treating Cutaneous Vascular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians.

Patel, Amit M.; Chou, Elizabeth L.; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M.

2013-01-01

253

A chromosomal deletion map of human malformations.  

PubMed Central

Malformations are common causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality, and genetic factors are a significant component of their etiology. Autosomal deletions, in almost all cases, cause a nonspecific embryopathy that presents after birth as growth failure, mental retardation, and multiple malformations. We have constructed a chromosome map of autosomal deletions associated with 47 different congenital malformations, using detailed clinical and cytogenetic information on 1,753 patients with nonmosaic single contiguous autosomal deletions. The 1,753 deletions involved 258 (89%) of 289 possible autosomal bands (by the use of ISCN 400-band nomenclature), giving a total of 4,190 deleted autosomal bands for analysis. We compared the band distributions of deletions associated with common major malformations with the distribution of all 1,753 deletions. We noted 283 positive associations between deleted bands and specific malformations, of which 199 were significant (P<.05, P>.001) and 84 were highly significant (P<.001). These "malformation-associated bands" (MABs) were distributed among 137 malformation-associated chromosome regions (MACRs). An average of 6 MABs in 2.9 MACRs were detected per malformation studied; 18 (6%) of 283 MABs contain a locus known to be associated with the particular malformation. A further 18 (6%) of 283 are in seven recognized specific malformation-associated aneuploid regions. Therefore, 36 (26%) of 137 of the MACRs contain an MAB coinciding with a previously recognized locus or malformation-associated aneuploid region. This map should facilitate identification of genes important in human development.

Brewer, C; Holloway, S; Zawalnyski, P; Schinzel, A; FitzPatrick, D

1998-01-01

254

Extrinsic and intrinsic veins of the equine hoof wall.  

PubMed Central

The extrinsic and intrinsic venous drainage of the equine hoof have previously been poorly described. There is also an absence of information about the venous organisation of both primary and secondary dermal lamellae of the hoof wall. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal venous pattern of the horse hoof, especially that associated with the dermal lamellae of the wall. The venous organisation of 46 pairs of hooves from clinically healthy horses was studied using standard plastic vascular corrosion casts and histological sections. A consistent pattern of venous organisation was observed in the toe, quarter and heel regions. Veins in the proximal half of the wall corium form an exteriorly and an interiorly located venous plexus, while in the distal wall corium only an exteriorly located venous plexus is present. The wall corium of the toe and quarters is drained primarily by veins contributing to the coronary venous plexus and to the circumflex vein. In the heel regions this venous drainage network is supplemented by tributaries of the caudal hoof vein, independent superficial vein and anastomotic branches from the circumflex vein to the inner venous plexus. Because of this supplementary venous return the heel region is apparently better drained than other areas of the hoof wall. The wall corium is drained distally by the circumflex vein. The coronary venous plexus is composed of an exteriorly situated short superficial collecting venous plexus and an interiorly situated deep collecting venous plexus. The short superficial collecting veins, which drain the proliferating zone of epidermis of the coronary border, connect directly to the coronary and subcoronary veins. The deep collecting veins drain only the proximal wall corium. Most of the veins that drain the major portions of venous blood from the hoof are situated at the palmar aspect of the digit. These veins drain venous blood from the coronary venous plexus, the inner venous plexus and the superficial tributaries of the heel and bulb areas. The latter two venous systems receive venous blood from the sole and frog regions. Most of the veins of the hoof are valveless, except for tributaries of the coronary and subcoronary veins, and the caudal hoof vein and its tributaries. It is suggested that the weight-bearing force is utilised for effective return of venous blood from the digit. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Mishra, P C; Leach, D H

1983-01-01

255

Acquired microcystic lymphatic malformation of the distal upper extremity mimicking verrucae vulgaris.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old African American male with a history of congenital lymphedema of the right upper extremity presented for evaluation of multiple verrucous lesions on his right hand. Clusters of 2 to 4-mm dome-shaped vesicles were intermixed with scattered verrucous papules on the right forearm and the dorsal and palmar aspects of the hand. Histopathology of one the verrucous lesions showed well-circumscribed areas of dilated lymphatic vascular channels with lymph in the lumen. The patient was diagnosed with microcystic lymphatic malformation, verrucous type. This article reviews the literature regarding reports of this variant of microcystic lymphatic malformation in the pediatric population. PMID:23876174

Wang, Stephanie; Krulig, Eliana; Hernandez, Claudia

2013-01-01

256

Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases  

PubMed Central

Aims: Scalp arterio-venous malformation (AVM) and scalp venous malformation (SVM) are rare conditions that usually need surgical treatment. Here, we have reported our experience of the surgical management of such lesions with a short review of the literature. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 11 patients with scalp AVM and SVM, who underwent surgical excision of lesion in our hospital from 2006 to 2012, were included. All suspected high-flow AVM were investigated with the selective internal and external carotid digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) ± computed tomography (CT) scan of brain with CT angiogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain with MR angiogram, and all suspected low-flow vascular malformation (VM) was investigated with MRI of brain + MR angiogram. Eight were high-flow and three were low-flow VM. Results: All lesions were successfully excised. Scalp cosmetic aspects were acceptable in all cases. There was no major post-operative complication or recurrence till last follow-up. Conclusions: With preoperative appropriate surgical planning, scalp AVM and SVM can be excised without major complication.

Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Kawsar, Khandkar Ali; Sarker, Mainul Haque; Momtazul Haque, A. F. M.

2013-01-01

257

Thalamic arteriovenous malformation with an unusual draining system--case report.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old man suddenly experienced headache and vomiting. Computed tomography demonstrated a small area of hemorrhage in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Angiography revealed a thalamic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) fed by the bilateral medial posterior choroidal arteries and left marginal tentorial artery, and drained into the confluence via the cerebellar veins without flow into the supratentorial venous system. The draining veins included two varices, one of which, in the right cerebellar hemisphere, was thought to be the source of bleeding. The AVM nidus was removed via the right occipital transtentorial approach. A portion of a drainer adhered to the surface of the great vein of Galen but without opening into the galenic system and all drainers from this thalamic AVM flowed into the infratentorial cerebellar venous system. PMID:15253545

Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masato; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Sato, Mitsuo; Sato, Sonomi; Kodama, Namio

2004-06-01

258

Drug-Induced (Thalidomide) Malformations  

PubMed Central

Phocomelia (flipper-like limbs) has long been recognized as a rare malformation. Numerous cases of phocomelia and other congenital malformations have recently been reported in the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe and Canada in which the common factor appears to have been the administration of the hypnotic compound thalidomide during early pregnancy. Two additional cases of infants born with phocomelia, amelia and alimentary abnormalities are presented. In both of these cases the administration of thalidomide was initiated early during pregnancy (five to eight weeks after the last normal menstrual period) and maintained for several weeks. Thalidomide (alpha-phthalimido glutarimide) is related chemically to other glutarimides currently in clinical use. The possibility that these compounds and/or their metabolites may induce teratogenic effects warrants consideration. Emphasis is added to the view that caution should be exercised when prescribing new drugs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Ing, George M.; Olman, C. L.; Oyd, John R.

1962-01-01

259

Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins  

SciTech Connect

Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

Ratnam, Lakshmi A. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Hussain, Fuad F. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Lopez, Anthony, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.u [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-11-15

260

The Treatment of Extensive Arteriovenous Malformations in the Head.  

PubMed

Vascular tumours and malformations are revealed at birth and do not subside. The aim of the study was to present the principles and outcomes of treatment of patients with arteriovenous malformations treated at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój in the years 2009- 2010. Only one patient, who had not been treated previously, had the lesion on the cheek removed subtotally and the defect was closed by means of local repair. In the remaining patients, with primary lesions located in the auricle, scalp, and cheeks, the indications for operation included recurrent infections, ulcerations, and first of all, massive, life-threatening haemorrhages. All the patients, treated for many years in other centres, had underwent numerous resection procedures, vessel ligations, embolizations and obliterations. The patients were followed up after the surgery every 6 months. The therapy aim was achieved in all the patients. Vascular tumours were removed totally or subtotally, the lost structures were reconstructed and permanent healing of the wound was achieved. None of the patients developed recurrence of the disease, infection, or bleeding. PMID:23585207

Wójcicki, Piotr; Wójcicka, Karolina

2013-02-01

261

Nondialysis uses for vascular access procedures.  

PubMed

Chemotherapeutic agents, blood products and hyperalimentation solutions have been administered and recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis has been treated via vascular access procedures in 13 patients during the period from 1972 through 1977. Bovine heterograft, saphenous vein graft and the direct arteriovenous fistulae have been successfully utilized in the construction of arteriovenous fistulae in patients requiring vascular access for nonhemodialysis purposes. Operative techniques and therapeutic usefulness are discussed. PMID:111635

Guba, A M; Collins, G J; Rich, N M; Kozloff, L; McDonald, P T

1979-07-01

262

Onyx® in endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations - a review  

PubMed Central

Summary Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. In most cases, the disorder may be asymptomatic. The objective of endovascular AVM treatment is set individually for each case upon consultations with a neurosurgeon and a neurologist. The endpoint of the treatment should consist in prevention of AVM bleeding in a management procedure characterized by a significantly lower risk of complications as compared to the natural history of AVM. Endovascular interventions within AVM may include curative exclusion of AVM from circulation, embolization adjuvant to resection or radiation therapy, targeted closure of a previously identified bleeding site as well as palliative embolization. Onyx was first described in the 1990s. It is a non-adhesive and radiolucent compound. Onyx-based closure of the lumen of the targeted vessel is obtained by means of precipitation. The process is enhanced peripherally to the main flux of the injected mixture. This facilitates angiographic monitoring of embolization at any stage. The degree of lumen closure is associated with the location of the vessel. Supratentorial and cortical locations are most advantageous. Dense and plexiform structure of AVM nidus as well as a low number of supplying vessels and a single superficial drainage vein are usually advantageous for Onyx administration. Unfavorable factors include nidus drainage into multiple compartments as well as multiarterial supply of the AVM, particularly from meningeal arteries, en-passant arteries or perforating feeders. Onyx appears to be a safe and efficient material for embolization of cerebral AVMs, also in cases of intracranial bleeding associated with AVM. Curative embolization of small cerebral AVMs is an efficient and safe alternative to neurosurgical and radiosurgical methods. Careful angiographic assessment of individual arteriovenous malformations should be performed before each Onyx administration.

Szajner, Maciej; Roman, Tomasz; Markowicz, Justyna; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Malgorzata

2013-01-01

263

Intrauterine Growth Retardation Associated with Uterine Malformations  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth retardation is caused by factors that prevent adequate fetal nourishment or by factors that intrinsically affect the fetus. Limited available space due to a congenitally malformed uterus may prevent normal intrauterine development. Two cases are presented here. A review of the available literature confirms the tendency of women with congenital uterine malformations to have smaller offspring. Intrauterine growth retardation should be added to the more commonly known complications associated with a congenitally malformed uterus. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Poma, Pedro A.

1982-01-01

264

Noncardiac Malformations at Major Congenital Heart Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Using the Swedish Cardiology Registry and the Registry of Congenital Malformations, and after excluding infants with a known\\u000a chromosomal anomaly, data on 397 infants (15%) born during the period 1981–1990 with a major cardiac defect and at least one\\u000a noncardiac malformation were analyzed. No clear-cut association appeared between specific heart defects and major groups of\\u000a noncardiac malformations except for

P. Pradat

1997-01-01

265

Radiological Evaluation of Myelomeningocele — Chiari II Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a malformation characterized by the failure of closure of the neural tube, usually (but not only)\\u000a at the lumbo-sacral level. Synonyms are spina bifida aperta, open spinal dysra — phism, and Chiari II malformation complex.\\u000a MMC is typically associated with a metamerically consistent paraplegia, a posterior fossa deformity known as the Chiari II\\u000a malformation, hydrocephalus, and a

Charles Raybaud; Elka Miller

266

Giant congenital malformation of the perirectal plexus in computed tomography imaging - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Congenital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the pelvic area is uncommon in males. Case Report: The described case is of a giant lesion of this type that caused recurrent hemorrhaging in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. Preliminary diagnosis of vascular pathology was made on the basis of an endoscopic examination that revealed numerous pulsating protuberances of the rectal wall, in which blood flow was identified by means of transrectal ultrasonography. Complementing the diagnostics with a CT revealed a considerable extent of malformation, as well as its morphology and anatomical relations with the surrounding tissues. Results: Following a two-year follow-up period, the malformation did not progress or demonstrate any intensification of clinical symptoms, therefore the patient continues to undergo conservative treatment.

Kedzierski, Bartlomiej; Nowak, Grzegorz; Kusmierska, Malgorzata; Jazwiec, Przemyslaw; Szuba, Andrzej

2013-01-01

267

A reproducible in-vivo model of lymphatic malformation in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible rat model of lymphatic malformation. Different types of adjuvant, with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, was injected into the neck and floor of the mouth of rats. The rats were killed 2 months after the injection. Injected rats developed cystic lesions in the neck and floor of the mouth. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the cysts were lined by endothelium, which expressed the lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1 and VEGF receptor-3. Raman spectra of the liquid contents of the cysts were similar in all injected rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the endothelial cells had no basement membrane or surrounding pericytes. The cystic lesions were consistent with human lymphatic malformation. This animal model could be used to investigate pathogenesis of lymphatic malformation and its responses to candidate therapies. PMID:21419420

Sun, Y; Jia, J; Zhang, W; Liu, B; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Y

2011-11-01

268

Update on the Molecular Genetics of Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies. Significant advances have been made in recent years in identifying the genetic and molecular determinants of a variety of vascular anomalies using a molecular genetic approach. Several genes for vascular anomalies have been identified. These genes include AGGF1 for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, RASA1 for capillary malformations, KRIT1, MGC4607, PDCD10 for cerebral cavernous malformations, glomulin for glomuvenous malformations, TIE2 for multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations, VEGFR-3, FOXC2, NEMO, SOX18 for lymphedema or related syndromes, ENG, ACVRLK1, MADH4 for HHT or related syndromes, NDP for Coats’ disease, Notch3 for CADASIL, and PTEN for Proteus Syndrome. These findings have made genetic testing possible in some clinical cases, and may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for vascular anomalies. Furthermore, these studies have identified critical genes involved in vascular morphogenesis, and provided fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

WANG, QING K.

2006-01-01

269

Isolated Subclavian Vein Injury: A Rare and High Mortality Case  

PubMed Central

Isolated subclavian vein injuries are rarely seen without concomitant arterial injury, bone fracture, damage to brachial plexus, and thoracal traumas. Our case was brought to the emergency service 6 hours after he had been shot at the shoulder with a firearm. After detection of extravasation from the left axillary and subclavian vein on arteriographic and venographic examinations, he was operated on. An autogenous saphenous vein graft was interposed between subclavian and axillary veins. Cardiac arrest developed twice because of hypovolemia, which was resolved with medical therapy. Subclavian vein injuries have a more mortal course when compared with the injuries to the subclavian arteries. Its most important reason is excessive blood loss and air embolism because of delayed arrival to hospital. As is the case in all vascular injuries, angiography is the most important diagnostic examination. If the general health state of the patient permits, arteriography and venography should be performed in patients potentially exposed to vascular injuries. In patients with extreme blood loss and deteriorated health state, direct surgical exploration of the injury site, containment of the bleeding, and venous repair are life-saving approaches.

Iscan, Sahin; Etli, Mustafa; Gursu, Ozgur; Eker, Esra; El Kilic, Helin

2013-01-01

270

Multifocal Cerebral Venous Malformations and Associated Developmental Venous Anomalies in a Case of Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary We report a sporadic case of probable BRBN (blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome) with multiple CNS (central nervous system) involvement. These features consisted of multiple VMs (venous malformations) and DVAs (developmental venous anomalies) in supratentorial brain, cerebellum, and diencephalon. Since its first description by Bean, there have been many cases of BRBN manifesting with gastrointestinal bleeding with or without associated hemorrhage. Cases with CNS involvement were rarely reported and many of the descriptions were confusing with different terminologies used to describe them such as capillary venous malformation, hemangiomas, and vascular malformations. The lesions illustrated are venous malformations similar to our case. The association of DVA was recognized in some cases; they are likely to be underestimated when revisiting the published case illustrations. Although our case is sporadic, the link with HHT1 is unlikely despite the involvement of the same chromosome (Ch 9).

Chung, J.I.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.

2003-01-01

271

Epidemiology of varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence rate of varicose veins in adults varies from less than 1% in lowland New Guinea women to over 50% in women in south Wales. Within populations the prevalence increases with age, is generally greater in women, is directly related to body mass, has an inconsistent relationship with occupation, and usually increases with increasing parity. None of these factors

Robert Beaglehole

1986-01-01

272

Growing Dural Sinus Malformation with Associated Developmental Venous Anomaly, Multiple Cavernomas and Facial Venous Malformation in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Summary This is an unusual case report of an infant, who initially presented with a facial haemangioma and was later diagnosed to have a dural sinus malformation (DSM) involving the torcula. The DSM increased in size lateralising to the right transverse sinus at three months of age. Postnatal enlargement of the dural sinus has not been described before suggesting a delay in the maturation of the dural sinus which normally would occur antenatally. There was a further association with a complex developmental venous anomaly (DVA) draining the right cerebral hemisphere into the deep cerebral vein and multiple cavernous malformations. The DVA was not clearly demonstrated at age one month but was more obvious at age three months. This would be the first reported case of DSM associated with a DVA. Increasing venous hypertension probably contributed to the poor opacification of the DVA on follow-up angiography at age six months and to the haemorrhagic changes within the cavernomas on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The therapeutic goal was to correct venous hypertension by partially embolising the dural shunts to remodel the cerebral vasculature and preserve the patent sinus. The treatment strategy and possible link between the complex disease entities presented in this infant are discussed. Despite these attemps, the lesion continued to grow compressing the posterior fossa structures. The infant died at nine months of age.

Mohamed, Z.; Batista, LL.; Sachet, M.; Mahadevan, J.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.

2002-01-01

273

MicroRNA and vascular remodelling in acute vascular injury and pulmonary vascular remodelling.  

PubMed

Vascular remodelling is an integral pathological process central to a number of cardiovascular diseases. The complex interplay between distinct cell populations in the vessel wall following vascular injury leads to inflammation, cellular dysfunction, pro-growth signals in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) compartment, and the acquisition of a synthetic phenotype. Although the signals for vascular remodelling are diverse in different pathological contexts, SMC proliferation and migration are consistently observed. It is therefore critical to elucidate key mechanisms central to these processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding sequences of RNA that have the capacity to regulate many genes, pathways, and complex biological networks within cells, acting either alone or in concert with one another. In diseases such as cancer and cardiac disease, the role of miRNA in disease pathogenesis has been documented in detail. In contrast, despite a great deal of interest in miRNA, relatively few studies have directly assessed the role of miRNA in vascular remodelling. The potential for modulation of miRNA to achieve therapeutic benefits in this setting is attractive. Here, we focus on the role of miRNA in vascular inflammation and remodelling associated with acute vascular injury (vein graft disease, angioplasty restenosis, and in-stent restenosis) as well as in vascular remodelling associated with the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:22065733

McDonald, Robert A; Hata, Akiko; MacLean, Margaret R; Morrell, Nicholas W; Baker, Andrew H

2012-03-15

274

Local Hemodynamics of the Vascular Access for Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular access is called Achilles’ heel of hemodialysis because it is associated with a substantial morbidity. A permanent vascular access is created either by a direct connection of the patient’s own artery and vein or by the interposition of a graft. Arteriolar beds are bypassed, which leads to a substantial increase in arterial (and venous) flow and the vessels adapt

J. Malik; V. Tuka; V. Tesar

2009-01-01

275

Numerical Modelling of Vein Microstructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral veins occur in a variety of forms (syntaxial, antitaxial, etc.), and with various microstructures (fibrous, stretched crystals, vuggy, etc.). These structures can, if correctly interpreted, provide useful insight into the geological and tectonic conditions at which the veins formed (Oliver and Bons 2001). Durney and Ramsay (1973) defined the base for the modern classification and interpretation of vein (micro-)

P. D. Bons

2005-01-01

276

Virus Necrosis of Tobacco Veins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virus necrosis of tobacco veins (browning of tobacco veins) occurs all over Poland and causes major economic losses. Studies of a number of orders show that the necrosis of tobacco veins is caused by a virus, which belongs to the group of potato virus Y (...

J. Berbec

1964-01-01

277

Pineal veins in vertebral angiography.  

PubMed

Angiographic patterns of pineal veins in normal and pathological conditions are examined. The diagnostic value of these veins for midline growths is limited owing to their inconstant visualization, multifarious angiographic patterns and minute size. With this in mind, greater significance of classical displacements of the internal and basal veins is outlined. PMID:1196485

Turtas, S

1975-11-21

278

Bleeding Scrotal Vascular Lesions: Interventional Management with Transcatheter Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Vascular lesions of the scrotum are uncommon; the most common among them are varicocele lesions. The other vascular lesions that may involve the scrotum are hemangioma, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformations, which are exceedingly rare. The imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and management of scrotal vascular lesions are grayscale sonography, color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We present two cases of scrotal vascular lesions involving the extratesticular scrotal soft tissues. Patients presented with bleeding and were treated by radiological interventional technique. We emphasize the importance of superselective catheterization and distal embolization.

Jaganathan, Sriram; Gamanagatti, Shivanand, E-mail: shiv223@rediffmail.com; Mukund, Amar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Dhar, Anita [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgery (India)

2011-02-15

279

Reticulate eruptions. Part 1: Vascular networks and physiology.  

PubMed

Reticulate pattern is one of the most important dermatological signs of a pathological process involving the superficial vascular networks. Vascular malformations, such as cutis marmorata congenita telangiectasia and benign forms of livedo reticularis, and sinister conditions, such as meningococcal meningitis or Sneddon's syndrome, can all present with a reticulate pattern. The clinical presentation and morphology is determined by the nature and extent of the underlying pathology and the involvement of a particular vascular network. This review has been divided into four instalments. In the present paper, we discuss the anatomy and physiology of the complex network of vascular structures that support the function of the skin and subcutis. PMID:21834809

Parsi, Kurosh; Partsch, Hugo; Rabe, Eberhard; Ramelet, Albert A

2011-08-01

280

Bleeding scrotal vascular lesions: interventional management with transcatheter embolization.  

PubMed

Vascular lesions of the scrotum are uncommon; the most common among them are varicocele lesions. The other vascular lesions that may involve the scrotum are hemangioma, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformations, which are exceedingly rare. The imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and management of scrotal vascular lesions are grayscale sonography, color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We present two cases of scrotal vascular lesions involving the extratesticular scrotal soft tissues. Patients presented with bleeding and were treated by radiological interventional technique. We emphasize the importance of superselective catheterization and distal embolization. PMID:21052669

Jaganathan, Sriram; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Mukund, Amar; Dhar, Anita

2011-02-01

281

MDCT Findings of Right Circumaortic Renal Vein with Ectopic Kidney  

PubMed Central

Anomalies of renal vasculature combined with ectopic kidneys were found on a multi-detector CT scan. Knowledge of renal vascular variation is very important for surgical exploration, radiologic intervention and staging for urologic cancer. We present an extremely rare case of a right circumaortic renal vein combined with a right ectopic kidney. The right kidney was located at the level between the third and fifth lumbar vertebra. The right circumaortic renal vein crossed the aorta and returned to the inferior vena cava behind the aorta.

Kim, Min-Kyun; Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Chang Woo

2013-01-01

282

Diffuse malformations of cortical development.  

PubMed

Malformations of cortical development (MCD) represent a major cause of developmental disabilities and severe epilepsy. Advances in imaging and genetics have improved the diagnosis and classification of these conditions. Up to now, eight genes have been involved in different types of MCD. Lissencephaly-pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a malformative spectrum resulting from mutations of either LIS1 or DCX genes. LIS1 mutations cause a more severe malformation in the posterior brain regions. DCX mutations usually cause anteriorly predominant lissencephaly in males and SBH in female patients. Additional forms are X-linked lissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis and ambiguous genitalia associated with mutations of the ARX gene. Lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH) encompass heterogeneous disorders named LCH types a to d. LCHa is related to mutation in LIS1 or DCX, LCHb with mutation of the RELN gene, and LCHd could be related to the TUBA1A gene. Polymicrogyria encompasses a wide range of clinical, etiological, and histological findings. Among several syndromes, recessive bilateral fronto-parietal polymicrogyria has been associated with mutations of the GPR56 gene. Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria has been associated with mutations in the SRPX2 gene in a few individuals and with linkage to chromosome Xq28 in a some other families. X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) consists of PNH with focal epilepsy in females and prenatal lethality in males. Filamin A (FLNA) mutations have been reported in some families and in sporadic patients. It is possible to infer the most likely causative gene by brain imaging studies and other clinical findings. PMID:23622213

Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Guerrini, Renzo

2013-01-01

283

Orbital arteriovenous malformation mimicking cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

AIMS—Orbital arteriovenous malformations (OAVM) are rare, mostly described with high flow characteristics. Two cases are reported with an OAVM of distinct haemodynamic abnormality. The clinical, angiographic features, and the management considerations are discussed.?METHODS—Case review of two patients with dural AVM (DAVM) who presented to referral neuro-ophthalmology and endovascular services because of clinical symptoms and signs consistent with a cavernous sinus dural AVM.?RESULTS—In each patient, superselective angiography revealed a small slow flow intraorbital shunt supplied by the ophthalmic artery. The transarterial and transvenous endovascular approaches to treat the malformation were partially successful. Although, the abnormal flow was reduced, complete closure of the DAVM could not be accomplished without significant risk of iatrogenic injury. Neither patient's vision improved after intervention.?CONCLUSION—A DAVM in the orbit can cause similar clinical symptoms and signs to those associated with a cavernous sinus DAVM. Even with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, only superselective angiography can identify this small intraorbital slow flow shunt. The location in the orbital apex and the small size precludes a surgical option for treatment. The transarterial and transvenous embolisation options are limited.??

Huna-Baron, R.; Setton, A.; Kupersmith, M.; Berenstein, A.

2000-01-01

284

Multiple Arteriovenous Malformations with Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a ?Background. A rare case of a left temporal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with bleeding 10 days after removal of another hemorrhagic\\u000a AVM in the frontal lobe is reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ?Method. A 47-year-old man had an attack of headache and vomiting and was admitted to our hospital. On admission, a CT scan showed\\u000a subcortical hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Left carotid

S. Utsuki; A. Kurata; Y. Miyasaka; M. Takano; H. Ootaka; K. Fujii

2002-01-01

285

Management of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with significant clinical complications. These lesions are commonly seen in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (formerly Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Interventional radiologists are a key part of the treatment team in this complex disease, and a thorough understanding of the disease process is critical to providing good patient care. In this article, the authors review the disease course and its association with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, discusses the clinical evaluation and treatment of these complex patients, and outlines complications and follow-up.

Meek, Mary E.; Meek, James C.; Beheshti, Michael V.

2011-01-01

286

Persistent right aortic arch and associated axial skeletal malformations in cats.  

PubMed

Persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) in cats is an uncommon vascular anomaly with clinical signs referable to oesophageal obstruction. To our knowledge no reports of axial skeletal malformations concomitant to PRAA have been reported in cats. The aim of this study is to depict a new clinical feature in cats affected by PRAA. In the study six cats with a diagnosis of vascular ring anomaly were enrolled. A complete physical examination, a neurological examination and a total body radiograph were performed on each animal. Four of the six cats showed contemporary PRAA and skeletal malformations. Additionally, for the first time, a genetic test was performed on one subject to detect DNA alterations in the homologous DiGeorge region of cat. The percentage of skeletal malformations reported in the normal population was compared with animals with PRAA and showed a higher frequency. Genetic testing failed to demonstrate a correlation between PRAA and DiGeorge genomic deletion. A review of veterinary and human diseases that presented both conditions was assessed. The few animals enrolled do not allow definitive conclusions. Further studies are required to corroborate the correlation between PRAA and axial skeletal malformations in cats. PMID:22989559

Tremolada, Giovanni; Longeri, Maria; Polli, Michele; Parma, Pietro; Acocella, Fabio

2013-02-01

287

Expression of platelet-derived growth factor ligand and receptor in cerebral arteriovenous and cavernous malformations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands A and B and receptors ? and ? in cerebral arteriovenous and cavernous malformations. Fifteen arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and 15 cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) tissue samples were immunostained for PDGF ligands A and B, PDGF receptors (PDGFR) ? and ?, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Tissues were compared in terms of expression levels within various vascular layers, and the results were confirmed using western blotting. AVM had higher levels of PDGF-A expression than CCM (p = 0.004, 0.009, 0.001, and 0.027, for endothelium, media, adventitia, and perilesional tissue, respectively) and western blotting showed that there was higher expression of PDGFR-? in AVM tissues. In contrast, CCM endothelium, media, and adventitia had higher PDGF-B expression compared with AVM (p = 0.007, 0.001, and 0.039, respectively). PDGFR-? expression was also significantly higher in the endothelium of CCM tissue (p = 0.007). Overexpression of PDGF ligands and receptors in AVM and CCM may mean that therapeutic strategies targeting the PDGF pathway could be useful in the treatment of these two malformations. PMID:20822908

Yildirim, Ozlem; Bicer, Atilla; Ozkan, Abdulkadir; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Cirakoglu, Beyazid; Kilic, Turker

2010-12-01

288

Vascular Biometric Systems And Their Security Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering Biometrics for a Personal Identification System, different modalities have to be considered, as to choose the one that best fits the particular Application Requirements. From the several modalities existing nowadays, Vascular systems have appeared in scene lately. Vein-based identification is claimed to be as reliable as fingerprint or iris, but with the usability of hand geometry or even

R. Sanchez-Reillo; B. Fernandez-Saavedra; J. Liu-Jimenez; C. Sanchez-Avila

2007-01-01

289

Malrotation of the intestine and preduodenal portal vein associated with abdominal situs inversus: a case report.  

PubMed

Abdominal situs inversus is a rare condition usually associated with malformations of asymmetric organs such as the heart, liver, spleen and malrotation of the intestines. A case of abdominal situs inversus with intestinal malrotation and preduodenal portal vein is reported. Patient underwent prophylactic Ladd's procedure and preduodenal portal vein was left undisturbed during surgery. This case highlights the importance of rigorous investigation of anatomic features prior to surgery in a patient with heterotaxia. The authors advocate radiological investigation of patients with heterotaxia and prophylactic Ladd's procedure in those with intestinal malrotation. PMID:17674877

Díaz, Rosa; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

2007-03-01

290

Neuroimaging of Hemorrhage and Vascular Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Intracranial hemorrhage is the third most common cause of stroke and involves the accumulation of blood within brain parenchyma\\u000a or the surrounding meningeal spaces. Accurate identification of acute hemorrhage and correct characterization of the underlying\\u000a pathology, such as tumor, vascular malformation, or infarction, is a critical step in planning appropriate therapy. Neuroimaging\\u000a studies are required not only for diagnosis, but

Fazeel M. Siddiqui; Simon V. Bekker; Adnan I. Qureshi

2011-01-01

291

Maternal homocystinuria and Moebius syndrome? Vascular aetiology  

PubMed Central

A case of Moebius syndrome is reported in an infant of a mother known to have pyridoxine-unresponsive homocystinuria. The authors suggest that Moebius syndrome could result from early vascular insufficiency or disruption occurring early in development related to maternal homocystinuria. Moebius syndrome consists of congenital complete or partial facial nerve palsy with or without paralysis of other cranial nerves and often in association with other malformations of the limbs and orofacial structures, but usually without gross structural brain abnormalities.

Gupta, N; Anthony, M Y

2011-01-01

292

Maternal homocystinuria and Moebius syndrome? Vascular aetiology.  

PubMed

A case of Moebius syndrome is reported in an infant of a mother known to have pyridoxine-unresponsive homocystinuria. The authors suggest that Moebius syndrome could result from early vascular insufficiency or disruption occurring early in development related to maternal homocystinuria. Moebius syndrome consists of congenital complete or partial facial nerve palsy with or without paralysis of other cranial nerves and often in association with other malformations of the limbs and orofacial structures, but usually without gross structural brain abnormalities. PMID:22707369

Gupta, N; Anthony, M Y

2011-01-01

293

Pure arterial malformation of the posterior cerebral artery: importance of its recognition.  

PubMed

The finding of dilated, elongated, and tortuous vessels on brain imaging should prompt clinicians to determine what vascular anomaly is present. Importantly, not all suspicious serpentine flow voids are manifestations of arteriovenous malformations or arteriovenous fistulas. Other types of intracranial vasculopathies should also be considered. The authors report a rare case of dilated, tortuous, and redundant left posterior communicating artery and left P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery identified in a young healthy adult that remained stable over a 30-year period. Dynamic and 3D images were critical for determining the type of vascular anomaly and for guiding appropriate management. The authors propose that this case represents a pure arterial malformation and discuss its distinguishing features. PMID:23746101

McLaughlin, Nancy; Raychev, Radoslav; Duckwiler, Gary; Martin, Neil A

2013-09-01

294

A Framework for Detecting Malformed SMS Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malformed messages in different protocols pose a serious threat because they are used to remotely launch malicious activity. Furthermore, they are capable of crashing servers and end points, sometimes with a single message. Recently, it was shown that a malformed SMS can crash a mobile phone or gain unfettered access to it. In spite of this, little research has been

M Zubair Rafique; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Khaled Alghathbar; Muddassar Farooq

2011-01-01

295

Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and\\/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or dysplasia, although rare, lead to renal failure. With advances in dialysis and transplantation for young

Larissa Kerecuk; Michiel F Schreuder; Adrian S Woolf

2008-01-01

296

Radiological assessment of vascular access in haemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Clinical examination is still the most important diagnostic tool and duplex ultrasonography is the imaging method of first choice. Radiological assessment of vascular access for haemodialysis includes preoperative analysis of vessel anatomy and postoperative surveillance for access maturation as well as diagnosis in vascular access insufficiency. Compared to ultrasonography digital subtraction angiography is superior for the evaluation of the central veins and allows diagnosis and treatment in one session. Computed tomography should only be used in patients with inconclusive ultrasonography results, for example, for the assessment of the central veins and visualization of the vascular tree. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is no longer recommended in dialysis patients, because it may trigger nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. In patients with a history of previous central venous catheters additional preoperative imaging of the central veins should be performed. In this article we review the different radiological imaging methods for preoperative assessment and suspected vascular access dysfunction. PMID:24817452

Kamper, Lars; Frahnert, Michael; Grebe, Scott-Oliver; Haage, Patrick

2014-05-01

297

Extrahepatic portal vein aneurysm.  

PubMed

Portal vein aneurysms (PVAs) are usually incidental on imaging and asymptomatic. If it is symptomatic or associated with a pathologic finding, a treatment is recommended. We report a case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man presenting with symptomatic and size-increasing portosplenomesenteric aneurysms. Interventional radiology was not indicated because of the large size. A surgical approach was chosen for the patient. Surgical technique consists of an aneurysmorrhaphy in the first time and in the second time, a Goretex prosthesis placement involving the vein. Early complication was treated with a radiologic approach. Six months after surgery, patient had no more symptoms. PVA management remains a surgical challenge for surgeon, for timing and type of treatment. PMID:24456867

Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Sulpice, Laurent; Rayar, Michel; Bosquet, Elise; Boudjema, Karim; Meunier, Bernard

2014-07-01

298

Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula  

PubMed Central

Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7?mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29?mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8?cm?×?2.5?cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9?mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Wan Hazabbah, W. H.

2013-01-01

299

Stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations  

SciTech Connect

One of the more challenging problems of vascular neurosurgery is the management of surgically-inaccessible arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we have developed the method of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle (helium-ion) Bragg peak radiosurgery for treatment of inoperable intracranial AVMs in over 300 patients since 1980 (Fabrikant et al. 1989, Fabrikant et al. 1985, Levy et al. 1989). This report describes patient selection, treatment method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered. 4 refs.

Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.

1989-12-01

300

Visual fixation in Chiari type II malformation.  

PubMed

Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks' parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

Salman, Michael S; Sharpe, James A; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J

2009-02-01

301

North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in June, 1997 and funded by the US Geological Survey and Environmental Protection Agency, this site is a response to the discovery of numerous deformed amphibians (mostly frogs) in areas as widespread as Minnesota, California, and Florida. Malformations include extra or missing limbs, missing eyes, and split limbs. The site is intended to serve as a central repository for data on the type and relative frequency of such malformations throughout the US. Researchers hope to use the site to help discover the cause(s) of these deformities. The site contains a map of where malformations have been reported, background on the occurrence and possible causes of defects, numerous images of malformed amphibians, a searchable bibliography, instructions on how to report the discovery of a malformed amphibian, and links to eight related web sites. NARCAM's site also contains a toll-free number for citizen reports.

Center., Northern P.

1997-01-01

302

Cor triatriatum with a left upper anomalous pulmonary venous return to the innominate vein.  

PubMed

Cor triatriatum sinister is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly accounting for 0.1% of all congenital cardiac malformations, with an anomalous venous return being a frequently associated condition. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl misdiagnosed as having an atrial septal defect with pulmonary hypertension who actually had a cor triatriatum with a left upper anomalous pulmonary venous return to the innominate vein. PMID:23829896

Galoin-Bertail, Claire; Gouton, Marielle

2014-06-01

303

Hepatic vascular anomalies in infancy: A twenty-seven-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Infantile hemangioma and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the liver have a similar presentation but a different natural history, and therefore require different treatment. This study was undertaken to clarify differential diagnosis and management of these two biologically distinct vascular disorders. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 43 children with hepatic vascular anomalies treated during the past 27

Laurence M. Boon; Patricia E. Burrows; Harriet J. Paltiel; Dennis P. Lund; R. Alan B. Ezekowitz; Judah Folkman; John B. Mulliken

1996-01-01

304

A New Device for Vascular Embolization: Report on Case of Two Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) is a rare vascular malformation commonly treated by embolization with coils or balloons\\u000a to prevent the risk of several serious complications such as cerebral embolism and brain abscess. A 32-year-old female with\\u000a two PAVFs and neurological ischemic manifestations has been successfully treated by transcatheter embolization of both fistulas\\u000a using a new device (Amplatzer Vascular Plug).

Michele Rossi; Alberto Rebonato; Laura Greco; Giulio Stefanini; Michele Citone; Annnarita Speranza; Vincenzo David

2006-01-01

305

Intraoperative assessment of spinal vascular flow in the surgery of spinal intramedullary tumors using indocyanine green videoangiography  

PubMed Central

Background: The authors demonstrate the utility of indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) for intraoperative vascular flow assessment in the surgery of a variety of spinal intramedullary tumors to achieve an additional level of safety as well as precision with the surgical procedure. Methods: Fourteen patients with spinal intramedullary tumors (nine cervical and five thoracic) operated on between August 2011 and April 2013 were included in the present study. A fluorescence surgical microscope was used to perform ICG-VA after standard exposure of the lesion to assess the dynamic flow of the spinal microvasculature. Results: Twenty-seven ICG-VA injections were performed in 14 cases. Pathological diagnosis of the tumors included ependymoa, astrocytoma, cavernous malformation, or hemagioblastoma. There were no complications or side-effects related to ICG-VA. Intraoperative ICG-VA provided dynamic flow images of the spinal microvasculature in accordance with the progress of surgical procedures. Angiographic images could be divided into arterial, capillary, and venous phases. All angiographic images were well integrated into the microscopic view. The utility of ICG-VA could be summarized into three categories: (1) Localization of normal spinal arteries and veins, (2) assessment of posterior spinal venous circulation, and (3) differentiation of feeding arteries, tumor, and draining veins. Conclusions: Intraoperative vascular flow assessment using ICG-VA was easy, repeatable, and practical without any significant procedure-related risks. ICG-VA can be used for careful analysis of spinal microvascular flow or anatomical orientation, which is necessary to ensure safe and precise resection of spinal intramedullary tumors.

Takami, Toshihiro; Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Ohata, Kenji

2013-01-01

306

The cutoff value of saphenous vein diameter to predict reflux  

PubMed Central

Purpose Increased saphenous vein diameter is a common consequence of saphenous vein reflux. Until now, there have been no reports about the correlation between diameter and reflux of saphenous vein in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between saphenous vein reflux and diameter changes. Methods From April 2009 to August 2012, 777 patients were sent to the vascular laboratory for evaluation of venous reflux. The diameter of the saphenous vein was measured with B-mode imaging, and reflux was quantified based on valve closure time using Doppler spectral tracings. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was applied to determine the best saphenous vein diameter cutoff for predicting reflux. Results The mean diameters of normal great saphenous vein (GSV) and refluxed GSV were 5.0 ± 2.4 mm and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. The mean diameters of normal small saphenous vein (SSV) and refluxed SSV were 3.1 ± 1.3 mm and 5.2 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The diameter differences between the normal and refluxed GSV and SSV were 1.4 mm and 2.1 mm, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). A GSV threshold diameter of 5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for reflux. The sensitivity and specificity at 5.05 mm were 76% and 60%, respectively. The best SSV diameter for predicting reflux was 3.55 mm. The sensitivity and specificity at 3.55 mm were 87% and 71%, respectively. Conclusion GSV diameter of ?5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for pathologic reflux. For pathologic reflux of SSV, the best cutoff diameter was 3.55 mm.

Park, Ho-Chul

2013-01-01

307

Leg wound infections following greater saphenous vein harvesting: minimally invasive vein harvesting versus conventional vein harvesting.  

PubMed

Wound complications associated with long incisions used to harvest the greater saphenous vein are common and well documented. We compared leg wound infection rates, wound healing disturbances (WHDs), length of vein harvested, vein harvest time, and total surgical time between minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting (MIVH) and conventional vein harvesting (CVH) techniques. This meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in wound infections in favor of the MIVH group (odds ratio = 0.19; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.25) and a significant reduction in WHDs in favor of the MIVH group (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.20-0.34). The MIVH and CVH techniques are equivalent with respect to saphenous vein harvest time, saphenous vein harvest length, and total surgical time. A visual inspection of "funnel" plots suggests a mild to moderate publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that leg wound infections and wound healing disturbances are reduced using MIVH techniques. PMID:18815201

Reed, James F

2008-12-01

308

Hemodynamically Driven Vein Graft Remodeling: A Systems Biology Approach  

PubMed Central

Despite intense investigation over several decades to understand the mechanisms of vein graft failure, few therapeutic modalities have emerged. Emphasis using standard reductionist approaches has been focused on cataloging the components involved in the early events following vein graft implantation, but limited insight has been gained in understanding the dynamic interaction of these components. We propose that the application of systems theory offers the opportunity for significant advances in this area. Focused on modeling the dynamic relationships that define living organisms, systems biology provides the necessary tools to further our understanding of the complex series of overlapping biologic events on surgical implantation of the vein graft. Through the use of ordinary differential equation and agent-based modeling techniques, we present our ongoing efforts to define the nonlinear interactions between hemodynamics and vascular adaptation.

Berceli, Scott A.; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Garbey, Marc; Jiang, Zhihua

2011-01-01

309

Perceptual enhancement of arteriovenous malformation in MRI angiography displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of presenting medical images in an intuitive and usable manner during a procedure is essential. However, most medical visualization interfaces, particularly those designed for minimally-invasive surgery, suffer from a number of issues as a consequence of disregarding the human perceptual, cognitive, and motor system's limitations. This matter is even more prominent when human visual system is overlooked during the design cycle. One example is the visualization of the neuro-vascular structures in MR angiography (MRA) images. This study investigates perceptual performance in the usability of a display to visualize blood vessels in MRA volumes using a contour enhancement technique. Our results show that when contours are enhanced, our participants, in general, can perform faster with higher level of accuracy when judging the connectivity of different vessels. One clinical outcome of such perceptual enhancement is improvement of spatial reasoning needed for planning complex neuro-vascular operations such as treating Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs). The success of an AVM intervention greatly depends on fully understanding the anatomy of vascular structures. However, poor visualization of pre-operative MRA images makes the planning of such a treatment quite challenging.

Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S. H.; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

2012-02-01

310

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis.  

PubMed

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-05-01

311

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis  

PubMed Central

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis.

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-01-01

312

Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations with Hydrocoils in a Swine Model  

PubMed Central

Summary Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the brain are the most common symptomatic congenital vascular malformation of the central nervous system, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. This study compared the feasibility and efficacy of treating AVMs by embolization with hydrocoils with similar treatment with bare platinum coils, using the swine rete mirabile as a model. A right carotid–jugular fistula was created in ten swine. A microcatheter was positioned into the rete mirabile, which was unilaterally (contralateral to the fistula) embolized with hydrocoils in six and bare platinum coils in four swine. Angiograms were evaluated during and immediately after embolization. Embolization with complete cessation of blood flow in the unilateral rete mirabile was achieved in all animals treated with hydrocoils. The number of coils needed varied from four to seven (diameter 2–4 mm; mean coil length 22.3 cm). Embolization with platinum coils of similar number (seven) and slightly longer length (mean 37.75 cm) had a minimal effect on blood flow, resulting in occlusion of only small compartments. No immediate complications were noted with either coil. Hydrocoils are more effective in achieving embolization than bare platinum coils. Expansion of the hydrocoil over only a few minutes allows precise placement and stabilization of the coil before detachment. Hydrocoils can be safely placed into small vessels. This approach may be particularly useful to decrease the flow rate, as a first stage of AVM embolization in high flow AVMs that contain arteriovenous fistulae.

Amiridze, N.S.; Darwish, R.; Griffith, G.M.; Zoarskia, G.H.

2008-01-01

313

Chronic Encapsulated Intracerebral Hematoma Associated with Cavernous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma (CEIH) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that behaves as a slowly expanding lesion with a gradual onset. It is well established that CEIH is associated with arteriovenous malformations; however, CEIH associated with cavernous malformation (CM) is extremely rare. We herein report a case of CEIH associated with CM, and discuss its pathogenesis. A 12-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a one week history of progressive headache and nausea. Brain computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intracerebral hematoma surrounded by edema in the right frontal lobe. One week later, her headache and nausea worsened, and a brain computed tomography scan revealed the enlargement of hematoma. A right frontal craniotomy was performed. The capsule, mass, and hematoma were totally removed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CEIH associated with CM. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF receptor-1 in the endothelium and fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that the activated VEGF pathway might have positively contributed to development of CEIH in the present patient.

Wada, Kojiro; Sakakibara, Fumihiro; Mori, Kentaro

2014-01-01

314

Endoscopic vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  BACKGROUND: Leg wound complications and infections after harvesting of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) in coronary artery\\u000a bypass surgery (CABG) represent a serious source of patient morbidity. Especially, in patients with obesity, diabetes and\\u000a peripheral vascular disease, severe wound complications with increased pain occur more often. METHODS: Our aim was to evaluate\\u000a the feasibility and the results of the endoscopic

S. Huber; P. Bergmann; S. Schweiger; H. Mächler; P. Oberwalder; B. Rigler

2007-01-01

315

Deep vein thrombosis following prolonged kneeling: a case report.  

PubMed

This report describes a fibreglass mould maker in the yacht building industry who developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after 6 weeks of working in a kneeling position. We propose that his prolonged kneeling combined with constrictive knee pad straps caused vascular compression, precipitating his DVT. A hypercoagulability diathesis was suspected but not confirmed. Operator and employer education, modified work practices and strapless knee pads are suggested as possible preventive measures. PMID:24727563

van Beeck, J Looringh; Versfeld, K; Ehrlich, R

2014-06-01

316

Recurrent Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation in the Terminal Ileum Mimicking Intestinal Varicosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report on an exceptional vascular cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A 30-yr-old man was admitted because of recurrent hematochezia. Colonoscopy showed circumferential, erythematous, and nodular vascular distensions with hematocystic spots in the terminal ileum resembling varicosis and subsequent computed tomography with 3-dimensional angiographic reconstruction revealed a vascular architecture around the terminal ileum. No other potential source of bleeding was identified. The patient was treated by ileocecectomy and the final diagnosis was of an arteriovenous malformation confined to the terminal ileum. He has been followed-up without a further hemorrhagic episode.

Cheon, Jae Hee; Song, Ho June; Kim, Joo Sung; Park, Kyu Joo; Kim, Woo Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

2007-01-01

317

Polypoid arteriovenous malformation in the jejunum of a child that mimics intussusception.  

PubMed

Polypoid arteriovenous malformations, which are localized in the colon, are extremely rare in adults, with only 7 cases published to date. Here we present the case of a 6-year-old girl with a jejunal polypoid tumor that a sonogram and a computed tomographic scan have shown to resemble intussusception. Histologically, numerous large ectatic veins intermixed with small-caliber arteries, venules, arterioles, and capillaries were observed in the intestinal wall. A retrospective computed tomographic scan 3-dimensional angiographic reconstruction demonstrated that this may be a diagnostic characteristic. Clinical and morphologic comparisons with previously reported cases were discussed. PMID:20105573

Rodriguez-Jurado, Rodolfo; Morales, Sara Solórzano

2010-01-01

318

Familial cerebral cavernous malformation: report of a further Italian family.  

PubMed

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, headaches, intracerebral hemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits; they can also be clinically silent and may occur as a sporadic or an autosomal dominant condition. Three genes have been identified as causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3, mapping, respectively, on chromosomes 7q, 7p, and 3q. This is a report on an Italian family affected by CCM due to a KRIT1 gene mutation on exon 13. The mother suffered from a cerebellar hematoma and was severely disabled; one son had suffered from intractable seizures and underwent surgery for removal of a cavernous angioma, while another son was asymptomatic. Brain MRI showed CCMs in all patients. This report underlines that a familial form of CCM could be suspected when a patient presents with multiple CCMs; neurologists and neurosurgeons should be aware that genetic testing for these forms is available. PMID:19184323

Nannucci, Serena; Pescini, Francesca; Poggesi, Anna; Ciolli, Laura; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Inzitari, Domenico; Penco, Silvana; Pantoni, Leonardo

2009-04-01

319

A gene map of congenital malformations.  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations frequently arise sporadically, making it difficult to determine whether or not they are genetic in aetiology, let alone which gene(s) may be involved. Nevertheless, rapid progress has been made over recent years in the localisation and identification of gene mutations in specific malformations. This review draws from Mendelian inheritance in man (Johns Hopkins University Press, 11th ed, 1994) and the online version (OMIM) to catalogue 139 loci (including 65 specifically identified genes) implicated in congenital malformations. Some of the most interesting recent developments are discussed.

Wilkie, A O; Amberger, J S; McKusick, V A

1994-01-01

320

Multiple vortex vein ampulla varicosities  

PubMed Central

Vortex vein ampulla varicosities are asymptomatic, harmless, findings in the retina. They are incidentally picked up on routine eye examination or when presenting for unrelated ocular symptoms. Clinicians and other eye care professionals unaware of this condition may be alarmed and may subject patients to unnecessary anxiety and expensive investigations. We present a rare case of varicosity of two vortex veins involving one quadrant of the retina. We have also shown simple clinical methods of establishing the diagnosis of vortex vein varicosity.

Vahdani, K; Kapoor, B; Raman, V S

2010-01-01

321

Popliteal vein aneurysm.  

PubMed

Although popliteal venous aneurysms are uncommon, they are also potentially fatal because they can cause a pulmonary embolism. The authors report a case of a popliteal vein aneurysm in a healthy, asymptomatic 32-year-old patient as well as a review of the literature. Popliteal venous aneurysms are a rare but treatable cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism, with their true incidence probably being underestimated. Whenever possible, we recommend early surgical repair of both symptomatic and asymptomatic popliteal venous aneurysms because they are associated with an ill-defined risk of pulmonary embolism and death if left untreated. PMID:20103062

Roche-Nagle, Graham; Wooster, Douglas; Oreopoulos, George

2010-01-01

322

Symptomatic popliteal vein aneurysm.  

PubMed

Popliteal vein aneurysms (PVAs) can have serious consequences, including pulmonary embolism and death. We report a case of PVA in a previously healthy 58-year-old female with a history of pain in her right popliteal fossa for the past 3 years. Patient had no history of trauma or claudication of the right leg. Following a preoperative venogram to confirm the diagnosis, the PVA was dissected circumferentially through a posterior incision. The aneurysm was resected and repaired with lateral venorrhaphy. Patient had an uneventful recovery. Due to the possibility of severe consequences, if left untreated, early surgical repair is highly recommended whether the patient has symptoms or not. PMID:24420057

Premaratne, Shyamal; Tan, Tze-Woei; Coulter, Amy H; Doumite, Darin; Zhang, Wayne W

2014-04-01

323

EndMT contributes to the onset and progression of cerebral cavernous malformations.  

PubMed

Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a vascular dysplasia, mainly localized within the brain and affecting up to 0.5% of the human population. CCM lesions are formed by enlarged and irregular blood vessels that often result in cerebral haemorrhages. CCM is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of three genes, namely CCM1 (also known as KRIT1), CCM2 (OSM) and CCM3 (PDCD10), and occurs in both sporadic and familial forms. Recent studies have investigated the cause of vascular dysplasia and fragility in CCM, but the in vivo functions of this ternary complex remain unclear. Postnatal deletion of any of the three Ccm genes in mouse endothelium results in a severe phenotype, characterized by multiple brain vascular malformations that are markedly similar to human CCM lesions. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been described in different pathologies, and it is defined as the acquisition of mesenchymal- and stem-cell-like characteristics by the endothelium. Here we show that endothelial-specific disruption of the Ccm1 gene in mice induces EndMT, which contributes to the development of vascular malformations. EndMT in CCM1-ablated endothelial cells is mediated by the upregulation of endogenous BMP6 that, in turn, activates the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway. Inhibitors of the TGF-? and BMP pathway prevent EndMT both in vitro and in vivo and reduce the number and size of vascular lesions in CCM1-deficient mice. Thus, increased TGF-? and BMP signalling, and the consequent EndMT of CCM1-null endothelial cells, are crucial events in the onset and progression of CCM disease. These studies offer novel therapeutic opportunities for this severe, and so far incurable, pathology. PMID:23748444

Maddaluno, Luigi; Rudini, Noemi; Cuttano, Roberto; Bravi, Luca; Giampietro, Costanza; Corada, Monica; Ferrarini, Luca; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Papa, Eleanna; Boulday, Gwenola; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Chapon, Françoise; Richichi, Cristina; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Lampugnani, Maria Grazia; Dejana, Elisabetta

2013-06-27

324

A randomized study of left versus right internal jugular vein cannulation in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To compare the success rate and incidence of complications of right internal jugular vein (RIJV) versus left internal jugular vein (LIJV) cannulation using external landmarks or surface ultrasound guidance.Design: Prospective randomized study.Setting: Operating room of a university-affiliated hospital.Patients: 120 adult patients scheduled for elective abdominal, vascular, or cardiothoracic procedures with general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation in whom central

Cheri A Sulek; Mark L Blas; Emilio B Lobato

2000-01-01

325

Deep vein thrombosis detection by 99m TC-MDP scanning  

SciTech Connect

A new observation is reported wherein 99m Tc-MDP is incorporated into recanalizing thrombophlebitis. In one patient with subacute disease, inflammatory vascularity is appreciated during the first one to two minutes after injection. Both patients showed evidence of late phosphate uptake in their greater saphenous veins two hours later. Intravenous isotope injections may be given in an arm vein: foot injections are not required.

Moallem, A.; Lichsztral, R.

1984-08-01

326

A xenograft animal model of human arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of high-flow vascular malformations that most commonly occurs in the head and neck. They are present at birth but are usually clinically asymptomatic until later in life. The pathogenesis of AVMs remains unclear and therapeutic approaches to AVMs are unsatisfied. In order to provide a tool for studying the pathogenesis and therapies of this disease, we established and studied a xenograft animal model of human AVMs. Methods Fresh human AVMs specimens harvested from 4 patients were sectioned (5x5x5 mm) and xenografted subcutaneously in 5 immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu). Each mouse had four pieces specimens in four quadrants along the back. The grafts were observed weekly for volume, color and texture. The grafts were harvested at every 30 days intervals for histologic examination. All grafts (n?=?20) were sectioned and stained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Comparative pathologic evaluation of the grafts and native AVMs were performed by two blinded pathologists. Immunohistochemical examination of human-specific nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Ki-67 was performed. Results Clinical characteristics and pathologic diagnosis of native human derived AVMs were confirmed. 85% (n?=?17) of AVM xenografts survived although the sizes decreased after implantation. Histological examination demonstrated numerous small and medium-size vessels and revealed structural characteristics matching the native AVMs tissue.76.5% (n?=?13) of the surviving xenografts were positive for Ki-67 and human-specific nuclear antigen suggesting survival of the human derived tissue, 52.9% (n?=?9) were positive for VEGFR-2. Conclusions This preliminary xenograft animal model suggests that AVMs can survive in the nude mouse. The presence of human-specific nuclear antigen, VEGFR-2, and Ki-67 demonstrates the stability of native tissue qualities within the xenografts.

2013-01-01

327

Pattern compensation in Drosophila wing vein development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much interest in developmental genetics has focused on the formation of patterns. Using the wing vein pattern of Drosophila melanogasler as our model system, we show that vein placement is essentially independent of cell lineage. In studying vein placement in a variety of wing vein mutants, we observed that the position of a vein can move to compensate for the

James N Thompson; Joe V Toney; G Bradley Schaefer

1980-01-01

328

Capillary malformation--arteriovenous malformation syndrome: review of the literature, proposed diagnostic criteria, and recommendations for management.  

PubMed

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the RASA1 gene and characterized by multiple small, round to oval capillary malformations with or without arteriovenous malformations. Ateriovenous malformations occur in up to one-third of patients and may involve the brain and spine. Although making the diagnosis is straightforward in some patients, there are other patients for whom diagnostic criteria may be helpful in their evaluation. Here we review the literature regarding capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss the care of patients with this condition. PMID:23662773

Orme, Charisse M; Boyden, Lynn M; Choate, Keith A; Antaya, Richard J; King, Brett A

2013-01-01

329

Vitrectomy and radial optic neurotomy for central retinal vein occlusion: effects on visual acuity and macular anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central reti- nal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder and a leading cause of visual loss. It is thought to arise from vascular ob- struction at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the potential benefit of radial optic neu- rotomy (RON) and determine its ef- fect

H. J. Zambarakji; S. Ghazi-Nouri; M. Schadt; C. Bunce; P. G. Hykin; D. G. Charteris

2005-01-01

330

Auxin transport-dependent, stage-specific dynamics of leaf vein formation.  

PubMed

For centuries, the formation of vein patterns in the leaf has intrigued biologists, mathematicians and philosophers. In leaf development, files of vein-forming procambial cells emerge from seemingly homogeneous subepidermal tissue through the selection of anatomically inconspicuous preprocambial cells. Although the molecular details underlying the orderly differentiation of veins in the leaf remain elusive, gradually restricted transport paths of the plant hormone auxin have long been implicated in defining sites of vein formation. Several recent advances now appear to converge on a more precise definition of the role of auxin flow at different stages of vascular development. The picture that emerges is that of vein formation as a self-organizing, reiterative, auxin transport-dependent process. PMID:19513220

Sawchuk, Megan G; Donner, Tyler J; Scarpella, Enrico

2008-05-01

331

Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with bony malformations.  

PubMed

Full blown cases of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) have been reported earlier but a case with a rarity of 60 teeth associated with bony malformations, is seldom observed Because of the oral findings this condition has been diagnosed at an early age, thus helping to achieve a better oral harmony. This article reports an atypical case with 16 supernumerary teeth associated with bony malformations. PMID:22524086

Kamatham, R; Sharada, J; Mohapatra, A; Nuvvula, S

2011-01-01

332

Early presentation of an extremity arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of a high flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the upper limb that caused high output cardiac failure at birth. There was early transfer of the baby to the care of a multidisciplinary team. After radiological intervention, the arm distal to the malformation became ischaemic and an urgent amputation through the upper-humerus followed. Methods of treatment are discussed, together with a review of results in the literature. PMID:15544778

Webb, Jill B; O'Brien, Mary; John, Philip R; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

2004-12-01

333

Chiari malformation with thick occipital bone.  

PubMed

A case of a Chiari malformation with an extraordinarily thick occipital bone is described. The thick occipital bone might make the posterior fossa narrow with consequent herniation of the cerebellar tonsils to the foramen magnum and formation of a syrinx. At dural plasty, well-developed marginal and occipital sinuses should be deliberately handled with the preservation of normal venous drainage. This case gives us the essence of the occurrence mechanisms of Chiari malformation and foramen magnum decompression. PMID:21339798

Yasuhara, Takao; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

2011-02-01

334

Risk factors in internal urinary system malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors were studied in 370 children with internal urinary system (IUS) anomalies, coming from 105,374 consecutive births of known outcome. The incidence of IUS malformations was 3.51 per 1,000 births. Diagnosis was performed prenatally in 54.4% of patients. Two hundred and fifty-two patients had isolated IUS anomalies; 118 (31.8%) of the children had at least one non-urinary malformation. Fifty-five

C. Stoll; Y. Alembik; M. P. Roth; B. Dott; P. Sauvage

1990-01-01

335

The Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report on three children from two families with a new pattern recognition malformation syndrome consisting of severe congenital microcephaly (MIC), intractable epilepsy including infantile spasms, and generalized capillary malformations that was first reported recently in this journal [Carter et al. (2011); Am J Med Genet A 155: 301–306]. Two of our reported patients are an affected brother and sister, suggesting this is an autosomal recessive severe congenital MIC syndrome.

Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Willing, Marcia C.; Lind, Anne C.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

336

Ultrasound examination of the liver: Normal vascular anatomy.  

PubMed

Various treatments for liver diseases, including liver transplant (particularly partial liver resection from a living donor), treatment of liver tumors, and TIPS, require detailed knowledge of the complex vascular anatomy of the liver. The hepatic artery and portal vein provide the organ with a double blood supply whereas venous drainage is furnished by the hepatic veins.Multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide undeniably excellent information on these structures. On ultrasound, the inferior vena cava, the openings of the hepatic veins, and the main branch of the portal vein can always be visualized, but intrasegmental vessels (portal, arterial, accessory hepatic venous branches) can be only partially depicted and in some cases not at all.In spite of its difficulty and limitations, hepatic sonography is frequently unavoidable, particularly in critically ill patients, and the results are essential for defining diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. For this reason, a thorough knowledge of the sonographic features of hepatic vascular anatomy is indispensable. PMID:23396216

Draghi, F; Rapaccini, G L; Fachinetti, C; de Matthaeis, N; Battaglia, S; Abbattista, T; Busilacchi, P

2007-03-01

337

Recurrent varicose veins following high ligation of long saphenous vein: a duplex ultrasound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex scanning was used to study recurrent varicose veins in 244 limbs with previous high ligation of the long saphenous vein. The recurrent varicose veins were classified into two types according to the presence or absence of a residual long saphenous vein. Varicose veins with a residual long saphenous vein (type I) occurred in 168 limbs (68.9%). A residual long

Y. Tong; J. Royle

1995-01-01

338

Infrared imaging of varicose veins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

2004-06-01

339

Infrared imaging of varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

Herke Jan Noordmans; Raymond de Zeeuw; Ruud M. Verdaasdonk; Cees H. A. Wittens

2004-01-01

340

Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatic vein obstruction is a blockage of the hepatic vein, which carries blood away from the liver. ... Hepatic vein obstruction prevents blood from flowing out of the liver and back to the heart. This blockage can ...

341

How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated? Doctors treat deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with medicines and other devices and therapies. ... wear compression stockings. Rate This Content: Deep Vein Thrombosis Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

342

Common femoral artery stenosis after deployment of vascular clip closure device.  

PubMed

We describe a case of symptomatic common femoral artery stenosis following use of a vascular clip closure device (StarClose). Operative repair was performed, with removal of the clip device and subsequent vein patch angioplasty. PMID:18412069

Osborn, Larry A; Sunderman, Harold; Langsfeld, Mark

2008-05-01

343

An unusual case of adult airway obstruction from a lymphovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Lymphatic, venous, and mixed lymphovenous malformations are low-flow lesions that are present at birth and grow proportionately with the patient. We describe an unusual presentation of a lymphovenous malformation in an adult. A 19-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complaints of recent upper respiratory tract symptoms, increasing left-sided sore throat, voice change, odynophagia, dysphagia, and occasional subjective fevers and blood-tinged sputum. Examination revealed the presence of a left peritonsillar bulge consistent with a peritonsillar abscess; however, findings on needle aspiration were negative. The patient was admitted for intravenous steroid and antibiotic therapy. Within 24 hours, his airway became compromised, and he underwent an awake tracheotomy and biopsy, which showed a lymphovenous malformation. Magnetic resonance imaging the following day revealed a large, poorly circumscribed, heterogeneous left parapharyngeal mass consistent with a vascular malformation. With continuation of the steroids and antibiotics, the lesion regressed, and the patient was subsequently decannulated. At the 1-year follow-up, he exhibited no clinical symptoms, and he was in good health off steroids. PMID:18633936

Harsha, Wayne J; Crawford, James V; Sorensen, Douglas M

2008-07-01

344

CASE REPORT Postoperative Use of the NormaTec Pneumatic Compression Device in Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations have a wide range of clinical presentations and an unfortunately unpredictable response to both nonsurgical and surgical intervention. The authors report on the surgical treatment of a 19-year-old man with a complex lower extremity arteriovenous malformation, previously unsuccessfully treated with numerous local sclerotherapy and interventional radiology embolization procedures leading to massive tissue necrosis and deep infection. The patient was definitively treated with wide excision of the necrotic tissue, coils, and arteriovenous malformation, but with preservation of the tibial nerve and vascular supply to the foot. Significant postoperative complications were prevented with the use of a novel dynamic compression device employing peristaltic pulse pneumatic compression.

Talbot, Simon G.; Kerstein, David; Jacobs, Laura F.; Upton, Joseph

2012-01-01

345

[Arterial stenting versus vascular replacement].  

PubMed

Stenting or transluminal implantation of vascular endoprostheses is a new modality among many endovascular techniques. Experience is greatest in the iliac arteries where patency rates above 90% are reported. Because in femoropopliteal arteries the patency rates are below 70%, stents should be implanted only in situations where percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone has failed. Similar results are obtained with implantation in renal and supraaortic arteries. Application in great veins for palliation of tumor compression seems to be a good indication. A new perspective opens up with "covered stents" to treat aorto-iliac aneurysms endoluminally. Even though stenting is still experimental in some regards, and open surgical reconstruction represents the established standard, it has great therapeutic potential. However, endovascular techniques should neither be rejected nor simply adopted by vascular surgeons but developed further in a team approach with experienced interventional angiologists and radiologists. PMID:7502006

Mahler, F

1995-10-28

346

Varicose Veins - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Varicose Veins - Multiple Languages Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Russian (???????) Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy (Varicose Veins) English ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????? - ?????????? ???? - ...

347

Endothelial Depletion of Acvrl1 in Mice Leads to Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Reduced Endoglin Expression  

PubMed Central

Rare inherited cardiovascular diseases are frequently caused by mutations in genes that are essential for the formation and/or function of the cardiovasculature. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia is a familial disease of this type. The majority of patients carry mutations in either Endoglin (ENG) or ACVRL1 (also known as ALK1) genes, and the disease is characterized by arteriovenous malformations and persistent haemorrhage. ENG and ACVRL1 encode receptors for the TGF? superfamily of ligands, that are essential for angiogenesis in early development but their roles are not fully understood. Our goal was to examine the role of Acvrl1 in vascular endothelial cells during vascular development and to determine whether loss of endothelial Acvrl1 leads to arteriovenous malformations. Acvrl1 was depleted in endothelial cells either in early postnatal life or in adult mice. Using the neonatal retinal plexus to examine angiogenesis, we observed that loss of endothelial Acvrl1 led to venous enlargement, vascular hyperbranching and arteriovenous malformations. These phenotypes were associated with loss of arterial Jag1 expression, decreased pSmad1/5/8 activity and increased endothelial cell proliferation. We found that Endoglin was markedly down-regulated in Acvrl1-depleted ECs showing endoglin expression to be downstream of Acvrl1 signalling in vivo. Endothelial-specific depletion of Acvrl1 in pups also led to pulmonary haemorrhage, but in adult mice resulted in caecal haemorrhage and fatal anaemia. We conclude that during development, endothelial Acvrl1 plays an essential role to regulate endothelial cell proliferation and arterial identity during angiogenesis, whilst in adult life endothelial Acvrl1 is required to maintain vascular integrity.

Allinson, Kathleen R.; Redgrave, Rachael E.; Zhai, Zhenhua; Oh, S. Paul; Fruttiger, Marcus; Arthur, Helen M.

2014-01-01

348

?-Adrenergic receptor expression in vascular tumors.  

PubMed

Propranolol has recently emerged as an effective therapy for infantile hemangiomas causing regression. The ?-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist is thought to cause vasoconstriction by its effect on nitric oxide, block angiogenesis by its effect on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and induce apoptosis. In a prior report, we identified expression of ?2-AR (B2-AR) and its phosphorylated form (B2-ARP) in a case of infantile hemangioma that responded to propranolol treatment. We now explore the expression of ?ARs on a variety of vascular lesions utilizing a tissue microarray containing 141 lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, hemangiomas, hemangioendotheliomas, and various vascular malformations. The array was immunostained for B2-AR, B2-ARP, and ?3-AR (B3-AR), and the results scored for the intensity of endothelial cell expression as negative, weak positive, or strong positive. All phases of infantile hemangiomas had strong expression of all three receptors, with the exception of only weak expression of B2-ARP in the proliferative phase infantile hemangioma. Strong expression of all three receptors was present in many hemangiomas, hemangioendotheliomas, and vascular malformations. Absent to weak expression of all three receptors was seen in glomus tumor, hobnail hemangioendothelioma, pyogenic granuloma, and reactive vascular proliferations. This is the first study to report ?-AR expression in a variety of vascular lesions. Although immunohistochemical expression of the receptors does not necessarily indicate that similar pathways of responsiveness to ?-blockade are present, it does raises the possibility that ?-blockade could potentially affect apoptosis and decrease responsiveness to VEGF. Additional study is warranted, as therapeutic options are limited for some patients with these lesions. PMID:22743651

Chisholm, Karen M; Chang, Kay W; Truong, Mai T; Kwok, Shirley; West, Rob B; Heerema-McKenney, Amy E

2012-11-01

349

Control of Leaf and Vein Development by Auxin  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants and show considerable diversity in their geometries, ranging from simple spoonlike forms to complex shapes with individual leaflets, as in compound leaves. Leaf vascular tissues, which act as conduits of both nutrients and signaling information, are organized in networks of different architectures that usually mirror the surrounding leaf shape. Understanding the processes that endow leaves and vein networks with ordered and closely aligned shapes has captured the attention of biologists and mathematicians since antiquity. Recent work has suggested that the growth regulator auxin has a key role in both initiation and elaboration of final morphology of both leaves and vascular networks. A key feature of auxin action is the existence of feedback loops through which auxin regulates its own transport. These feedbacks may facilitate the iterative generation of basic modules that underlies morphogenesis of both leaves and vasculature.

Scarpella, Enrico; Barkoulas, Michalis; Tsiantis, Miltos

2010-01-01

350

Abernethy malformation with multiple aneurysms: incidentally found in an adult woman with Caroli's disease.  

PubMed

Abernethy malformation is a rare anomaly with partial or complete congenital absence of the portal vein and subsequent development of extrahepatic portocaval shunts. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman who was incidentally diagnosed with type II Abernethy malformation and multiple aneurysms during an investigation for nonspecific abdominal pain and fever. The patient had been diagnosed with Caroli's disease at the age of 10 and liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension a few years before. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported with all such congenital anomalies associated together. Ultrasound, computed tomography, including three-dimensional reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed which revealed a side-to-side shunt between the extrahepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava, multiple aneurismal cystic dilation of the spleen artery and left renal artery, and extensive intrahepatic bile duct cysitic dilation with calculus formation. Etiology, clinical significance and management strategies with regard to these abnormalities are discussed. PMID:23396746

Kong, Yalin; Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Chengli; Wu, Di; He, Xiaojun; Xiao, Mei; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Hui

2013-01-01

351

Transcriptional regulation of vascular cell fates.  

PubMed

In vascular development, uncommitted cells differentiate into different xylem cells through vascular stem cells, such as procambial cells, during vein formation as well as embryogenesis. Cascades of transcriptional regulation of genes play crucial roles in the progress of vascular development. Auxin, cytokinin, and brassinosteroids also function in procambial cell determination, procambial maintenance, and xylem cell differentiation from procambial cells, respectively, through transcriptional regulation. The positive feedback loop typically shown in auxin-flow-MONOPTEROS-(HD-ZIP IIIs)-PIN1-auxin-flow in procambial precursor cell determination and VND7-ASL/LBD-VND7 in xylem vessel cell determination, may be a crucial mechanism that determines vascular cell fates, which occurs in stages. PMID:20869293

Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

2010-12-01

352

Vascular ring  

MedlinePLUS

... following tests can help diagnose vascular ring: Chest x-ray Computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart Camera down the throat to examine the airways (bronchoscopy) Magnetic resonance imaging ... of heart X-ray of blood vessels (angiography) X-ray of the ...

353

Vascular Proliferation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation depicts vascularization of the early germ disc. It is shown in the context of a transverse section through a trilaminar germ disc and yolk sac. Clicking shows the cardiogenic field developing into the heart tube, along with vasculogenesis of the major vessels. Clicking again shows angiogenesis of peripheral vessels throughout the developing embryo and yolk sac.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2009-11-20

354

Vascular Caliber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of vascular caliber can be accounted for on the basis of interactions between the frictional drag generated by the stream, and the sensitivity of the endothelial cells to this force. When the drag force on endothelial cells is at its critical set-point, these lining cells are at rest with respect to factors that affect caliber. An increase in

Simon Rodbard

1975-01-01

355

Methods of central vascular access for haemodialysis.  

PubMed

The basic form of renal replacement therapy is haemodialysis. The duration and efficacy of this treatment depends on well-functioning vascular access. Short-term or long-term catheters are used if the arterial-venous fistula placement is not possible or not indicated. According to the recommendations of the NKF DOQI (National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative), the first choice of access is the right internal jugular vein, and the next are the left internal jugular, femoral and subclavian vein. In this article, we present approaches to the abovementioned veins for haemodialysis cathether insertion as well as catheter tip positioning in the venous system to prevent serious complications. PMID:24092515

Le?, Jaros?aw; Wa?kowicz, Zofia

2013-01-01

356

Vascular access for HD and CRRT.  

PubMed

A good functioning vascular access is an essential component for adequate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in acute kidney injury. Tunneled, cuffed catheters are preferred if the anticipated duration of RRT is more than 3 weeks. The right jugular vein is the preferred insertion site for the temporary dialysis catheter (TDC), with ultrasound-guided insertion reducing the risk of mechanical complications. The femoral vein is the second choice, whereas the subclavian vein should be avoided. The most important complications of a TDC are acute malfunction and infection. Intraluminal thrombosis, fibrin sleeve formation, malpositioning and kinking result in acute malfunction. Recirculation can be reduced by correct placement of the catheter and is more an issue for intermittent hemodialysis than for continuous RRT. Strict adherence to simple preventive strategies reduces catheter-related bloodstream infection. In selected patients more sophisticated strategies such as the use of antibiotic/antiseptic impregnated catheters and antibiotic/antiseptic lock solutions may be useful. PMID:17464137

Schetz, Miet

2007-01-01

357

Leiomyosarcoma of the Cephalic Vein  

PubMed Central

A 78-year-old man presented with a mass on his right forearm. A 5 x 4 x 3 cm3 mass was excised en bloc with extensions along the course of the cephalic vein and its tributaries. Histological analysis revealed the mass to be a high-grade leiomyosarcoma arising within the cephalic vein. The tumour was controlled locally and distally until the patient died 10 months later, from an unrelated illness. This is the first reported case of a venous leiomyosarcoma of the cephalic vein.

Dixon, John H.

2001-01-01

358

[Vascular complications of liver transplantation: surgical treatment].  

PubMed

Vascular complications constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. They are dominated by arterial complications, the most frequent being hepatic artery thrombosis. Venous complications essentially consist of portal vein thrombosis. The preventive treatment of vascular complications is based on a better understanding of the risk factors. Close cooperation between surgeon, and radiologist is essential for effective surgical correction, which requires a rapid diagnosis and is designed to save not only the patient's life, but also, whenever possible, the liver transplant. PMID:7993021

Yandza, T; Lababidi, A; Jaworski, W; Gauthier, F; De Dreuzy, O; Pariente, D; Valayer, J

1994-01-01

359

Case of microarteriovenous malformation-induced trigeminal neuralgia treated with radiosurgery.  

PubMed

Radiosurgery to the right fifth cranial nerve was performed with the Gamma Knife on a 39- year-old patient who presented with classic symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but was found on imaging studies to harbour a small intrinsic vascular malformation within the nerve. Based on size and drainage, the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was Spetzler-Martin Grade III and no previous history of bleeding was reported. The patient had failed a trial of carbamazepine, and no surgical procedures had been performed. A decrease in symptoms was reported by the 6-month follow-up. A review of the literature on microAVM-induced TN is provided as well as a discussion of management. PMID:16897621

Anderson, William S; Wang, Paul P; Rigamonti, Daniele

2006-09-01

360

Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery.  

PubMed

Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed. PMID:21990534

Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

2012-09-01

361

In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Human Saphenous Vein Wall Changes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate if noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxyptamine (5-HT) drugs induce responses of isolated control and varicose veins are altered by removal of the endothelium. Subjects & Methods: Specimens of the great saphenous vein (GSV) were obtained from 12 subjects with primary varicose veins and 12 subjects from donor vessels at cardiac surgery. A total of 10 normal healthy volunteers were selected for comparison. The diameter changes of GSV during the resting phase, at the end of 5 minutes occlusion, and then every 30 seconds post deflation for five minutes were measured using B-mode ultrasound. Post-surgery the vein sample was collected in a tube of Krebs-Henseleit solution. Results: The repeated measure ANOVA test for the diameter, percent, and difference changes of GSV diameter from maximum diameter at different time intervals showed significance difference within and between all groups. NA and 5-HT produced concentration-dependent contractions of control and varicose saphenous vein segments. There was no significant difference in the potency of NA and for 5-HT, but the maximum response, normalized for tissue weight, was less in varicose vein segments. Removal of the endothelium had no effect on the potency of NA or 5-HT but significantly (p<0.05) reduced the maximum response to NA and 5-HT in varicose vein segments but not to 5-HT in control veins. Conclusion: The venous endothelial damage may cause vascular smooth muscle contractions dysfunction that favours dilatation and secondary valvular insufficiency.

Asbeutah, Akram M; Asfar, Sami K; Safar, Hussain; Oriowo, Mabayoje A; ElHagrassi, Ihab; Abu-Assi, Mona A; Cameron, James D; McGrath, Barry P

2007-01-01

362

War injuries of the femoral artery and vein: a report on 67 cases.  

PubMed

During the war in Croatia (from May 1991 to December 1995), 67 patients with war injuries of the femoral vein and/or artery were treated at the Surgical Clinic of Split Clinical Hospital. All the wounded were admitted directly from the battlefield or from front-line hospitals. There were five women and 62 men with a median age of 29 (range 15-54) years. There were 70 arterial (28 isolated) and 49 venous injuries (six isolated). Forty-six arterial injuries were repaired by reverse vein graft. Four proximal profound femoral arteries were reconstructed. Major venous injuries were repaired, 11 by compilation autogenous vein graft. No synthetic grafts were used. Repair of veins with large defects using compilation saphenous vein grafts gave good results. Six profound femoral veins and two superficial femoral veins were ligated. Vein ligation should be avoided unless another life-threatening injury demands priority. Twenty-one patients required open prophylactic fasciotomy. Two patients died (3%) and three ultimately underwent amputation (5%). Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen therapy was given to 18 heavily wounded patients with beneficial effect. The results support an immediate and coordinated approach to femoral vascular trauma with repair of arterial and venous injuries. PMID:9423951

Radoni?, V; Bari?, D; Giunio, L; Bill, B; Kovacevi?, H; Sapunar, D

1997-12-01

363

Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

2009-02-01

364

Clinical examination of varicose veins--a validation study.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of clinical tests compared to colour duplex imaging in patients with primary varicose veins using a prospective, blinded comparison study. A total of 44 patients (70 limbs) with primary, previously untreated varicose veins presenting to the vascular laboratory of a university teaching hospital were studied. The patients underwent physical examination using the cough test, the tap test, Trendelenbergs' test, Perthes' test and hand-held Doppler (HHD) assessment prior to undergoing colour duplex scanning. Reflux was detected on duplex scanning, at the sapheno-femoral junction in 39/70 limbs (54%), the long saphenous vein in 47/70 limbs (64%) and the sapheno-popliteal junction in 9/70 limbs (13%). The cough test had low sensitivity (0.59) and specificity (0.67). The tap test had low sensitivity (0.18) and high specificity (0.92). The Trendelenberg test had high sensitivity (0.91) but low specificity (0.15). Perthes' test had a high sensitivity (0.97) but low specificity (0.20). Hand-held Doppler assessment of reflux at the sapheno-femoral junction, in the long saphenous vein and at the sapheno-popliteal junction had high sensitivity (0.97, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively) and specificity (0.73, 0.92, and 0.90, respectively) of detecting reflux. Clinical tests used in the examination of patients with primary varicose veins are inaccurate. Assessment using hand-held Doppler is more accurate. Courses and clinical textbooks should be revised to replace these tests with instruction in how to use hand-held Doppler in the clinical examination of patients with varicose veins.

Kim, J.; Richards, S.; Kent, P. J.

2000-01-01

365

Vein contraction and smooth muscle cell extensions as causes of endothelial damage during graft preparation.  

PubMed

Meticulous preservation of the endothelial lining of vein grafts harvested during vascular operations is undoubtedly an important factor in determining patency rates following bypass procedures. Destruction of the vein graft's endothelial lining prior to graft implantation results in a more thrombogenic graft which is essentially a collagen-lined tube. This study used light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy to investigate effects of various methods of vein graft preparation on endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the dog cephalic vein. Veins were removed and stored in one of three heparinized solutions at 10 C for either five minutes or one hour: autologous blood, Plasmalyte((R)) or Plasmalyte((R)) with 0.6 mg/ml papaverine HCI added. The vein wall was extremely sensitive to dissection, manipulation, or introduction of fixative solutions and reacted to such stimuli with severe contraction which not only diminished the luminal diameter but also resulted in protrusion of endothelial cells into the lumen and formation of cytoplasmic extensions of medial smooth muscle cells. Such cytoplasmic extensions were particularly frequent in the immediate subendothelial area and appeared to be instrumental in elevating, separating, or desquamating the endothelial cell lining. Veins stored in blood alone demonstrated the greatest vessel wall contraction and endothelial cell loss. Veins soaked in Plasmalyte((R))-papaverine solution had the most relaxed and normal appearance with minimal endothelial cell loss. Papaverine-treated veins which were subjected to brief periods of distension at pressures of 100 mmHg or greater demonstrated large gaps between the endothelial lining cells. The results suggest pretreatment with papaverine greatly reduces vein graft endothelial cell loss due to contraction, although such relaxation may be detrimental if vein grafts are subjected to excessive pressure prior to reversal of relaxation. PMID:7259348

Baumann, F G; Catinella, F P; Cunningham, J N; Spencer, F C

1981-08-01

366

[Therapy of vascular-dependent skin pathology].  

PubMed

The therapeutic results obtained with twice daily medication with 3% hydrocortisone bendazac ester cream are indicated. This therapy was found to be effective particularly in photodermatoses radiation dermatitis and superficial vascular skin disorders. Moreover, it is also very useful for varicose veins and phlebitis, photoactive eczema and burns, since it can limit the necrotic evolution, correct excessive granulation tissue formation and control the tendency towards the development of keloids. PMID:7070688

Binazzi, M

1982-04-01

367

[Recent advances in cardiac and vascular surgery].  

PubMed

Significant advances in cardiac surgery include hypothermic circulatory arrest for complex aortic surgery, stentless valve for aortic valvulopathies, conservative treatment of the insufficient aortic valve, surgical interruption of the electrical circuits involved in atrial fibrillation and new extra-corporeal circuits (SMA) to decrease inflammatory systemic reactions, and for, the same reason, heart beating coronary surgery. Advances in vascular surgery include aortic endoprosthesis, coeliscopic aortic surgery and less invasive superficial veins surgery. PMID:17725191

Limet, R

2007-01-01

368

Artery-vein separation via MRA--an image processing approach.  

PubMed

This paper presents a near-automatic process for separating vessels from background and other clutter as well as for separating arteries and veins in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiographic (CE-MRA) image data, and an optimal method for three-dimensional visualization of vascular structures. The separation process utilizes fuzzy connected object delineation principles and algorithms. The first step of this separation process is the segmentation of the entire vessel structure from the background and other clutter via absolute fuzzy connectedness. The second step is to separate artery from vein within this entire vessel structure via iterative relative fuzzy connectedness. After seed voxels are specified inside artery and vein in the CE-MRA image, the small regions of the bigger aspects of artery and vein are separated in the initial iterations, and further detailed aspects of artery and vein are included in later iterations. At each iteration, the artery and vein compete among themselves to grab membership of each voxel in the vessel structure based on the relative strength of connectedness of the voxel in the artery and vein. This approach has been implemented in a software package for routine use in a clinical setting and tested on 133 CE-MRA studies of the pelvic region and two studies of the carotid system from six different hospitals. In all studies, unified parameter settings produced correct artery-vein separation. When compared with manual segmentation/separation, our algorithms were able to separate higher order branches, and therefore produced vastly more details in the segmented vascular structure. The total operator and computer time taken per study is on the average about 4.5 min. To date, this technique seems to be the only image processing approach that can be routinely applied for artery and vein separation. PMID:11513021

Lei, T; Udupa, J K; Saha, P K; Odhner, D

2001-08-01

369

How Airway Venous Malformations Differ From Airway Infantile Hemangiomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare airway infantile hemangiomas (IHs) and venous malformations (VMs) clinically, radiographically, endoscopically, and histologically. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients The study included patients seen in the Vascular Anomaly Clinic, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, Washington, between 2001 and 2008. Methods All patients with airway vascular anomalies were identified by searching the Vascular Anomaly Quality Improvement Database and hospital discharge data. The data, which were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the Fisher exact test, included presenting age, sex, presenting signs, lesion site, and radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic findings.. Results Seventeen patients with airway lesions were identified, 6 with VMs and 11 with IHs. Patients with VMs presented at a mean (SD) age of 11.3 (13.7) months (age range, 3–39 months), while those with IHs presented at 3 (1.8) months of age (age range, 1–6 months) (P =.03). The patients with IHs were predominantly female (9 of 11 [81%]), while no sex difference was noted among the patients with VMs (3 of 6 [50%]). All patients with IHs presented with stridor and cutaneous lesions, whereas patients with VMs more often presented with hemoptysis or dysphagia (P = .001). Computed tomographic angiograms demonstrated enhancing endolaryngeal lesions in all IHs, while VMs enhanced poorly. Endoscopically, IHs were transglottic, while VMs were postcricoid or epiglottic (P <.001). Histologically, immunostained lesions showed submucosal lobules of capillaries lined by GLUT-1 (glucose transporter isoform 1)–positive endothelium in IHs, whereas VMs consisted of loosely organized venous channels that lacked GLUT-1 staining. Conclusion Patients with airway IHs and VMs differ in presenting age and signs, sex, airway lesion location, enhancement on computed tomographic angiograms, and histologic appearance.

Parhizkar, Nooshin; Manning, Scott C.; Inglis, Andrew F.; Finn, Laura S.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Perkins, Jonathan A.

2013-01-01

370

Debendox in early pregnancy and fetal malformation.  

PubMed Central

During the mid-1960s, 22 977 pregnant women in Scotland and England were followed up prospectively for the incidence of malformations in their infants evident at birth or within six weeks. During the first 13 weeks of gestation 620 of these women had been prescribed Debendox (dicyclomine-doxylamine-pyridoxine) and 743 other women agents other than Debendox containing pyridoxine. Of the 620 women given Debendox, 589 (95%) had a normal outcome of pregnancy, 8 (13%) delivered a malformed infant, and 23 (3.7%) had other outcomes. Of the 22 357 women who were given Debendox, 445 (2.0%) produced infants with malformation; and the rates for all abnormal outcomes among women given Debendox and those not given the drug were 5.0% and 5.4% respectively. These results support the hypothesis that Debendox is not teratogenic.

Fleming, D M; Knox, J D; Crombie, D L

1981-01-01

371

How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... pain you're having. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Duplex Ultrasound Your doctor may recommend duplex ultrasound to check blood flow in your veins and to look for blood clots. Duplex ultrasound combines traditional with Doppler ultrasound. Traditional ultrasound ...

372

Diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinical and laboratory diagnostic methods were studied in 301 consecutive patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Unexpectedly, phlebography (the reference method) was found to cause DVT in estimated 48 % of patients without initial DVT. Usin...

C. G. Olsson

1979-01-01

373

Angiomatous malformation of placental chorionic stem vessels and pseudo-partial molar placentas: report of five cases.  

PubMed

Five placentas referred to the Michigan Placental Tissue Registry between 1982 and 1992 exhibited an unusual malformation of chorionic stem vessels. Multiple intestine-like tangles arising from umbilical vessels rested on and entered the chorionic plate. This anomaly appears similar to the "unusual vascular anomaly of the placenta" reported by Lee et al. (Am J Clin Pathol 1991; 95:48-51). In addition, amnionic-type bands were often adherent to the vascular complex. In three cases, clusters of macrocystic villi interspersed by normal placental parenchyma resulted in a partial molar appearance. Two of the infants were stillborn; three were liveborn. Congenital anomalies were not recognized in other organs. Flow cytometric analysis of placental tissue from four specimens disclosed a diploid chromosomal pattern. This rare anomaly complex appears to be a malformation involving the extraembryonic mesoderm rather than a cytogenetic error. PMID:8247960

Sander, C M

1993-01-01

374

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children.  

PubMed

In spite of their congenital origin, only 18-20% of cerebral AVMs are diagnosed during infancy and childhood. Intracranial haemorrhage is the presenting clinical manifestation in 75-80% of paediatric patients and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The natural history of untreated cerebral AVMs in children is worse than in adults, in relation to a longer life expectation, a higher annual risk of AVM bleeding (3.2% vs. 2.2%) and a higher incidence of posterior fossa and basal ganglia AVMs, most of which present with massive haemorrhages. The surgical excision remains the treatment of choice for parenchymal AVMs in children; AVM complete removal is currently achieved in 70-90% of the patients. With the advent of new agents for endovascular management, preoperative AVM embolization has further improved surgical results. Stereotactic radiosurgery appears to be a successful treatment option in small or moderate sized AVMs. Recent studies have demonstrated low complication rates with this technique in paediatric patients. We reviewed our experience with 37 paediatric AVMs treated at the Section of Paediatric Neurosurgery of the Catholic University of Rome between 1980 and 1997. Twenty-three patients underwent surgery as the only treatment modality; endovascular embolization was combined with the surgical treatment in a further four cases. Radiosurgery was utilized as the only treatment in three patients and in combination with other techniques in an other three children (with surgery in one case and with AVM embolization in the remaining two subjects). No treatment was carried out in three patients because of excessively critical condition on admission; endovascular embolization failed in a further patient because of the anatomical complexity of the malformation. Previous studies have demonstrated a quite strict correlation between AVM complexity based on Spetzler and Martin's grading system and patients outcome. A less direct relationship has been observed in the present study. In our experience the factors which were more closely predictive of patients' outcome were the occurrence of an AVM bleeding and the neurological status on admission. In spite of the low number of cases in the single subsets of patients this study seems to support the role of AVM embolization and radiosurgery as effective adjuvant techniques in the management of cerebral AVMs in children. PMID:10795888

Di Rocco, C; Tamburrini, G; Rollo, M

2000-01-01

375

Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of

Herbert D. Zeman; Gunnar Lovhoiden

1999-01-01

376

Palm vein authentication technology and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the contactless palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01%, and a false

Masaki Watanabe; Toshio Endoh; Morito Shiohara; Shigeru Sasaki

2005-01-01

377

Benefits of Endoscopic Vein Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the benefits of endoscopic saphenous vein harvesting (EVH) with the\\u000a traditional incision technique (TIT) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in respect to the technical procedure and\\u000a clinical outcome. In a prospective nonrandomized, case-matched study the greater saphenous vein was harvested for CABG in\\u000a 22 patients using the endoscopic

Bettina Marty; Ludwig Karl von Segesser; Piergiorgio Tozzi; Juan Guzmann; Philippe Frascarolo; Xavier Muller; Daniel Hayoz

2000-01-01

378

Brain vascular lesions: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural approach.  

PubMed

Brain vascular malformations are relatively common lesions that cause serious neurologic disability or death in a significant proportion of individuals bearing them. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemistry these lesions, looking for common antibodies expressed such as CD31, CD34, CD15, factor VIII, nestin, vimentin, vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial grow factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), glial fibrillar acidic protien (GFAP), and fibroblastic grow factor ? (?-FGF) and ultrastructure in endothelial cells as well as in vessel walls. Fifty cases of vascular lesions were included in this study: 29 (58%) of them were arteriovenous malformations and 21 (52%) were brain cavernomas. Twenty-six (52%) patients were women and 24 (48%) men. The age range was from 13 to 68 years (mean age, 35.86 ± 15.19 years). The size of the lesions ranged between 1 and 8 cm (3 ± 1.65 cm), and parieto-occipital lesions had a bigger size. Evolution time varied from 1 month to 1 year (mean, 7.5 months). There was a significant statistical correlation between age and sex (P = -035), rupture of lesion (P = .015), brain hemorrhage (P = .033), necrosis (P = .011), hemosiderin deposit (P = .042), VEGF (P = .015), and VEGFR (P = .037), as well as localization of rupture (P = .017), loss of consciousness (P = .000), visual deficit (P = .026), hyaline vessels (P = .000), and CD31 (.009). Interactions between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) in blood vessel walls have recently come into focus as central processes in the regulation of vascular formation, stabilization, remodeling, and function in brain vascular lesions. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation and growth of brain arteriovenous malformations are still poorly understood. PMID:24881784

Navarrete, Marisol Galván; Hernández, Alma Dalia; Collado-Ortiz, Miguel Angel; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia

2014-08-01

379

Gastrointestinal perforations in neonates with anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

We describe the presentation and management of gastrointestinal perforation in four neonates with anorectal malformations. Two neonates with high malformation had pneumoperitoneum on X-ray; surgery revealed sigmoid perforation in one patient and transverse colon perforation in the other. Colostomy was done, followed by posterior sagittal anorectoplasty at four months; both recovered satisfactorily. The third neonate had no radiological feature of gut perforation but cecal perforation was found at surgery; the neonate recovered following right hemicolectomy with stoma followed by anorectoplasty at five months. The fourth neonate presented with clinical and radiological features of perforation and recovered satisfactorily after anoplasty and colostomy. PMID:15250569

Sharma, Shyam B; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, Vinod

2004-01-01

380

Canine mesenteric artery and vein convey no difference in the content of major contractile proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenteric arteries and veins are composed of tonic smooth muscles and serve distinct functions in the peripheral circulation. However, the basis for the functional disparity of the resistive and capacitative parts of the mesenteric circulation is poorly understood. We studied potential differences in the expression levels of six contractile proteins in secondary and tertiary branches of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein along with differences in the vessel wall morphology. Results Bright field and electron microscopy showed that both vessel walls had the same major structural elements. The arterial walls, however, had greater number, and more tightly assembled, smooth muscle cell layers compared to vein walls. The content of actin, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain, and calponin was similar in the two blood vessels. The artery expressed higher amount of the actin-binding protein caldesmon than the vein (41.86 ± 2.33 and 30.13 ± 3.37 ?g/mg respectively, n = 12). Although the total tropomyosin content was almost identical in both blood vessels, the alpha isoform dominated in the artery, while the beta isoform prevailed in the vein. Conclusions Canine mesenteric artery and vein differ in vessel wall morphology but do not convey differences in the expression levels of actin, myosin light chain, myosin heavy chain and calponin. The two vascular networks express distinct amounts of caldesmon and tropomyosin, which might contribute to the fine tuning of the contractile machinery in a manner consistent with the physiological functions of the two vascular networks.

Yamboliev, Ilia A; Ward, Sean M; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N

2002-01-01

381

Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz) as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) mRNA was measured using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. And the protein expression of Egr-1 was detected by using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. EDRz was located at the media of the vein graft from 2 to 24?h, 7?h after grafting. The Egr-1 protein was mainly located in the medial VSMCs, monocytes, and endothelium cells during the early phase of the vein graft. The degree of VSMC proliferation and thickness of intima were obviously relieved compared with the no-gene therapy group. EDRz can reduce Egr-1 expression in autogenous vein grafts, effectively restrain VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia, and prevent vascular stenosis and occlusion after vein graft.

Liu, Chengwei; Zhang, Xuesong; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Mingxun; Liu, Chuanyu; Wang, Shuqing; Hu, Xinhua; Zhang, Qiang

2013-01-01

382

Non-invasive vascular imaging of peripheral vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in non-invasive vascular imaging techniques and to discuss their\\u000a current clinical applications for imaging of peripheral vessels. Principles for applying ultrasound, CT angiography (CTA),\\u000a and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for non-invasive imaging of peripheral arteries and veins are presented. Clinical\\u000a applications are reviewed for different vascular diseases, therapy planning,

P. Reimer; P. Landwehr

1998-01-01

383

Vascular dementia  

PubMed Central

The epidemic grow of dementia causes great concern for the society. It is customary to consider Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, followed by vascular dementia (VaD). This dichotomous view of a neurodegenerative disease as opposed to brain damage caused by extrinsic factors led to separate lines of research in these two entities. Indeed, accumulated data suggest that the two disorders have additive effects and probably interact; however it is still unknown to what degree. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown “vascular” risk factors to be associated with AD. Therefore, a clear distinction between AD and VaD cannot be made in most cases, and is furthermore unhelpful. In the absence of efficacious treatment for the neurodegenerative process, special attention must be given to vascular component, even in patients with presumed mixed pathology. Symptomatic treatment of VaD and AD are similar, although the former is less effective. For prevention of dementia it is important to treat aggressively all factors, even in stroke survivors who do not show evidence of cognitive decline,. In this review, we will give a clinical and pathological picture of the processes leading to VaD and discuss it interaction with AD.

Korczyn, Amos D; Vakhapova, Veronika; Grinberg, Lea T

2012-01-01

384

Open versus endoscopic saphenous vein harvesting: wound complications and vein quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The saphenous vein is an important conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. Wound complications from traditional open vein harvesting occur often. Minimally invasive endoscopic saphenous vein harvesting may decrease wound complications. Vein quality may be an issue with endoscopic harvesting.Methods. We reviewed 568 patients who had bypass grafting and saphenous vein harvesting either endoscopic (group A, n = 180)

John D Crouch; Daniel P O’Hair; James P Keuler; Thomas P Barragry; Paul H Werner; Leonard H Kleinman

1999-01-01

385

Open Versus Endoscopic Saphenous Vein Harvesting: Wound Complications and Vein Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The saphenous vein is an important con- duit for coronary artery bypass grafting. Wound compli- cations from traditional open vein harvesting occur often. Minimally invasive endoscopic saphenous vein harvest- ing may decrease wound complications. Vein quality may be an issue with endoscopic harvesting. Methods. We reviewed 568 patients who had bypass grafting and saphenous vein harvesting either endo- scopic

John D. Crouch; Daniel P. O'Hair; James P. Keuler; Thomas P. Barragry; Paul H. Werner; Leonard H. Kleinman

2010-01-01

386

Common femoral vein canal lipoma causing chronic unilateral lower limb swelling.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old woman presented to vascular clinic with a 2-year history of right ankle swelling, associated with pain on walking. Initial venous duplex imaging showed no obvious cause. Further imaging showed a lipoma compressing the common femoral vein. We consider the relative merits of the imaging modalities of the groin and the literature available on lipomas causing compression. PMID:24777078

Lowry, Danielle; Kay, Mark Darren; Tiwari, Alok

2014-01-01

387

Genetics Home Reference: Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... help with understanding microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome? angiogenesis ; apoptosis ; autophagy ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; capillaries ; cell ; degrade ; developmental delay ; ...

388

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations  

MedlinePLUS

... help with understanding VMCM? angiogenesis ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; calcium ; cell ; cutaneous ; deficiency ; endothelial cells ; gene ; inflammation ; inherited ; kinase ; lesion ; malformation ; ...

389

Associated malformations in patients with limb reduction deficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants with limb reduction deficiencies (LRD) often have other associated congenital malformations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated malformations in a defined population. This study included special strengths: each affected child was examined by a geneticist, all elective terminations were ascertained, and the surveillance for malformations was continued until 1 year

Claude Stoll; Yves Alembik; Beatrice Dott; Marie-Paule Roth

2010-01-01

390

Congenital malformations by the parental occupation in finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations, a case-referent register, was used to analyze the associations between the parental occupation and the children born with malformations. The women working in industrial and construction occupations had more children with central nervous system (CNS) and musculoskeletal malformations than the referent mothers. The women employed in transport and communication occupations had more children with

K. Hemminki; P. Mutanen; K. Luoma; I. Saloniemi

1980-01-01

391

Hydromyelia and Chiari malformation in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 24 patients with Chiari malformation and hydromyelia, treated at the Prince of Wales Children's Hospital between 1975 and 1991, is reviewed. The age range of these patients was 3 to 19 years. Eleven had a Chiari 1 malformation and 13 had a Chiari 2 malformation. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 16 years with a

R. F. C Jones; J. G. J Ayer; W. A Stening

1996-01-01

392

Preexisting venous calcification prior to dialysis vascular access surgery.  

PubMed

Vascular calcification is present in arterial vessels used for dialysis vascular access creation prior to surgical creation. Calcification in the veins used to create a new vascular access has not previously been documented. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of venous calcification in samples collected at the time of vascular access creation. Sixty-seven vein samples were studied. A von Kossa stain was performed to quantify calcification. A semi-quantitative scoring system from 0 to 4+ was used to quantify the percentage positive area for calcification as a fraction of total area (0: 0; 1+: 1-10%; 2+: 11-25%; 3+: 26-50%; 4+: >50% positive). Twenty-two of 67 (33%) samples showed evidence of venous calcification. Histologic examination showed varying degrees of calcification within each cell layer. Among the subset of patients with calcification, 4/22 (18%), 19/22 (86%), 22/22 (100%), and 7/22 (32%) had calcification present within the endothelium, intima, media, and adventitia, respectively. The mean semi-quantitative scores of the 22 samples with calcification were 0.18 ± 0.08, 1.2 ± 0.14, 1.6 ± 0.13, and 0.36 ± 0.12 for the endothelium, intima, media, and adventitia, respectively. Our results demonstrate that vascular calcification is present within veins used to create new dialysis vascular access, and located predominately within the neointimal and medial layers. PMID:22452638

Lee, Timmy; Safdar, Nida; Mistry, Meenakshi J; Wang, Yang; Chauhan, Vibha; Campos, Begoña; Munda, Rino; Cornea, Virgilius; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2012-01-01

393

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Visual Prognosis, and Treatment Modalities  

PubMed Central

In branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), abnormal arteriovenous crossing with vein compression, degenerative changes of the vessel wall and abnormal hematological factors constitute the primary mechanism of vessel occlusion. In general, BRVO has a good prognosis: 50–60% of eyes are reported to have a final visual acuity (VA) of 20/40 or better even without treatment. One important prognostic factor for final VA appears to be the initial VA. Grid laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for macular edema in a particular group of patients with BRVO, while promising results for this condition are shown by intravitreal application of steroids or new vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous sheathotomy combined with removal of the internal limiting membrane may improve vision in eyes with macular edema which are unresponsive to or ineligible for laser treatment.

Rehak, Jiri; Rehak, Matus

2008-01-01

394

[Ophthalmologic diagnostic procedures and imaging of retinal vein occlusions].  

PubMed

Retinal vein occlusions are a common vascular disease of the eye. Ophthalmological diagnostic procedures and imaging are important for the prognosis of the disease, as are the systemic work-up and therapy. Besides routine ophthalmic tests (visual acuity, slit lamp examination, funduscopy) a work-up for glaucoma such as intraocular pressure, visual field or 24 h IOP profile is useful as a diagnostic procedure. Furthermore, new diagnostic and imaging tests such as central corneal thickness and optic nerve head imaging by Heidelberg retina tomography or optical coherence tomography (OCT) should be considered for glaucoma evaluation. Optical coherence tomography also plays a major role in treatment monitoring of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusions. Fluorescein angiography is well established and can provide information with regard to size and extent of the occlusion, degree of ischemia, areas of non-perfusion and neovascularization, as well as macular edema. PMID:21331683

Mirshahi, A; Lorenz, K; Kramann, C; Stoffelns, B; Hattenbach, L-O

2011-02-01

395

Pulmonary hemorrhage after cryoballoon ablation for pulmonary vein isolation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Pulmonary vein isolation has evolved over the past years as an alternative for the treatment of symptomatic recurrences of atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmic drug treatment. Both radiofrequency energy and cryoballoon ablation have proven useful in this setting. We present the case of a 55-year-old male patient undergoing cryoballoon ablation complicated with pulmonary hemorrhage. The cause of this rare complication may be found in the damage of vascular venous structures near the ablation zone or, alternatively, in hemorrhagic damage of the pulmonary vein surrounding tissue (or less probably to direct injury of the lingular bronchus). The extremely low temperatures achieved in this case (which are often associated with deep balloon position inside the veins) are alarming and should alert the physician about the possibility of an excessively intrapulmonary vein deployment of the cryoablation balloon. PMID:24394827

Martí-Almor, Julio; Jauregui-Abularach, Miguel E; Benito, Begoña; Vallès, Ermengol; Bazan, Victor; Sánchez-Font, Albert; Vollmer, Ivan; Altaba, Carmen; Guijo, Miguel A; Hervas, Manel; Bruguera-Cortada, Jordi

2014-01-01

396

Genetics of craniofacial development and malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The head is anatomically the most sophisticated part of the body and its evolution was fundamental to the origin of vertebrates; understanding its development is a formidable problem in biology. A synthesis of embryology, evolution and mouse genetics is shaping our understanding of head development and in this review we discuss its application to studies of human craniofacial malformations. Many

Andrew O. M. Wilkie; Gillian M. Morriss-Kay

2001-01-01

397

Dural arteriovenous malformations associated with cerebral aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only limited information is available concerning dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) found in association with cerebral aneurysms. The present report focuses on six such cases, concentrating attention on clinical characteristics and significance. Of a total of 46 dural AVMs encountered over a given period, six (13%) were linked with cerebral aneurysms. Particularly strong associations were noted for dural AVMs in the

Sachio Suzuki; Ryusui Tanaka; Yoshio Miyasaka; Akira Kurata; Makoto Takano; Kiyotaka Fujii; Hiroshi Takagi

2000-01-01

398

Cerebral arteriovenous malformation diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations of the brain can carry considerable morbidity and mortality in the setting of rupture. The complex angioarchitecture and hemodynamic alteration requires careful consideration in diagnostic and management approaches. In this review, the authors define the pathophysiology, outline diagnostic methods, and highlight current management approaches. PMID:24504610

Asif, Kaiz; Leschke, John; Lazzaro, Marc A

2013-11-01

399

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

400

The management of asymptomatic congenital lung malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation (CPAM) and lung sequestration are often discovered on routine prenatal sonography. While some lesions may be large and cause serious complications in the fetus or newborn, many will be asymptomatic at birth. Some authors advocate simple observation because of the lack of data on the incidence of long-term complications. However, there are very few described cases

Jean-Martin Laberge; Ioana Bratu; Hélène Flageole

2004-01-01

401

Dural Sinus Malformation with Dural Arteriovenous Fistula  

PubMed Central

Summary A rare case of dural sinus malformation with dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant is presented. Presenting symptom was progressive macrocrania without hydrocephalus. A high flow arteriovenous of the sigmoid sinus associated with jugular bulb diaphragm was demonstrated. Reflux in the intracranial sinus was present. The shunt was successfully occluded by transarterial embolization. The natural history and treatment strategy are discussed.

Yau, C.Kwong; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.

2001-01-01

402

Dural Sinus Malformation with Dural Arteriovenous Fistula  

PubMed Central

Summary A rare case of dural sinus malformation with dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant is presented. Presenting symptom was progressive macrocrania without hydrocephalus. A high flow AVS of the sigmoid sinus associated with jugular bulb diaphragm was demonstrated. Reflux in the intracranial sinus was present. The shunt was successfully occluded by transarterial embolization. The natural history and treatment strategy are discussed.

Yau, C.K.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.

2001-01-01

403

Angular craniometry in craniocervical junction malformation.  

PubMed

The craniometric linear dimensions of the posterior fossa have been relatively well studied, but angular craniometry has been poorly studied and may reveal differences in the several types of craniocervical junction malformation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate craniometric angles compared with normal subjects and elucidate the main angular differences among the types of craniocervical junction malformation and the correlation between craniocervical and cervical angles. Angular craniometries were studied using primary cranial angles (basal and Boogard's) and secondary craniocervical angles (clivus canal and cervical spine lordosis). Patients with basilar invagination had significantly wider basal angles, sharper clivus canal angles, larger Boogard's angles, and greater cervical lordosis than the Chiari malformation and control groups. The Chiari malformation group does not show significant differences when compared with normal controls. Platybasia occurred only in basilar invagination and is suggested to be more prevalent in type II than in type I. Platybasic patients have a more acute clivus canal angle and show greater cervical lordosis than non-platybasics. The Chiari group does not show significant differences when compared with the control, but the basilar invagination groups had craniometric variables significantly different from normal controls. Hyperlordosis observed in the basilar inavagination group was associated with craniocervical kyphosis conditioned by acute clivus canal angles. PMID:23640096

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Ferreira, Edson Dener Zandonadi

2013-10-01

404

Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma with elements of an arterio-venous malformation: a newly recognized variant  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 54-year-old man with a brown-red nodule on the hand that had been present since early adulthood. Histology of the excisional biopsy revealed hyperplasia and proliferation of eccrine, apocrine, lipomatous, and vascular structures. These findings were most characteristic of the entity known as eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH), an uncommon tumor that may present variable clinical and histological features. In addition, this particular case exhibited a prominent component of arterio-venous malformation that distinguishes it from other EAHs described in the literature and adds to the spectrum of histologic findings that can be seen with this entity.

Chien, Andy J.; Asgari, Maryam; Argenyi, Zsolt B.

2014-01-01

405

Numerical Modelling of Vein Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral veins occur in a variety of forms (syntaxial, antitaxial, etc.), and with various microstructures (fibrous, stretched crystals, vuggy, etc.). These structures can, if correctly interpreted, provide useful insight into the geological and tectonic conditions at which the veins formed (Oliver and Bons 2001). Durney and Ramsay (1973) defined the base for the modern classification and interpretation of vein (micro-) structures. Numerical modelling, not available then, has since been added as a tool to better understand the formation of vein (micro-) structures, focussing on three aspects in particular: 1) What determines the habit of growing vein crystals? In particular, what determines the formation of a fibrous habit? (Bons 2001, Hilgers et al. 2001) 2) The formation of fibrous pressure fringes. The complex internal structures of the fringes appear mostly the result of the relative rotation of object and fringes (Koehn et al. 2001). 3) Competition between growing crystals, which for example explains the development of a conical c-axes CPO in zeolite films (Bons and Bons 2003). References: Bons, P.D. 2001. Development of crystal morphology during unitaxial growth in a progressively widening vein: I. The numerical model. Journal of Structural Geology 23, 865-872. Bons, A.J., Bons, P.D. 2003. The development of oblique preferred orientations in zeolite films and membranes. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 62, 9-16. Durney DW, Ramsay JG (1973) Incremental strains measured by syntectonic crystal growths. In: Gravity and Tectonics (eds De Jong KA, Scholten K), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 67-96. Hilgers, C., Koehn, D., Bons, P.D., Urai, J.L. 2001. Development of crystal morphology during unitaxial growth in a progressively widening vein: II. Numerical simulations of the evolution of antitaxial fibrous veins. Journal of Structural Geology 23, 873-885. Koehn, D., Aerden, D.G.A.M., Bons, P.D., Passchier, C.W. 2001. Computer experiments to investigate complex fibre patterns in natural antitaxial strain fringes. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 19, 217-232. Oliver, N.H.S., Bons, P.D. 2001. Mechanisms of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction in fossil metamorphic-hydrothermal systems inferred from vein-wallrock patterns, geometry, and microstructure. Geofluids 1, 137-163.

Bons, P. D.

2005-12-01

406

Ultrasound-guided Subclavian Vein Cannulation Using a Micro-Convex Ultrasound Probe.  

PubMed

Background: The subclavian vein is the preferred site for central venous catheter placement due to infection risk and patient comfort. Ultrasound guidance is useful in cannulation of other veins, but for the subclavian vein, current ultrasound-guided techniques using high-frequency linear array probes are generally limited to axillary vein cannulation. Methods: We report a series of patients who underwent clinically indicated subclavian venous catheter placement using a micro-convex pediatric probe for real-time guidance in the vein's longitudinal axis. We identified rates of successful placement and complications by chart review. Results: Twenty-four catheters were placed using the micro-convex pediatric probe with confirmation of placement of the needle medial to the lateral border of the first rib. Sixteen of the catheters were placed by trainee physicians. In 23 patients, the catheter was placed without complication (hematoma, pneumothorax, infection). In one patient, the vein could not be safely cannulated without risk of arterial puncture, so an alternative site was selected. Conclusions: Infraclavicular subclavian vein cannulation using real-time ultrasound with a micro-convex pediatric probe appears to be a safe and effective method of placing subclavian vascular catheters. This technique merits further study to confirm safety and efficacy. PMID:24611628

Lanspa, Michael J; Fair, James; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Grissom, Colin K; Brown, Samuel M

2014-05-01

407

Leaf Vascular Systems in C3 and C4 Grasses: A Two-dimensional Analysis  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims It is well documented that C4 grasses have a shorter distance between longitudinal veins in the leaves than C3 grasses. In grass leaves, however, veins with different structures and functions are differentiated: large longitudinal veins, small longitudinal veins and transverse veins. Thus, the densities of the three types of vein in leaves of C3 and C4 grasses were investigated from a two-dimensional perspective. • Methods Vein densities in cleared leaves of 15 C3 and 26 C4 grasses representing different taxonomic groups and photosynthetic subtypes were analysed. • Key Results The C4 grasses had denser transverse veins and denser small longitudinal veins than the C3 grasses (1·9 and 2·1 times in interveinal distance), but there was no significant difference in large longitudinal veins. The total length of the three vein types per unit area in the C4 grasses was 2·1 times that in the C3 grasses. The ratio of transverse vein length to total vein length was 14·3?% in C3 grasses and 9·9?% in C4 grasses. The C3 grasses generally had greater species variation in the vascular distances than the C4 grasses. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses tended to have a denser vascular system than the festucoid C3 grasses. There were no significant differences in the interveinal distances of the three vein types between C4 subtypes, although the NADP-malic enzyme grasses tended to have a shorter distance between small longitudinal veins than the NAD-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase grasses. • Conclusions It seems that C4 grasses have structurally a superior photosynthate translocation and water distribution system by developing denser networks of small longitudinal and transverse veins, while keeping a constant density of large longitudinal veins. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses have a vascular system that is more similar to that in C4 grasses than to that in the festucoid C3 grasses.

UENO, OSAMU; KAWANO, YUKIKO; WAKAYAMA, MASATAKA; TAKEDA, TOMOSHIRO

2006-01-01

408

Vascular Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells: Building and Repairing Blood Vessels  

PubMed Central

Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair and remodeling, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways will produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of SMC progenitor pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular SMC precursors is essential if we are to utilize advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall.

Majesky, Mark W.; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N.; Hoglund, Virginia J.

2011-01-01

409

Intra-arterial Embolization in the Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary The crucial question - treat or not a brain arteriovenous malformation - has been the object of many studies, sometimes contradictory. The authors analyse retrospectively, clinically and angiographically, the results of the intra-arterial embolization in the treatment of 106 patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. The endo-vascular therapy was palliative or curative in 46% of the cases, in 30% of the patients the embolization was pre-surgery and in 18% the intra-arterial occlusion was pre-radiosurgery. In 6% the therapeutic protocol included embolization with surgery and radiosurgery. Cyanocrylate was used in 89% of the cases, and in 10% of the patients the embolic material used was Ethylene - vinyl alcohol copolymer - EVOH (Onyx). In this series 11% of total morbidity occurred - transitory in 8% and settled with permanent neurological deficit in 3% of the patients. The mortality post-embolization was 2% and the total mortality post-embolization and surgery was 3%. Total angiographic exclusion immediately post-embolization was confirmed in 24% of the cases. The mean period for clinical and angiographic follow-up was 38 months. 72 patients - 77% of the cases discharged from hospital showed complete exclusion of the lesion after the different combined therapeutic strategy - embolization, surgery and radiosurgery. New retrospective and long-term prospective studies based on the actual therapeutic protocols and new embolic agents are necessary to be able to evaluate accurately a new therapeutic reality in the brain arteriovenous malformations.

Campos, J.; Biscoito, L.; Sequeira, P.; Batista, A.

2005-01-01

410

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Associated Cardiovascular Malformations: Type, Frequency, and Impact on Management  

PubMed Central

The co-occurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) has important clinical, genetic, and developmental implications. Previous examinations of this topic often included patients with genetic syndromes. To correct this potential bias, we undertook an extensive review of the literature and obtained new data. The frequency of CVMs associated with isolated CDH was 11–15%. A careful analysis of CVMs indicates that atrial and ventricular septal defects, conotruncal defects, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects were the most common type of CVMs, but proportional to the frequency of occurrence in the general population. The combination of CVM and CDH results in a poorer prognosis than would be expected with either malformation alone. However, the impact on survival from patients with a genetic syndrome has not been consistently evaluated. We encourage researchers to re-analyze existing series and recommend that future studies distinguish isolated CDH from that which is associated with other malformations, especially as part of genetic syndromes. Therapies should be tailored to maximize cardiac output and systemic oxygen delivery rather than systemic oxygen saturation alone. Although there is speculation about the frequency with which isolated left ventricular “hypoplasia” occurs in patients with CDH, we suggest it results from compression of a pre-load deficient left ventricle by the hypertensive right ventricle, and unlike true hypoplasia, is reversible. Irrespective of the type of severity of CVMs in patients with CDH, the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular disease predicts outcome.

Lin, Angela E.; Pober, Barbara R.; Adatia, Ian

2010-01-01

411

The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts Harvested Using a Novel Technical Approach  

PubMed Central

A multitude of vascular conduits are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operations. The Internal Mammary Artery, Radial Artery (RA), and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV) have proven to be excellent conduits, especially in the current era of statin usage. However, previous stripping or varicosities of the LSV and calcification of the RA, coupled with the need for multiple vessel grafting, requires an alternative candidate. We describe a novel harvesting technique for bilateral simultaneous Short Saphenous Vein harvest and propose this, often forgotten vein, as a viable alternative conduit.

Sarwar, Umran; Chetty, Govind; Sarkar, Pradip

2012-01-01

412

Evidence for Inflammatory Cell Involvement in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have high MMP-9, IL-6 and MPO expression, and polymorphic variations in inflammatory genes are associated with increased risk of hemorrhage. In this study, we characterized the presence of inflammatory cells in AVM lesional tissues. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to identify and localize neutrophils (MPO as marker), macrophages/microglia (CD68 as marker), T lymphocytes (CD3 as marker), and B lymphocytes (CD20 as marker). Endothelial cell (EC) marker CD31 was used as an index to assess vascular mass (EC mass). Surgical specimens from 20 unruptured, non-embolized AVMs were examined; seven cortical samples from temporal lobectomy were used as controls. Positive signals for inflammatory cell markers were counted and analyzed by normalizing to the area of the tissue section and the amount of endothelial cells (cells/mm2/EC mass pixels). Levels of MPO and MMP-9 were determined by ELISA. Results Neutrophils and macrophages are all frequently identified in the vascular wall of AVM tissues. In contrast, T and B lymphocytes are rarely observed in AVM tissues. AVM tissues displayed more neutrophil and macrophage/microglia markers than epilepsy control tissues (MPO: 434 ± 333 vs 5 ± 4, P=0.0001; CD68: 454 ± 404 vs 4 ± 2, P=0.0001; cells/mm2/EC mass pixels). In ex vivo studies, neutrophil quantity, MPO, and MMP-9 levels were all co-linear(R2=0.98–0.99). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that inflammatory cells are present in AVM tissues. Taken together with prior genetic and cytokine studies, these data are consistent with a novel view that inflammation is associated with AVM disease progression and rupture.

Chen, Yongmei; Zhu, Wei; Bollen, Andrew W.; Lawton, Michael T.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Young, William L.

2008-01-01

413

Missed vascular injuries: presentation and outcome.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe the different presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management and outcome of complications of missed vascular injuries. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Combined Military Hospital, Kharian Cantt, from June 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: All the patients with vascular injuries missed at the time of causative trauma who reported during this study period were included. Patients presented with acute vascular injuries and iatrogenic aneurysm at the vascular anastomosis site were excluded. All cases were evaluated with either CT or conventional angiography and managed with various open vascular surgical techniques and their results were assessed. Results: Twenty eight patients with missed vascular injury underwent various vascular repairs. Age of patients ranged from 16 to 78 years (mean = 33.7 ± 15.4 years). Male to female ratio was 6:1. Twelve (42.8%) patients presented with pseudoaneurysm alone, 10 (35.7%) with traumatic arteriovenous fistulae, 4 (14.3%) with post-traumatic thrombosis and occlusion and 2 (7.1%) with pseudoaneurysm and hemorrhage. Penetrating injuries were the commonest cause in 19 (67.8%). The time interval between injury and presentation in hospital ranged from 2 to 1300 weeks (mean 228 weeks). Lower limb vessels were affected in 20 (71.4%), the upper limb in 5 (17.8%) and neck vessels in 3 (10.7%). Superficial femoral artery was the most frequently involved artery in 9 (32.1%) cases. Interposition reverse autogenous saphenous vein graft was most common type of repair in all types of missed vascular injuries. One (3.5%) patient had amputation after secondary hemorrhage. Conclusion: Low velocity penetrating trauma was the common cause of missed vascular injury. Pseudoaneurysm was the most common presentation. PMID:24953919

Siddique, Muhammad Khalid; Majeed, Shahid; Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar

2014-06-01

414

Pelvic arteriovenous malformation treated by transarterial glue embolisation combining proximal balloon occlusion and devascularisation of multiple feeding arteries.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 70-year-old man with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coincident pelvic arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Before the operation for the aneurysm, we embolised the pelvic AVM that had multiple feeding arteries and an aneurysmal-dilated draining vein. After decreasing the number of the feeding arteries by coil embolisation, an n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate/lipiodol mixture (1:1) was injected into the prominent feeding artery and nidus with proximal balloon occlusion of the right internal iliac artery to decrease the flow to the nidus. The mixture (1:4-8) was also added for the finer feeding arteries that became apparent after the initial procedure to embolise the rest of the nidus. A follow-up study showed no contrast enhancement of the nidus and aneurysmal draining vein. PMID:24907213

Murakami, Kenji; Yamada, Takayuki; Kumano, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasuo

2014-01-01

415

Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation developing in retained products of conception: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding in the postabortal period requires meticulous diagnostic work-up to decide proper management. Imaging modalities including Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in concert with clinical and laboratory findings are useful to narrow the differential diagnoses but are not definitive. Presence of increased uterine vascularity and arteriovenous shunting is non-specific and can be detected in a variety of conditions including retained trophoblastic tissue, gestational trophoblastic disease, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), placental polyp and vascular neoplasm. We present here a case of a multiparous woman with unexplained postabortal bleeding posing a diagnostic challenge. Excluding the possibility of AVM before attempting dilatation and curettage in such a clinical scenario is crucial to prevent catastrophic bleeding. PMID:24033740

Goyal, Surbhi; Goyal, Ankur; Mahajan, Surbhi; Sharma, Shikha; Dev, Geeta

2014-01-01

416

[Sinus pericranii associated to spontaneous thrombosis of the ophthalmic vein: neuroimaging studies].  

PubMed

Sinus pericranii is an abnormal venous communication between the intracranial dural sinuses and epicranial venous dilatations. The periorbital location is uncommon; spontaneous partial thromboses of the subcutaneous varices have been reported in association with local signs and symptoms; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of sinus pericranii associated to thrombosis in the ophthalmic vein. Sinus pericranii is related to arteriovenous and lymphatic-venous malformations. We present the case of a patient with a generalized and diffuse disorder of venous drainage that affected the right cerebral hemisphere who presented at the emergency department with ophthalmologic signs and symptoms after thrombosis of the superior ophthalmic vein and who had three sinus pericranii located in the frontal, parietal, and occipital areas. PMID:19362322

Murias, E; Villota, E; Saiz, A; Gil, A; Calleja, S

2009-01-01

417

Vascular cells.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. These self-renewing multipotent cells are able to differentiate to the three embryonic germ layers, the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm, and are thus able to produce virtually all cell types. The ES cell capacity to generate various cell types has been studied extensively, and exploitation of ES cell characteristics allowed the production of several differentiated cell types of multiple tissues. Moreover, the process of ES cell differentiation provides a unique opportunity to observe early embryonic developmental events that are unattainable in the embryo itself. This chapter addresses the in vitro differentiation procedure of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells from human ES cells, with reference to similar studies performed in mouse and nonhuman primate ES cells, and provides several tools for the detailed characterization of differentiated cells. PMID:17141040

Goldberg-Cohen, Ilana; Beck, Gilad; Ziskind, Anna; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

2006-01-01

418

Therapeutic strategies to combat neointimal hyperplasia in vascular grafts  

PubMed Central

Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) in bypass conduits such as veins and prosthetic grafts is an important clinical entity that limits the long-term success of vascular interventions. Although the development of NIH in the conduits shares many of the same features of NIH that develops in native arteries after injury, vascular grafts are exposed to unique circumstances that predispose them to NIH, including surgical trauma related to vein handling, hemodynamic changes creating areas of low flow, and differences in biocompatibility between the conduit and the host environment. Multiple different approaches, including novel surgical techniques and targeted gene therapies, have been developed to target and prevent the causes of NIH. Recently, the PREVENT trials, the first molecular biology trials in vascular surgery aimed at preventing NIH, have failed to produce improved clinical outcomes, highlighting the incomplete knowledge of the pathways leading to NIH in vascular grafts. In this review, we aim to summarize the pathophysiologic pathways that underlie the formation of NIH in both vein and synthetic grafts and discuss current and potential mechanical and molecular approaches under investigation that may limit NIH in vascular grafts.

Collins, Michael J; Li, Xin; Lv, Wei; Yang, Chenzi; Protack, Clinton D; Muto, Akihito; Jadlowiec, Caroline C; Shu, Chang; Dardik, Alan

2012-01-01

419

Color-Doppler Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Oral Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

In last few years, thanks to laser technology with minimally invasive approach, there was a growing need for treatment of oral vascular malformations inside the dental offices. Generally, the diagnosis of oral vascular malformations is based on clinical history, clinical examination and imaging exams. In the present paper, we review, researching by PubMed, the technical aspects, clinical indications, potentialities and limitations of color-Doppler ultrasound in the work-up of oral vascular malformations. Different imaging modalities are encountered for the diagnosis and follow-up of these lesions such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, color-Doppler ultrasound and angiography. To date, color-Doppler ultrasound is considered the first-line imaging approach since it provides a non-invasive, cost effective, real time evaluation of oral vascular anomalies. It provides both morphological and vascular information, which are useful to determine the best therapeutic options. Ultrasonography, for these reasons, could be considered as a valuable diagnostic tool in the preliminary assessment of oral vascular anomalies.

Gianfranco, Gaimari; Eloisa, Fioravanti; Vito, Cantisani; Raffaele, Guerrisi; Gianluca, Tenore; Umberto, Romeo

2014-01-01

420

A semi-automated vascular access system for preclinical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Murine models are used extensively in biological and translational research. For many of these studies it is necessary to access the vasculature for the injection of biologically active agents. Among the possible methods for accessing the mouse vasculature, tail vein injections are a routine but critical step for many experimental protocols. To perform successful tail vein injections, a high skill set and experience is required, leaving most scientists ill-suited to perform this task. This can lead to a high variability between injections, which can impact experimental results. To allow more scientists to perform tail vein injections and to decrease the variability between injections, a vascular access system (VAS) that semi-automatically inserts a needle into the tail vein of a mouse was developed. The VAS uses near infrared light, image processing techniques, computer controlled motors, and a pressure feedback system to insert the needle and to validate its proper placement within the vein. The VAS was tested by injecting a commonly used radiolabeled probe (FDG) into the tail veins of five mice. These mice were then imaged using micro-positron emission tomography to measure the percentage of the injected probe remaining in the tail. These studies showed that, on average, the VAS leaves 3.4% of the injected probe in the tail. With these preliminary results, the VAS system demonstrates the potential for improving the accuracy of tail vein injections in mice.

Berry-Pusey, B. N.; Chang, Y. C.; Prince, S. W.; Chu, K.; David, J.; Taschereau, R.; Silverman, R. W.; Williams, D.; Ladno, W.; Stout, D.; Tsao, T. C.; Chatziioannou, A.

2013-08-01

421

Effects of spaceflight and ground recovery on mesenteric artery and vein constrictor properties in mice  

PubMed Central

Following exposure to microgravity, there is a reduced ability of astronauts to augment peripheral vascular resistance, often resulting in orthostatic hypotension. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mesenteric arteries and veins will exhibit diminished vasoconstrictor responses after spaceflight. Mesenteric arteries and veins from female mice flown on the Space Transportation System (STS)-131 (n=11), STS-133 (n=6), and STS-135 (n=3) shuttle missions and respective ground-based control mice (n=30) were isolated for in vitro experimentation. Vasoconstrictor responses were evoked in arteries via norepinephrine (NE), potassium chloride (KCl), and caffeine, and in veins through NE across a range of intraluminal pressures (2–12 cmH2O). Vasoconstriction to NE was also determined in mesenteric arteries at 1, 5, and 7 d postlanding. In arteries, maximal constriction to NE, KCl, and caffeine were reduced immediately following spaceflight and 1 d postflight. Spaceflight also reduced arterial ryanodine receptor-3 mRNA levels. In mesenteric veins, there was diminished constriction to NE after flight. The results indicate that the impaired vasoconstriction following spaceflight occurs through the ryanodine receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ release mechanism. Such vascular changes in astronauts could compromise the maintenance of arterial pressure during orthostatic stress.—Behnke, B. J., Stabley, J. N., McCullough, D. J., Davis, R. T., III, Dominguez, J. M., II, Muller-Delp, J. M., Delp, M. D. Effects of spaceflight and ground recovery on mesenteric artery and vein constrictor properties in mice.

Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Davis, Robert T.; Dominguez, James M.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

2013-01-01

422

Biventricular Pacemaker Implantation via the Femoral Vein  

PubMed Central

We report the case of biventricular pacemaker implantation via the femoral vein, in a patient with impossibility of using standard superior vein approach and a contraindication to epicardial lead placement.

Agosti, Sergio; Brunelli, Claudio; Bertero, Giovanni

2012-01-01

423

Drug-induced vascular lesions of the liver.  

PubMed

The vascular lesions of the liver described in association with drug and toxic substance exposure are reviewed, with special reference to the abnormalities of the following: (1) the hepatic venous efferent system (ie, large and small hepatic vein obstruction); (2) the sinusoids (ie, sinusoidal dilatation, peliosis, perisinusoidal fibrosis); (3) the portal vein and its branches; and (4) the hepatic arterial tree. Drug-induced vascular tumors of the liver and vascular changes observed within nonvascular tumors of the liver are also envisaged. Finally, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of all these lesions are considered. The awareness of this type of hepatotoxicity and the knowledge of its epidemiology seem to be essential for both its early detection and prevention. PMID:6338851

Zafrani, E S; von Pinaudeau, Y; Dhumeaux, D

1983-03-01

424

Minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Minimally invasive techniques to harvest the saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass grafting continue to improve and evolve. Smaller cutaneous incisions have been shown to decrease postoperative discomfort and improve healing. We describe a technique involving carbon dioxide insufflation and endoscopic dissection to allow easier and atraumatic dissection.Methods. The VasoView endoscope system (Origin Medsystems, Inc) was used to harvest

Rohinton J Morris; Michael T Butler; Louis E Samuels

1998-01-01

425

Anatomy of the inferior petro-occipital vein and its relation to the base of the skull: Application to surgical and endovascular procedures of the skull base.  

PubMed

Although the inferior petro-occipital vein has been recently used for vascular access to the cavernous sinus, few detailed descriptions of its anatomy are in the literature. We aimed to investigate the morphology and relationships of this vessel. Twelve latex-injected cadaveric heads (24 sides) were dissected to identify the inferior petro-occipital vein and anatomic details documented. The petro-occipital vein was identified on 83.3% of sides. Generally this vein united the internal carotid venous plexus to the superior jugular bulb. However, on 10% of sides, the anterior part of this vein communicated directly with the cavernous sinus, and on 15%, the posterior vein drained into the inferior petrosal sinus at its termination into the superior jugular bulb. The petro-occipital vein was separated from the overlying inferior petrosal sinus by a thin plate of bone. On 40% of sides, small venous connections were found between these two venous structures. The vein was usually larger if a nondominant transverse sinus was present. The overlying inferior petrosal sinus was smaller in diameter when an underlying inferior petro-occipital vein was present. On 20% of sides, the posterior aspect of the vein communicated with the hypoglossal canal veins. On three sides, diploic veins from the clivus drained into the inferior petro-occipital vein. The inferior petro-occipital vein is present in most humans. This primarily extracranial vessel communicates with intracranial venous sinuses and should be considered an emissary vein. Knowledge of this vessel's exact anatomy may be useful to cranial base surgeons and endovascular specialists. Clin. Anat. 27:698-701, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23716071

Tubbs, R Shane; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-07-01

426

Embolisation of Small (< 3 cm) Brain Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary The role of embolisation in the treatment of small (< 3cm) brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has not been elucidated. We reviewed our experience using embolisation in the treatment of small AVMs and correlated a proposed grading system based on the angioarchitecture to the percentage obliteration achieved by embolisation. Eighty-one small AVMs in 80 patients were embolised from 1984 to 1999. The age range was from 3 to 72 years. The AVMs were given a score from 0 to 6 based on the angioarchitecture. The assigned scores were as follows: nidus (fistula = 0, < 1 cm = 1,1-3 cm = 2), type of feeding arteries (cortical = 0, perforator or choroidal = 1), number of feeding arteries (single = 0, multiple -2) and number of draining veins (single = 0\\ multiple - 1). Angiographic results based on percentage obliteration were grouped into three categories: complete, 66-99%, and 0-65%. The goal of embolisation was cure in 27 AVMs, pre-surgical in 23, pre-radiosurgery in 26, and elimination of an aneurysm in five. Embolisation achieved complete obliteration in 22 (27%) of the 81 AVMs. In the AVMs where the goal was cure, 19 (70%) of 27 were completely obliterated. In the AVMs with angioarchitecture scores of 0-2, 12 (86%) of 14 were cured, with scores of 3-4, 8 (34%) of 24 were cured and with scores of 5-6, 2 (4%) of 44 were cured. Embolisation resulted in transient morbidity of 5.0%, permanent morbidity of 2.5%, and mortality of 1.2%. There were no complications in AVMs with scores of 0-2. Embolisation is an effective treatment of small AVMs when the angioarchitecture is favourable (scores 0-2). This includes pure fistulas and AVMs with a single, pial, feeding artery.

Willinsky, R.; Goyal, M.; terBrugge, K.; Montanera, W.; Wallace*, M.G; Tymianski*, M.

2001-01-01

427

Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome and anorectal malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Houser syndrome (MRKH syndrome) is characterized by Mullerian duct structures agenesis, vaginal atresia\\u000a being the commonest variant. It can be associated with renal, skeletal, spine and other malformations. Patient with Mayer\\u000a Rokitansky syndrome has a varied presentation from newborn period to adolescence. Thorough investigations are required for\\u000a classification of the syndrome and diagnosis of associated anomalies. The

Shreeprasad P. Patankar; Vijay Kalrao I; Shilpa S. Patankar

2004-01-01

428

[Localized cystic lymphatic malformation (or cutaneous lymphangiomas)].  

PubMed

Cutaneous cystic lymphatic malformations consist of dilatations of various sizes, developed from the lymphatic system. Various clinical presentations exist, which are more or less complex and severe. MRI is the best examination to determine the extent of deep lesions. Therapeutic decisions usually follow multidisciplinary consultations. In localized superficial forms, whether surgical excision or abstention is required. In macrocystic forms, sclerotherapy is the first-line treatment. PMID:21074349

Lorette, Gérard; Vaillant, Loïc; Wiersbicka, Ewa; Herbreteau, Denis

2010-12-01

429

Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning with proliferation and differentiation of neurons, which then migrate before finally organizing themselves in the developing cortex. Abnormalities at any of these stages, be they environmental or genetic in origin, may cause disruption of neuronal circuitry and predispose to a variety of clinical consequences, the most common of which is epileptic seizures, A large number of MCDs have now been described, each with characteristic pathological, clinical, and imaging features. The causes of many of these MCDs have been determined through the study of affected individuals, with many MCDs now established as being secondary to mutations in cortical development genes. This review will highlight the best-known of the human cortical malformations associated with epilepsy. The pathological, clinical, imaging, and etioiogic features of each MCD will be summarized, with representative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images shown for each MCD, The malformations tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaiy, classical iissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia, periventricular nodular heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and schizencephaly will be presented.

Leventer, Richard J.; Guerrini, Renzo; Dobyns, William B.

430

Congenital lung malformations: an ongoing controversy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Congenital lung malformations are rare lesions that are most commonly diagnosed antenatally. Management of such lesions, particularly those that are asymptomatic, remains controversial. We undertook a survey to ascertain current practice of surgeons in the UK and Ireland. Methods All consultant members of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons were asked to complete a survey on congenital lung malformations with respect to antenatal management, symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions, and operative techniques. Results Responses were received from 20 paediatric surgical centres and highlighted the ongoing variability in management of such lesions, particularly those that are asymptomatic. Twenty per cent of surgeons never resect an asymptomatic lesion and twenty-four per cent always do. The remainder intervene selectively, with size being the most commonly stated indication. Most resections are undertaken via thoracotomy although 35% of surgeons use thoracoscopy for some procedures. Conclusions National data based on congenital anomaly registers are needed to determine the natural history of these malformations and to guide future management.

Burge, DM; Marven, SS

2013-01-01

431

Neuroembryology and brain malformations: an overview.  

PubMed

Modern neuroembryology integrates descriptive morphogenesis with more recent insight into molecular genetic programing and data enabled by cell-specific tissue markers that further define histogenesis. Maturation of individual neurons involves the development of energy pumps to maintain membrane excitability, ion channels, and membrane receptors. Most malformations of the nervous system are best understood in the context of aberrations of normal developmental processes that result in abnormal structure and function. Early malformations usually are disorders of genetic expression along gradients of the three axes of the neural tube, defective segmentation, or mixed lineages of individual cells. Later disorders mainly involve cellular migrations, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and myelination. Advances in neuroimaging now enable the diagnosis of many malformations in utero, at birth, or in early infancy in the living patient by abnormal macroscopic form of the brain. These images are complimented by modern neuropathological methods that disclose microscopic, immunocytochemical, and subcellular details beyond the resolution of MRI. Correlations may be made of both normal and abnormal ontogenesis with clinical neurological and EEG maturation in the preterm or term neonate for a better understanding of perinatal neurological disease. Precision in terminology is a key to scientific communication. PMID:23622157

Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

2013-01-01

432

[Temporary vascular access in Reunion].  

PubMed

The high proportion of diabetic patients is partly responsible for the high frequency of chronic renal failure in Reunion. The confection and maintenance of an arterio-venous fistule is a major problem in those patients. We report herein our experience with temporary vascular access by internal jugular vein catherization with subcutaneous tunnelization using silastic catheters. The mean duration of utilisation of these accesses is 107 days for diabetic patients and 98 days for nondiabetic patients. The major complication observed is sepsis (18.36%). Diabetes mellitus which represent a traditional risk factor does not seem to be responsible here, the climatic and hygienic conditions prevailing in this part of the world could be a contributing factor. Nevertheless, we find the utilisation of these catheters a suitable solution during the waiting period because it is an easy operation, of the good quality of the material used and the comfort brought to the patient. PMID:8047207

Finielz, P; Chuet, C; Gendoo, Z; Guiserix, J

1994-01-01

433

Dipyridamole and vascular prostacyclin production.  

PubMed

The action of dipyridamole on the vascular production of prostacyclin (PGI2) has been investigated. Dipyridamole (1-100 microM) did not induce a significant stimulation of PGI2 release in any of the following experimental models: rings of rabbit aorta, cultured endothelial cells from bovine aorta or human umbilical vein, cultured explants of bovine aortic smooth muscle. The activity of known stimuli of PGI2 release (ADP, suloctidil, serotonin) and the capacity of dipyridamole to inhibit adenosine uptake into endothelial cells were carefully checked. Pretreatment of the rabbit aorta with dipyridamole (10-100 microM) prolonged the transient stimulation of PGI2 release induced by mechanical deendothelialization: this effect was probably due to a partial protection of the cyclooxygenase against oxidative self-inactivation. Our largely negative results are consistent with the current theory that the antiplatelet action of dipyridamole is mediated by adenosine and not by PGI2. PMID:3527175

Boeynaems, J M; Van Coevorden, A; Demolle, D

1986-09-01

434

Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

Schellhammer, Frank, E-mail: frank.schellhammer@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Esch, Jan Schulte am [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Hammerschlag, Sascha [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2008-07-15

435

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? The signs and symptoms of varicose veins include: ... signs of other, more serious conditions. Complications of Varicose Veins Varicose veins can lead to dermatitis (der-ma- ...

436

Carbon dioxide embolism during endoscopic vein harvesting.  

PubMed

Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is becoming common for the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Using carbon dioxide insufflations during the vein harvest can produce rare but catastrophic CO(2) embolism. We report a case of massive right atrial CO(2) embolism due to femoral vein injury which occurred during the performance of a routine EVH procedure. PMID:18381362

Tamim, Muhammed; Omrani, Maher; Tash, Adel; El Watidy, Ahmed

2008-08-01

437

Prospective analysis of endoscopic vein harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Utilization of bridging vein harvesting (BVH) of saphenous vein grafts (SVG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in large wounds with great potential for pain and infection. Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with SVG harvesting.Methods: A prospective database of 200 matched patients receiving EVH and BVH was compared. The patients all underwent CABG

Amit N Patel; Robert F Hebeler; Baron L Hamman; Carol Hunnicutt; Melody Williams; Lu Liu; Richard E Wood

2001-01-01