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Sample records for vein vascular malformation

  1. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reason these artery- to-vein connections, or a cluster of them persist. Such connections are called arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), or if there is a cluster of them they are called arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). ...

  2. Pelvic Vascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Brian M.; Gipson, Matthew G.; Smith, Mitchell T.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular malformations (VMs) comprise a wide spectrum of lesions that are classified by content and flow characteristics. These lesions, occurring in both focal and diffuse forms, can involve any organ and tissue plane and can cause significant morbidity in both children and adults. Since treatment strategy depends on the type of malformation, correct diagnosis and classification of a vascular lesion are crucial. Slow-flow VMs (venous and lymphatic malformations) are often treated by sclerotherapy, whereas fast-flow lesions (arteriovenous malformations) are generally managed with embolization. In addition, some cases of VMs are best treated surgically. This review will present an overview of VMs in the female pelvis as well as a discussion of endovascular therapeutic techniques. PMID:24436563

  3. Vascular malformations: localized defects in vascular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, P; Vikkula, M

    2003-05-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of the vasculature, and usually affect a limited number of vessels in a restricted area of the body. They are subdivided into vascular malformations and vascular tumours. Most are sporadic, but Mendelian inheritance is observed in some families. By genetic analysis, several causative genes have been identified during the last 10 years. This has shed light into the pathophysiological pathways involved. Interestingly, in most cases, the primary defect seems to affect the characteristics of endothelial cells. Only mutations in the glomulin gene, responsible for hereditary glomuvenous malformations, are thought to directly affect vascular smooth-muscle cells. PMID:12752563

  4. Genetic causes of vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Pascal; Vikkula, Miikka

    2007-10-15

    Vascular malformations are localized defects of vascular development. They usually affect a limited number of vessels in a restricted area of the body. Although most malformations are sporadic, inheritance is observed, enabling genetic analysis. Usually, sporadic forms present with a single lesion whereas multiple lesions are observed in familial cases. The last decade has seen unraveling of several causative genes and beginning of elucidation of the pathophysiological pathways involved in the inherited forms. In parallel, definition of the clinical phenotypes has improved and disorders such as Parkes-Weber syndrome (PKWS), first thought to be sporadic, is now known to be part of a more common inheritable phenotype. In addition, the concept of double-hit mechanism that we proposed earlier to explain the incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and multifocality of lesions in inherited venous anomalies is now becoming confirmed, as some somatic mutations have been identified in venous, glomuvenous and cerebral cavernous malformations. It is thus tempting to suggest that familial forms of vascular malformations follow paradominant inheritance and that sporadic forms, the etiopathogenic causes of which are still unelucidated, are caused by somatic mutations in the same genes. PMID:17670762

  5. Antenatal diagnosis of aneurysmal malformation of the vein of Galen.

    PubMed

    Darji, Parth J; Gandhi, Viplav S; Banker, Hiral; Chaudhari, Hemang

    2015-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformation (VGAM) results from an aneurysmal aberration with an arteriovenous shunting of blood. Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations are the most frequent arteriovenous malformations in infants and fetuses. The congenital malformation develops during weeks 6-11 of fetal development. Infants often die from high-output congestive heart failure. PMID:26643190

  6. Spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of galen malformation

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Chandan B.; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Sampath, Somanna

    2016-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformation (VOGM) is a rare congenital vascular anomaly, comprising about 1% of all intracranial vascular anomalies, predominantly affecting the children less than 1 year of age. A 6-month-old infant presented with complaints of increasing head size of 3 months duration and multiple episodes of vomiting associated with refusal to feed since 7 days. He was a known case of VOGM who had initially refused treatment. Investigations revealed a spontaneously thrombosed VOGM with obstructive hydrocephalous. Child improved uneventfully with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Spontaneous thrombosis of a VOGM is a rare occurrence and carries a better prognosis. The relevant literature is discussed with emphasis on etiopathogenesis, mechanism, and management of spontaneous thrombosis of the malformation. PMID:26889287

  7. Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

  8. Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420

  9. Vascular Cures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  10. Cerebral dysplastic vascular malformation: a developmental arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Sima, A.A.F.; Morley, T.P.

    1983-08-01

    A cryptic malformation of the brain was found to represent an arrest in vascular development. Microscopy showed plump endothelium of blood vessels, which did not have a normal lumen and consisted of solid cords of cells. The microscopic, angiographic, and computed tomographic appearance of this anomaly are discussed and compared with cavernous angiomas, arteriovenous malformations, and venous angiomas.

  11. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation.

    PubMed

    Bhende, Harish; Laud, Nanadkishore; Deore, Sandeep; Shashidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    In Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients. PMID:26538765

  12. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Bhende, Harish; Laud, Nanadkishore; Deore, Sandeep; Shashidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients. PMID:26538765

  13. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  14. Congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations, “sequestration” and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Irodi, Aparna; Prabhu, Shailesh M; John, Reetu Amrita; Leena, RV

    2015-01-01

    Congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations (BPVMs) include a broad spectrum of disorders that involve abnormalities in the form of disruptions of normal communication and/or presence of abnormal communication between one or more of the three main systems of the lung, namely, the airways, arteries, and veins. The establishment of abnormal communications by means of small openings or anastomoses is termed as malinosculation. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the imaging appearances of the various types of pulmonary malinosculation. PMID:25709164

  15. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelis, F.; Neuville, A.; Labreze, C.; Kind, M.; Bui, B.; Midy, D.; Palussiere, J.; Grenier, N.

    2013-06-15

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  16. Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations: Current Theory and Management

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Gresham T.; Friedman, Adva B.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumor. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. This paper reviews current theory and practice in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these more common vascular anomalies. PMID:22611412

  17. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  18. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joshua B; Cogswell, Petrice M; McKusick, Michael A; Binkovitz, Larry A; Riederer, Stephen J; Young, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs) are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. PMID:25625123

  19. BIOLOGY OF VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS OF THE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Golanov, Eugene; Awad, Issam A.; Young, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose This review discusses recent research on the genetic, molecular, cellular, and developmental mechanisms underlying the etiology of vascular malformations of the brain (VMBs), including cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the AVMs of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Summary of Review The identification of gene mutations and genetic risk factors associated with CCM, HHT, and sporadic AVM has enabled the development of animal models for these diseases and provided new insights into their etiology. All of the genes associated with VMBs to date have known or plausible roles in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Recent work suggests that the angiogenic process most severely disrupted by VMB gene mutation is that of vascular stabilization, the process whereby vascular endothelial cells form capillary tubes, strengthen their intercellular junctions, and recruit smooth muscle cells to the vessel wall. In addition, there is now good evidence that in some cases CCM lesion formation involves a genetic two-hit mechanism, in which a germline mutation in one copy of a CCM gene is followed by a somatic mutation in the other copy. There is also increasing evidence that environmental second hits can produce lesions when there is a mutation to a single allele of a VMB gene. Conclusions Recent findings begin to explain how mutations in VMB genes render vessels vulnerable to rupture when challenged with other inauspicious genetic or environmental factors, and have suggested candidate therapeutics. Understanding of the cellular mechanisms of VMB formation and progression in humans has lagged behind that in animal models. New knowledge of lesion biology will spur new translational work. Several well-established clinical and genetic database efforts are already in place, and further progress will be facilitated by collaborative expansion and standardization of these. PMID:19834013

  20. Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents – diagnosis, clinic, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A.

    2014-01-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be appropriate for arterio-venous malformations. Incurable findings are still a major challenge. Despite the introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs in oncology, the medicamentous therapeutic approach could not be established for arterio-venous malformations up to now. PMID:25587362

  1. Smaller platelet volumes associated with vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Klapman, Marvin H; Sosa, Valentina B; Mattson-Gates, Gail F; Baker, Cynthia N; Sydorak, Roman M; Ong, Victor L; Li, Bonnie H; Yao, Janis F

    2013-06-01

    Various parameters in 91 adult participants with vascular malformations and 91 controls were studied. The mean of the participants' platelet volumes was 8.5 fL and that of their controls was 9.1 (P < .001). The mean of the participants' platelet mass was 2145 L/L of blood and that of their controls was 2351 (P = .006). The other parameters studied were not significantly different than the controls. It is suggested that the lower platelet volume might be related to a compensatory mechanism to keep the total body platelet mass stable despite the increased vasculature. PMID:22297559

  2. [Hereditary vascular malformations: classification, symptoms, diagnostics and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, W A; Wölfle, K; Schuster, T; Schlimok, G; Bohndorf, K

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of hereditary vascular anomalies was hampered for a long time by unclear und unspecific terminology. Today, the classification of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) differentiates between vascular tumours (mostly infantile haemangioma) with active endothelial proliferation and regression and vascular malformations (VM), which are defects of the vascular morphogenesis and are distinguished in predominantly venous, arterial, capillary, lymphatic, arteriovenous or combined VM. Symptoms are pain, swelling and restricted movement, accompanied by skin signs like dys-plastic veins and capillary VM (naevus flammeus). Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are related to venous VM. Arteriovenous VM are progressive and can cause ischaemic necroses, in rare cases even a high-output cardiac fail-ure. Lymphatic VM lead to localised swelling, in the long run often to recurrent erysipelas and lymphorroea. Primary imaging is provided by -ul-trasound including flow measurements. Mor-phol-ogy and organ involvement is best delineated by magnetic resonance imaging. Phlebography is used to image deep venous system anomalies and is always accompanied by varicography of the dysplastic parts of the venous VM. Digital subtraction angiography is performed to demon-strate the flow pattern in feeding arteries, the nidus and the drainage veins of arteriovenous VM. Besides size and localisation the prognosis of the patients is determined by the pressure (the high-er the pressure, the poorer the prognosis) and the flow rate (the higher the flow rate, the poorer the prognosis) in the VM. Diagnosis and treatment of these rare diseases are best performed in special-ised, interdisciplinary centres. PMID:21312159

  3. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  4. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Background: Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). Aims: To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Materials and Methods: All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. Results: A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. Conclusions: AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow. PMID:24688229

  5. Occlusive vascular disease associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Mawad, M.E.; Hilal, S.K.; Michelsen, W.J.; Stein, B.; Ganti, S.R.

    1984-11-01

    Selective carotid angiography and computed tomography were used in a study of the association of occlusive vascular disease with cerebral arteriovenous malformations in 13 patients. The majority of the arterial occlusions were proximal to the vascular malformation. Some, however, extended distal to the major branch supplying the arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Selective angiography with subtraction techniques defines the distinct angioarchitecture of these AVMs and the associated stenoses and collateral telangiectases.

  6. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy. PMID:25966944

  7. Laser treatment of oral vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, U.; Gaimari, G.; Mohsen, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral Vascular Malformations (OVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by morph-structural and/or functional changes of nature in severity and extension. OVM can affect any type of vessels arterial, venous or lymphatic and any capillary or anatomical. They are divided into two categories: low and high flow. In this study were treated 40 patients with OVM with a range size from 2 mm to 44 mm; they were subjected to clinical examination supported by Colour-Doppler Ultrasound instrumental examination and only for doubt cases the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was prescribed. Only low flow venous and capillary malformations were treated by GaAlAs laser (Wiser®, Lambda, Brindole,Italy, 980nm) and KTP laser (SmartLite®, DEKA, Florence, Italy, 532nm) with two different techniques: the Transmucosal Thermophotocoagulation (TMT) and the Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). These techniques permitted a good control of haemostasis, avoiding bleeding both during surgery and in the postoperative. It is obtained an excellent and good healing respectively in 10% and 60% of cases, a moderate and poor resolution respectively in 22.5% and 7.5% of cases. A clear diagnosis allowed the management of Venous malformations (VM) by laser devices with wavelengths highly absorbed in haemoglobin in safety and efficacy and according to the principles of minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to verify if the laser is effective in the treatment of OVM for the purpose of the clinical findings and the postoperative course. The Authors concluded that the laser can be considered the "gold standard" for treating OVM.

  8. Intracranial vascular malformations: MR and CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharczyk, W.; Lemme-Pleghos, L.; Uske, A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Dooms, G.; Norman, D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with 29 cerebrovascular malformations were evaluated with a combination of computed tomography (CT), angiography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Characteristics of the malformations on MR images were reviewed retrospectively, and a comparative evaluation of MR and CT images was made. Of 14 angiographically evident malformations, 13 intra-axial lesions were detected on both CT and MR images, and one dural malformation gave false-negative results on both modalities. The appearance of parenchymal lesions on MR images closely mirrored characteristic CT findings. Angiographically evident malformations have a highly characteristic appearance on MR images. MR may be more sensitive than CT in the detection of small hemorrhagic foci associated with cryptic arteriovenous malformations and may add specificity in the diagnosis of occult malformations in some cases, but MR is less sensitive than CT for the detection of small calcified malformations.

  9. Sonographic Diagnosis of Fetal Adrenal Hemorrhage Complicating a Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kütük, Mehmet Serdar; Doğanay, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Öztürk, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare intracranial vascular malformation which causes end-organ ischemia or venous congestion due to heart failure. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with VGAM has not been reported in the literature. We present the imaging findings of a fetal VGAM with adrenal hemorrhage. Case Report: A 26 year-old primigravida woman whose fetus with VGAM and mild cardiomegaly was scanned in the 34th week. On fetal ultrasound, a hyperechoic, well-circumscribed mass in the left suprarenal region was shown. Fetal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage. The baby died after delivery. Conclusion: Adrenal hemorrhage can complicate VGAM in fetuses with severe heart failure. Evaluation of the adrenal gland in affected cases may contribute to the prenatal counseling, and postnatal management.

  10. Deep dorsal vein arterialisation in vascular impotence.

    PubMed

    Wespes, E; Corbusier, A; Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; Struyven, J; Schulman, C C

    1989-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with vasculogenic impotence (4 arterial lesions; 8 arterial and venous lesions) underwent deep dorsal vein arterialisation after pre-operative assessment by a multidisciplinary approach. Cumulative graft patency was 58% (7 of 12 patients) up to 21 months but only 4 patients developed almost normal erections. Digital angiography, with and without the intracavernous injection of papaverine, was performed during follow-up to determine the vascular physiological status. At flaccidity, the corpora cavernosa were never opacified in the absence of a venocorporeal shunt. The penile glans was always visualised. Opacification of the deep dorsal vein and the circumflex system decreased with penile rigidity, resulting from their compression between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Intracavernous pressure recorded before and after the surgical procedure showed a marked increase when a caverno-venous shunt was performed. Hypervascularisation of the glans occurred in 2 cases. The relevance of this new surgical technique and its functional mechanism are discussed. PMID:2611627

  11. Vascular Integrity in the Pathogenesis of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), particularly in the young population. ICH is the first clinical symptom in about 50 % of bAVM patients. The vessels in bAVM are fragile and prone to rupture, causing bleeding into the brain. About 30 % of unruptured and non-hemorrhagic bAVMs demonstrate microscopic evidence of hemosiderin in the vascular wall. In bAVM mouse models, vascular mural cell coverage is reduced in the AVM lesion, accompanied by vascular leakage and microhemorrhage. In this review, we discuss possible signaling pathways involved in abnormal vascular development in bAVM. PMID:26463919

  12. Vascular Integrity in the Pathogenesis of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Wan; Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), particularly in the young population. ICH is the first clinical symptom in about 50 % of bAVM patients. The vessels in bAVM are fragile and prone to rupture, causing bleeding into the brain. About 30 % of unruptured and non-hemorrhagic bAVMs demonstrate microscopic evidence of hemosiderin in the vascular wall. In bAVM mouse models, vascular mural cell coverage is reduced in the AVM lesion, accompanied by vascular leakage and microhemorrhage. In this review, we discuss possible signaling pathways involved in abnormal vascular development in bAVM. PMID:26463919

  13. A rare newly described overgrowth syndrome with vascular malformations-Cloves syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Balaji; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Selvaraj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    There are many overgrowth syndromes described in the literature. Few are associated with vascular malformations. We describe a rare, newly described syndrome with features of overgrowth and vascular malformations. PMID:25709171

  14. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Min, Hong-Gi; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-12-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity. PMID:26734559

  15. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity. PMID:26734559

  16. Neuropilin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 are up-regulated in human vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Taina A; Vuola, Pia; Jauhiainen, Suvi; Lohi, Jouko; Salminen, Pivi; Pitkranta, Anne; Hkkinen, Sanna-Kaisa; Honkonen, Krista; Alitalo, Kari; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple previous studies in the field of vascular anomalies, the mechanism(s) leading to their development, progression and maintenance has remained unclear. In this study, we have characterized the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in 33 human vascular anomalies. Analysis with quantitative real-time PCR and gene-specific assays showed higher expression of neuropilin-2 (NRP2) and VEGF-receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) mRNAs in vascular malformations (VascM) as compared to infantile hemangiomas (Hem). In addition, the expression levels of PlGF and VEGF-C mRNA were significantly higher in venous VascM when compared to the other VascM and Hem. Higher expression of NRP2 and VEGFR-3 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To further study the importance of NRP2 and VEGFR-3, endothelial cell (EC) cultures were established from vascular anomalies. It was found that NRP2 and VEGFR-3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in some of the VascM ECs as compared to human umbilical vein ECs which were used as control cells in the study. Furthermore, adenoviral delivery of soluble decoy NRP2 prevented the proliferation of ECs isolated from most of the vascular anomalies. Our findings suggest that NRP2 functions as a factor maintaining the pathological vascular network in these anomalies. Thus, NRP2 could become a potential therapeutic target for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies. PMID:22961441

  17. Multiple vascular malformations in head and neck - Rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Lakkasetty, Yogesh T; Malik, Sangeeta; Shetty, Akshay; Nakhaei, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Multiple venous malformations (VMs) pose some of the most difficult challenges in the practice of medicine today. Clinical manifestations of these lesions are extremely protean. Because of the rarity of these lesions, experience in their diagnosis and management by most clinicians is limited. This augments the enormity of the problem and can lead to misdiagnoses, inadequate treatment, high complication rates and poor patient outcomes. Because these lesions can recur, removal of the nidus is the main priority. Vascular malformations are best treated in medical centers where patients with these maladies are seen regularly and the team approach is utilized. The presence of intralesional nerve in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and sometimes in VMs, as reported in this study, provides an additional diagnostic criterion that is simple and reliable and can be readily used to differentiate VMs from hemangiomas. PMID:24959056

  18. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Amy L.; Ball, Karen L.; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M.; Faughnan, Marie E.; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P.; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S.; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in research silos with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation, and HHT Foundation International. Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations. PMID:25221778

  19. Diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb: part I. Clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pedro; Aguado, Leyre; Martnez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    There is significant confusion in the literature when describing vascular anomalies, and vascular malformations are often misnamed or incorrectly classified. Part I of this two-part series on the diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs will discuss the dermatologist's role in the diagnosis of these lesions. At least nine types of vascular malformations with specific clinical and radiologic characteristics must be distinguished in the lower limbs: Klippel-Trnaunay syndrome, port-wine stain with or without hypertrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, macrocephaly-capillary malformation, Parkes Weber syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, venous malformation, glomuvenous malformation, and lymphatic malformation. This article highlights the differences in clinical appearance and discusses the differential diagnosis of extensive vascular malformations in an attempt to ensure earlier diagnosis and better outcomes for these patients. PMID:22000870

  20. [Epidermal nevus syndrome with multiple vascular hamartomas and malformations].

    PubMed

    Calzavara Pinton, P; Carlino, A; Manganoni, A M; Donzelli, C; Facchetti, F

    1990-06-01

    The authors described a 39 year old woman affected by epidermal nevus syndrome, with cutaneous (verrucous epidermal nevus), skeletal (thoracolumbar levoscoliosis and frontal bossing) and ocular (papillar coloboma and coroideal nevus) defects. Moreover the patient presented vascular malformations and hamartomas: lymphangioma circumscriptum of the mammary area, left peroneal Gorham's disease, artero-venous acral tumour of the left foot and multiple artero-venous shunts of the lower limbs. Since puberty, hemodynamic modifications have caused pseudo-Kaposi of Bluefarb-Stewart of legs and feet and malleolar painful ulcers. Solomon's epidermal nevus syndrome is an heterogeneous entity. In our opinion, this is the first case report with a severe vascular involvement. PMID:2279750

  1. Emerging role of contrast-enhanced MRI in diagnosing vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Turley, Ryan S; Lidsky, Michael E; Markovic, Jovan N; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2014-07-01

    Vascular malformations comprise a diverse and rare group of lesions which generally pose a formidable treatment challenge. Requisite for optimal surgical planning are imaging modalities capable of delineating involved anatomy and malformation flow characteristics. In this regard, we and others have purported the advantages of contrast-enhanced MRI. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding the emerging of role of contrast enhanced MRI for the management of vascular malformations. PMID:25301311

  2. Turner syndrome with spinal hemorrhage due to vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min Kyung; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common chromosomal disorder and is associated with a range of comorbidities involving the cardiovascular system. Vascular abnormalities, in particular, are a common finding in cases of TS. However, dissection involving the vertebral arteries is rare. Here, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl with TS who had been treated with growth hormone replacement therapy for the past 3 years. She presented with weakness of both lower legs, and was ultimately diagnosed with spinal hemorrhage due to vascular malformation. We treated her with intravenous high dose dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg) and she could walk without assistance after 6 days of treatment. In conclusion, when a patient with TS shows sudden weakness of the lower limbs, we should consider the possibility of spinal vessel rupture and try to take spine magnetic resonance imaging as soon as possible. We suggest a direction how to make a proper diagnosis and management of sudden vertebral artery hemorrhage in patients with TS. PMID:26817012

  3. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma with coexistent intrathoracic vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhong-Xi; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Jun; Shi, Hui; Chen, Long-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background The anomaly of intrathoracic large vessels might not only compress the esophagus resulting in dysphagia, but also hinder esophagectomy, even leading to uncontrolled massive hemorrhaging. This paper reviews our experience of seven patients with this diagnosis and their treatment. Methods From January 2007 through January 2012, among patients admitted with esophageal carcinoma, there were seven patients confirmed to have coexisted intrathoracic vascular anomalies. They were six men and one woman, aged 52 to 63 (mean 58.42). The vascular anomalies included aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) in three cases, post-aortic left innominate vein (PALIV) in two cases, and one case each of right aortic arch (RAA) and pseudoaneurysm of aortic isthmus (PAAI). Their diagnosis, surgical strategy, and outcome were reviewed. Results The vascular anomalies were missed by esophagography and endoscopy, but all identified by enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). Surgery was planned according to the anatomic features of the anomalies. ARSA did not need special management. RAA underwent left thoracotomy in order to dissect the aortopulmonary arterial ligament and to facilitate the mobilization of the esophagus. PAAI had preoperative aortic stenting to prevent unexpected aortic rupture. Prophylactic ligation of thoracic duct was performed on all patients and no postoperative chylothorax was documented. Conclusions The coexistence of intrathoracic vascular malformations with esophageal carcinoma is rare, but easily missed in routine X-ray and endoscopy. Enhanced chest CT must be performed to confirm. Surgery should be designed individually in consideration of the anatomic features of the vascular anomalies. A routine prophylactic ligation of the thoracic duct is recommended.

  4. Pediatric Stroke: The Importance of Cerebral Arteriopathy and Vascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Jordan, Lori C.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of neurologic morbidity in childhood. Population-based estimates of the annual incidence of childhood stroke range from 2 to 13 per 100,000 children. This article will review recent literature on both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in children with a focus on cerebral arteriopathy and vascular malformations as stroke risk factors. Additional risk factors include congenital heart disease, sickle cell disease, and hematologic abnormalities among others. Outcomes are variable and are related to the severity of presentation, associated illnesses, and other factors. More than half of children who have had a stroke have long-term neurological sequelae. Five-year recurrence risk is estimated to be 519%. Children with cerebrovascular abnormalities are at the highest risk of recurrence (66% at 5 years for ischemic stroke in one study). Furthermore, cerebral arteriopathy including arterial dissection may account for up to 80% of childhood stroke in otherwise healthy children. In many cases, evaluation and treatment of pediatric stroke is not evidence-based, and regional and geographic variations in practice patterns exist. Multicenter cohort studies and ultimately dedicated pediatric clinical trials will be essential to establish comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for pediatric stroke care. PMID:20625743

  5. Coexistence of cavernous hemangioma and other vascular malformations of the orbit. A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Strianese, Diego; Napoli, Manuela; Russo, Carmela; D'Errico, Arianna; Scotti, Nadia; Puoti, Gianfranco; Bonavolont, Giulio; Tranfa, Fausto; Briganti, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Coexistence of orbital cavernous hemangioma and other vascular malformations is unusual and few cases have been reported. We describe the clinical and radiological features of three cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas associated with other vascular malformations, selected reviewing a series of 181 cases of cavernous hemangiomas. All patients were males (age ranging from 43 to 67 years) without vascular systemic disorders and/or a clinical syndrome. They experienced slow progressive exophthalmos. One of them developed acute pulsatile proptosis (case 2), while another experienced slow progressive diplopia (case 3). In one case vascular lesions were bilateral (case 3) and in two patients two different lesions coexisted in the same orbit (cases 1 and 2). All patients underwent surgical excision, which was partial in two cases. Two patients had cavernous hemangiomas in association with a venous malformation (a varix in case 1 and a lymphangioma in case 2), while in the other ones (case 3) cavernous hemangioma was associated with a low-flow arteriovenous malformation. No patient denied visual impairment postoperatively. Few cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas coexisting with other vascular malformations have been reported in the literature. This entity seems to be an association of different variants of orbital vascular malformations, presenting with a wide spectrum of clinical forms and probably with the same pathogenesis. PMID:24750713

  6. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: Prognostic Markers Depicted on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W; Vaught, Arthur J; Poretti, Andrea; Blakemore, Karin J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves a dual role in the prenatal diagnostic work up of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). First, it may confirm the prenatal ultrasound findings and secondly it may identify prognostically important secondary complications of the VGAM. Progressive heart failure with development of fetal hydrops and hemispheric white matter injuries are associated with a poor outcome in children with a VGAM. We present the prenatal findings using both ultrasound and MRI of a fetus with VGAM including bilateral injury of the cerebral hemispheres, severe dilatation of the jugular veins, cardiomegaly, and hydrops fetalis. The neonate died within 30?minutes after delivery. Moreover, fetal MRI revealed complete placenta praevia, uterine fibroids, and wrapping of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck. This additional information is unrelated to the fetal pathology, but could have been of importance to plan the delivery. PMID:25924177

  7. Diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb: part II. Systemic repercussions [corrected], diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pedro; Aguado, Leyre; Martnez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    At least nine types of vascular malformations with specific clinical and radiologic characteristics must be distinguished in the lower limbs: Klippel-Trnaunay syndrome, port-wine stain with or without hypertrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, macrocephaly-capillary malformation, Parkes Weber syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, venous malformation, glomuvenous malformation, and lymphatic malformation. Extensive vascular malformations are often more complex than they appear and require a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Vascular malformations may be associated with underlying disease or systemic anomalies. Part II of this two-part series on the diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb highlights the systemic repercussions [corrected] (bone, articular, visceral, and hematologic involvement), diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. PMID:22000871

  8. [Experiences with homologous umbilical cord veins in vascular reconstructive surgery].

    PubMed

    Huber, A; Oehy, K; Zürcher, B; Vogt, B

    1980-06-01

    12 homologous umbilical cord veins prepared according to the method of MINDICH from February to November 1978 were used as either femoro-femoral or femoro-popliteal bypass. 6 of the 12 implanted umbilical veins after an average of 4 months were still open and showed good results, whereas 4 were blocked by thrombosis due to bad outflow conditions or dissection. On two implants that had had to be removed, histological examinations were used, and these showed a destruction of the graft's wall. In contrast to the advantages of their problem-free availability and good technical suitability stands the destruction of these grafts observed by us and hence the questionable nature of tenacity in the receiver. Further experiences of longer duration dealing with this interesting subject of vascular substitute are needed. PMID:7440195

  9. [Quality standards for ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral vascular malformations and vascular tumors. Report of the French Society for Vascular Medicine].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J-P; Becker, F; Khau-Van-Kien, A; Baudoin, P; Brisot, D; Buffler, A; Coup, M; Jurus, C; Mestre, S; Miserey, G; Soulier-Sotto, V; Tissot, A; Viard, A; Vignes, S; Qur, I

    2013-02-01

    THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF THE FRENCH SOCIETY OF VASCULAR MEDICINE FOR THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS ARE BASED ON THE TWO FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS: Technical know-how: mastering the use of ultrasound devices and the method of examination. Medical know-how: ability to adapt the methods and scope of the examination to its clinical indication and purpose, and to rationally analyze and interpret its results. AIMS OF THE QUALITY STANDARDS: To describe an optimal method of examination in relation to the clinical question and hypothesis. To achieve consistent practice, methods, glossary, and reporting. To provide good practice reference points, and promote a high-quality process. ITEMS OF THE QUALITY STANDARDS: The three levels of examination; their clinical indications and goals. The reference standard examination (level 2), its variants according to clinical needs. The minimal content of the examination report; the letter to the referring physician (synthesis, conclusion and proposal for further investigation and/or therapeutic management). Commented glossary (anatomy, hemodynamics, semiology). Technical bases. Settings and use of ultrasound devices. Here, we discuss the methods of using ultrasonography for the assessment of peripheral vascular malformations and tumors. PMID:23312609

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging using ferumoxytol improves the visualization of central nervous system vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Dsa, Edit; Tuladhar, Suchita; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Hamilton, Bronwyn E.; Rooney, William D.; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations (VMs) result from abnormal vasculo- and/or angiogenesis. Cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are also sites of active inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of VMs can be improved by administration of ferumoxytol iron oxide nanoparticle, which acts as a blood pool agent at early time points and an inflammatory marker when taken up by tissue macrophages. Methods Nineteen patients (11 men, 8 women; mean age, 47.5 years) with CNS VMs underwent 3T MRI both with gadoteridol and ferumoxytol. The ferumoxytol-induced signal changes on the T1-, T2-, and susceptibility-weighted images were analyzed at 25 minutes (range, 2130 minutes) and 24 hours (range, 2227 hours). Results Thirty-five lesions [capillary telangiectasia, n=6; cavernoma, n=21; developmental venous anomaly (DVA), n=7; AVM, n=1] were seen on the pre- and post-gadoteridol images. The post-ferumoxytol susceptibility-weighted sequences revealed five additional VMs (three capillary telangiectasias, two cavernomas) and demonstrated further tributary veins in all patients with DVAs. The 24-hour T1 and T2 ferumoxytol-related signal abnormalities were inconsistent among patients and within VM types. No additional area of T1 or T2 enhancement was noted with ferumoxytol compared with gadoteridol in any lesion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the blood pool agent ferumoxytol provides important information about the number and true extent of VMs on the susceptibility-weighted MRI. The utility of ferumoxytol as a macrophage imaging agent in the visualization of inflammatory cells within and around the lesions warrants further investigation. PMID:21493906

  11. Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: an unreported association.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2016-01-01

    Rete mirabile is a fine meshwork of anastomosing vessels that replace the parent artery. A 30-year-old woman complained of slurring of speech, right eye proptosis, recurrent vomiting, and loss of bladder and bowel control, followed by drowsiness lasting 30-40?min, for the past 6?months. On cross sectional imaging and angiography, the patient was found to have a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered both endovascular and open surgical options but she refused any form of surgical treatment and opted for conservative management. At the 6 month follow-up, she continued to have occasional episodes of headache and vomiting but was otherwise normal. We describe the clinical, cross sectional, and angiographic features of this patient. A comparison with other patients with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile is also reported. PMID:25428448

  12. Reconstruction of cavopulmonary pathway for the patient with persistent arteriovenous malformations due to offset flow from hepatic vein

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, Narutoshi; Sinha, Pranava; Donofrio, Mary; Jonas, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The hypoxemia caused by arteriovenous malformations after cavopulmonary shunt in patients with heterotaxy, an interrupted inferior vena cava and single ventricle physiology have been treated by incorporation of hepatic vein flow into the pulmonary circulation. However, some patients have persistent arteriovenous malformations because of offset hepatic venous flow to one pulmonary artery. Various approaches have been used to change offset flow to achieve balanced hepatic flow to the lungs in this patient population. This case report highlights the challenges that may be associated with anastomosis of the azygos vein to the inferior vena cava at the level of the diaphragm and illustrates an alternative technique to direct hepatic venous blood into an affected lung with arteriovenous malformations. The redirection of hepatic venous flow to the affected pulmonary artery resulted in resolution of symptoms within months of surgery. PMID:23960669

  13. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon; Mohan, P. Chandra; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng; Mahadev, Arjandas; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  14. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. The role of preoperative angiography in the management of giant meningiomas associated to vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Papacci, Fabio; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Montano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of preoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in meningiomas is currently under discussion because of the introduction of noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography to study vascular anatomy associated to the tumor. Preoperative DSA is mainly performed to obtain embolization of the lesion, although a number of complications have been reported after this procedure. Nonetheless, the coexistence of meningiomas with vascular malformations has previously been reported and it has been evidenced that this event could be underestimated because of neglect of preoperative DSA. Here, we report on two challenging cases of giant meningiomas associated to vascular malformations and we discuss the pertinent literature. Case Descriptions: In the first case: A large right temporal meningioma with erosion of the sphenoid greater wing and extension toward infratemporal fossa and right orbit - a large pseudoaneurysm of right middle cerebral artery branch was found end embolized during DSA. In the second case: A giant parieto-temporal meningioma - DSA permitted the full visualization of an abnormal drainage of superior sagittal sinus like a “sinus pericranii” that was respected during the following surgery. Conclusion: We think that MRI angiography is the exam of choice to study vascular anatomy in meningiomas. Nonetheless, DSA remains a useful tool in giant meningiomas not only to embolizate the lesion but also to treat tumor associated vascular malformation and to achieve the full knowledge of vascular anatomy. We think that a wide communication between interventionalist and surgeon is essential for the optimal management of these patients. PMID:26167366

  16. Device closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation using Amplatzer vascular plug II in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Gopalan Nair; Sajeer, Kalathingathodika; Nair, Anishkumar; Haridasan, Vellani; Sajeev, Chakanalil Govindan; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are very rare and carry the risk of cerebral thrombo-embolism, brain abscess or pulmonary hemorrhage. The Amplatzer vascular plug II (AVP II) is a new device, used for embolization of the pulmonary AVMs. We report a case of pulmonary AVM successfully managed by using AVP II in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). PMID:26432734

  17. Angiomatosis in the neck and mediastinum: an example of low-flow vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Sifrid; Hermans, Robert; Wilms, Guy; Sciot, Raf

    2003-05-01

    A rare case of multiple low-flow vascular malformations in the larynx, neck and mediastinum - reported as angiomatosis in the literature - is described. Sonography, CT, angiography and MRI were performed in our case, followed by laryngoscopy with biopsies to establish the diagnosis. The radiological features and a review of relevant literature are briefly discussed. PMID:12695818

  18. RGB imaging system for monitoring of skin vascular malformation's laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Kuzmina, Ilona; Berzina, Anna; Spigulis, Janis

    2012-06-01

    A prototype RGB imaging system for mapping of skin chromophores consists of a commercial RGB CMOS sensor, RGB LEDs ring-light illuminator and orthogonally orientated polarizers for reducing specular reflectance. The system was used for monitoring of vascular malformations (hemagiomas and telangiectasias) therapy.

  19. Laser treatment of cutaneous vascular tumors and malformations.

    PubMed

    Athavale, S M; Ries, W R; Carniol, Paul J

    2011-05-01

    Cutaneous vascular lesions are common in both children and adults. The vast majority of these lesions respond well to laser treatment. A select few lesions may require surgical intervention. In order to choose the optimal laser treatment for a given lesion, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the available technology. This understanding includes the characteristics of each laser wavelength, pulse duration, and possible associated epidermal cooling. Furthermore, it is important to understand the specific characteristics of each individual vascular lesion. Together, laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions of the head and neck region can be optimized. PMID:21763991

  20. Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Montgomery, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to describe the morphological features of gastrointestinal vascular malformations (VM) and of hemangiolymphangiomas (HLA) and to establish correlations with clinical characteristics. Significant findings: Fifteen VMs and 12 HLAs that were encountered over a period of 22 years, were retrospectively analyzed. The VMs often involved the colon, small intestine, but also the stomach, whereas none of the HLAs arose in the stomach. VMs were more frequently associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcer and were larger than HLAs (p<0.01 for all comparisons). Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis were associated with VM (p=0.02 and p=0.05). Surgical resection was performed for 1 HLA and 14 VMs. Vessel abnormalities such as shunt vessels, wall tufts (excrescences) and arterialized veins were more frequent in VMs (p=0.01, p=0.04 and <0.01, respectively) whereas aneurysm-like cavities were observed in both lesion types. Mucosal abnormal vessels were observed only in VMs, whereas HLAs were associated with mucosal lymphatic clusters (p<0.01). Most HLAs contained a D2-40 hetero-geneously positive lymphatic component, were Glut-1 negative and CD31 reactive. There was no statistical difference in occurrence of associated autoimmune, tumoral and cardiovascular conditions between the two patient groups. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that morphological features such as increased size, ulcer, thrombosis, hemorrhage and presence of aberrant mucosal vessels favor the diagnosis of VM. Co-existence of other clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, encountered in association with both lesion types, might exacerbate a tendency towards hemorrhage. PMID:21738815

  1. Imaging Spectrum of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations of the Head and Neck in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Salins, Paul C; Bhat, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the head and neck region in children constitute an interesting group of lesions that benefit immensely from imaging techniques. Imaging is essential for identification, characterization, and delineation of the extent of lesion and subsequent follow-up. Infantile hemangiomas, which are vascular tumors with a specific evolution pattern, constitute a large majority of these lesions. On the other hand, there are vascular malformations, which are anomalies of the vascular system, consisting of a range of vascular tissues associated with various flow patterns. When diagnosis is clinically evident, imaging should utilize non-radiation techniques and address the issues necessary for management. Timing and interpretation of imaging methods employed in assessing childhood vascular lesion should also take into consideration the natural history so that imaging is performed to address a specific question. This review highlights the typical appearance of a hemangioma and a group of vascular malformations of the head and neck. For descriptive purpose, an attempt has been made to group lesions into specific subsites, with each one having specific clinical significance. Cases included illustrate the spectrum of the disease ranging from classical form in young children to slightly differing manifestations of the disease in adolescents and adults. The illustrations also provide a novel way of presenting image data using volume-rendering techniques of 3D data. Multi-modality team interaction and management strategies of these complex lesions are also emphasized. PMID:25161800

  2. 320-Row Detector Dynamic 4D-CTA for the Assessment of Brain and Spinal Cord Vascular Shunting Malformations. A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Federico; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Shunting vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord are traditionally studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA), the current gold standard imaging method routinely used because of its favourable combination in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Because DSA is relatively expensive, time-consuming and carries a risk of silent embolic events and a small risk of transient or permanent neurologic deterioration, a non-invasive alternative angiographic method is of interest. New 320 row-detector CT scanners allow volumetric imaging of the whole brain with temporal resolution up to ? 3 Hz. Those characteristics make computed tomography angiography (CTA) an affordable imaging method to study the haemodynamics of the whole brain and can also be applied to the study of limited portions of the spinal cord. The aim of this paper is to make a brief summary of our experience in studying shunting vascular malformation of the brain and spinal cord using dynamic 4D-CTA, explaining the technical details of the studies performed at our institution, and the state-of-the-art major advantages and drawbacks of this new technique. We found that dynamic 4D-CTA is able to depict the main architectural characteristics of previously untreated vascular shunting malformations both in brain and spinal cord (i.e. their main arterial feeders and draining veins) allowing their correct diagnosis and exhaustive classification, limiting the use of DSA for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25489895

  3. Percutaneous Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Malformations in Children: Long-Term Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Edwin van der; Otoide-Vree, Marleen; Pattynama, Peter M. T.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the rate of complications and clinical failure at 3 and 12 months after percutaneous treatment of vascular malformations in children. Furthermore, we describe patient satisfaction of treatment results during 5 years of follow-up. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 26 patients younger than aged 19 years who were treated for symptomatic vascular malformations. Data on treatment outcomes and patient satisfactions were obtained with a precoded structured questionnaire. Patient files and imaging data were retrieved to obtain information regarding the vascular malformations and treatment. Clinical success was defined as disappearance or partial improvement of the complaints. Patient satisfaction was declared whenever patients answered in the questionnaire that they were satisfied with the treatment results. Results: Of 26 eligible patients, we included 23 (88%). The mean follow-up was 36 (range, 15-127) months. Posttreatment, 87% (20/23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 66-97%) of patients reported clinical success at 3 months. At 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of follow-up this percentage was 74%, 59%, 59%, 59%, and 59%, respectively. Eleven (48%, 95% CI 27-69%) patients had experienced complications and 22% (95% CI 7-44%) had major complications, of which 5 had required additional treatment. In all, 83% (19/23) of the patients reported satisfaction with the treatment. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment of vascular malformations improved clinical symptoms in 87% of the patients at 3 months and were sustainable for half of all patients during a 5-year follow-up period. However, major complications were seen in 22%.

  4. Abdominal collateral vein as an unconventional vascular access for hemodialysis in patient with central vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Str?ecki, Pawe?; Flisi?ski, Mariusz; Serafin, Zbigniew; Wiechecka-Korenkiewicz, Joanna; Manitius, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease stage 5 and a history of spleen neoplasm with dissemination within peritoneum is presented. During 5years of hemodialysis therapy, bilateral occlusion of brachiocephalic and iliac vein developed as a consequence of vein catheterization. An attempt to cannulate inferior vena cava was unsuccessful. A cannulation of dilated collateral abdominal veins with dialysis needles allowed to perform several hemodialysis sessions in the patient. PMID:24796505

  5. Stabiliztin of VEGFR2 Signaling by Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 is Critical for Vascular Development

    SciTech Connect

    Y He; H Zhang; L Yu; M Gunel; T Boggon; H Chen; W Min

    2011-12-31

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are human vascular malformations caused by mutations in three genes of unknown function: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. CCM3, also known as PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10), was initially identified as a messenger RNA whose abundance was induced by apoptotic stimuli in vitro. However, the in vivo function of CCM3 has not been determined. Here, we describe mice with a deletion of the CCM3 gene either ubiquitously or specifically in the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, or neurons. Mice with global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of CCM3 exhibited defects in embryonic angiogenesis and died at an early embryonic stage. CCM3 deletion reduced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling in embryos and endothelial cells. In response to VEGF stimulation, CCM3 was recruited to and stabilized VEGFR2, and the carboxyl-terminal domain of CCM3 was required for the stabilization of VEGFR2. Indeed, the CCM3 mutants found in human patients lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain were labile and were unable to stabilize and activate VEGFR2. These results demonstrate that CCM3 promotes VEGFR2 signaling during vascular development.

  6. Symbolic representation of brain vascular network with Arteriovenous Malformations from 3DRA images.

    PubMed

    Fan Li; Tankyevych, Olena; Chenoune, Yasmina; Blanc, Raphael; Petit, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Vascular imaging is crucial in the treatment of many diseases. In the case of cerebral ArterioVenous Malformation (AVM), where the vascular network can be deeply altered, an accurate knowledge of its topology is required. For this purpose, after a vessels segmentation and skeletization applied on 3D rotational angiographic images (3DRA), we build a symbolic tree representation of the vascular network thanks to topological descriptors, such as end points, junctions and branches. This leads to an efficient tool to assist the neuroradiologist to understand the feeding and the draining of the AVM and to apprehend its complex architecture in order to determine the best therapeutic strategy before and during embolization interventions. PMID:26736349

  7. Novel Vascular Malformation in an Affected Newborn with Deletion Del(4)(q31.3)

    PubMed Central

    de Len Ojeda, Norma Elena; Soriano-Torres, Michel; Cabrera, Mercedes J.; Bentez Ramos, Dunia Brbara

    2012-01-01

    We report on a newborn male patient with a terminal deletion in the long arm of the chromosome 4 with a congenital heart defect unreported before in association with this syndrome. The patient had multiple congenital anomalies including a pointed duplicated fingernail, low set posteriorly rotated ears, large anterior fontanel, micrognathia, glabellar capillary vascular malformation, and Interrupted Aortic Arch type C. The patient died due to multiple congenital malformations; a peripheral chromosome analysis showed 46, XY, del(4)(q31.3) de novo. The only reported case with the same deletion was a male newborn that exhibited the pattern of minor anomalies of deletion 4q31 syndrome. The parents were cytogenetically normal. We compare clinical signs to other cases with a deletion in long arm of chromosome 4. PMID:23320208

  8. Treatment of High-Flow Vascular Malformations by Venous Embolization Aided by Flow Occlusion Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, James E.; Mansfield, Averil O.; Allison, David J.

    1996-09-15

    Purpose: Transvenous embolization techniques may be helpful as alternatives to the arterial route when treating high-flow vascular malformations. We present our experience using these techniques in four patients. Methods: In one patient the venous portion of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was punctured directly; in the other three patients it was catheterized via a retrograde venous approach. Flow occlusion techniques were utilized in all patients during embolization, which was performed with absolute alcohol or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.Results: Excellent clinical and angiographic results were obtained, with obliteration of arteriovenous shunting in all patients. There were no complications.Conclusion: The embolization of certain AVMs using a venous approach is a safe and effective treatment.

  9. Microvascular proliferation in congenital vascular malformations of skin and soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Meijer?Jorna, Lorine B; van der Loos, Chris M; de Boer, Onno J; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital vascular malformations (VMs) are mass?forming lesions that usually progress slowly, but may become symptomatic because of episodes of sudden growth and pain, particularly those with a substantial component of arteriovenous shunting. Aim To systematically investigate the features of microvascular proliferation in a large series of surgically treated VMs. Methods 107 resection specimens of clinically and histologically well?documented VMs were screened for the presence and extent of microvascular proliferation, based on morphological parameters, microvessel density (MVD), mast cell density (MCD) and proliferative activity (Ki?67 labelling index) of endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The extent of microvascular proliferation was correlated with the histological type of VM and clinical characteristics of patients. Results Microvascular proliferation was observed in 32 (30%) of all VMs, of which 30 cases seemed to be arteriovenous malformations. MVD in areas of microvascular proliferation was 282 (186)/mm2 vs 13 (9)/mm2 in areas with mature vessels. Both ECs and VSMCs in these areas showed high Ki?67 labelling indexes (mean (SD) 15 (18) and 17 (24)/mm2, respectively). In all lesions, a positive correlation was found between MCD and MVD. Age, sex and location of VM had no predictive value for the occurrence of microvascular proliferation. However, if present, the involved tissue areas were larger and the proliferative activity of EC was higher in male patients than in female patients. Conclusions Recognition of microvascular proliferation as a not uncommon feature, congenital arteriovenous malformations provide new insight into the growth behaviour and vascular composition of these lesions. PMID:16816171

  10. Vascular structure and binomial statistics for response modeling in radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andisheh, Bahram; Bitaraf, Mohammad A.; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Brahme, Anders; Lind, Bengt K.

    2010-04-01

    Radiation treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has a slow and progressive vaso-occlusive effect. Some studies suggested the possible role of vascular structure in this process. A detailed biomathematical model has been used, where the morphological, biophysical and hemodynamic characteristics of intracranial AVM vessels are faithfully reproduced. The effect of radiation on plexiform and fistulous AVM nidus vessels was simulated using this theoretical model. The similarities between vascular and electrical networks were used to construct this biomathematical AVM model and provide an accurate rendering of transnidal and intranidal hemodynamics. The response of different vessels to radiation and their obliteration probability as a function of different angiostructures were simulated and total obliteration was defined as the probability of obliteration of all possible vascular pathways. The dose response of the whole AVM is observed to depend on the vascular structure of the intra-nidus AVM. Furthermore, a plexiform AVM appears to be more prone to obliteration compared with an AVM of the same size but having more arteriovenous fistulas. Finally, a binomial model was introduced, which considers the number of crucial vessels and is able to predict the dose response behavior of AVMs with a complex vascular structure.

  11. [The place of sonography in the diagnostic work-up of haemangiomas and vascular malformations].

    PubMed

    Peer, S

    2009-04-01

    While in one of three children a vascular birthmark may be a transient finding, in one of hundred children a persisting vascular soft tissue malformation is seen, which warrants further diagnostic work-up. An exact diagnosis is crucial for assessment of the prognosis and future evolution of the lesion as well as for efficient treatment. In experienced hands, sonography can be used as a first line modality since, together with color Doppler and spectral wave analysis, it allows for a simple but exact differentiation of these lesions in many cases. In addition sonography is well tolerated especially in children. Besides its diagnostic impact, sonography is also well suited for the guidance of interventional treatment, such as percutaneous sclerotherapy. In this Original article, the strengths and weaknesses of sonography are discussed in detail. PMID:18803151

  12. Longitudinal distribution of vascular resistance in the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and veins

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Jerome S.; Stemmler, Edward J.; DuBois, Arthur B.

    1968-01-01

    A new method has been described for measuring the pressure and resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and veins. Studies were performed in dog isolated lung lobes perfused at constant flow with blood from a donor dog. Pulmonary artery and vein volume and total lobar blood volume were measured by the ether plethysmograph and dyedilution techniques. The longitudinal distribution of vascular resistance was determined by analyzing the decrease in perfusion pressure caused by a bolus of low viscosity liquid introduced into the vascular inflow of the lobe. The pulmonary arteries were responsible for 46% of total lobar vascular resistance, whereas the pulmonary capillaries and veins accounted for 34 and 20% of total lobar vascular resistance respectively. Vascular resistance was 322 dynes ·sec·cm-5/ml of vessel in the lobar pulmonary arteries, 112 dynes·sec·cm-5/ml in the pulmonary capillaries, and 115 dynes·sec·cm-5/ml in the lobar pulmonary veins. Peak vascular resistivity (resistance per milliliter of volume) was in an area 2 ml proximal to the capillary bed, but resistivity was high throughout the pulmonary arterial tree. The pulmonary arteries accounted for approximately 50% of vascular resistance upstream from the sluice point when alveolar pressure exceeded venous pressure. The method described provides the first measurements of pulmonary capillary pressure. Mid-capillary pressure averaged 13.3 cm H2O, pulmonary artery pressure averaged 20.4 cm H2O, and pulmonary vein pressure averaged 9.2 cm H2O. These techniques also provide a way of analyzing arterial, capillary, and venous responses to various pharmacologic and physiologic stimuli. PMID:4868032

  13. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to 'Dieulafoy's vascular malformation' of the jejunum: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Goins, W. A.; Chatman, D. M.; Kaviani, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dieulafoy reported three cases of massive gastric hemorrhage due to a dilated submucosal artery in 1898, and since then, more than 100 cases of this gastric vascular malformation have been reported in the literature. These same pathologic lesions are even a rarer occurrence in the small bowel. This article reports a 38-year-old hypotensive male who presented to the hospital after an acute onset of massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage; superior mesenteric angiography demonstrated an actively bleeding lesion in a proximal jejunal branch. Intraoperative small bowel endoscopy via an enterotomy demonstrated a 4 mm bleeding submucosal lesion 30 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. A literature review revealed six other cases of Dieulafoy's vascular malformation that occurred in the small bowel, with the lesions located in the proximal jejunum between 15 cm and 45 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. The cause of these lesions is unknown. This case demonstrates the importance of preoperative angiography and intraoperative endoscopy when massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage is suspected to be from a small bowel source. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7473854

  14. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Elisa; Raoul, William; Calippe, Bertrand; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Guillonneau, Xavier; Paques, Michel; Sennlaub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined. Methods and Results We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGF?, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC) dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO. Conclusion Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease. PMID:26208283

  15. Co-occurrence of a cerebral cavernous malformation and an orbital cavernous hemangioma in a patient with seizures and visual symptoms: Rare crossroads for vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Choudhri, Omar; Feroze, Abdullah H.; Lad, Eleonora M.; Kim, Jonathan W.; Plowey, Edward D.; Karamchandani, Jason R.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are angiographically occult vascular malformations of the central nervous system. As a result of hemorrhage and mass effect, patients may present with focal neurologic deficits, seizures, and other symptoms necessitating treatment. Once symptomatic, most often from hemorrhage, CCMs are treated with microsurgical resection. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCHs) are similar but distinct vascular malformations that present within the orbital cavity. Even though CCMs and OCHs are both marked by dilated endothelial-lined vascular channels, they are infrequently seen in the same patient. Case Description: We provide a brief overview of the two related pathologies in the context of a patient presenting to our care with concomitant lesions, which were both resected in full without complication. Conclusion: This is the first known report that describes a case of concomitant CCM and OCH and explores the origins of two pathologies that are rarely encountered together in neurosurgical practice. Recognition of disparate symptomatologies is important for properly managing these patients. PMID:25071938

  16. Preserved allografts of dilated saphenous vein for vascular access in hemodialysis: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Piccone, V A; Lee, H; Ramos, S; Ahmed, N; DiScala, V; Hammanci, M; Piccone, V A; Nielsen, E; LeVeen, H H; Berger, E

    1975-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas constructed from preserved (frozen) allograft veins provided vascular access for maintenance hemodialysis in 14 patients with inadequate vasculature for conventional autogenous fistulas. Electromagnetic flows ranged from 200 to 250 cc/min. Dialysis flow of 200 cc/min were accomplished consistently. The allografts were useable for dialysis much earlier than autogenous A-V fistulas. Arteriography demonstrated a wide vasculature channel very suitable for dialysis needles. Allografts seemed superior to bovine heterografts in both patency and susceptibility to infection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed smoother initimal surfaces if the donor received small amounts of heparin systemically while the veins were being removed. Allograft veins appear to be a useful alternative means of vascular access for hemodialysis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Figs. 6A and B. PMID:1190877

  17. Congenital absence of the portal vein associated with focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and congenital heart disease (Abernethy malformation): A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YABIN; HONG, XU; ZHAO, XINYAN

    2015-01-01

    Abernethy malformation is a rare congenital malformation defined by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The majority of affected patients are young (<18 years of age) and experience various symptoms, including vomiting, jaundice, dyspnea and coma. The current study presents a case of Abernethy malformation in an asymptomatic adult male patient. The patient exhibited congenital absence of the portal vein, congenital heart disease (postoperative ventricular septal defect status), and multiple liver lesions, confirmed to be focal nodular hyperplasia by biopsy. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings revealing the liver lesions, type II congenital absence of the portal vein and the portosystemic shunt are presented. In addition, the common clinical presentations, associated anomalies, diagnostic workup and treatment options of this disorder are investigated by reviewing 101 previously reported cases. PMID:25624897

  18. Management of Intraosseous Vascular Malformations of the Jaws in Children and Adolescents: Report of 6 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Tzermpos, Fotios; Christopoulos, Panos; Iatrou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Intraosseous vascular malformations represent a rare clinical entity of the facial skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to present our experience in a Greek paediatric population and propose guidelines for the treatment of these jaws anomalies in children and adolescents. Methods A retrospective study (from 2009 to 2014) was performed to investigate the features and management of the intraosseous vascular anomalies in a Greek paediatric population. Results Six patients aged between 6 and 14 years were treated for intraosseous vascular malformations (4 venous and 2 arteriovenous) of the jaws. Five lesions were located in the mandible and one in the maxilla. In four lesions with pronounced vascularity superselective angiography, followed by embolization was performed. Individualized surgical treatment, depending on the size and vascularity of the lesions was applied in 4 patients. Conclusions The intraosseous vascular malformations of the jaws may escape diagnosis in paediatric patients. A multidisciplinary approach is important for their safe and efficient treatment. Embolization is recommended for extended high-flow lesions, either preoperatively or as a first-line treatment, when surgery is not feasible without significant morbidity. PMID:26229584

  19. A right thoracic kidney with a pulmonary vascular malformation in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Byung Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thoracic kidneys are rare anomalies, accounting for less than 5% of all renal ectopia. The anomaly is usually found incidentally on a chest radiograph, with no respiratory or systemic symptoms. It usually presents in the left posteroinferior thorax, associated with a congenital diaphragmatic defect or hernia and is more frequent in males than females. Associated anomalies of other organs are rare and inconsistent. We report a case of a 55-year-old female who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a mass-like lesion in the right chest, identified incidentally on a chest radiograph. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography revealed a right ectopic thoracic kidney with a closed diaphragm and an accompanying pulmonary vascular malformation. PMID:25473544

  20. Peripheral limb vascular malformations: an update of appropriate imaging and treatment options of a challenging condition

    PubMed Central

    Farrant, J; Chhaya, N; Anwar, I; Marmery, H; Platts, A; Holloway, B

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations encompass a wide spectrum of lesions that can present as an incidental finding or produce potentially life- or limb-threatening complications. They can have intra-articular and intraosseous extensions that will result in more diverse symptomology and present greater therapeutic challenges. Developments in classification, imaging and interventional techniques have helped to improve outcome. The onus is now placed on appropriate detailed preliminary imaging, diagnosis and classification to direct management and exclude other more common mimics. Radiologists are thus playing an increasingly important role in the multidisciplinary teams charged with the care of these patients. By fully understanding the imaging characteristics and image-guided procedures available, radiologists will be armed with the tools to meet these responsibilities. This review highlights the recent advances made in imaging and the options available in interventional therapy. PMID:25525685

  1. Transhepatic Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug: Report of Four Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, Kristina I. Weidemann, Juergen; Rosenthal, Herbert; Keberle, Marc; Chavan, Ajay; Baus, Stefan; Galanski, Michael

    2007-11-15

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a device originally intended for arterial and venous embolization in peripheral vessels. From December 2004 to March 2007 we implanted a total of 8 AVPs in the portal venous system in our institution for preoperative portal vein embolization in 4 patients (55-71 years) prior to right hemihepatectomy. AVP implantation was successful in all patients. Total occlusion of the embolized portal vein branches was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications associated with the embolization.

  2. Saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts as alternative forms of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, S; Wilkinson, A; Sellars, L

    1995-11-01

    To compare the survival and complication rates of saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts. Retrospective study over a twelve-year period with review of case-notes. Saphenous vein forearm grafts were constructed in 17 males and 12 females, mean age 61 years and gortex thigh grafts in 24 males and 22 females (49 grafts), mean age 49 years. Grafts were the primary form of access in 9 patients in each group. Follow-up was 45.6 and 135.2 patient years on dialysis for forearm grafts and thigh grafts respectively. One-year total survival was 89.4% (89.4% at 2 years and 71.5% at 3 years) and 84.9% (82.3% at 2 years and 70.4% at 3 years) for saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. The overall complication rates were 0.22 and 0.61 per patient year on dialysis for saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. Thrombosis occurred in 10% and 52%, infection in 0% and 35% and no complications in 62% and 24% of saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. Both saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts can provide satisfactory vascular access. The survival is similar at one year but gortex thigh grafts have a higher complication rate. PMID:8605714

  3. Intermediate and fine filaments of vascular leiomyomas (angiomyoma), leiomyoma and leiomyosarcomas of large veins.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, L; Seidal, T; Kindblom, L G; Angervall, L

    1989-07-01

    The expression of fine and intermediate filaments in 10 cases of leiomyosarcoma originating from a large vein, 9 cases of vascular leiomyoma (angiomyoma) and one case of a leiomyoma originating from the wall of the saphena magna vein was studied immunohistochemically by using 6 different anti-desmin antibodies, one anti-vimentin antibody and 2 antibodies to muscle-specific isoforms of actin. All the benign tumors and all the leiomyosarcomas of a large vein as well as the vein of origin were positively stained for desmin. The staining results obtained using the different anti-desmin antibodies varied considerably, however, and formaldehyde-fixed tissues were apparently inappropriate for some of them. No single anti-desmin antibody produced a positivity in all cases, and the extent and distribution of the positivity varied by being irregular and patchy in the leiomyosarcomas and in the muscle walls of the veins, while the benign tumors generally revealed a more uniform and strong positivity. Antibodies to muscle-specific and smooth muscle-specific actin produced a positive staining in all the benign tumors, as well as all the leiomyosarcomas and the veins from which they originated. A strong and uniform positivity was observed in the benign tumors and muscle walls of the veins, while the positivity in the leiomyosarcomas was more irregular, as it was for desmin. Vimentin was constantly expressed in the benign tumors and in the veins of origin, but only in 5/10 of the leiomyosarcomas. It is concluded from this study that the immunohistochemical demonstration of desmin, utilizing a monoclonal antibody appropriate to the type of fixation used, and muscle specific isoforms of actin, provide strong support to the light-microscopic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of venous origin. PMID:2751898

  4. [Vascular malformations of the colon. A frequently undetected etiology of lower digestive hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Marescaux, J; Petit, B; Pavis d'Escurac, X; Aprahamian, M; Damge, C; Sibilly, A

    1986-12-13

    Angiectasia of the right colon is a new entity which must be considered in cases of lower intestinal haemorrhage. Moore's classification is the one that is generally accepted today; it distinguishes between 3 types the most interesting and best individualized of which is type I. It consists of acquired lesions occurring after the age of 60, often multiple, localized in the right colon and frequently associated with aortic stenosis and atheroma. The diagnosis of these vascular malformations is usually delayed because the lesions are submucosal and not visible at endoscopy. Bimesaraic arteriography may show typical images where extravasation of contrast medium is associated with vascular tuft or "tuff". Even the anatomicopathological confirmation of the diagnosis is difficult, since the lesion can only be located by special techniques, such as intra-arterial injection of a silicone-containing substance. Owing to the failure of modern techniques such as embolization, the only possible treatment is surgical, based on resection of the colonic segment involved. PMID:2949242

  5. Cadaveric liver transplantation in biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome with the absence of retrohepatic inferior vena cava, preduodenal portal vein, and intestinal malrotation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sen-Oran, E; Yankol, Y; Tuzun, B; Kocak, B; Kanmaz, T; Acarli, K; Kalayoglu, M

    2008-01-01

    A 9-month-old female infant with biliary atresia underwent cadaveric liver transplantation due to progressive cholestatic hepatitis following a Kasai operation. She had biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome (BASM) composed of an absent retrohepatic inferior vena cava with an azygous connection, preduodenal portal vein, polysplenia, and intestinal malrotation. A portal vein thrombosis developed on the 4th postoperative day requiring immediate treatment by thrombectomy. The patient is well with normal liver function at 3 months follow-up. Although BASM may render the transplantation more difficult, the presence of BASM is no longer a contraindication to liver transplantation. PMID:18261615

  6. Bilateral proptosis, dilatation of conjunctival veins, and papilloedema: a neuro-ophthalmological syndrome caused by arteriovenous malformation of the torcular herophili.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, T A; Harper, D G; Hoyt, W F

    1982-01-01

    A patient with an occipital dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) developed signs of a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula and raised intracranial pressure. Bilateral transverse sinus occlusion associated with the AVM produced these signs by rerouting intracranial venous drainage anteriorly through the cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic veins. Angiography and computerised tomographic reformation techniques were used to define these extraordinary cranio-orbital venous pathways. Images PMID:7066271

  7. Successful embolization of a large vein of galen malformation in a premature infant presenting with congestive heart failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aly, Ashraf M; Garcia, Clarisa Y; von Ritschl, Rudiger

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of a premature infant with a vein of Galen malformation (VGM) who presented with high-output heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and respiratory distress. An echocardiogram showed normal cardiac anatomy, patent ductus arteriosus, and retrograde flow in the descending aorta. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of head confirmed the diagnosis of a large VGM. The patient developed multiorgan failure. Endovascular embolization of the VGM was successfully performed with an excellent outcome. PMID:23946898

  8. Structure and vascular function of MEKK3–cerebral cavernous malformations 2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Oriana S.; Deng, Hanqiang; Liu, Dou; Zhang, Ya; Wei, Rong; Deng, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Louvi, Angeliki; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.; Su, Bing

    2015-08-03

    Cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2) loss is associated with the familial form of CCM disease. The protein kinase MEKK3 (MAP3K3) is essential for embryonic angiogenesis in mice and interacts physically with CCM2, but how this interaction is mediated and its relevance to cerebral vasculature are unknown. Here we report that Mekk3 plays an intrinsic role in embryonic vascular development. Inducible endothelial Mekk3 knockout in neonatal mice is lethal due to multiple intracranial haemorrhages and brain blood vessels leakage. We discover direct interaction between CCM2 harmonin homology domain (HHD) and the N terminus of MEKK3, and determine a 2.35 Å cocrystal structure. We find Mekk3 deficiency impairs neurovascular integrity, which is partially dependent on Rho–ROCK signalling, and that disruption of MEKK3:CCM2 interaction leads to similar neurovascular leakage. We conclude that CCM2:MEKK3-mediated regulation of Rho signalling is required for maintenance of neurovascular integrity, unravelling a mechanism by which CCM2 loss leads to disease.

  9. Structure and vascular function of MEKK3–cerebral cavernous malformations 2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Oriana S.; Deng, Hanqiang; Liu, Dou; Zhang, Ya; Wei, Rong; Deng, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Louvi, Angeliki; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.; Su, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2) loss is associated with the familial form of CCM disease. The protein kinase MEKK3 (MAP3K3) is essential for embryonic angiogenesis in mice and interacts physically with CCM2, but how this interaction is mediated and its relevance to cerebral vasculature are unknown. Here we report that Mekk3 plays an intrinsic role in embryonic vascular development. Inducible endothelial Mekk3 knockout in neonatal mice is lethal due to multiple intracranial haemorrhages and brain blood vessels leakage. We discover direct interaction between CCM2 harmonin homology domain (HHD) and the N terminus of MEKK3, and determine a 2.35 Å cocrystal structure. We find Mekk3 deficiency impairs neurovascular integrity, which is partially dependent on Rho–ROCK signalling, and that disruption of MEKK3:CCM2 interaction leads to similar neurovascular leakage. We conclude that CCM2:MEKK3-mediated regulation of Rho signalling is required for maintenance of neurovascular integrity, unravelling a mechanism by which CCM2 loss leads to disease. PMID:26235885

  10. Arterial and venous coronary pressure-flow relations in anesthetized dogs. Evidence for a vascular waterfall in epicardial coronary veins.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, P N; Baer, R W; Vlahakes, G J; Hanley, F L; Messina, L M; Hoffman, J I

    1984-08-01

    The coronary circulation of anesthetized dogs was tested for the presence of vascular waterfalls by manipulating coronary arterial and coronary venous pressures. The left main coronary artery and the coronary sinus were cannulated, and relationships between coronary artery pressure, coronary sinus pressure, and coronary flow were studied. Experiments were conducted during diastolic arrests, under steady state conditions, in the absence of autoregulation. Relations of coronary flow to coronary sinus pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the coronary sinus. When the great cardiac vein was cannulated, relations of great vein flow to great vein pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the great vein, indicating that waterfall behavior can occur in epicardial veins other than the coronary sinus. In dogs on right heart bypass, with the coronary sinus and great vein uncannulated, the relationship between right atrial pressure and coronary sinus pressure showed a waterfall pattern, indicating that the waterfall is not an artifact of venous cannulation. In the right heart bypass experiments, venous waterfall behavior was seen in beating hearts as well as during diastolic arrests. We conclude that a vascular waterfall is present in epicardial coronary veins which can significantly influence coronary blood flow. PMID:6611215

  11. Treatment of arteriovenous malformation with high-flow fistula and bilateral transverse-sigmoid sinuses stenosis resulting diffuse cortical vein engorgement and symptoms resembling carotid-cavernous fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Wei; Su, I-Chang; Lee, Jing-Er; Liu, Hon-Man

    2015-01-01

    Patients harboring arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may present with focal neurological deficit, seizures, hemorrhage or be completely asymptomatic. This diversity in manifestation of AVM is related to the individual characteristics of AVMs such as size, location, configuration of feeding arteries, and drainage veins. Treating the AVMs with high-flow fistula and downstream sinuses occlusion is challenging. The authors reported their experience of treating this kind of AVM. The high venous pressure caused diffuse cortical venous regurgitation and engorgement of left superior ophthalmic vein and symptoms resembling carotid-venous fistula. To avoid possible reflux of embolization materials to cortical veins and facilitate surgical treatment, the bilateral transverse sinuses were re-canalized first. The venous pressure was measured through left transverse sinus, and it decreased significantly from 50 mmHg to 20 mmHg after bilateral sinus stenting. The AVM was then embolized and excised uneventfully. PMID:26425162

  12. Long-term hepatic vascular access in the nonhuman primate for recurrent portal vein infusion.

    PubMed

    Graham, Melanie L; Mutch, Lucas A; Rieke, Eric F; Dunning, Michele; Zolondek, Elizabeth K; Schutten, Melissa M; Hering, Bernhard J; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation in nonhuman primates is generally performed in the liver, by infusion of the transplant into the portal vein. We introduced a vascular access port with the catheter tip located in the splenic vein to avoid multiple major survival surgeries. This procedure was conducted in 16 cynomolgus and 9 rhesus macaques. A subset underwent islet cell transplantation. A historic control group (n = 17) received the transplant via open midline laparotomy. The groups did not differ in operation time (median about 60 min): however, animals undergoing midline laparotomy required significantly more opioid pain relief postoperatively than animals implanted with a hepatic vascular access port. Animals after port placement and transplantation had significantly higher blood hemoglobin values than those in the control group, but these values were still in the normal range. In addition to transplantation, the port could be used for administration of biologics and for blood sampling. In all cases, the port remained patent for infusion purposes (median follow-up 336 days, range 62-485 days). Patency for blood sampling was maintained in about half of the animals: the 50% survival of patency for sampling was 255 days. This difference between infusion and sampling patency is most likely due to the location of the catheter tip in the splenic vein, with occlusion caused by the small vessel-to-catheter ratio. We conclude that hepatic vascular access enables long-term frequent administration of cells, medication, or other products and also serves to sample blood: hence, this procedure contributes to a higher level of animal's well-being. PMID:21345005

  13. Combined Lymphedema and Capillary Malformation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Maclellan, Reid A.; Chaudry, Gulraiz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary lymphedema and capillary malformation are independent vascular malformations that can cause overgrowth of the lower extremity. We report a series of patients who had both types of malformations affecting the same leg. The condition is unique but may be confused with other types of vascular malformation overgrowth conditions (eg, Klippel–Trenaunay and Parkes Weber). Methods: Our Vascular Anomalies Center and Lymphedema Program databases were searched for patients with both capillary malformation and lymphedema. Diagnosis of lymphedema–capillary malformation was made by history, physical examination, and imaging studies. Because lymphedema–capillary malformation has phenotypical overlap with other conditions, only patients who had imaging confirming their diagnosis were included in the analysis. Clinical and radiological features, morbidity, and treatment were recorded. Results: Eight patients (4 females and 4 males) had confirmed lymphedema–capillary malformation. Referring diagnosis was Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome (n = 4), diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth (n = 3), or lymphatic malformation (n = 1). The condition was unilateral (n = 6) or bilateral (n = 2). Morbidity included infection (n = 6), difficulty fitting clothes (n = 6), bleeding or leaking vesicles (n = 5), leg length discrepancy (n = 4), and difficulty ambulating (n = 3). All patients were managed with compression regimens. Operative management was liposuction (n = 3), treatment of phlebectatic veins (n = 3), staged skin/subcutaneous excision (n = 1), and/or epiphysiodesis (n = 1). Conclusions: Lymphedema and capillary malformation can occur together in the same extremity. Both conditions independently cause limb overgrowth primarily because of subcutaneous adipose deposition. Compression garments and suction-assisted lipectomy can improve the condition. Lymphedema–capillary malformation should not be confused with other vascular malformation overgrowth diseases that have different morbidities and treatments. PMID:27014547

  14. Histological study on the treatment of vascular malformations resistant to pulsed dye laser

    PubMed Central

    Seiji, Kawana; Sato, Shigeru; Naito, Zenya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The pulsed dye laser (PDL) is recognized both as an effective treatment for vascular malformations and the as first treatment of choice for these lesions. However, PDL irradiation has poor efficacy in some patients, particularly the elderly. The present study histologically assessed such patients to try to elucidate the reason. Materials and Methods: A pulsed dye laser was used in 3 subjects in whom previous laser treatment was ineffective. Three-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained before laser treatment, 1 week and 3 months after the laser treatment. Each specimen was stained with toluidine blue and examined under light microscopy followed by electron microscopy with oolong tea extract (OTE) staining. Results: Microscopy revealed an increase in the vasculature at baseline and an increased number of dermal fibroblasts. One week post-irradiation, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed together with extensive interstitial perivascular edema. At 1 week and 3 months after laser irradiation, normal structures were observed for both blood vessels and capillary endothelial cells. Mild changes were noted in other interstitial features, but findings obtained 3 months after irradiation were almost similar to those before irradiation. Conclusions: The lower efficacy of PDL treatment in the elderly was possibly due to the markedly low amount of red blood cells in our subjects' blood vessels, a major chromophore for the PDL, was markedly low. It is possible that age-related denaturation of dermal matrix collagen plays some role in maintaining the vasculature in the interstitium with edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration could lead to the cellular release of some cytokines which favor reconstruction of the vasculature. PMID:24204091

  15. CLOVE Syndrome (Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, and Epidermal Nevi): CNS Malformations and Seizures may be a Component of this Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gucev, Zoran S.; Tasic, Velibor; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Konstantinova, Marina Krstevska; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Trajkovski, Zoran; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2010-01-01

    A newborn girl was found to have a massive lymphatic truncal vascular malformation with overlying cutaneous venous anomaly associated with overgrown feet and splayed toes. These manifestations comprise the recently described CLOVE syndrome. She also had cranial asymmetry and developed generalized seizures, which were treated with anticonvulsants. Cranial CT showed encephalomalacia, widening of the ventricles and the sulci, hemimegalencephaly (predominantly white matter) and partial agenesis of corpus callosum. Review of the literature identified several other patients with CLOVE syndrome, some of whom were misdiagnosed as having Proteus syndrome, with strikingly similar manifestations. We conclude that CNS manifestations including hemimegalencephaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, neuronal migration defects, and the consequent seizures, may be a more common manifestation of CLOVE syndrome than is presently appreciated. PMID:18816642

  16. [Modern imaging in cerebral vein angioma].

    PubMed

    Zouaoui, A; Maillard, J C; Ganthier, V; Chedid, G; Dangeard, S

    1995-06-01

    Cerebral venous angiomas are vascular malformations of the brain which, before the advent of modern imaging, and in particular MRI, were thought to be rare. They have a specific angiographic aspect called "caput Meduse" as it corresponds to the description of a large draining vein to which converge numerous radial veins located in the white matter. These true vascular malformations have characteristic histological features making it possible to differentiate them from other vascular malformations, notably cavernomas. These lesions are less scanty than classically believed, being the most frequent malformations encountered in post-mortem examination series. The circumstances in which cerebral venous angiomas are discovered vary considerably, and haemorrhage can be the revealing sign. Some authors regard these malformations as "abnormalities" of white matter veins and not as pathological entities, since they derive from a change in development during embryogenesis, but this theory is not supported by any anatomical evidence. The same authors attribute the bleeding to an associated cavernoma. Whereas CT enables venous angiomas and possible associated cavernomas to be detected, only repeated MRI explorations performed after the finding of venous angioma and hemorrhage can permit, by analysis of signal changes, to confirm or invalidate the non-pathological theory of the venous malformation and its tendency to bleed. Apart from hemorrhages, since gadolinium is used MRI is the most reliable and least invasive means to diagnose angiomas and to detect associated occult angiographic malformations. For this reason, nowadays only hemorrhages require an angiography in search of an arteriovenous malformation demanding prompt treatment. Moreover, MRI makes it possible to detect angiographically occult malformations. PMID:7629574

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.; Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 ; Holland, Melinda B.; Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

  18. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Lienden, K. P. van; Hoekstra, L. T.; Bennink, R. J.; Gulik, T. M. van

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  19. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case. PMID:25425716

  20. Percutaneous Transsplenic Access to the Portal Vein for Management of Vascular Complication in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hee Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein for management of vascular complication in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Between Sept 2009 and April 2011, percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein was attempted in nine patients with chronic liver disease. Splenic vein puncture was performed under ultrasonographic guidance with a Chiba needle, followed by introduction of a 4 to 9F sheath. Four patients with hematemesis or hematochezia underwent variceal embolization. Another two patients underwent portosystemic shunt embolization in order to improve portal venous blood flow. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver. The percutaneous transsplenic access site was closed using coils and glue. Results: Percutaneous transsplenic splenic vein catheterization was performed successfully in all patients. Gastric or jejunal varix embolization with glue and lipiodol mixture was performed successfully in four patients. In two patients with a massive portosystemic shunt, embolization of the shunting vessel with a vascular plug, microcoils, glue, and lipiodol mixture was achieved successfully. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver; however, only one patient was treated successfully. Complete closure of the percutaneous transsplenic tract was achieved using coils and glue without bleeding complication in all patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein can be an alternative route for portography and further endovascular management in patients for whom conventional approaches are difficult or impossible.

  1. Fluctuating nature of an orbital venous-lymphatic anomaly in association with intracranial vascular malformations: a classical presentation.

    PubMed

    Kanagalingam, Sivashakthi; Wyse, Emily; Merbs, Shannath L; Pearl, Monica Smith

    2015-01-01

    Venous-lymphatic anomalies (VLA) are rare and benign congenital lesions of the lymphatic system, composed of endothelial-lined lymphatic cysts. They are most frequently located in the region of the head and neck, and represent 4% of all orbital masses. In those patients with extensive orbital VLAs, a strong association with intracranial vascular anomalies has been reported. Factors known to suddenly increase the size of these lesions include upper respiratory tract infections or intralesional haemorrhage; however, complete spontaneous regression is rare. We report on the classic presentation of a patient with a fluctuating right orbital VLA in association with an intracranial cavernous malformation and intracranial developmental venous anomaly. PMID:26438679

  2. Brain infarction with a predilection for cerebellum in a patient with double-outlet left ventricle and vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Watanabe, Masaki; Ando, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Double-outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by the origin of the great arteries arising predominantly or completely from the left ventricle. In this report, we describe a case with brain infarction with a predilection for cerebellum in a patient with DOLV and vascular malformations. The cerebellar predilection of ischemic lesions appeared to have been caused by hemodynamic effects related to the specific anatomy of the brachiocephalic trunk. This is further supported by our observation that the mean flow velocity was significantly higher in the vertebral arteries than in the common carotid arteries. PMID:24139408

  3. Intraprocedural Safety and Technical Success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Miles B; Ishaque, Brandon M; Surman, Andrew M; Kerlan, Robert K; Hope, Michael D; Dickey, Melissa A; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    This case series describes early experience, intraprocedural safety, and technical success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug (MVP; Covidien, Irvine, California) for embolization of 20 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using 23 plugs in seven patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. There was no device migration, and all devices were successfully detached electrolytically. Immediate cessation of flow through the feeding artery was achieved in 21 of 23 (91%) deployments. There was one minor complication. This series demonstrates the MVP to be safe and technically successful in the treatment of PAVMs. PMID:26505940

  4. Microcystins Induces Vascular Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Activation of NF-?B

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jun; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria cause serious water pollution and public health hazard to humans and animals. However, direct molecular mechanisms of MC-LR in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) have not been understood yet. In this study, we investigated whether MC-LR induces vascular inflammatory process in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data demonstrated that MC-LR decreased HUVECs proliferation and tube formation and enhanced apoptosis. MC-LR also induced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation (ROS) in HUVECs. The MC-LR directly stimulated phosphorylation of NF-?B. Furthermore, MC-LR also increased cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) expression in HUVECs. Taken together, the present data suggested that MC-LR induced vascular inflammatory process, which may be closely related to the oxidative stress, NF-?B activation, and cell adhesion molecules expression in HUVECs. Our findings may highlight that MC-LR causes potential damage to blood vessels. PMID:26063980

  5. Venous Grafts Procured During the Learning Curve for Endoscopic Veins Harvesting Show Compromised Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Soroosh; Desai, Pranjal H.; Thirumvalavan, Nannan; Kurian, Dinesh John; Flynn, Mary Margaret; Zhao, XiaoQing

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endoscopic vein harvest (EVH) is the US standard of care for CABG but recent comparisons to open harvest suggest that conduit quality and outcomes may be compromised. To test the hypothesis that problems with EVH may relate to its learning curve and conduit quality, we analyzed the quality and early function of conduits procured by technicians with varying EVH experience. METHODS EVH was performed during CABG by experienced (>900 cases, n=55 patients) vs. novice (<100 cases, n=30 patients) technicians. Afterwards, conduits were and examined for vascular injury using optical coherence tomography (OCT), with segments identified as injured further examined for gene expression using a tissue injury array. Conduit diameter was measured intra- and postoperatively (day 5 and 6 months) using OCT and Computed-Tomography angiography. RESULTS EVH performed by novice harvesters resulted in increased number of discrete graft injuries and higher expression of tissue injury genes. Regression analysis revealed an association between shear stress and early dilation (positive remodeling) (R2 =0.48, p <0.01). Injured veins showed blunted positive remodeling at 5 days and a greater degree of late lumen loss at 6 months. CONCLUSION Under normal conditions, intraluminal shear stress leads vein grafts to develop positive remodeling over the first postoperative week. Injury to conduits, a frequent sequela of the learning curve for EVH, was a predictor of early graft failure, blunted positive remodeling and greater negative remodeling. Given the ongoing annual volume of EVH cases, rigorous monitoring of the learning curve represents an important and unrecognized public health issue. PMID:21996436

  6. Vascular malformation and choroid plexus adrenal heterotopia: new findings in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome?

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo; Quijano, Graciela; Altamirano, Mara Eugenia; Jones, Marta C; Maffessoli, Orlando B

    2006-01-01

    Large congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVM) may result in heart failure and death. We are reporting such combination with the AVM localized to the right thoracobrachial region. Remarkable postmortem findings included right renal and adrenal hemihyperplasia; the right adrenal fetal cortex presenting cytomegaly, endocrine pancreas hyperplasia, and heterotopic adrenal cortex with cytomegaly in the left lateral ventricle choroids plexus. The combination appears to be unique. The only previously reported example of adrenal cortex in the choroid plexus presented several features strongly suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Therefore, we postulate that additional uncommon findings in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome may include arteriovenous malformations and heterotopic adrenal tissue in choroids plexus. PMID:17162526

  7. Selective hepatic vascular exclusion versus pringle maneuver in partial hepatectomy for liver hemangioma compressing or involving the major hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Zhao, Ling-Hao; Fu, Si-Yuan; Lau, Wan Yee; Lai, Eric C H; Gu, Fang-Ming; Wang, Zhen-Guang; Zhou, Wei-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Massive blood loss remains a problem during resection for giant liver hemangioma. This present study was designed to compare selective hepatic vascular exclusion (SHVE) versus Pringle maneuver in surgery for liver hemangioma compressing the major (right, middle, or left) hepatic veins. From January 2003 to December 2011, 589 consecutive patients with hemangioma underwent liver resection in our department, and 273 patients had their tumors compressing at least one of the three major hepatic veins (right, middle, or left). Either SHVE (n = 120 patients) or Pringle maneuver (n = 153 patients) was used to minimize blood loss during resection. Data regarding the intraoperative and postoperative courses of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients regarding age, sex, tumor size, types of hepatectomy, and extent of tumor involvement of the major hepatic veins. Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements, and transfusion volume were significantly less in the SHVE group (P < 0.01). For the Pringle group, major hepatic veins were lacerated in 19 patients during hepatic parenchymal transection. For the SHVE group, a major hepatic vein was lacerated during extrahepatic dissection of the hepatic vein in two patients and during hepatic parenchymal transection in 14 patients. SHVE was more efficacious in minimizing intraoperative bleeding during liver resection for hemangiomas compressing the major hepatic veins. It prevented intraoperative major bleeding and air embolism and significantly decreased postoperative liver failure and in-hospital mortality. PMID:24666863

  8. Basilic Vein Transposition Used as a Tertiary Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: 15 Years of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Róbert; Slavíková, Marcela; Hlubocký, Jaroslav; Mitáš, Petr; Hrubý, Jan; Lindner, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The quality of the life in patients requiring long term hemodialysis is directly proportional to the long-term patency of their vascular access. Basilic vein transposition for vascular access (BAVA) represents a suitable option for creating a tertiary native vascular access for hemodialysis on the upper extremities for patients requiring long term hemodialysis. The purpose of the study is to compare BAVAs with arteriovenous grafts (AVG). METHOD Data collection was based on selecting all of the patients with BAVA created in the time period in between January 1996 and August 2011. A questionnaire was created and sent to the selected hemodialysis centers. The resulting set of data was statistically analyzed and evaluated. RESULTS In the time period between 1 January 1996 and August 2011, arteriovenous access for hemodialysis was created in 6754 patients (7203 procedures in total). Out of these patients, 175 BAVAs were created. Our patient database of those undergoing the BAVA procedure consisted of 98 females (56%) and 77 males (44%) with an average age of 64.5 years. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 60% (105 patients). Primary patency after 12 months was 68.8%, 24 months 59.7%, 36 months 53.8, 48 months 53.8%, and 60 months 50%. Primary assisted patency after 12 months was 89.9%, 24 months 84.6%, 36 months 77.8%, 48 months 77.9%, 60 months 70.8%. Secondary patency after 12 months was 89.4%, 24 months 86.9%, 36 months 81%, 48 months 78.9%, 60 months 75.7%. Twenty-nine BAVAs (16.5%) were obliterated. CONCLUSION Patients benefit from this type of procedure due to the longer patency of a native arteriovenous access, as well as a lower incidence of infectious complications. PMID:26848275

  9. [What is a hemangioma, what is a malformations? On the differential diagnosis of vascular tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic and diagnostic classification is important with regard to a carefully directed therapy. Difficulties emerge from the necessary combination of different categories (e.g. location, morphology, etiology). A major consideration is the difference between dilatation (ectasia) and proliferation. We have to distinguish between connatal teleangiectatic nevi (deficient neurovasal transfer), tardive angiectatic nevi (deficient capillary walls) acquired vascular damages, angiokeratotic nevi, lymphectatic nevi, angiomas (primary vascular proliferation), glomangiomas, and malignant vascular tumors. PMID:11824292

  10. Central retinal vein occlusion resulting from anomalous retinal vascular anatomy in a 24-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Shaheen C; Kempton, James E; Huang, John J

    2015-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 24-year-old man presented with a painless decrease of vision in the left eye for 2 days. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. Anterior exam was unremarkable and funduscopic exam in the left eye revealed retinal hemorrhages in all four quadrants with venous dilation and tortuosity consistent with central retinal vein occlusion. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed venous filling with neither leakage nor vasculitis. A comprehensive work-up that included infectious, inflammatory, and hypercoagulability studies was unremarkable, and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits was unrevealing. After 2 months, best-corrected visual acuity returned to 20/20-2 in the left eye. Upon closer review of the vascular anatomy in the left eye, a bifurcation of the central retinal artery at the level of the optic disc was tightly intertwined with an undilated nasal retinal vein in a manner that appeared to compress the underlying central retinal vein, resulting in dilation and tortuosity of the remaining venous branches. The vessel wall damage, turbulent venous flow, and compressive mass effect resulting from the anomalous retinal vasculature relationship is the proposed mechanism of the central retinal vein occlusion. Careful attention to the retinal vascular anatomy is suggested to aid in assessing the risk of retinal vein occlusion in any age group. PMID:26056427

  11. Central retinal vein occlusion resulting from anomalous retinal vascular anatomy in a 24-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Kavoussi, Shaheen C; Kempton, James E; Huang, John J

    2015-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 24-year-old man presented with a painless decrease of vision in the left eye for 2 days. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. Anterior exam was unremarkable and funduscopic exam in the left eye revealed retinal hemorrhages in all four quadrants with venous dilation and tortuosity consistent with central retinal vein occlusion. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed venous filling with neither leakage nor vasculitis. A comprehensive work-up that included infectious, inflammatory, and hypercoagulability studies was unremarkable, and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits was unrevealing. After 2 months, best-corrected visual acuity returned to 20/20-2 in the left eye. Upon closer review of the vascular anatomy in the left eye, a bifurcation of the central retinal artery at the level of the optic disc was tightly intertwined with an undilated nasal retinal vein in a manner that appeared to compress the underlying central retinal vein, resulting in dilation and tortuosity of the remaining venous branches. The vessel wall damage, turbulent venous flow, and compressive mass effect resulting from the anomalous retinal vasculature relationship is the proposed mechanism of the central retinal vein occlusion. Careful attention to the retinal vascular anatomy is suggested to aid in assessing the risk of retinal vein occlusion in any age group. PMID:26056427

  12. Supernumerary umbilical vein in a hydropic neonate with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Ageliki; Tsamandas, Athanassios; Varvarigou, Anastasia; Davlouros, Periklis; Pavlou, Vassiliki; Mantagos, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    The anomalies of the umbilical vessels are uncommon, with the exception of a single umbilical artery. We report a term female infant with fetal hydrops, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and a four-vessel umbilical cord consisting of two umbilical arteries and two umbilical veins. The presence of two veins in the umbilical cord has been attributed to persistence of both the normal left umbilical vein and the caudal part of the right umbilical vein. This fetal vascular pathology has been reported very rarely and may be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations and adverse perinatal outcome. PMID:21355676

  13. Vascular malformation mimicking multiple sclerosis active plaque: Usefulness of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to perform correct diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marsecano, Claudia; Perri, Marco; Michelini, Giulia; Varrassi, Marco; Splendiani, Alessandra; di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Brain focal hyperdensity areas are common findings in computed tomography examinations, often further evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging exams. These are usually haemosiderin and calcified perivascular clusters known as cerebral microbleeds and may be secondary signs of brain disorders. Cerebral microbleeds are paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances determining magnetic field inhomogeneity. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) performed at 3T with phase post-processing is very useful in evaluating this field variation. In fact in the past decade SWI has been increasingly reported for its clinical value in adults with neurologic disorders, traumas, arterial venous malformations, occult venous diseases, tumours and functional brain imaging. The occasional computed tomography findings of single or multiple focal hyperdense areas can mimic many of these brain disorders and lead to misinterpretations. For these reason it is useful to have a more detailed diagnosis with MRI brain examination. The authors highlight the role of SWI sequence in the differential diagnosis among active plaque, vascular malformation and haemorrhagic lesion in a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from multiple sclerosis with a focal hyperdense area reported in a computed tomography brain examination. PMID:26450102

  14. Egfl7 Is Differentially Expressed in Arteries and Veins during Retinal Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Poissonnier, Loc; Villain, Galle; Soncin, Fabrice; Mattot, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    The vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) is composed of vascular endothelial and mural cells which interact closely with glial cells and neurons. The development of the CNS vascularisation is a unique process which requires the contribution of specific regulators in addition to the classical angiogenic factors. The egfl7 gene is mainly detected in endothelial cells during physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Egfl7 codes for a secreted protein which predominantly accumulates into the extracellular space where it controls vascular elastin deposition or the Notch pathway. Egfl7 is the host gene of the microRNA miR126 which is also expressed in endothelial cells and which plays major functions during blood vessel development. While the expression of egfl7 and that of miR126 were well described in endothelial cells during development, their pattern of expression during the establishment of the CNS vasculature is still unknown. By analysing the expression of egfl7 and miR126 during mouse retina vascularisation, we observed that while expression of miR126 is detected in all endothelia, egfl7 is initially expressed in all endothelial cells and then is progressively restricted to veins and to their neighbouring capillaries. The recruitment of mural cells around retina arteries coincides with the down-regulation of egfl7 in the arterial endothelial cells, suggesting that this recruitment could be involved in the loss of egfl7 expression in arteries. However, the expression pattern of egfl7 is similar when mural cell recruitment is prevented by the injection of a PDGFR? blocking antibody, suggesting that vessel maturation is not responsible for egfl7 down-regulation in retinal arteries. PMID:24595089

  15. Imaging of Spontaneous Ventriculomegaly and Vascular Malformations in Wistar rats: implications for Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L. Christine; Williams, Rashida A.; Lescher, Jacob D.; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not utilized, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70/162 (43.2%) of Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were utilized to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesion and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05). These results could impact the interpretation, e.g. of a pseudo-increase of axon integrity and a pseudo-decrease of myelin integrity, based on characteristics intrinsic to rats with ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurological disease or injury in the Wistar rats. PMID:25383642

  16. IQGAP1 promotes the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle by myocardin pathway: a potential target for varicose vein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianchen; Jin, Yiqi; Zhou, Dayong; Xu, Guoxiong; Huang, Jian; Shen, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the architectural remodeling of venous vessel wall ranks as the basis of varicose veins development based on the phenotypic state of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we firstly demonstrated an obvious up-regulation of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) in patients with varicose veins. Importantly, following stimulation with PDGF-BB for 4 h, a common inducer of phenotypic switch in VSMCs, a dramatically time-dependent increase in IQGAP1 expression was observed in human venous smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs), concomitant with the down-regulation of SMC markers [including ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), smooth muscle calponin (CNN), SM22? (SM22)], suggesting a critical function of IQGAP1 during the switch of synthetic VSMC phenotype. Further analysis ascertained that IQGAP1 overexpression significantly inhibited the expression of SMA, SM and CNN, while its silencing dramatically promoted their expression levels. Moreover, the elevated IQGAP1 enhanced cell proliferation, migration and rearrangement. Mechanism assay confirmed that IQGAP1 overexpression notably blocked myocardin levels. Importantly, after transfection with myocardin siRNA, IQGAP1 down-regulation-induced decrease in cell proliferation, migration and cell rearrangement was remarkably attenuated. Together, these results demonstrated that IQGAP1 may regulate the phenotypic switch of VSMCs by myocardin pathway, which is critical for the pathological progression of varicose vein. Therefore, this study supports a prominent insight into how IQGAP1 possesses its benefit function in varicose veins development by regulating vascular remodeling. PMID:25400725

  17. Successful segmental thermal ablation of varicose saphenous veins in a patient with confirmed vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael; Says, Jerome; Denarié, Nicolas; Sapoval, Marc; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We describe here the successful scheduled treatment of varicose veins by radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation in a 43-year-old patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Her venous disease started at the age of 16 years, 1 year prior to her first major Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-related event which led to the diagnosis of her genetic condition. Surgical stripping was contra-indicated because of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome at the age of 18 years. More than 20 years later, her venous disease had become highly symptomatic despite daily compression and pain medication. Venous reassessment evidenced incompetent right and left great saphenous and left small saphenous veins, with increased diameters of both sapheno-femoral and sapheno-popliteal junctions. Radiofrequency endovenous ablation rather than surgery was considered because of its minimally invasive nature and because of standardized energy delivery.All intended-to-be-treated incompetent saphenous vein segments were occluded successfully, followed by an important improvement of clinical disease severity at day 30, persistent at 1 year post-treatment. Duplex ultrasound confirmed closure and fibrotic retraction of all treated venous segments at 1 year. This report shows that radiofrequency endovenous ablation may be a safe and effective therapy of varicose veins in patients with diagnosed vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. PMID:25926429

  18. Dynamic regulation of the cerebral cavernous malformation pathway controls vascular stability and growth

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangjian; Xu, Chong; Smith, Annie O.; Stratman, Amber N.; Zou, Zhiying; Kleaveland, Benjamin; Yuan, Lijun; Didiku, Chuka; Sen, Aslihan; Liu, Xi; Skuli, Nicolas; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Mei; Cheng, Lan; Davis, George E.; Kahn, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cardiovascular growth must balance stabilizing signals required to maintain endothelial connections and network integrity with destabilizing signals that enable individual endothelial cells to migrate and proliferate. The cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) signaling pathway utilizes the adaptor protein CCM2 to strengthen endothelial cell junctions and stabilize vessels. Here we identify a CCM2 paralogue, CCM2L, that is expressed selectively in endothelial cells during periods of active cardiovascular growth. CCM2L competitively blocks CCM2-mediated stabilizing signals biochemically, in cultured endothelial cells, and in developing mice. Loss of CCM2L reduces endocardial growth factor expression and impairs tumor growth and wound healing. Our studies identify CCM2L as a molecular mechanism by which endothelial cells coordinately regulate vessel stability and growth during cardiovascular development as well as postnatal vessel growth. PMID:22898778

  19. Low flow vascular malformations of the head and neck: a study on brightness mode, color coded duplex and spectral Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Eivazi, Behfar; Fasunla, Ayotunde J; Hundt, Walter; Wiegand, Susanne; Teymoortash, Afshin

    2011-10-01

    The clinical presentation of low flow vascular malformations of the head and neck (LFVM) can range from a birthmark to severe disfigurement, functional impairment or relevant hemorrhage. The values of Brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound and Doppler sonography in the investigation, identifying and differentiating of these lesions has been sparingly documented in the literature. This study evaluates the sonografic features of different morphological subtypes of LFVM. This is a 2-year retrospective study of 51 patients who presented with LFVM based on routine ultrasound exam in the context of their clinical consultation. Diagnosis was based on the clinical and histological findings. B-mode, color coded duplex and spectral Doppler measurements were performed for venous, lymphatic, capillary, and mixed venous-lymphatic lesions of the head and neck. The echogenicity of the majority of venous malformations was heterogenic, of most lymphatic malformations hypoechoic, and of all capillary malformations isoechoic. Blood flow was detected in only 11 cases (36.7%) of venous malformations with a monophasic pattern. There was a statistical significant difference in the mean minimum and maximum Doppler shifts between venous and lymphatic malformation for cases when the blood flow was evident. No statistical significant difference in Doppler parameters existed between capillary and lymphatic, neither between venous and capillary nor mixed malformations. Phleboliths were present in eight cases (26.7%) of venous malformations and were not detectable in any other subtype of LFVM. The detection of flow in ultrasound was only possible in a small portion of LFVM. When considering differentiating among LFVM, features such as the echogenecity, spectral Doppler wave forms, and the evidence of phleboliths contribute to establish the correct diagnosis. PMID:21327731

  20. Large retroperitoneal hemangioma encompassing the renal vein

    PubMed Central

    Mossanen, Matthew; Dighe, Manjiri; Gore, John; Mann, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hemangioma (RH) is a rare and benign vascular malformation. RH may be detected incidentally or present with symptoms due to local invasion of adjacent structures. Management options include surgical resection, as well as serial observation with routine imaging. We describe a retroperitoneal hemangioma encompassing the renal vein that was discovered during diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and characterize diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings seen with this condition. PMID:26834900

  1. Meandering right pulmonary vein associated with severe and progressive "idiopathic-like" pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Bret, Montserrat; Del Cerro, Maria Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary veins are rare. Meandering right pulmonary vein, considered a part of the Scimitar syndrome spectrum, is often an incidental finding during chest imaging. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with meandering pulmonary vein, who developed pulmonary hypertensive disease with an aggressive course, in spite of absence of hypoxia or elevated pulmonary wedge pressure. PMID:26374461

  2. Focal nodular hyperplasia in a child with hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, M; Verma, R; Shannon, R S; McKeever, P A; Rickett, A

    2004-03-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver occurring in a 9-year-old girl with musculoskeletal hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous capillary haemangiomata is described. The child presented because of limb length discrepancy and was found to have a large mass in the liver. Imaging showed a mass of similar characteristics to normal liver tissue. Prominent vascular supply to the liver was also seen. We present this case to emphasize the important diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia, which may occur in syndromic form in children with typical cutaneous and skeletal manifestations. PMID:15027928

  3. BOLD fMRI integration into radiosurgery treatment planning of cerebral vascular malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Stancanello, Joseph; Cavedon, Carlo; Francescon, Paolo; Causin, Francesco; Avanzo, Michele; Colombo, Federico; Cerveri, Pietro; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Uggeri, Fulvio

    2007-04-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to distinguish areas of the brain responsible for different tasks and functions. It is possible, for example, by using fMRI images, to identify particular regions in the brain which can be considered as 'functional organs at risk' (fOARs), i.e., regions which would cause significant patient morbidity if compromised. The aim of this study is to propose and validate a method to exploit functional information for the identification of fOARs in CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery treatment planning; in particular, given the high spatial accuracy offered by the CyberKnife system, local nonrigid registration is used to reach accurate image matching. Five patients affected by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and scheduled to undergo radiosurgery were scanned prior to treatment using computed tomography (CT), three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography (3DRA), T2 weighted and blood oxygenation level dependent echo planar imaging MRI. Tasks were chosen on the basis of lesion location by considering those areas which could be potentially close to treatment targets. Functional data were superimposed on 3DRA and CT used for treatment planning. The procedure for the localization of fMRI areas was validated by direct cortical stimulation on 38 AVM and tumor patients undergoing conventional surgery. Treatment plans studied with and without considering fOARs were significantly different, in particular with respect to both maximum dose and dose volume histograms; consideration of the fOARs allowed quality indices of treatment plans to remain almost constant or to improve in four out of five cases compared to plans with no consideration of fOARs. In conclusion, the presented method provides an accurate tool for the integration of functional information into AVM radiosurgery, which might help to minimize undesirable side effects and to make radiosurgery less invasive.

  4. A case report: Pulmonary venous malformation complicated with pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Nucharin; Fan, Rong; Karmazyn, Boaz

    2012-12-01

    Pulmonary venous malformation is extremely rare. We present imaging and clinical findings of a 17-year-old male with multifocal subcutaneous venous malformations and multiple cystic lesions in the liver and spleen, suggestive of slow flow vascular malformation. In the right lung, chest radiography followed by chest CT demonstrated large tortuous pulmonary veins and cystic emphysematous changes. Tc99m-MAA (pertechnetate-labeled macroaggregated albumin) lung perfusion scan demonstrated only 3% of normal perfusion to the right lung, with no evidence of arteriovenous shunting. The child had diffuse intraparenchymal hemorrhage throughout the right lower and middle lobes and underwent resection. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of venous malformation complicated with bleeding. PMID:23217914

  5. Immunomodulation of vascular endothelium: Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on vein allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, M.L.; Hardy, M.A.; Gordon, R.E.; Reemtsma, K.; Benvenisty, A.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts of vein allografts are inadequate as small-diameter vessel substitutes. We have applied ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to modulate the immunogenicity of vein allografts to avoid immunologic injury. The veins of male ACI rats were irradiated with UVB (60 mJ/cm2) in situ and transplanted to male ACI rats (autografts) and female Lewis rats (allografts). Nonirradiated veins served as controls. At 4, 7, 14, and 28 days, all grafts were patent and were studied for morphologic changes by scanning electron microscopy and for immunogold labeling of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. In autografts, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated minimal endothelial loss after grafting, regardless of UVB irradiation. Untreated allografts showed severe endothelial injury 4, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. UVB irradiation of veins protected allografts from injury to the endothelium and basement membrane. Major histocompatibility complex class II-positive endothelial cells were not seen in autografts but were seen in 40% of cells 4 days after transplantation in untreated allografts. UVB-treated allografts showed MHC class II antigen expression labeling of 20% of the endothelial cells. Barr body analysis demonstrated the donor origin of these endothelial cells. UVB irradiation of rat vein allografts prolongs endothelial survival while decreasing endothelial surface expression of class II antigens. These data suggest that modification of vein immunogenicity with UVB irradiation may permit functional survival of small-vessel allografts without chronic immunosuppression.

  6. Altered protein expression profiles in umbilical veins: insights into vascular dysfunctions of the children born after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Pan, Hai-Tao; Lin, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Jiang, Ying; Tian, Shen; Chen, Lu-Ting; Liu, Miao-E; Xiong, Yi-Meng; Huang, He-Feng; Sheng, Jian-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction and remodeling have been found in some children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the retrospective investigation showed that the blood pressure of IVF-conceived Chinese children was higher than that of naturally conceived (NC) children at ages 3-13 yr. We analyzed the expression profile of proteins in the umbilical veins of IVF and NC newborns by proteomic techniques. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation), 47 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by feature selection in IVF umbilical veins compared with NC. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, which is used to explore the signaling pathways of DEPs, revealed that these DEPs played important roles in vascular system development and carbon metabolism, implying that these DEPs might be potential candidates for further exploration of the mechanism(s) of vascular dysfunction in IVF children. We found that the serum estradiol (E?) level in the cord blood of IVF newborns was significantly higher than that of NC newborns. High concentrations of E? induced alteration of lumican and vimentin expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was consistent with the proteomic results. These findings suggested that abnormal expression of proteins in umbilical veins might be related to the cardiovascular dysfunction and remodeling in IVF offspring. In conclusion, our data for the first time reveal the protein expression profile in blood vessels of IVF offspring and provide information for further mechanism study and evaluation of risks of cardiovascular abnormality in IVF children. PMID:25100710

  7. Real-time ultrasonography as a monitoring technique for interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jochen A.; Gottschlich, Stefan; Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.

    1998-01-01

    Voluminous vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are still treated with conventional surgery although Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy is an effective treatment method. One hundred thirty give patients with voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations were treated with interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy, partly complemented by a non-contact mode Nd:YAG laser light application. The vascular tumors had a diameter of more than 3 cm in two or all three dimensions. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual control. Nearly 60% of the patients showed a complete clinical regression of the vascular tumor, a third of the patients had a partial regression and were satisfied with the treatment outcome. Four patients were treated unsuccessfully with the laser and three of them subsequently underwent conventional surgery. Only 10 patients showed cosmetic and functional deficits. These results on the interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations in a large patient group demonstrated the high effectiveness of this novel and innovative therapy modality.

  8. [French Society of Vascular Medicine good medical practice guidelines on safety and environment in vascular medicine: Treatment of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Giordana, P; Miserey, G

    2014-12-01

    These guidelines proposed by the French Society of Vascular Medicine define the optimal environment for vascular medicine practice: outpatient clinic; equipment, layout and maintenance of the care center; infection risk prevention (hand hygiene, individual protective measures, exposure to blood, ultrasound apparatus, etc.); common interventions and techniques (liquid and foam sclerotherapy, endovenous thermal treatments). These guidelines do not include phlebectomy and use of ultrasound contrast agents. PMID:25451022

  9. Giant Arteriovenous Malformation of the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Ba, P. S.; Gaye, M.; Diatta, S.; Diop, M. S.; Sene, E.; Ciss, A. G.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have a wide range of clinical presentations. Operative bleeding is one of the most hazardous complications in the surgical management of high-flow vascular malformations. In the cervical region, the presence of vital vascular structures, such as the carotid artery and jugular vein, may increase this risk. This is a case of massive arteriovenous malformation deforming the neck and the face aspect of this aged lady and growing for several years. A giant mass of the left neck occupied the carotid region and the subclavian region. The AVM was developed between the carotid arteries, jugular veins, and vertebral and subclavian vessels, with arterial and venous flux. The patient underwent surgery twice for the cure of that AVM. The first step was the ligation of the external carotid. Seven days later, the excision of the mass was done. In postoperative period the patient presented a peripheral facial paralysis which completely decreased within 10 days. The first ligation of the external carotid reduces significantly the blood flow into the AVM. It permitted secondarily the complete ablation of the AVM without major bleeding even though multiple ligations were done. PMID:26347847

  10. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Tasanee; Nanji, Afshan A; Lindsley, Kristina; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a relatively common retinal vascular disorder in which macular oedema may develop, with a consequent reduction in visual acuity. Until recently there has been no treatment of proven benefit, but growing evidence supports the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Objectives To investigate the effectiveness and safety of anti-VEGF therapies for the treatment of macular oedema secondary to CRVO. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE (January 1950 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to October 2013), OpenGrey, OpenSIGLE (January 1950 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), Clinical-Trials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S). There were no language or date restrictions in the electronic search for trials. The electronic databases and clinical trials registers were last searched on 29th October 2013. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared intravitreal anti-VEGF agents of any dose or duration to sham injection or no treatment. We focused on studies that included individuals of any age or gender and a minimum of six months follow-up. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with a gain in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline of greater than or equal to 15 letters (3 lines) on the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of participants with a loss of 15 letters or more of BCVA, the mean change from baseline BCVA, the mean change in central retinal thickness (CRT), the number and type of complications or adverse outcomes, and the number of additional interventions administered. Where available, we also presented quality of life and economic data. Main results We found six RCTs that met the inclusion criteria after independent and duplicate review of the search results. These RCTs included 937 participants and compared outcomes at six months to sham injection for four anti-VEGF agents: aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye, Eylea), bevacizumab (Avastin), pegaptanib sodium (Macugen) and ranibizumab (Lucentis). Three trials were conducted in Norway, Sweden and the USA, and three trials were multicentre, one including centres in the USA, Canada, India, Israel, Argentina and Columbia, a second including centres in the USA, Australia, France, Germany, Israel, and Spain, and a third including centres in Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Australia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea. We performed meta-analysis on three key visual outcomes, using data from up to six trials. High-quality evidence from six trials revealed that participants receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment were 2.71 times more likely to gain at least 15 letters of visual acuity at six months compared to participants treated with sham injections (risk ratio (RR) 2.71; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.10 to 3.49). High-quality evidence from five trials suggested anti-VEGF treatment was associated with an 80% lower risk of losing at least 15 letters of visual acuity at six months compared to sham injection (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.34). Moderate-quality evidence from three trials (481 participants) revealed that the mean reduction from baseline to six months in central retinal thickness was 267.4 ?m (95% CI 211.4 ?m to 323.4 ?m) greater in pa

  11. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Corky Split Vein Caused by Boron Deficiency in Newhall Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) for Selecting Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Vascular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Zhong; An, Ji-Cui; Li, Shuang; Jin, Long-Fei; Zhou, Gao-Feng; Wei, Qing-Jiang; Yan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Nan-Nan; Fu, Li-Na; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Ting-Shuai; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2013-01-01

    Corky split vein caused by boron (B) deficiency in Newhall Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2nd and 3rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study. PMID:23755275

  12. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, S. M.; Shetty, Sujan; Moon, Ninad J.; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Goyal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumors. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. Arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck is a rare vascular anomaly but when present is persistent and progressive in nature and can represent a lethal benign disease. Here we present a case report of a 25-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation involving the base of tongue. PMID:24660070

  13. Preduodenal superior mesenteric vein and Whipple procedure with vascular reconstructionA case report

    PubMed Central

    Hing, Kristina; Ringe, Kristina I.; Bektas, Hseyin; Klempnauer, Jrgen; Jger, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Portal vein (PV) disorders are various, but rare. Here, we report a preduodenal superior mesenteric vein (PDSMV) in a patient who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Presentation of case A 67-year old woman with familial adenomatosis polyposis was suspicious for cancer of the papilla of vater and scheduled for surgery. Pre-operative diagnostic revealed a PDSMV continuing into the left PV. The splenic vein (SV) continued directly into the right PV without forming ananatomic PV confluence. Eight centimetre of the PDSMV were resected during the pancreaticoduodenectomy and reconnected using a polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis. On day 1, early graft thrombosis was treated by thrombectomy and change to a larger graft. Pathology confirmed a R0-resection of the adenocarcinoma of the papilla of vater (pTis pN0,G2). At three-month follow-up, the patient was cancer-free and clinically asymptomatic, although, a late graft thrombosis with accompanying newly build venous collaterals passing mesenteric blood to the SV were found. Discussion Rare PV disorders like a PDSMV do not contradict pancreatic surgery, but should be treated in experienced centres. Skills of SMV/PV reconstruction and its peri-operative management might be beneficial for successful outcome. Despite late graft thrombosis no clinical disadvantage occurred most likely due to preservation of the SV and of potential venous collateral pathways. Conclusion Extended surgical procedures like a pancreaticoduodenectomy are realisable in patients with PV disorders, but require awareness, adequate radiological interpretation and specific surgical experience for secure treatment. PMID:25853842

  14. Early experience with X-ray magnetic resonance fusion for low-flow vascular malformations in the pediatric interventional radiology suite.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tiffany J; Girard, Erin; Shellikeri, Sphoorti; Setser, Randolph; Vossough, Arastoo; Ho-Fung, Victor; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2016-03-01

    This technical innovation describes our experience using an X-ray magnetic resonance fusion (XMRF) software program to overlay 3-D MR images on real-time fluoroscopic images during sclerotherapy procedures for vascular malformations at a large pediatric institution. Five cases have been selected to illustrate the application and various clinical utilities of XMRF during sclerotherapy procedures as well as the technical limitations of this technique. The cases demonstrate how to use XMRF in the interventional suite to derive additional information to improve therapeutic confidence with regards to the extent of lesion filling and to guide clinical management in terms of intraprocedural interventional measures. PMID:26681438

  15. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Wisnicki, J L

    1984-01-01

    The classification, natural history, and treatment of hemangiomas, arteriovenous fistulas, lymphangiomas, and port-wine stains are in many respects as puzzling now as they were fifty years ago. A review of the literature assesses the progress made and addresses the questions yet to be answered. PMID:6367602

  16. Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Ju; Yang, Yan-Ning; Cao, Jin; Man, Zi-Hui; Li, Ying; Xing, Yi-Qiao

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF‑A)‑induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock‑transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF‑A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF‑A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA‑-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF‑A‑induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF‑A‑mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:25405379

  17. Association between the Hypomethylation of Osteopontin and Integrin ?3 Promoters and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Switching in Great Saphenous Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han; Lun, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyu; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xin, Shijie; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity varicose veins are a common condition in vascular surgery and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima is a significant pathological feature of varicosity. However, the pathogenesis of varicose veins is not fully understood. Osteopontin (OPN) could promote the migration and adhesion of VSMCs through the cell surface receptor integrin ?3 and the cooperation of OPN and integrin ?3 is involved in many vascular diseases. However, the role of OPN and integrin ?3 in varicosity remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the methylation levels in the promoter regions of OPN and integrin ?3 genes in the VSMCs of varicose veins are reduced and the protein expression of OPN and integrin ?3 are increased, compared with normal veins. Furthermore, it was observed that VSMCs in the neointima of varicose veins were transformed into the synthetic phenotype. Collectively, hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin ?3 genes may increase the expression of these genes in varicosity, which is closely related to VSMC phenotype switching. Hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin ?3 genes may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of varicosity. PMID:25329616

  18. Combined Vascular and Orthopaedic Approach for a Pseudotumor Causing Deep Vein Thrombosis after Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Hossam; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard W. J.; Hart, Alister; Loh, Alex; Skinner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings have been associated with a variety of complications resulting from adverse reaction to metal debris. Pseudotumors have rarely been reported to cause deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Study Design. A case report and a review of the literature. Case Presentation. A 75-year-old female who had left metal-on-metal hip resurfacing 6 years ago presented with left groin pain associated with unilateral lower limb edema and swelling. By duplex and MRI studies, our patient had an extensive soft tissue necrosis associated with a large pelvic mass causing extensive DVT of the lower limb secondary to mechanical compression of the left iliac vein. Results. Our case was initially treated for DVT followed by dual surgical approach. The pseudotumor was excised through a separate iliofemoral approach and revision of the hip implant was undertaken through a posterior approach in the same setting. An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was inserted to minimise the perioperative risks of handling the iliac veins. Conclusion. A combined approach with vascular surgeons is required. Combined resection of the pseudotumor and revision of the metal bearing surfaces is essential, in order to achieve a good surgical outcome in this rare complication. PMID:26457216

  19. OUABAIN- AND MARINOBUFAGENIN-INDUCED PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN UMBILICAL VEIN SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS AND A RAT VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL LINE, A7R5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the growth-promoting effects of 2 sodium pump-selective cardiotonic steroids, ouabain and marinobufagenin, on cultured cells from vascular smooth muscle (VSMCs) from human umbilical vein and a rat VSMC line, A7r5. Both ouabain and marinobufagenin activated proliferation of these cells in...

  20. Mitochondrial Ca? handling is crucial for generation of rhythmical Ca? waves in vascular interstitial cells from rabbit portal vein.

    PubMed

    Harhun, Maksym I

    2015-09-01

    Vasomotion is the rhythmical changes in vascular tone of various blood vessels. It was proposed that in rabbit portal vein (RPV) the spontaneous contractile activity is driven by vascular interstitial cells (VICs), since RPV VICs generate rhythmical changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) associated with membrane depolarisation in these cells. In this work, using confocal imaging in Fluo-3 loaded RPV VICs we studied if generation of rhythmical [Ca(2+)]i changes is affected when Ca(2+) handling by mitochondria is compromised. We also visualised mitochondria in VICs using Mito Tracker Green fluorescent dye. Our results showed that freshly dispersed RPV VICs generated rhythmical [Ca(2+)]i oscillations with a frequency of 0.2-0.01 Hz. Imaging of VICs stained with Mito Tracker Green revealed abundant mitochondria in these cells with a higher density of the organelles in sub-plasmalemmar region compared to the central region of the cell. Oligomycin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, did not affect the amplitude and frequency of rhythmical [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. In contrast, two uncoupling agents, carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) effectively abolished rhythmical [Ca(2+)]i changes with simultaneous increase in basal [Ca(2+)]i in RPV VICs. These data suggest that in RPV VICs mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling is important for the generation of rhythmical [Ca(2+)]i changes which underlie the spontaneous rhythmical contractile activity in this vessel. PMID:26104918

  1. Embolization biomaterial reinforced with nanotechnology for an in-situ release of anti-angiogenic agent in the treatment of hyper-vascularized tumors and arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Jubeli, E; Yagoubi, N; Pascale, F; Bdouet, L; Slimani, K; Labarre, D; Saint-Maurice, J P; Laurent, A; Moine, L

    2015-10-01

    A polymer based material was developed to act as an embolic agent and drug reservoir for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and hyper vascularized solid tumors. The aim was to combine the blocking of blood supply to the target region and the inhibition of the embolization-stimulated angiogenesis. The material is composed of an ethanolic solution of a linear acrylate based copolymer and acrylate calibrated microparticles containing nanospheres loaded with sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic agent. The precipitation of the linear copolymer in aqueous environment after injection through microcatheter results in the formation of an in-situ embolization gel whereas the microparticles serve to increase the cohesive properties of the embolization agent and to form a reservoir from which the sunitinib-loaded nanospheres are released post-embolization. The swollen state of the microparticles in contact with aqueous medium results in the release of the nanospheres out of microparticles macromolecular structure. After the synthesis, the formulation and the characterization of the different components of the material, anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro using endothelial cells and in vivo using corneal neovascularization model in rabbit. The efficiency of the arterial embolization was tested in vivo in a sheep model. Results proved the feasibility of this new system for vascular embolization in association with an in situ delivery of anti-angiogenic drug. This combination is a promising strategy for the management of arteriovenous malformations and solid tumors. PMID:26386355

  2. Vascular resection in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with portal or superior mesenteric vein invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Gang; Xie, Kun-Lin; Wu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate long-term survival after the Whipple operation with superior mesenteric vein/portal vein resection (SMV/PVR) in relation to resection length. METHODS: We evaluated 118 patients who underwent the Whipple operation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at our Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery between 2005 and 2010. Fifty-eight of these patients were diagnosed with microscopic PV/SMV invasion by frozen-section examination and underwent SMV/PVR. In 28 patients, the length of SMV/PVR was ≤ 3 cm. In the other 30 patients, the length of SMV/PVR was > 3 cm. Clinical and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: SMV/PVR was performed successfully in 58 patients. There was a significant difference between the two groups (SMV/PVR ≤ 3 cm and SMV/PVR > 3 cm) in terms of the mean survival time (18 mo vs 11 mo) and the overall 1- and 3-year survival rates (67.9% and 14.3% vs 41.3% and 5.7%, P < 0.02). However, there was no significant difference in age (64 years vs 58 years, P = 0.06), operative time (435 min vs 477 min, P = 0.063), blood loss (300 mL vs 383 mL, P = 0.071) and transfusion volume (85.7 mL vs 166.7 mL, P = 0.084) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent the Whipple operation with SMV/PVR ≤ 3 cm had better long-term survival than those with > 3 cm resection. PMID:24379594

  3. Transvenous Approach to Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Challenging the Axioms of Arteriovenous Malformation Therapy?

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Ivan, Michael E; Lawton, Michael T

    2015-10-01

    : A compartmental conceptualization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) allows recognition of feeding arteries, an intervening plexiform nidus, and draining veins. AVM therapy involves eliminating the nidus, which is the source of hemorrhage, without compromising normal arterial and venous drainage of the brain. Traditional methods of AVM therapy through microsurgery and endovascular embolization involve arterial devascularization, with preservation of AVM venous drainage, until the nidus is excluded. The transvenous approach in treating vascular malformations was popularized by successful treatment models for dural arteriovenous fistulas. More recently, high-flow intracranial AVMs are being managed with transvenous endovascular approaches, although this novel technique has its challenges and perils. We review the current literature on transvenous AVM therapy and highlight its role for AVM therapy in the present day. PMID:26120797

  4. Occlusion of Arteriovenous Fistulas of In-Situ Saphenous Vein Bypass Grafts Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Libicher, Martin; Reichert, V.; Schwabe, H.; Matoussevitch, V.; Gawenda, M.

    2011-06-15

    We examined the safety and efficacy of vessel occlusion of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 (AVP-4) in patients with arteriovenous fistulas after in-situ saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 18 fistulas of seven patients (four women, mean {+-} standard deviation age 76 {+-} 7 years, range 63-88 years). All fistulas were detected within 14 days after surgery. Initial diagnosis and follow-up was established by sonography. We measured the diameter of the feeding vessel and the time of vessel occlusion after plug deployment. Additionally, we recorded procedure time and the dose area product. Additional interventional procedures were necessary in three patients. We successfully used 19 AVP-4 for occlusion of all fistulas without thromboembolic complications. There was no need for recapturing the device, and we did not observe dislocation. Mean occlusion time was 9.6 min (range 5-22 min). Mean diameter of the feeding vessels was 3.5 mm (range 2.6-5.1 mm). Plug sizes ranged from 4-8 mm (mean 5.5 mm) resulting in an oversizing of 33-88%. Mean procedure time for patients with and without additional intervention was 91 {+-} 38 min and 35 {+-} 18 min, respectively. Mean dose area product was 11,790 cGy/cm{sup 2} (range 1,850-23,500 cGy/cm{sup 2}). Permanent occlusion of the fistulas was confirmed by ultrasound after a mean follow-up of 4 months (1-6 months). Occlusion of arteriovenous fistulas with an AVP-4 seems to be effective and safe in patients with in-situ saphenous vein bypass grafts. The AVP-4 is well suited for this purpose because of the appropriate diameter of the feeding vessels.

  5. An unusual case of intraosseous vascular malformation of the maxilla mimicking fibrous dysplasia: a case report and literature review on imaging features of intraosseous vascular anomalies of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J-E; Yi, W-J; Heo, M-S; Lee, S-S; Choi, S-C

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular malformation (IVM) is a relatively rare pathological condition that may pose significant risks, such as excessive bleeding, during surgical procedures. We present a case of an 18-year-old female patient with firm swelling in the left maxilla. A bony expansion over the left half of the maxilla with preservation of the outer cortex and a ground glass appearance on CT images initially revealed a possibility of fibrous dysplasia. However, a tentative diagnosis of IVM was made based on the vascular nature of the lesion as well as the patient's surgical history and additional imaging findings. IVM should be included in the differential diagnosis of an expansile bony lesion with trabecular alteration. Through the literature review, it was found that imaging findings, such as a neurovascular canal widening on CT images and a hyperintense signal on T1 weighted MR images, might be helpful in differentiating IVM from other pathologies. PMID:24940806

  6. Early experience on peripheral vascular application of the vascular plugs

    PubMed Central

    Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Sinha, Alok Kumar; Kamana, Naveen Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcatheter closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with Amplatzer Vascular plugs I and II has been established. Here we present our experience with device closure. Materials and methods Between October 2006 and August 2012, nine (three males and six females) patients aged between 11 months and 62 years (mean age 19 years) underwent percutaneous device closure with AVP I and II vascular plugs for congenital and acquired arteriovenous malformation and cardiac diverticulum are presented here. Results One caseof coronary cameral fistula, four cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, one case of large major aortopulmonary collaterals (in tetralogy of Fallot closed before intracardiac repair), one case of congenital cardiac diverticulum, one case of fistula between external carotid artery and internal jugular vein and one case of iatrogenic carotid jugular fistula were successfully closed with AVP I and II plugs. Overall in nine cases, 16 AVP I and II plugs were deployed to occlude feeding vessels and one cardiac diverticulum. The technical success rate was 100%. No major complications were observed. Conclusion Amplatzer vascular plugs can be used successfully for closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with good result. PMID:24206877

  7. The Dural AV-Fistula (DAVF), the Most Frequent Acquired Vascular Malformation of the Central Nervous System (CNS).

    PubMed

    Wanke, I; Rfenacht, D A

    2015-10-01

    Acquired arteriovenous malformations, such as is the case with dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF), are the consequence of a pathological new arterial ingrowth into venous spaces that reaches directly the venous lumen, without interposition of a capillary network, thereby creating an AV-shunt.The following concise text will provide elements in regards to diagnosis, indication for treatment discussion and choice of endovascular treatment (EVT) method. PMID:26308245

  8. Dabigatran etexilate versus low-molecular weight heparin to control consumptive coagulopathy secondary to diffuse venous vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Ardillon, Laurent; Lambert, Catherine; Eeckhoudt, Stéphane; Boon, Laurence M; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse venous malformations can be associated with a consumptive coagulopathy characterized by a reduction of fibrinogen level, platelet count and elevated D-dimer level. We report a case of a patient with extensive venous malformations, hemorrhagic symptoms and biological signs of intravascular coagulopathy. She was initially treated effectively with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg, bid) and switched to low-dose dabigatran etexilate (110 mg bid) for more than 2 years. Both treatments showed a similar clinical efficacy with the absence of bleeding or thrombotic complications. Compared with LMWH, dabigatran etexilate provided a similar correction of the fibrinogen level and platelet count but was less effective to reduce the D-dimer level. Although dabigatran etexilate can be safely used to control the consumptive coagulopathy secondary to venous malformation and provides a practical alternative to LMWH, its efficacy in vivo at a low dose to reduce the D-dimer level was lower than that of LMWH. PMID:26484645

  9. Evaluation of decellularized human umbilical vein (HUV) for vascular tissue engineering - comparison with endothelium-denuded HUV.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Silvia; Schrammel, Siegfried; Huber, Georgine; Niemeyer, Markus; Schmid, Christof; Stangassinger, Manfred; Hoenicka, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical vessels have been recognized as a valuable and widely available resource for vascular tissue engineering. Whereas endothelium-denuded human umbilical veins (HUVs) have been successfully seeded with a patient-derived neoendothelium, decellularized vessels may have additional advantages, due to their lower antigenicity. The present study investigated the effects of three different decellularization procedures on the histological, mechanical and seeding properties of HUVs. Vessels were decellularized by detergent treatment (Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate, IGEPAL-CA630), osmotic lysis (3 m NaCl, distilled water) and peroxyacetic acid treatment. In all cases, nuclease treatments were required to remove residual nucleic acids. Decellularization resulted in a partial loss of fibronectin and laminin staining in the subendothelial layer and affected the appearance of elastic fibres. In addition to removing residual nucleic acids, nuclease treatment weakened all stainings and substantially altered surface properties, as seen in scanning electron micrographs, indicating additional non-specific effects. Detergent treatment and osmotic lysis caused failure stresses to decrease significantly. Although conditioned medium prepared from decellularized HUV did not severely affect endothelial cell growth, cells seeded on decellularized HUV did not remain viable. This may be attributed to the partial removal of essential extracellular matrix components as well as to changes of surface properties. Therefore, decellularized HUVs appear to require additional modifications in order to support successful cell seeding. Replacing the vessels' endothelium may thus be a superior alternative to decellularization when creating tissue-engineered blood vessels with non-immunogenic luminal interfaces. PMID:23038628

  10. Intraocular cytokines in retinal vein occlusion and its relation to the efficiency of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shchuko, Andrey G; Zlobin, Igor V; Iureva, Tatiana N; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Mikhalevich, Isay M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the change in the concentration of intraocular cytokines (ICs) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy (IVR), and to find the correlations of IC with clinical activity of RVO and efficiency of treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients aged 46–79 years old (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.5 years old) with RVO and macular edema (18 patients – with central RVO, 26 – with branch RVO) treated with IVR were included into the study. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were simultaneously measured in aqueous humor by flow fluorometry using Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine Panel, 27-Plex (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) at baseline and after the first IVR. Control group consisted of 20 age-matched patients. Results: The levels of 11 cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], receptor antagonist interleukin-1, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12r70, IL-13, IL-15, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) were significantly (P < 0.05) different compared to control and significantly (P < 0.05) changed after IVR both in central and branch RVO. The patients were divided into two groups: the first -“effective” and the second - “partially effective” therapy. The second group characterized by the higher concentrations of VEGF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and MCP-1 at baseline compared to the first group. Conclusion: The patients with RVO were characterized by the increased levels of VEGF and other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Aqueous concentration of cytokines were different in patients with central and branch RVO and significantly changed after IVR. Insufficient response to IVR was associated with activation of immune-inflammatory processes. PMID:26862095

  11. Lower-limb veins are thicker and vascular reactivity is decreased in a rat PCOS model: concomitant vitamin D3 treatment partially prevents these changes.

    PubMed

    Vrbr, Szabolcs; Sra, Levente; Antal, Pter; Monori-Kiss, Anna; T?ks, Anna-Mria; Monos, Emil; Benk?, Rita; Csibi, Nomi; Szekeres, Maria; Tarszabo, Robert; Novak, Agnes; Paragi, Pter; Ndasy, Gyrgy L

    2014-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes vascular damage to arteries; however, there are no data for its effect on veins. Our aim was to clarify the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS both on venous biomechanics and on pharmacological reactivity in a rat model and to test the possible modulatory role of vitamin D3 (vitD). PCOS was induced in female Wistar rats by DHT treatment (83 ?g/day, subcutaneous pellet). After 10 wk, the venous biomechanics, norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractility, and acetylcholine-induced relaxation were tested in saphenous veins from control animals and from animals treated with DHT or DHT with vitD using pressure angiography. Additionally, the expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) were measured using immunohistochemistry. Increased diameter, wall thickness, and distensibility as well as decreased vasoconstriction were detected after the DHT treatment. Concomitant vitD treatment lowered the mechanical load on the veins, reduced distensibility, and resulted in vessels that were more relaxed. Although there was no difference in the endothelial dilation tested using acetylcholine (ACh), the blocking effect of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) was lower and was accompanied by lower COX-2 expression in the endothelium after the DHT treatment. Supplementation with vitD prevented these alterations. eNOS expression did not differ among the three groups. We conclude that the hyperandrogenic state resulted in thicker vein walls. These veins showed early remodeling and altered vasorelaxant mechanisms similar to those of varicose veins. Alterations caused by the chronic DHT treatment were prevented partially by concomitant vitD administration. PMID:25015958

  12. Safety and Efficacy Study of Sirolimus in Complicated Vascular Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Kaposiform Hemangioendotheliomas; Tufted Angioma; Capillary Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation; Mucocutaneous Lymphangiomatosis and Thrombocytopenia; Capillary Lymphatic Arterial Venous Malformations; PTEN Overgrowth Syndrome With Vascular Anomaly; Lymphangiectasia Syndromes

  13. Chiari Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

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  14. Amphibian malformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    National Wildlife Health Center

    1998-01-01

    Frog malformations have been reported from 42 states. The broad geographic distribution of these malformations warrants national attention. Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin are studying this problem in an effort to document its scope and to determine the causes of the observed malformations.

  15. [Vascular anomalies: information documents].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are composed of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors and congenital vascular malformations: venous, lymphatic, arteriovenous and capillary malformations. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach. To help patients to understand their pathology, we have made some information documents. PMID:20598795

  16. [Multiple intracranial arteriovenous malformation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-Gonzlez, Miguel; Santin-Amo, Jos Mara; Romn-Pena, Paula; Vzquez Herrero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are thought to be exceedingly rare lesions and have usually been reported as single cases. The incidence of multiple cerebral AVMs in major series ranges from 0.3% to 9% and, in the majority of cases, these malformations are associated with other vascular anomalies of the brain or soft tissues. We report a 62-year-old woman that presented with a left temporal haemorrhage. Angiography showed 3 AVMs located in the left temporal lobe, left cerebellar hemisphere and right temporal lobe. The lesions were treated with radiosurgery. PMID:25596643

  17. Arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Haga, Junichirou; Azami, Ayaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Sato, Atai; Takano, Yoshinao; Kawakura, Kenji; Imai, Shigeki; Sakuma, Hideo; Teranishi, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is uncommon in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of AVM of the pancreatic head in a 59-year-old male. He was admitted to a hospital with hematemesis and tarry stool and referred to our hospital in March 2014 on the diagnosis of pancreatic artery pseudoaneurysm. A computed tomography scan showed the presence of irregular dilated and/or stenotic vessels with meandering in the pancreatic head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed strong enhancement of the conglomeration in the pancreatic head. Selective angiography showed the proliferation of a vascular network in the pancreatic head and an early visualization of the portal vein at the arterial phase. The patient qualified for surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of AVM of the pancreatic head. We performed pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histological results confirmed the presence of irregular dilated tortuous arteries and veins in the pancreatic head. Surgical treatment may represent definitive management of symptomatic AVM. PMID:26943682

  18. [Changes of hemo- and liquor-dynamics during intravascular interventions on venous-arterial malformations of the brain].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A Iu; Panuntsev, V S; Kondrat'ev, A N; Ivanova, N E; Petrov, A E; Cherepanova, E V; Vershinina, E A; Popova, E V; Ustaeva, I G

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the arterial and venous blood flow and liquor-dynamics during intravascular venous-arterial interventions were studied in 30 patients with venous-arterial malformations of the brain. It was found that against the background of reduced venous-arterial shunting no expected drop of pressure in the jugular veins occured. Data were obtained on possible active autoregulation of pressure by the jugular veins. The investigation of pressure in the sinus system of the brain has shown that it correlates with intracerebral and systemic arterial pressure. The results obtained can be used in vascular neurosurgery, anesthesiology and neurology. PMID:18652210

  19. Developmental venous anomaly, capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and arteriovenous malformation: spectrum of a common pathological entity?

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Zabramski, Joseph M; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations of the central nervous system are thought to originate from abnormal developmental processes during embryogenesis. Reports have cited the dynamic nature of these lesions and their "maturation" into other types of malformations. Herein we report on three patients with vascular malformations who exhibited dynamic alterations with stepwise progression of their lesions. These cases lend support to the hypothesis that these malformations may constitute the spectrum of a single disease caused by alterations in a common developmental program and that accumulating injury (e.g., by radiation) may allow one malformation type to mature into another. This concept warrants further investigation. PMID:26743915

  20. Characterization of the vasa vasorum in the human great saphenous vein: a scanning electron microscopy and 3D-morphometry study using vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Markus; Hlzenbein, Thomas Joachim; Minnich, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    The vasa vasorum (VV) of explanted segments of the human great saphenous vein (Vena saphena magna; HGSV), harvested during dissection for coronary bypass grafts or diseased vein segments from the "Salzburger Landesklinikum," were studied by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional morphometry of microvascular corrosion casts. The main objective of this study was to examine the VV's structural arrangement in order to find the most vital segments of the HGSV and in turn to improve the results of coronary bypass surgeries. The study presents a meticulous analysis of the whole microvascular system of the VV of the HGSV and its three-dimensional arrangement. It is one of the first studies yielding detailed quantitative data on geometry of the VV of the HGSV. A detailed insight into different vascular parameters such as vessel diameter, interbranching, intervascular distances, and branching angles at different levels of the VV's angioarchitecture and in different parts of the HGSV in health and disease is given. Further, the geometry of bifurcations was examined in order to compute the physiological optimality principles of this delicate vascular system based on its construction, maintenance, and function. PMID:24913662

  1. Change in vascular smooth muscle response to 5-HT due to short- or long-term endothelial denudation of the bovine digital vein.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Simona; Belloli, Chiara; Gogny, Marc; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Mallem, Mohamed Y

    2016-01-01

    Several chronic progressive vascular diseases, such as laminitis, show vasocontractile dysfunction that might evolve into reperfusion injury and/or vessel structural remodelling, which may be traced back to aberrant endothelial function. In the present study, the vasomotor responses of bovine digital veins (BDVs) to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were investigated in blood vessels, with and without endothelium present, and in samples deprived of endothelium before or after overnight incubation in tissue culture medium, to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term endothelial damage on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) reactivity. No significant effects were observed in the blood vessels tested immediately after the removal of endothelium. In contrast, a significant increase in VSM reactivity to 5-HT was seen in vessels incubated without endothelium. This long-term change in smooth muscle reactivity was prevented by exposure to the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroprusside (P?vascular response and the non-selective COX-inhibitor indomethacin exerted a moderate inhibitory effect (P?veins in animals affected with laminitis. PMID:26670334

  2. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Previous Section Next Section How Do Varicose Veins Impact My Health? Varicose veins can be cosmetically distressing ... What Causes Varicose Veins? How Do Varicose Veins Impact My Health? How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed? How ...

  3. Evaluation and management of peripheral venous and lymphatic malformations.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Naiem; Thomas, Jones; Cirillo-Penn, Nolan C

    2016-04-01

    The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) broadly categorizes vascular anomalies as vascular tumors or vascular malformations. The latter are congenital lesions that are further categorized by their flow properties and include high-flow arteriovenous malformations, slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, and congenital mixed syndromes, which can include a combination of malformations. Unlike vascular tumors, vascular malformations never regress and can persist and grow for the duration of the patient's lifespan. As our understanding of the natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes of these lesions has expanded and evolved over the last few decades, certain fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic principles have been established and are considered standard of care. These overarching principles are crucial to adhere to in the overall management of these lesions and are highlighted and expanded on in this report, which focuses exclusively on peripheral slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations. PMID:26993876

  4. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization of a Pelvic Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuzaki, Katsuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Sumi, Seiya; Ogata, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Kawakami, Shigeo; Ueda, Shohichi

    1999-11-15

    We successfully performed embolization therapy for a pelvic arteriovenous malformation by the retrograde transvenous approach using a liquid embolic material. This malformation was unique in that it had a single draining vein, which allowed this technique employing an occlusion balloon.

  5. Chiari Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Chiari Malformation ... Funding | News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | ...

  6. Arteriovenous Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... malformations. Other NINDS-funded investigators hope to develop biomarkers (signs that may indicate risk of a disease) ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Brain Aneurysm Foundation 269 Hanover Street, Building 3 Hanover, MA ...

  7. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePLUS

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  8. Chiari Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these tests: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , which uses magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to produce pictures ... ultrasound images before birth. Back Continue Treatment Most kids with Chiari malformations who don't have symptoms ...

  9. The persistent embryonic vein in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oduber, Charlène E U; Young-Afat, Danny A; van der Wal, Allard C; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Hennekam, Raoul C M; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2013-08-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a congenital malformation syndrome with prominent vascular anomalies. A persistent embryonic vein (PEV) may be located on the affected leg(s) of patients with KTS. Our understanding of PEVs of the legs is limited and their nomenclature is confusing. The objective of this study was to obtain further insight in the prevalence, nomenclature and etiology of PEVs of the legs in KTS and to propose a standardized description of anomalous leg veins in KTS. We investigated 70 KTS patients for the presence of PEVs (lateral marginal vein, LMV) of the legs by duplex ultrasonography. We performed histopathological analysis of a surgically excised PEV (LMV) of a typical KTS patient, and we conducted an extensive literature study. Duplex ultrasonography showed LMVs in 12/70 (17.1%) patients. The terms used to describe PEVs in the leg are quite variable, while indicating only two types: lateral marginal vein (LMV) and persistent sciatic vein (PSV). The histology of the excised LMV showed remarkable similarity with that of varicose veins found in the general population. In conclusion, the prevalence of LMVs in our KTS cohort is 17.1%. Two PEVs can be found in the legs and we propose nomenclature based on anatomical criteria, thereby using only the terms persistent lateral marginal vein and persistent sciatic vein, combined with the patency of the deep venous system. We hypothesize that PEVs are most likely caused by a genetic defect leading to abnormal venous pattern formation, which is further supported by our histopathological findings. PMID:23966121

  10. What Is Vascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pulmonary embolism (blood clots), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and varicose veins. Everyone is at risk for vascular disease. With the increase in obesity and Type II diabetes in Americans and as the population ages, it ...

  11. Vascular Injury Post Stent Implantation: Different Gene Expression Modulation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) Model

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Jonica; Vozzi, Federico; Penco, Silvana; Cozzi, Lorena; Caruso, Raffaele; Domenici, Claudio; Ahluwalia, Arti; Rial, Michela; Marraccini, Paolo; Parodi, Oberdan

    2014-01-01

    To explore whether stent procedure may influence transcriptional response of endothelium, we applied different physical (flow changes) and/or mechanical (stent application) stimuli to human endothelial cells in a laminar flow bioreactor (LFB) system. Gene expression analysis was then evaluated in each experimental condition. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were submitted to low and physiological (1 and 10 dyne/cm2) shear stress in absence (AS) or presence (PS) of stent positioning in a LFB system for 24 h. Different expressed genes, coming from Affymetrix results, were identified based on one-way ANOVA analysis with p values <0.01 and a fold changed >3 in modulus. Low shear stress was compared with physiological one in AS and PS conditions. Two major groups include 32 probes commonly expressed in both 1AS versus 10AS and 1PS versus 10PS comparison, and 115 probes consisting of 83 in addition to the previous 32, expressed only in 1PS versus 10PS comparison. Genes related to cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cholesterol transport/metabolism are differently regulated in 1PS versus 10PS condition. Inflammatory and apoptotic mediators seems to be, instead, closely modulated by changes in flow (1 versus 10), independently of stent application. Low shear stress together with stent procedure are the experimental conditions that mainly modulate the highest number of genes in our human endothelial model. Those genes belong to pathways specifically involved in the endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24587287

  12. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Ming-ming; Fan, Xin-dong; Su, Li-xin

    2013-10-15

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

  13. Chiari Malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the back of the head or the neck and contains brain matter. The covering of the brain or spinal ... fusion of segments of the bones in the neck, and extra folds in the brain. How common are Chiari malformations? In the past, ...

  14. Portal Vein Embolization Using a Nitinol Plug (Amplatzer Vascular Plug) in Combination with Histoacryl Glue and Iodinized Oil: Adequate Hypertrophy with a Reduced Risk of Nontarget Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Low, Deborah; Matson, Matthew B.; Renfrew, Ian; Fotheringham, Tim

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether portal vein embolization (PVE) using a nitinol vascular plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil minimizes the risk of nontarget embolization while obtaining good levels of future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy. Between November 2005 and August 2008, 16 patients (8 females, 8 males; mean age, 63 {+-} 3.6 years), each with a small FLR, underwent right ipsilateral transhepatic PVE prior to major hepatectomy. Proximal PVE was initially performed by placement of a nitinol vascular plug, followed by distal embolization using a mixture of histoacryl glue and iodinized oil. Pre- and 6 weeks postprocedural FLR volumes were calculated using computed tomographic imaging. Selection for surgery required an FLR of 0.5% of the patient's body mass. Clinical course and outcome of surgical resection for all patients were recorded. At surgery, the ease of hepatectomy was subjectively assessed in comparison to previous experience following PVE with alternative embolic agents. PVE was successful in all patients. Mean procedure time was 30.4 {+-} 2.5 min. Mean absolute increase in FLR volume was 68.9% {+-} 12.0% (p = 0.00005). There was no evidence of nontarget embolization during the procedure or on subsequent imaging. Nine patients proceeded to extended hepatectomy. Six patients demonstrated disease progression. One patient did not achieve sufficient hypertrophy in relation to body mass to undergo hepatic resection. At surgery, the hepatobiliary surgeons observed less periportal inflammation compared to previous experience with alternative embolic agents, facilitating dissection at extended hepatectomy. In conclusion, ipsilateral transhepatic PVE using a single nitinol plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil simplifies the procedure, offering short procedural times with minimal risk of nontarget embolization. Excellent levels of FLR hypertrophy are achieved enabling safe extended hepatectomy.

  15. Arteriovenous Malformation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Yakes, Wayne F.; Rossi, Plinio; Odink, Henk

    1996-11-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular lesions that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. In our institutions, initial workup consists of a clinical exam, color Doppler imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. After the initial noninvasive workup, arteriography, at times closed system venography, and ethanol endovascular repair of the AVM is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the lesion, additional Swan-Ganz line and arterial line monitoring are performed. Patients are usually observed overnight and uneventfully discharged the following day if no complication occurs. Patients are followed at periodic intervals despite cure of their lesion. Long-term follow-up is essential in AVM management.

  16. Glomuvenous malformation: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Flors, Lucia; Norton, Patrick T; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of a glomuvenous malformation involving the dorsal aspect of the right hand and distal forearm in an 11-year-old boy. He had a history of multiple vascular anomalies since birth and presented with increasing right hand pain. MRI played an important role in characterizing and determining the extent of the lesion. In particular, dynamic time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography precisely defined its vascularity. The diagnosis was made histopathologically after partial resection of the lesion. Glomuvenous malformation is a rare developmental hamartoma that originates from the glomus body. Clinically they usually resemble a venous malformation but they are a different entity. In the appropriate clinical setting this rare condition must be included in the differential diagnosis of a vascular malformation, especially when subtle arterial enhancement, early venous shunting and progressive filling of dilated venous spaces are depicted on MRA. PMID:24996811

  17. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  18. Standard varicose vein surgery.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J M T

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the practice of standard varicose vein surgery including sapheno-femoral and sapheno-popliteal ligation, perforator surgery and surgery for recurrent varicose veins. The technique of exposure of the sapheno-femoral junction and the sapheno-popliteal junction is outlined and advice given on avoidance of complications for both. The evidence regarding methods of closure over the ligated sapheno-femoral junction is examined as is the requirement for stripping and the use of different types of stripper. The requirement to strip the small saphenous vein and the extent of dissection necessary in the popliteal fossa is also examined. Complications of standard varicose vein surgery are outlined. The frequency of wound infection, nerve injury, vascular injury and venous thromboembolism are listed and strategies to avoid these complications are examined. PMID:19307439

  19. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability. PMID:17911565

  20. The ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G polymorphism is associated with organ vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients with ENG mutations, but not in patients with ACVRL1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E; McCulloch, Charles E; Lawton, Michael T; Young, William L; Kim, Helen; Faughnan, Marie E

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by vascular malformations (VMs) and caused by mutations in TGF?/BMP9 pathway genes, most commonly ENG or ACVRL1. Patients with HHT have diverse manifestations related to skin and mucosal telangiectases and organ VMs, including arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a role for genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that the ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G and ENG c.207G>A polymorphisms, previously associated with sporadic brain AVM, are associated with organ VM in HHT. We genotyped these variants in 716 patients with HHT and evaluated association of genotype with presence of any organ VM, and specifically with brain VM, liver VM and pulmonary AVM, by multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by HHT mutation. Among all patients with HHT, neither polymorphism was significantly associated with presence of any organ VM; ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G showed a trend toward association with pulmonary AVM (OR?=?1.48, P?=?0.062). ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was significantly associated with any VM among patients with HHT with ENG (OR?=?2.66, P?=?0.022), but not ACVRL1 (OR?=?0.79, P?=?0.52) mutations. ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was also associated with pulmonary AVM and liver VM among ENG mutation heterozygotes. There were no significant associations between ENG c.207G>A and any VM phenotype. These results suggest that common polymorphisms in HHT genes other than the mutated gene modulate phenotype severity of HHT disease, specifically presence of organ VM. PMID:25847705

  1. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the valves are weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes ... pregnancy. Doctors often diagnose varicose veins from a physical exam. ... to remove them. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Remedy for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peirong; Niu, Wenquan; Ni, Zhentian; Wang, Renzuo; Sun, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associates with severe vision outcome and no proven beneficial treatment. Our meta-analysis intended to appraise the efficacy and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents in macular edema (ME) following CRVO. Methods Data were collected and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2.1. We employed a random-effects model to eliminate between-study heterogeneity. Nfs (called fail-safe number) was calculated to evaluate the publication bias. Results We included 5 trials consisting 323 cases and 281 controls. Primary outcomes showed that overall comparison of anti-VEGF agents with placebo control yielded a 374% and 136% increased tendency for a gain of 15 letters or more on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.439.23; P<0.00001; I2?=?59%, 95% CI: 1.603.49; P<0.0001; I2?=?0%, respectively) at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes showed that a 90% and 77% decreased risk at 6 and 12 months for a loss of 15 letters or more. The overall mean difference showed a statistically significance in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) on each time point. However, changes of central retinal thickness (CRT) lost significance at 12 months after 6-month as-needed treatment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) had no statistical difference between anti-VEGF and placebo groups. Subgroup analyses indicated that patients receiving Aflibercept got the highest tendency to gain 15 letters or more (OR?=?9.78; 95% CI: 4.4321.56; P<0.00001). Age controlled analysis suggested a weaken tendency of BCVA improvement in age over 50 (MD?=?12.26; 95% CI: 7.5516.98; P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis by clinical classification showed a strengthen difference of BCVA changes at 6 months in ischemic type (MD?=?19.65 letters, 95% CI: 13.15 to 26.14 letters, P<0.00001). Conclusions Our results showed that anti-VEGF agents were superior to placebo in CRVO-ME treatment with no statistically significant AEs, especially in younger people and for ischemic type. PMID:24376538

  3. Arteriovenous malformations and headache.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jason A; Mejia Munne, Juan C; Lavine, Sean D; Meyers, Philip M; Connolly, E Sander; Solomon, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are complex vascular lesions commonly associated with chronic headache. An occipital location appears to increase the risk of concurrent migraine-like headaches in AVM patients. We have experienced great success in treating these headaches through a multidisciplinary approach to eradicate cerebral AVM. However, the specific clinical characteristics of AVM-associated headaches and the most effective treatment strategies for these patients remain unclear. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on AVM-associated headaches. We detail the history, classification, epidemiology, presentation, pathophysiology, treatment options, and outcomes for this poorly described condition. Additionally, we illustrate our approach to the management of patients with occipital AVM and associated intractable headaches. PMID:26461909

  4. Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management

    PubMed Central

    Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcelluloseethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area. PMID:20870869

  5. Arteries and Veins of the Sylvian Fissure and Insula: Microsurgical Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Delion, Matthieu; Mercier, Philippe; Brassier, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We present a vascular anatomical study of the arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure and insula.A good knowledge of the sylvian fissure, the insula, and their vascular relationship would seem mandatory before performing surgery in this area, whatever the type of surgery (aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, insular tumors).We start with the sylvian fissure and insula morphology, followed by the MCA description and its perforators, with special attention paid to the insular perforators. We demonstrate that the long insular perforators penetrating in the superior part of the posterior short gyrus and long gyri vascularize, respectively, the corticonuclear and corticospinal fasciculi. We particularly insist too on three anatomical constants regarding the vascularization of the insula, already described in the literature: The superior periinsular sulcus is the only sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain without an artery along its axis; the superior branch of the MCA supplies the anterior insular pole and both the anterior and middle short gyri in 100 % of cases; in at least 90 % of cases, the artery that supplied the central insular sulcus continued on to become the central artery.We end with the anatomical study of the veins and cisterns. PMID:26508410

  6. Malformations in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    MILLS, JAMES L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal insulin-dependent diabetes has long been associated with congenital malformations. As other causes of mortality and morbidity have been eliminated or reduced, malformations have become increasingly prominent. Although there is not universal agreement, the great majority of investigators find a two- to threefold increase in malformations in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers. This increase is not seen in infants of gestational diabetics. It probably is not present in women whose diabetes can be controlled by diet or oral hypoglycemic agents. The risk does not appear to be primarily genetic since diabetic fathers do not have an increased number of malformed offspring. Most studies show a generalized increase in malformations involving multiple organ systems. Multiple malformations seem to be more common in diabetic than non-diabetic infants. Caudal regression has the strongest association with diabetes, occurring roughly 200 times more frequently in infants of diabetic mothers than in other infants. The teratogenic mechanism in diabetes is not known. Hyperglycemia may be important but human studies focusing on the period of organogenesis are lacking. Hypoglycemia has also been suggested based mainly on animal experiments. Insulin appears unlikely. Numerous other factors including vascular disease, hypoxia, ketone and amino acid abnormalities, glycosylation of proteins, or hormone imbalances could be teratogenic. None has been studied in sufficient detail to make a judgment. A large-scale prospective study is required to determine early fetal loss rates, correlate metabolic status during organogenesis with outcome, and assess the effect of diabetic control on malformation rates. PMID:20973049

  7. Neuropathology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children.

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, S; Becker, L E

    1980-01-01

    Neuropathological findings in children who had died of cerebral arteriovenous malformation under 6 years of age were contrasted with those of children aged 6 to 15 years. In all subjects, the abnormalities were more marked in the shunting vessels and veins distal to the arteriovenous shunt than in the arteries. Fibrous thickening, calcification an adherent thrombus of vessel wall, and gliosis and haemosiderin in contiguous neural tissue were more common in the older than the younger children. Children less than 1 week old with vein of Galen malformations presented with congestive heart failure and "watershed" cerebral infarction; most of those over one week old had hydrocephalus and venous thrombosis with haemorrhagic infarction. Images PMID:7420086

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Malformations. Consensus Document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP): updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, B B; Baumgartner, I; Berlien, P; Bianchini, G; Burrows, P; Gloviczki, P; Huang, Y; Laredo, J; Loose, D A; Markovic, J; Mattassi, R; Parsi, K; Rabe, E; Rosenblatt, M; Shortell, C; Stillo, F; Vaghi, M; Villavicencio, L; Zamboni, P

    2015-04-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are the most common vascular developmental anomalies (birth defects) . These defects are caused by developmental arrest of the venous system during various stages of embryogenesis. VMs remain a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the wide range of clinical presentations, unpredictable clinical course, erratic response to the treatment with high recurrence/ persistence rates, high morbidity following non-specific conventional treatment, and confusing terminology. The Consensus Panel reviewed the recent scientific literature up to the year 2013 to update a previous IUP Consensus (2009) on the same subject. ISSVA Classification with special merits for the differentiation between the congenital vascular malformation (CVM) and vascular tumors was reinforced with an additional review on syndrome-based classification. A "modified" Hamburg classification was adopted to emphasize the importance of extratruncular vs. truncular sub-types of VMs. This incorporated the embryological ongm, morphological differences, unique characteristics, prognosis and recurrence rates of VMs based on this embryological classification. The definition and classification of VMs were strengthened with the addition of angiographic data that determines the hemodynamic characteristics, the anatomical pattern of draining veins and hence the risk of complication following sclerotherapy. The hemolymphatic malformations, a combined condition incorporating LMs and other CVMs, were illustrated as a separate topic to differentiate from isolated VMs and to rectify the existing confusion with name-based eponyms such as Klippei-Trenaunay syndrome. Contemporary concepts on VMs were updated with new data including genetic findings linked to the etiology of CVMs and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Besides, newly established information on coagulopathy including the role of D-Dimer was thoroughly reviewed to provide guidelines on investigations and anticoagulation therapy in the management of VMs. Congenital vascular bone syndrome resulting in angio-osteo-hyper/hypotrophy and (lateral) marginal vein was separately reviewed. Background data on arterio-venous malformations was included to differentiate this anomaly from syndromebased VMs. For the treatment, a new section on laser therapy and also a practical guideline for follow up assessment were added to strengthen the management principle of the multidisciplinary approach. All other therapeutic modalities were thoroughly updated to accommodate a changing concept through the years. PMID:24566499

  9. Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child with Extensive Involvement of the Mandible and Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Andrew L.; George, Augustine; Long, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation of both the maxilla and mandible in a pediatric patient is a very rare phenomenon that carries with it a high mortality rate. Arteriovenous malformations, sometimes known as simple vascular tumors, can be present from birth or acquired over time due to trauma, surgery, or any kind of vascular manipulation of an area of the body. PMID:20671863

  10. Successful Treatment of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation by Repeated Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jimyung; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jee min

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are caused by abnormal vascular communications between the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins, which lead to the blood bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary beds. Pulmonary AVMs result in right-to-left shunts, resulting in hypoxemia, cyanosis, and dyspnea. Clinical signs and symptoms vary depending on the size, number, and flow of the AVMs. Transcatheter embolization is the treatment of choice for pulmonary AVMs. However, this method can fail if the AVM is large or has multiple complex feeding arteries. Surgical resection is necessary in those kind of cases. Here, we report the case of a patient with a 6-cm pulmonary AVM with multiple feeding arteries that was successfully treated by repeated coil embolization without surgery. PMID:26508934

  11. Venous Sac Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Preliminary Experience Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji; Tanimura, Keiichi; Honda, Masanori; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Toei, Hisao; Hyodoh, Hideki; Furuse, Makoto; Yamada, Tomonori; Aburano, Tamio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the indication and advantages of venous sac embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). Methods: We performed percutaneous embolization in 12 PAVMs in four patients using IDCs, initially placed in the venous sac or at the feeding artery to prevent systemic migration of additional coils. We placed the IDCs in the venous sac in PAVMs with the following vascular architecture: the draining vein was larger than the feeding arteries and both vessels were interposed with the venous sac or there were short feeding arteries. Results: Complete occlusion was achieved in all 12 PAVMs without significant complications. We deployed IDCs in the venous sac in eight PAVMs and in the feeding artery in four. Conclusion: Venous sac embolization may be beneficial in PAVMs with large out-flow vessels or short feeding arteries. IDCs are suitable for this procedure.

  12. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lakes are varicose veins that appear on the face and neck. Reticular veins are flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the ... STATEMENT FOIA OIG CONTACT US National ...

  13. Retinal vein occlusion in retinal racemose hemangioma: a case report and literature review of ocular complications in this rare retinal vascular disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Retinal racemose hemangioma (RRH) is a rare congenital disorder that often co-occurs with other ocular complications. In this study, we present a case of RRH complicated with retinal vein obstruction in three branches and provide a review of ocular complications and associations with RRH. Case presentation One case of RRH is presented. Fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FFA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the patient identified Group 3 RRH complicated with retinal vein occlusions in the superotemporal, inferotemporal, and inferonasal branches. Macular edema, which causes visual impairment, was detected. A brief literature review was also presented. The PubMed database was searched for RRH or related keywords to find reports of ocular complications or associations published on or before Dec. 31, 2013. A total of 140 papers describing167 RRH cases were found. The mean age of diagnosis was 22.97 years. Ocular complications were mentioned in 32 (19.16%) cases. Retinal vein occlusion (46.88%) was the major ocular complication in RRH, followed by hemorrhage (34.38%). Eight (4.79%) cases were associated with other ocular diseases such as SturgeWeber syndrome , Morning glory disc anomaly and macroaneurysm. Conclusions Although RRH is a relatively non-progressive condition, its complications may lead to vision loss and should be treated in time. PMID:25142779

  14. Personal Authentication Analysis Using Finger-Vein Patterns in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases—Possible Association with Vascular Disease and Seasonal Change -

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Miyuki; Miura, Naoto; Fujii, Takao; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Imura, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Ran; Ikeda, Takaharu; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Miyatake, Takafumi; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how connective tissue diseases affect finger-vein pattern authentication. Methods The finger-vein patterns of 68 patients with connective tissue diseases and 24 healthy volunteers were acquired. Captured as CCD (charge-coupled device) images by transmitting near-infrared light through fingers, they were followed up in once in each season for one year. The similarity of the follow-up patterns and the initial one was evaluated in terms of their normalized cross-correlation C. Results The mean C values calculated for patients tended to be lower than those calculated for healthy volunteers. In midwinter (February in Japan) they showed statistically significant reduction both as compared with patients in other seasons and as compared with season-matched healthy controls, whereas the values calculated for healthy controls showed no significant seasonal changes. Values calculated for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) or mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) showed major reductions in November and, especially, February. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis (DM/PM) did not show statistically significant seasonal changes in C values. Conclusions Finger-vein patterns can be used throughout the year to identify patients with connective tissue diseases, but some attention is needed for patients with advanced disease such as SSc. PMID:26701644

  15. Vascular Anomalies Classification: Recommendations From the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wassef, Michel; Blei, Francine; Adams, Denise; Alomari, Ahmad; Baselga, Eulalia; Berenstein, Alejandro; Burrows, Patricia; Frieden, Ilona J; Garzon, Maria C; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan-Carlos; Lord, David J E; Mitchel, Sally; Powell, Julie; Prendiville, Julie; Vikkula, Miikka

    2015-07-01

    Vascular anomalies represent a spectrum of disorders from a simple "birthmark" to life- threatening entities. Incorrect nomenclature and misdiagnoses are commonly experienced by patients with these anomalies. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for appropriate evaluation and management, often requiring multidisciplinary specialists. Classification schemes provide a consistent terminology and serve as a guide for pathologists, clinicians, and researchers. One of the goals of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) is to achieve a uniform classification. The last classification (1997) stratified vascular lesions into vascular malformations and proliferative vascular lesions (tumors). However, additional disease entities have since been identified that are complex and less easily classified by generic headings, such as capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, etc. We hereby present the updated official ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies. The general biological scheme of the classification is retained. The section on tumors has been expanded and lists the main recognized vascular tumors, classified as benign, locally aggressive or borderline, and malignant. A list of well-defined diseases is included under each generic heading in the "Simple Vascular Malformations" section. A short definition is added for eponyms. Two new sections were created: one dealing with the malformations of individually named vessels (previously referred to as "truncular" malformations); the second groups lesions of uncertain or debated nature (tumor versus malformation). The known genetic defects underlying vascular anomalies are included in an appendix. This classification is meant to be a framework, acknowledging that it will require modification as new scientific information becomes available. PMID:26055853

  16. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Yamabuki, Takumi; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Okamura, Kunishige; Kuroda, Aki; Takahashi, Ryo; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu

    2014-01-01

    An unusual case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (P-AVM) combined with esophageal cancer is reported. A 59-year-old man was admitted with upper abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed numerous strongly enhanced abnormal vessels and a hypovascular lesion in the area of the pancreatic tail. Angiographic study of the celiac artery confirmed racemose vascular networks in the tail of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed narrowing and displacement of the main pancreatic duct in the tail of the pancreas. Screening esophagoscopy showed a 0-IIa+IIc type tumor in the lower thoracic esophagus. Histological examination of esophagoscopic biopsies showed squamous cell carcinoma. Based on these findings, P-AVM or pancreatic cancer and esophageal cancer were diagnosed. Video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy and distal pancreatectomy were performed. Histological examination of the resected pancreas revealed abundant abnormal vessels with intravascular thrombi. In addition, rupture of a dilated pancreatic duct with pancreatic stones and both severe atrophy and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma were observed. The final diagnoses were P-AVM consequent to severe chronic pancreatitis and esophageal carcinoma. The patient's postoperative course was relatively good. PMID:24574946

  17. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart pumps the blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen. The oxygen-rich blood then is pumped ... returns to your heart through your veins to pick up more oxygen. For more information about blood flow, ...

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres-induced lateral axonal sprouting into the vein graft bridging two healthy nerves: nerve graft prefabrication using controlled release system.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Ulkur, Ersin; Kerimoglu, Oya; Alarcin, Emine; Sahin, Cihan; Akakin, Dilek; Dortunc, Betul

    2012-11-01

    The most commonly used surgical technique for repairing segmental nerve defects is autogenous nerve grafting; however, this method causes donor site morbidity. In this study, we sought to produce prefabricated nerve grafts that can serve as a conduit instead of autologous nerve using a controlled release system created with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. The study was performed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, VEGF-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared. Thirty rats were used for the in vivo studies. Vein grafts were sutured between the tibial and peroneal nerves in all animals. Three groups were created, and an epineural window, partial incision, and microsphere application were performed, respectively. Walking track analysis, morphologic, and electron microscopic assessment were performed at the end of the eight weeks. Microspheres were produced in spherical shapes as required. Controlled release of VEGF was achieved during a 30-days period. Although signs of nerve injury occurred initially in the partial incision groups according to the indexes of peroneal and tibial function, it improved gradually. The index values were not affected in the other groups. There were many myelinated fibers with large diameters in the partial incision and controlled release groups, while a few myelinated fibers that passed through vein graft in the epineural window group. Thereby, prefabrication was carried out for the second and third groups. It was demonstrated that nerve graft can be prefabricated by the controlled delivery of VEGF. PMID:22821743

  19. Evaluation and management of congenital peripheral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Naiem; Cirillo-Penn, Nolan C; Thomas, Jones

    2015-12-01

    The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) broadly categorizes vascular anomalies into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular malformations are further divided based on their flow properties into slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and congenital mixed syndromes, which can include combinations thereof. Whether occurring in isolation or as part of a broader syndrome, congenital high-flow AVMs are arguably the most complicated, challenging, and gratifying of all vascular malformations to diagnose and manage. Various configurations exist depending on location and coexisting clinical features. Transcatheter embolization has evolved into the mainstay of treatment for most congenital peripheral AVMs with surgical excision playing a growingly limited role as an adjunctive modality. Successful treatment requires technical precision, creativity, patience, and persistence given the ever-evolving angioarchitecture and hemodynamic profile of these lesions. Despite these challenges, certain fundamental principles have been established as our understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes has expanded and evolved over the last few decades. These principles are crucial to adhere to in the overall management of these lesions and are highlighted and expanded upon herein. PMID:26598124

  20. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patients age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudsons double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

  1. Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, H J S; Martin, L G; Patel, T H

    2014-01-01

    The term vascular anomaly represents a broad spectrum of vascular pathology, including proliferating vascular tumours and vascular malformations. While the treatment of most vascular anomalies is multifactorial, interventional radiology procedures, including embolic therapy, sclerotherapy and laser coagulation among others, are playing an increasingly important role in vascular anomaly management. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of common vascular malformations, with emphasis on the technique, efficacy and complications of different interventional radiology procedures. PMID:24588666

  2. Systems biology and proteomic analysis of cerebral cavernous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Alexander R; Schwartz-Baxter, Sarah; Dibble, Christopher F; Byrd, Warren C; Carlson, Jim; Saldarriaga, Ivandario; Bencharit, Sompop

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular anomalies caused by mutations in genes encoding KRIT1, OSM and PDCD10 proteins causing hemorrhagic stroke. We examine proteomic change of loss of CCM gene expression. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells, label-free differential protein expression analysis with multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was applied to three CCM protein knockdown cell lines and two control cell lines: ProteomeXchange identifier PXD000362. Principle component and cluster analyses were used to examine the differentially expressed proteins associated with CCM. The results from the five cell lines revealed 290 and 192 differentially expressed proteins (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). Most commonly affected proteins were cytoskeleton-associated proteins, in particular myosin-9. Canonical genetic pathway analysis suggests that CCM may be a result of defective cell–cell interaction through dysregulation of cytoskeletal associated proteins. Conclusion The work explores signaling pathways that may elucidate early detection and novel therapy for CCM. PMID:24684205

  3. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  4. Mutations in a novel factor, glomulin, are responsible for glomuvenous malformations ("glomangiomas").

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence M; Mulliken, John B; Enjolras, Odile; Ghassib, Michella; Warman, Matthew L; Tan, O T; Olsen, Bjorn R; Vikkula, Miikka

    2002-04-01

    Glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) are cutaneous venous lesions characterized by the presence of smooth-muscle--like glomus cells in the media surrounding distended vascular lumens. We have shown that heritable GVMs link to a 4--6-cM region in chromosome 1p21-22. We also identified linkage disequilibrium that allowed a narrowing of this VMGLOM locus to 1.48 Mb. Herein, we report the identification of the mutated gene, glomulin, localized on the basis of the YAC and PAC maps. An incomplete cDNA sequence for glomulin had previously been designated "FAP48," for "FKBP-associated protein of 48 kD." The complete cDNA for glomulin contains an open reading frame of 1,785 nt encoding a predicted protein of 68 kD. The gene consists of 19 exons in which we identified 14 different germline mutations in patients with GVM. In addition, we found a somatic "second hit" mutation in affected tissue of a patient with an inherited genomic deletion. Since all but one of the mutations result in premature stop codons, and since the localized nature of the lesions could be explained by Knudson's two-hit model, GVMs are likely caused by complete loss of function of glomulin. The abnormal phenotype of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) in GVMs suggests that glomulin plays an important role in differentiation of these cells--and, thereby, in vascular morphogenesis--especially in cutaneous veins. PMID:11845407

  5. Mutations in a Novel Factor, Glomulin, Are Responsible for Glomuvenous Malformations (Glomangiomas)

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence M.; Mulliken, John B.; Enjolras, Odile; Ghassib, Michella; Warman, Matthew L.; Tan, O. T.; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2002-01-01

    Glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) are cutaneous venous lesions characterized by the presence of smooth-musclelike glomus cells in the media surrounding distended vascular lumens. We have shown that heritable GVMs link to a 46-cM region in chromosome 1p21-22. We also identified linkage disequilibrium that allowed a narrowing of this VMGLOM locus to 1.48 Mb. Herein, we report the identification of the mutated gene, glomulin, localized on the basis of the YAC and PAC maps. An incomplete cDNA sequence for glomulin had previously been designated FAP48, for FKBP-associated protein of 48 kD. The complete cDNA for glomulin contains an open reading frame of 1,785 nt encoding a predicted protein of 68 kD. The gene consists of 19 exons in which we identified 14 different germline mutations in patients with GVM. In addition, we found a somatic second hit mutation in affected tissue of a patient with an inherited genomic deletion. Since all but one of the mutations result in premature stop codons, and since the localized nature of the lesions could be explained by Knudson's two-hit model, GVMs are likely caused by complete loss of function of glomulin. The abnormal phenotype of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) in GVMs suggests that glomulin plays an important role in differentiation of these cellsand, thereby, in vascular morphogenesisespecially in cutaneous veins. PMID:11845407

  6. Multiple Venous Malformations with Phleboliths: Radiological-Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Shankar, Ashwini Naveen; Vemanna, Naveen Shankar; Cholleti, Sudheer Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Vascular malformations are congenital lesions that are present at birth and do not regress. However, they often present later in life. They are subdivided into two categories: (1) slow- or low-flow and (2) fast- or high-flow malformations. Low-flow malformations contain combinations of capillary, venous, and lymphatic components. Venous malformations can occur anywhere in the body, but are most frequently seen in the head and neck (40%). These lesions present in a variety of ways, from a vague blue patch to a soft blue mass, which may be single isolated or may occur in multiple areas. Treatment depends on the type of lesion, the location, degree of involvement, and the clinical symptoms. Here we are report the imaging and histopathologic findings in a patient with multiple venous malformations affecting the left side of the face and trunk. PMID:24516776

  7. Novel transcatheter closure of internal iliac arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Shankarappa, Ravindranath Khandenahally; Panneerselvam, Arunkumar; Dwarakaprasad, Ramesh; Chikkaswamy, Srinivas Budanur; Nayak, Mohan Honnayya; Nanjappa, Manjunath Cholenahally

    2011-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations arising from iliac arteries are rare anomalies. Percutaneous embolization of such malformations is an established therapeutic option. In this paper, we will describe a case, wherein the internal iliac artery feeding a giant arteriovenous fistula was closed using a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) duct occluder percutaneously. The PDA duct occluder is a versatile device that can be used as an alternative to vascular plugs. PMID:24122535

  8. Adjuvant role of anti-angiogenic drugs in the management of head and neck arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Dalmonte, Pietro; Moneghini, Laura; Ferrari, Daris; Allevi, Fabiana

    2015-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are high-flow vascular malformations characterised by a complex vessel network directly connecting feeding arteries and draining veins, typically featured by a natural history of progression, while spontaneous regressions are purely anecdotal. AVMs are very aggressive entities that possess a locally infiltrative behaviour like neoplasms. Complete "radical" surgical excision presents the highest chance of cure, but nowadays there is still considerable controversy on how to treat large AVMs that are not amenable of "radical" excision. The aim of this paper is to propose a different approach to treat vast AVMs that cannot be removed radically. The association of an antiangiogenic drug (to be initiated before surgery and to be continued in the post-operative period), could prevent the feared "explosive" growth of the remaining nidus after its partial removal. This could make recontouring and other "aesthetically" focused procedures feasible in these patients, with an obvious leap in their quality of life. The most promising antiangiogenic drug seems to be Thalidomide, but other drugs such as Sirolimus, VEGF pathway inhibitors, Interferon or Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Inhibitors could serve the purpose just as well. Even Propranolol could prove useful in this sense as suggested by some recent researches on retinopathy of prematurity and tumour biology. PMID:26049824

  9. Embolization and radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Plasencia, Andres R.; Santillan, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires a multidisciplinary management including microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). This article reviews the recent advancements in the multimodality treatment of patients with AVMs using endovascular neurosurgery and SRS. We describe the natural history of AVMs and the role of endovascular and radiosurgical treatment as well as their interplay in the management of these complex vascular lesions. Also, we present some representative cases treated at our institution. PMID:22826821

  10. Capillary MalformationArteriovenous Malformation, a New Clinical and Genetic Disorder Caused by RASA1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Iiro; Boon, Laurence M.; Mulliken, John B.; Burrows, Patricia E.; Dompmartin, Anne; Watanabe, Shoji; Vanwijck, Romain; Vikkula, Miikka

    2003-01-01

    Capillary malformation (CM), or port-wine stain, is a common cutaneous vascular anomaly that initially appears as a red macular stain that darkens over years. CM also occurs in several combined vascular anomalies that exhibit hypertrophy, such as Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and Parkes Weber syndrome. Occasional familial segregation of CM suggests that there is genetic susceptibility, underscored by the identification of a large locus, CMC1, on chromosome 5q. We used genetic fine mapping with polymorphic markers to reduce the size of the CMC1 locus. A positional candidate gene, RASA1, encoding p120-RasGAP, was screened for mutations in 17 families. Heterozygous inactivating RASA1 mutations were detected in six families manifesting atypical CMs that were multiple, small, round to oval in shape, and pinkish red in color. In addition to CM, either arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, or Parkes Weber syndrome was documented in all the families with a mutation. We named this newly identified association caused by RASA1 mutations CM-AVM, for capillary malformationarteriovenous malformation. The phenotypic variability can be explained by the involvement of p120-RasGAP in signaling for various growth factor receptors that control proliferation, migration, and survival of several cell types, including vascular endothelial cells. PMID:14639529

  11. Imaging the spontaneous obliteration of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation using c-arm cone beam computed tomography: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Braileanu, Maria; Yang, Wuyang; Caplan, Justin M.; Huang, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous occlusion of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) without treatment is a rare occurrence. Case Description: We report the case of a 56-year-old male who presented with aphasia and right hemiparesis secondary to intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and c-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) demonstrated a 5 mm Spetzler-Martin Grade III left thalamic AVM drained by the internal cerebral vein. Subsequent DSA and CBCT studies confirmed the spontaneous obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions: In this case, CBCT provided high resolution imaging of the AVM. Future clinical use of CBCT as an adjunct to DSA may enhance the diagnostic and therapeutic imaging of vascular lesions. PMID:26500802

  12. Mechanisms of vascular stability and the relationship to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew C.P.; Li, Dean Y.; Whitehead, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The genetic basis for a variety of vascular malformation syndromes have been described, with an increasing functional understanding of the associated genes. Recent findings Genes responsible for familial vascular malformation syndromes have increasingly been shown to be involved in the control of vascular stability. Summary Genes involved in vascular stability pathways are good candidates for causing vascular malformation syndromes. Although these findings confirm the biologic importance of the involved pathways, further explanations are required to describe the focal nature of disease. PMID:20308891

  13. Pediatric neuroanesthesia. Arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Newfield, P; Hamid, R K

    2001-06-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations can occur singly, multiply, and in conjunction with aneurysms and denovo, family, or in conjunction with connective-tissue disorders. Intracranial hemorrhage is the most common presentation, occurring in 20% to 50% of cases. In children, seizures are the second most common presentation occurring in 15% to 20% of cases. The modalities available treatment of arteriovenous malformations are microsurgery, embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery with heavy particles, alpha knife, or linear accelerator. Induction, maintenance, and emergence from anesthesia are designed to prevent rupture of arteriovenous malformation and aneurysm and to improve intracranial compliance in the presence of an intracranial hematoma, during both diagnostic (CT, MR scanning) and therapeutic procedures. PMID:11469062

  14. Congenital Brain and Spinal Cord Malformations and Their Associated Cutaneous Markers.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mark; Partington, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The brain, spinal cord, and skin are all derived from the embryonic ectoderm; this common derivation leads to a high association between central nervous system dysraphic malformations and abnormalities of the overlying skin. A myelomeningocele is an obvious open malformation, the identification of which is not usually difficult. However, the relationship between congenital spinal cord malformations and other cutaneous malformations, such as dimples, vascular anomalies (including infantile hemangiomata and other vascular malformations), congenital pigmented nevi or other hamartomata, or midline hairy patches may be less obvious but no less important. Pediatricians should be aware of these associations, recognize the cutaneous markers associated with congenital central nervous system malformations, and refer children with such markers to the appropriate specialist in a timely fashion for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:26416933

  15. Synergistic protective effects of escin and low‑dose glucocorticoids against vascular endothelial growth factor‑induced blood‑retinal barrier breakdown in retinal pigment epithelial and umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenglan; Man, Xuejing; Yu, Huajun; Liu, Limei; Li, Yuanbin

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that escin possesses glucocorticoid (GC)‑like anti‑edematous and anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects against blood‑retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GC in an in vitro monolayer BRB model, based on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) administered separately did not affect BRB trans‑endothelial (epithelium) resistance (TEER). However, when administered together, escin and TA significantly inhibited reduced BRB TEER following treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, low‑concentrations of escin and TA administered together significantly increased the expression levels of occludin and ZO‑1. This demonstrates that escin and GC have synergistic protective effects against BRB breakdown, and the molecular mechanisms may be related to the upregulation of occludin and ZO‑1 expression. The combination of escin with GC indicates a potential beneficial strategy for the treatment of breakdown of the BRB. PMID:25370688

  16. Pars Plana Vitrectomy Combined with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Treat Persistent Macular Edema after Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Cases of Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Shirakata, Yukari; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in cases of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) where macular edema (ME) persisted after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment. Methods Fifteen eyes with ischemic CRVO-related ME were included in the study. Nine were treated with panretinal photocoagulation after initial examination. Anti-VEGF agents were injected intravitreally. Persistent ME was treated with PPV combined with ILM peeling. During surgery, laser photocoagulation was further applied to the non-perfused area. Results Mean retinal thickness gradually decreased after surgery (p = 0.024 at 6 months), although visual acuity did not improve significantly during the follow-up period (14.7 ± 11.6 months). Neovascular glaucoma subsequently developed in three cases and a trabeculectomy was performed in one case. Conclusion In eyes with ischemic CRVO, PPV combined with ILM peeling contributed to a reduction in persistent ME. However, there was no significant improvement in visual acuity. PMID:26889152

  17. Chiari Malformation: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the malformation and restore the flow of spinal fluid. There are many variations: Surgical Steps Craniectomy- ... in the head) may benefit from this procedure. Fusion/Stabilization - As part of a decompression, or at ...

  18. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  19. Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformations associated with fetal pleural effusion and ascites.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Elisa; Cordoro, Kelly M; Barat, Muriel; Rousseau, Thierry; Brouillard, Pascal; Vikkula, Miikka; Frieden, Ilona J; Vabres, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Glomuvenous malformations are hereditary vascular anomalies, usually without extracutaneous involvement. We report two cases of extensive thoracic plaque-type glomuvenous malformation in newborns who had previously been diagnosed in utero with pleural effusion and ascites, suggesting a pathogenic link between the two conditions. PMID:21133993

  20. Interventional treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Drhse

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are congenital vascular communications in the lungs. They act as right to left shunts so that the blood running through these malformations is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high risk of paradoxical emboli to the brain and other organs. These malformations are most commonly seen in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (Mb. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Nowadays, the generally accepted treatment strategy of first choice is embolization of the afferent arteries to the arteriovenous malformations. It is a minimally invasive procedure and at the same time a lung preserving treatment with a very high technical success, high effectiveness and low morbidity and mortality. Embolization prevents cerebral stroke and abscess as well as pulmonary haemorrhage and further raises the functional level. Embolization is a well-established method of treating PAVM, with a significant effect on oxygenation of the blood. Screening for PAVM in patients at risk is recommended, especially in patients with HHT. PMID:21160695

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and families Gene Reviews Clinical summary Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent ... providers. Gene Review: RASA1-Related Disorders Genetic Testing Registry: Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation You might also find ...

  3. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weak vein walls may cause weak valves. Normally, the walls of the veins are elastic (stretchy). If these ... become like an overstretched rubber band. This makes the walls of the veins longer and wider, and it ...

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Espaol Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Blood clots occur when blood ...

  5. [FEATURES LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS].

    PubMed

    Abbasov, P A

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 - 2013 years in 265 patients for liver transplantation was performed, including in 224 (84.5%)--from a living donor, in 41 (15.5%)--from the dead body. Using a Foley catheter to stop bleeding, and the imposition of vascular sutures during endovenectomy in portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and its possible damage under all conditions. In particular, PVT IV degree (Grade IV) in order to restore blood flow in the graft using the left gastric and renal vein is an alternative, if they are cryopreserved vein may be suitably used. PMID:26591211

  6. Three-dimensional arrangement of the vasa vasorum in explanted segments of the aged human great saphenous vein: scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Lametschwandtner, Alois; Minnich, Bernd; Kachlik, David; Setina, Marek; Stingl, Josef

    2004-12-01

    The vasa vasorum of skeletonized and nonskeletonized segments of five human great saphenous veins (GSVs), harvested during coronary bypass grafting, were cannulated, rinsed, and injected (casted) with the polymerizing resin Mercox-Cl-2B. After removal of the dry vascular tissue, the casts were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Stereopaired images (tilt angle, 6 degrees ) were taken, imported into a 3D morphometry system, and the 3D architecture of the vasa vasorum (arterial and venous vasa as well as capillaries) was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of vasa diameters, intervascular and interbranching distances, and branching angles. Diameters of parent (d(0)) and large (d(1)) and small (d(2)) daughter vessels of arterial and venous bifurcations served to calculate asymmetry ratios (alpha) and area ratios (beta). Additionally, deviations of bifurcations and branching angles from optimal branches were calculated for selected arterial vasa. The arrangement of the vasa vasorum closely followed the longitudinally oriented connective tissue fibers in the adventitia and the circularly arranged smooth muscle cell layers within the outer layers of the media. Venous vasa by far outnumbered arterial vasa. Vasa vasorum changed their course several times in acute angles and revealed numerous circular constrictions, kinks, and outpouchings. Due to their spatial arrangement, the vasa vasorum are prone to tolerate vessel wall distension generated by acute increases in blood pressure or stretching of the vessel without severe impact on vessel functions. Preliminary comparisons of data from the bifurcations of cast arterial vasa vasorum, with calculated optimal bifurcations, do not yet give clear insights into the optimality principle(s) governing the design of arterial vasa vasorum bifurcations of the human GSVs. PMID:15486955

  7. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Carland, Francine; Defries, Andrew; Cutler, Sean; Nelson, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  8. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor

    2014-12-01

    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management. PMID:24347138

  9. Chiari malformation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Sheryl E; Roth, Cheryl K

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Chiari malformation is on the rise owing to the increased frequency of brain imaging for concussion and trauma. This abnormal brain physiology can have a significant impact on the care management of a pregnant woman during the gestational period. Here we present a case example of a pregnant woman presenting in labor with a history of Chiari malformation with surgical treatment during her pregnancy. Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum considerations are reviewed. This brief article is meant to be used as an easy-reference tool in the clinical setting. PMID:25900588

  10. Total clinical regression of an orbital macrocystic lymphatic malformation following intralesional sodium tetradecyl sulphate injection.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Tarlan, Berin

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic malformations are usually managed by observation, although significant cosmetic abnormalities, compressive optic neuropathy, risk of amblyopia, exposure keratopathy, or elevated intraocular pressure mandate treatment. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a deep orbital macrocystic lymphatic malformation that was successfully treated with intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate, a sclerozing agent mainly used in the treatment of small varicose veins in the lower extremity. PMID:25727595

  11. Standard anticoagulation for mesenteric vein thrombosis, revealing a zebra diagnosis: hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasiathe dripping truth!

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Kahlon, Arundeep Singh; Rane, Meghan; Banas, Emerald

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was treated in the hospital for mesenteric vein thrombosis and discharged home on anticoagulation. On warfarin the patient started to bleed profusely from the nose and tongue. He was evaluated by ENT (ears, nose and throat); a nasal endoscopy revealed several vascular ectasias. Subsequent detailed history and general physical examination established the diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. On further evaluation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were diagnosed on imaging and treated by intervention radiology. In hindsight, the diagnosis could have been made in the general practitioner's office with just a routine thorough history and a physical examination at a new patient visit. We report this case to stress upon the importance of vigilant clinical, medical and family history and a thorough examination to establish an early diagnosis of this not-so-rare entity. PMID:24165501

  12. Glomulin is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells in the embryonic and adult mouse.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Brendan A S; Brouillard, Pascal; Aerts, Virginie; Gutierrez-Roelens, Ilse; Vikkula, Miikka

    2004-05-01

    Mutations in the glomulin gene result in dominantly inherited vascular lesions of the skin known as glomuvenous malformations (GVMs). These lesions are histologically distinguished by their distended vein-like channels containing characteristic 'glomus cells', which appear to be incompletely or improperly differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The function of glomulin is currently unknown. We studied glomulin expression during murine development (E9.5 days post-coitum until adulthood) by non-radioactive in situ hybridization. Glomulin was first detected at E10.5 dpc in cardiac outflow tracts. Later, it showed strong expression in VSMCs as well as a limited expression in the perichondrium. At E11.5-14.5 dpc glomulin RNA was most abundant in the walls of the large vessels. At E16.5 dpc expression was also detectable in smaller arteries and veins. The high expression of glomulin in murine vasculature suggests an important role for glomulin in blood vessel development and/or maintenance, which is supported by the vascular phenotype seen in GVM patients with mutations in this gene. PMID:15053987

  13. Arteriovenous malformations in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: looking beyond ALK1-NOTCH interactions.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Hanna M; Caolo, Vincenza; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations-enlarged shunts allowing arterial flow to bypass capillaries and enter directly into veins. HHT is caused by mutations in ALK1 or Endoglin; however, the majority of arteriovenous malformations are idiopathic and arise spontaneously. Idiopathic arteriovenous malformations differ from those due to loss of ALK1 in terms of both location and disease progression. Furthermore, while arteriovenous malformations in HHT and Alk1 knockout models have decreased NOTCH signalling, some idiopathic arteriovenous malformations have increased NOTCH signalling. The pathogenesis of these lesions also differs, with loss of ALK1 causing expansion of the shunt through proliferation, and NOTCH gain of function inducing initial shunt enlargement by cellular hypertrophy. Hence, we propose that idiopathic arteriovenous malformations are distinct from those of HHT. In this review, we explore the role of ALK1-NOTCH interactions in the development of arteriovenous malformations and examine a possible role of two signalling pathways downstream of ALK1, TMEM100 and IDs, in the development of arteriovenous malformations in HHT. A nuanced understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms underlying idiopathic and HHT-associated arteriovenous malformations will allow for development of targeted treatments for these lesions. PMID:26645978

  14. Options for revascularization: artery versus vein: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Shuck, John; Masden, Derek L

    2015-02-01

    Vascular grafts, as either interpositional conduits or bypass grafts, can be used for revascularization procedures in the upper extremity. Vein grafts are more readily available and can be easier to harvest. Arterial grafts may provide superior patency rates compared with vein grafts. Arterial grafts can be located and harvested with consistent and reliable anatomy throughout the body. PMID:25455359

  15. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  16. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristopher W; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary vascular diseases encompass a large and diverse group of underlying pathologies ranging from venous thromboembolism to congenital malformations to inflammatory vasculitides. As a result, patients can present either acutely with dyspnea and chest pain or chronically with dyspnea on exertion, hypoxia, and right heart failure. Imaging, particularly with multidetector CT, plays a key role in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease and, given the widespread routine use of high-quality CT pulmonary angiography, it is imperative that radiologists be familiar these pathologies. PMID:26024602

  17. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  18. Regression of a Large Congenital Hepatic Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Rania; Mostafa, Fatma Alzahraa; Hamza, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformations are rarely seen in association with persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension. We report the case of a full-term female newborn who presented with heart failure and respiratory distress soon after birth. Echocardiographic investigation revealed severe persistent pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus. Here we report spontaneous regression in size of both the feeder vessel and the vascular bed of the congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation. We postulate that our conservative use of oral heart failure therapy, in the form of diuretic agents and captopril, decreased the congestion and diameter of the affected vessels. PMID:25873838

  19. Arteriovenous malformation within an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutated anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Grace; Muller, Karra A.; Carter, Bob S.; Chen, Clark C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The co-occurrence of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and cerebral neoplasms is exceedingly rare but may harbor implications pertaining to the molecular medicine of brain cancer pathogenesis. Case Description: Here, we present a case of de novo AVM within an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutated anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade III) and review the potential contribution of this mutation to aberrant angiogenesis as an interesting case study in molecular medicine. Conclusion: The co-occurrence of an IDH1 mutated neoplasm and AVM supports the hypothesis that IDH1 mutations may contribute to aberrant angiogenesis and vascular malformation. PMID:26167373

  20. Management of cerebral cavernous malformations in the pediatric population: a literature review and case illustrations.

    PubMed

    Kosnik-Infinger, L; Carroll, C; Greiner, H; Leach, J; Mangano, F T

    2015-09-01

    Cavernous malformations (CM) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system that may occur in the brain and spinal cord. They are one of the four major types of vascular malformations that also includes developmental venous anomalies (DVA)s, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and capillary telangiectasias. CMs are a common vascular malformation, and 25% of them occur in the pediatric age group. They can present with acute or chronic symptoms including headache, neurologic deficits secondary to hemorrhage, mass effect, or epilepsy. This review will focus on the neurosurgical management of intracranial cavernous malformations in children. Pediatric CMs have special considerations different from CM that occur in the adult population which are highlighted throughout this review. Characteristics specific to pediatric CM epidemiology, genetics, presentation, pathology, location, size, epilepsy, and management will be discussed. Specific considerations must be entertained with the diagnosis of pediatric CM in that management needs to include consideration of the lifetime risk of hemorrhage, as well as the possibility of development of epilepsy. If in an accessible location, most cavernomas should be surgically removed in a timely fashion to provide lifelong cure for pediatric patients. The review closes with the discussion of two interesting cavernous malformation cases occurring in a 12-year old male and a 12-year old female that exhibit many of the important aspects specific to the management of a pediatric patient with CM, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. PMID:25998208

  1. Microsurgical resection of ambient cistern arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Lawton, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The middle tentorial incisural space, located lateral to the midbrain and medial to the temporal lobe, contains the ambient cistern through which courses the third, fourth, and fifth cranial nerves, posterior cerebral artery (PCA), superior cerebellar artery, and the choroidal arteries. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in this compartment are supplied by the thalamogeniculate and posterior temporal branches of the PCA, and drain into tributaries of the basal vein of Rosenthal. We present a case of an AVM in this middle tentorial incisural space that persisted after embolization and radiosurgery, and was microsurgically resected through a subtemporal approach. This case demonstrates the anatomy of the middle incisural space and technical aspects in microsurgical resection of these rare AVMs. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/V-dIWh8ys3E . PMID:26722691

  2. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  3. Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a rare cause of cyanosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Mottaghi, Hassan; Kahrom, Mahdi; Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Kahrom, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare condition in which there is abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. The disorder usually appears in late childhood or early adult life, with dyspnea on exertion, clubbing or cyanosis. We present two patients with severe cyanosis and their work-up to diagnosis of PAVM, as a rare cause of cyanosis in childhood. PMID:21532721

  4. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the skin. Small bursts of light make small varicose veins disappear. Phlebectomy treats surface ... guide treatment. This may be done along with other procedures, ...

  5. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ronny; Mallet, Thierry; Gale, Michael; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  6. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... veins no longer work. Under the pressure of gravity these veins can continue to expand and, in ... flow from the legs toward the heart against gravity, while preventing reverse flow back down the legs. ...

  7. Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome with spinal involvement.

    PubMed

    Yi?, Ulu; Kurul, Semra H; Gleryz, Handan; Men, Sleyman

    2014-01-01

    Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) is a recently identified autosomal dominant disorder. Arteriovenous lesions have been reported in the brain, limbs, and face. We report a 7-year-old patient with CM-AVM with spinal AVM, which is a rarely reported association. PMID:25040073

  8. Chiari-like Malformation.

    PubMed

    Loughin, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    Chiari-like malformation is a condition of the craniocervical junction in which there is a mismatch of the structures of the caudal cranial fossa causing the cerebellum to herniate into the foramen magnum. This herniation can lead to fluid buildup in the spinal cord, also known as syringomyelia. Pain is the most common clinical sign followed by scratching. Other neurologic signs noted are facial nerve deficits, seizures, vestibular syndrome, ataxia, menace deficit, proprioceptive deficits, head tremor, temporal muscle atrophy, and multifocal central nervous system signs. MRI is the diagnostic of choice, but computed tomography can also be used. PMID:26631589

  9. Current concepts in lymphatic malformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, B B; Kim, Y W; Seo, J M; Hwang, J H; Do, Y S; Kim, D I; Byun, H S; Lee, S K; Huh, S H; Hyun, W S

    2005-01-01

    A lymphatic malformation (LM) is the most common form of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). The new Hamburg classification of CVM distinguishes the truncular (T) form from the extratruncular (ET) form of LMs. Both are consequences of a developmental arrest at the different stages of lymphangiogenesis as a result of defective genes. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current management results of both forms of LMs. A retrospective review of the clinical data of 315 patients with a diagnosis of LMs treated between September 1994 and December 2001 was performed. Lymphoscintigraphy was the most frequent diagnostic test. The patients with the ET form were treated with sclerotherapy with OK-432 and/or ethanol. Combinations of CDP (complex decongestive physiotherapy) and/or compressotherapy were used to treat all the T-form patients. In addition, surgery, either reconstructive or ablative, was offered to patients with the T form who failed to respond to the proper CDP. A multidisciplinary team performed the management of LM, and the results were evaluated every 6 months. Among 797 patients with CVM, 315 were confirmed to have LMs, either as the T form (226) or the ET form (89). Another 66 LMs were diagnosed with hemolymphatic malformations (HLM). Most of the ET forms (89/315) were the cystic type (70/89), while the T forms included aplasia and/or an obstruction (204/226). The ET form was most frequent in the head, neck, and thorax (69/89). The T form was located most frequently to the extremities (202/226), mostly to the lower limb (180/202). Two hundred and twenty-six T forms belonged to the various clinical stages: stages I-32, II-104, III-48, IV-18, and an unclear stage-24. The ET form was treated with sclerotherapy using OK-432 (108/120) and absolute ethanol (12/120). Among the 11 patients with the multiple ET form, 7 patients underwent perioperative sclerotherapy with OK-432 and a subsequent surgical excision. The clinical response of the T form at the extremity to CDP was excellent to good in a majority of clinical stages I to II (121/136) but decreased to a good to fair degree in stages III to IV (31/66). The additional surgical therapy, either reconstructive (10/19) or ablative (9/19), provided limited success in improving CDP efficacy, owing mainly to poor compliance. The long-term outcome of the initial success through self-motivated home-maintenance care during the follow-up period of up to 48 months was totally dependent on patient compliance. OK-432 sclerotherapy to 51 ET forms has shown excellent results on 88.9% of the cystic type (40/45) and 50% (3/6) of the cavernous type (minimum follow-up for 24 months). Seventeen ET forms in 7 patients were treated with a preoperative OK-432 sclerotherapy and a subsequent surgical excision, which provided good to excellent results in 14 for a minimum of 24 months. Primary lymphedema, which is the T form of LMs, can be managed safely by a combination of CDP with compressotherapy. Patients with good compliance can benefit from additional surgical therapy, either reconstructive or ablative. The ET form, particularly the cystic type, can be treated with various scleroagents that are preferably less toxic as the primary therapy. A surgical excision with or without perioperative sclerotherapy provides good results for patients with the localized cavernous type of the ET form. A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for the proper care of LM. PMID:15696250

  10. Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Osamu; Ohji, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    The primary treatment against macular edema with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) has changed from observation in central RVO (CRVO) and laser photocoagulation in branch RVO (BRVO) to administration of intravitreal agents based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or anti-inflammatory strategies. Anti-VEGF treatment such as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or aflibercept improved vision by 13.9-16.2 letters (best-corrected visual acuity) after 12 months versus baseline in patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO. A long-term study showed that reduced follow-up and fewer retreatments resulted in worsening visual acuity. Intravitreal therapy with anti-inflammatory agents stabilized visual acuity in CRVO. However, increased intraocular pressure and cataract progression were frequently observed. Anti-VEGF agents such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab improved visual acuity by 15.5-18.3 letters in patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO after 12 months. The improved vision remained during the long-term follow-up. There was no significant difference between standard care and intravitreal triamcinolone groups in BRVO, and increased intraocular pressure and cataract progression occurred frequently in the triamcinolone group. Anti-VEGF intravitreal administration resulted in good vision in CRVO and BRVO patients and is employed as a primary therapy. Anti-VEGF therapy requires frequent observations and intravitreal injections to maintain good vision. PMID:26501219

  11. Functional states of resident vascular stem cells and vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Desiree F.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Cui, Taixing

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that different types of vascular stem cells (VSCs) reside within the mural layers of arteries and veins. The precise identities of these resident VSCs are still unclear; generally, postnatal vasculature contains multilineage stem cells and vascular cell lineage-specific progenitor/stem cells which may participate in both vascular repair and lesion formation. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the potential molecular mechanisms, which may control the quiescence and activation of resident VSCs and highlight a notion that the differential states of resident VSCs are directly linked to vascular repair or lesion formation. PMID:26913049

  12. Local Model of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadezhda Telegina, Ms; Aleksandr Chupakhin, Mr; Aleksandr Cherevko, Mr

    2013-02-01

    Vascular diseases of the human brain are one of the reasons of deaths and people's incapacitation not only in Russia, but also in the world. The danger of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is in premature rupture of pathological vessels of an AVM which may cause haemorrhage. Long-term prognosis without surgical treatment is unfavorable. The reduced impact method of AVM treatment is embolization of a malformation which often results in complete obliteration of an AVM. Pre-surgical mathematical modeling of an arteriovenous malformation can help surgeons with an optimal sequence of the operation. During investigations, the simple mathematical model of arteriovenous malformation is developed and calculated, and stationary and non-stationary processes of its embolization are considered. Various sequences of embolization of a malformation are also considered. Calculations were done with approximate steady flow on the basis of balanced equations derived from conservation laws. Depending on pressure difference, a fistula-type AVM should be embolized at first, and then small racemose AVMs are embolized. Obtained results are in good correspondence with neurosurgical AVM practice.

  13. Sporadic Multifocal Venous Malformations of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Michael V.; Patel, Neha A.; Hu, Shirley; Pantelides, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of unusually widespread sporadic venous malformations of the head and neck associated with normal D-dimer levels and, due to the protean clinical manifestations and increased risk of coagulopathy of these lesions, to review their diagnosis and clinical management. Case Report. A 25-year-old man presented with a one-year history of intermittent right-sided neck swelling and tongue swelling. Physical exam revealed additional lesions present throughout the head and neck. There was no family history suggestive of heritable vascular malformations. Radiographic imaging demonstrated 15 lesions located in various tissue layers consistent with venous malformations. A coagulation screen showed a normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, D-dimer level, and fibrinogen level. It was determined that the patient was not at increased risk for intraoperative coagulopathy and preoperative heparin administration would not be necessary. The patient's buccal and tongue lesions were subsequently excised with no complications. The patient also underwent sclerotherapy evaluation for his neck mass. Conclusion. This case describes a unique presentation of sporadic multifocal venous malformations. It also emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and workup when multiple venous malformations are present to prevent morbidity during surgical excision secondary to intravascular coagulopathy. PMID:26483982

  14. A familial venous malformation locus is on chromosome 9p

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, L.M.; Mulliken, J.B.; Vikkula, M.

    1994-09-01

    Venous malformation is the most common vascular malformation affecting 0.2% of the population. Depending upon size and location, these slow-flow lesions may cause pain, anatomic distortion and threaten life. Most venous malformations occur sporadically and present as solitary lesions. For this reason, determining their pathogenic bases has proven elusive. However, venous malformations also occur in several rare syndromes, some of which demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. As a first step towards identifying the pathogenic bases for these lesions, we have mapped a locus for an autosomal dominant disorder in a three generation family that manifests as multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations. This locus lies within a 24.5 cM interval on chromosome 9p, defined by the markers D9S157 and D9S163. A maximum LOD score of 4.11 at {theta} = 0.05 is obtained with several markers within the interval. The interferon gene cluster, which has previously been implicated in angiogenesis, and the multiple tumor suppressor gene, responsible for several types of malignant tumors, also lie within this interval and are potential candidates.

  15. CONGENITAL MACROVESSEL ASSOCIATED WITH CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA AND AN IPSILATERAL INTRACRANIAL VENOUS MALFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema and an ipsilateral intracranial venous malformation. Methods: Case report. Results: A 58-year-old woman with decreased vision was found to have a congenital retinal venous macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema because of tributary venous occlusion. The patient underwent neuroimaging and an ipsilateral venous malformation of the frontal lobe was discovered. Conclusion: Congenital retinal macrovessel can occasionally be complicated by vascular occlusion and macular edema. The authors report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with an intracranial venous malformation. Clinicians should be aware of this potential association, and further studies are warranted. PMID:26421894

  16. Sulindac metabolites decrease cerebrovascular malformations in CCM3-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Bravi, Luca; Rudini, Noemi; Cuttano, Roberto; Giampietro, Costanza; Maddaluno, Luigi; Ferrarini, Luca; Adams, Ralf H.; Corada, Monica; Boulday, Gwenola; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth; Dejana, Elisabetta; Lampugnani, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a disease of the central nervous system causing hemorrhage-prone multiple lumen vascular malformations and very severe neurological consequences. At present, the only recommended treatment of CCM is surgical. Because surgery is often not applicable, pharmacological treatment would be highly desirable. We describe here a murine model of the disease that develops after endothelial-cell–selective ablation of the CCM3 gene. We report an early, cell-autonomous, Wnt-receptor–independent stimulation of β-catenin transcription activity in CCM3-deficient endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo and a triggering of a β-catenin–driven transcription program that leads to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β/BMP signaling is then required for the progression of the disease. We also found that the anti-inflammatory drugs sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone, which attenuate β-catenin transcription activity, reduce vascular malformations in endothelial CCM3-deficient mice. This study opens previously unidentified perspectives for an effective pharmacological therapy of intracranial vascular cavernomas. PMID:26109568

  17. Clinical-radiological evaluation of sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.

    1989-12-01

    Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery has been used to treat 322 patients with surgically-inaccessible intracranial vascular malformations. (The clinical results of this method for the treatment of angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain are described in separate reports of this symposium). The great majority of patients have had an uneventful post-treatment course with satisfactory health outcomes. However, several categories of delayed sequelae of stereotactic radiosurgery have been identified, involving the vascular structures essential for the integrity of the brain tissue and the brain parenchyma directly. These categories reflect both reaction to injury and to alterations in regional hemodynamic status, and include vasogenic edema, occlusion of functional vasculature, radiation necrosis, and local or remote effects on cerebral arterial aneurysms. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Controversies in Chiari I malformations

    PubMed Central

    Baisden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis and management of Chiari I malformations (CMI) remains controversial, particularly since it is often an incidental finding on cervical MR scans performed for neck pain and/or headaches. Recently, some surgeons “over-operated” on asymptomatic patients with Chiari I malformations, or even on those without the requisite radiographic diagnostic features for Chiari I malformations: unfortunately, only a subset were admonished for indiscriminate surgery. Nevertheless, when this hindbrain malformation is truly symptomatic, contributing to impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, various valid surgical management strategies may be adopted. Methods: This review focuses on the current literature regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical management of Chiari I malformation. Variations in the surgical technique are also presented and critiqued. Results: The recommended treatment for Chiari I malformations I consists of decompressive suboccipital craniectomy and duroplasty when abnormal cine-flow MRI is observed preoperatively and blockage of CSF flow persists intraoperatively despite bony decompression. Conclusions: Controversy continues regarding the optimal surgical technique to address Chiari malformations I. Proper diagnostic studies and patient selection are needed to optimize patient outcomes, while avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22905329

  19. Single Stage Endovascular Treatment of a Type 2 Abernethy Malformation: Successful Nonsurgical Outcome in a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Carl; Sheynzon, Vladimir; Hanna, Robert; Weintraub, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abernethy malformations are a rare collection of congenital hepatic portosystemic shunts. Our 19-year-old patient is with a type 2 Abernethy malformation elected permanent shunt closure following worsening dyspnea. This report details a single stage endovascular technique wherein shunt closure was achieved immediately by placement of an aortic endograft. At 5-month follow-up, the patient reported decreased shortness of breath. Furthermore, ultrasound investigation demonstrated a patent portal vein and right heart catheterization 6 months after procedure revealed decreased pulmonary hypertension relative to preprocedure values. This one step method may serve as an alternative treatment strategy to multistage endovascular closure techniques of type 2 Abernethy malformations.

  20. VEGF induces cardiovascular malformation and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed Central

    Feucht, M.; Christ, B.; Wilting, J.

    1997-01-01

    The essential function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in embryonic angiogenesis has clearly been documented in murine embryos with targeted deletions of either VEGF or its receptors. The effects of VEGF in the organogenetic phase of development have not been studied to date. Therefore, we applied 0.7 to 0.9 microgram of VEGF via methylcellulose carriers into the midbrain or onto the right forelimb of 4.5-day-old quail embryos. Another group of embryos was treated with 1 microgram of platelet-derived growth factor and controls were carried out using carriers without any growth factor. VEGF-induced cardiovascular malformations resulted in embryonic lethality. The venous area of the vasculature was dilated in almost all organs. The heart was most seriously affected and showed typical characteristics of insufficiency. VEGF strongly increased endocardial cell proliferation and obviously induced impairment of the growth rates of myocardium and endocardium. The myocardium of the ventricles was extremely thin, and septation defects were observed. As a result of the disturbed outflow, the atria were extremely dilated and thin-walled. The morphology of the hearts was reminiscent of that observed in congenital malformations such as Uhl's and Osler's syndromes. Our results show that expression of VEGF has to be tightly controlled during development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9358767

  1. Management of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joao Paulo; Medina, Roberto; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesions, representing 715% of all intracranial AVMs. Although less frequent than supratentorial AVMs, they present higher rupture, morbidity, and mortality rates. Microsurgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular neurosurgery are treatment options for obliteration of those lesions. In this paper, we present a critical review of the literature about the management of posterior fossa AVM. Methods: A MEDLINE-based search of articles published between January 1960 and January 2014 was performed. The search terms: Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformation, microsurgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular were used to identify the articles. Results: Current data supports the role of microsurgery as the gold standard treatment for cerebellar AVMs. Brainstem AVMs are usually managed with radiotherapy and endovascular therapy; microsurgery is considered in cases of pial brainstem AVMs. Conclusions: Succsseful treatment of posterior fossa AVMs depend on an integrated work of neurosurgeons, radiosurgeons, and endovascular neurosurgery. Although the development of radiosurgery and endovascular techniques is remarkable, microsurgery remains as the gold standard treatment for most of those lesions. PMID:25745586

  2. Unusual Presentation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system, which can be detected in the absence of any clinical symptoms. Nodules and cysts with mixed signal intensity and a peripheral hemosiderin rim are considered brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings typical of CMs. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal MRI findings without significant neurological symptoms. A cyst with an internal fluid-fluid level was found in the left basal ganglia on the initial brain MRI. We decided to observe the natural course of the asymptomatic lesion with serial MRI follow-up. On MRI at the 5-month follow-up, the cystic mass was enlarged and showed findings consistent with those of cystic CM. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was CM. Our experience suggests that the initial presentation of a CM can be a pure cyst and neurosurgeons should consider the likelihood of CMs in cases of cystic cerebral lesions with intracystic hemorrhage. PMID:26523262

  3. Laser ablation of cutaneous leg veins.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jose I; Raines, Jeffrey K

    2008-12-01

    Patients presenting with lower-extremity telangiectasias, commonly known as spider veins, are a frequent presentation for vascular surgeons. The use of lasers in the treatment of lower-extremity spider veins has gained increased popularity during the past 5 years. This technology, driven by consumer demand, has been effective in treating vessels that are refractory to sclerotherapy treatment, vessels that arise from telangiectatic matting, and in patients who experience a phobia to needles. One laser wavelength per machine limits what the practitioner can do. That is, each type of vein responds best to a specific wavelength. Light skin is more forgiving to complications than dark skin. The devices are a complement to good sclerotherapy, not a substitute. PMID:19028771

  4. Endovascular interventions for central vein stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Central vein stenosis is common because of the placement of venous access and cardiac intravascular devices and compromises vascular access for dialysis. Endovascular intervention with angioplasty and/or stent placement is the preferred approach, but the results are suboptimal and limited. Primary patency after angioplasty alone is poor, but secondary patency can be maintained with repeated angioplasty. Stent placement is recommended for quick recurrence or elastic recoil of stenosis. Primary patency of stents is also poor, though covered stents have recently shown better patency than bare metal stents. Secondary patency requires repeated intervention. Recanalization of occluded central veins is tedious and not always successful. Placement of hybrid graft-catheter with a combined endovascular surgical approach can maintain patency in many cases. In the presence of debilitating symptoms, palliative approach with endovascular banding or occlusion of the access may be necessary. Prevention of central vein stenosis is the most desirable strategy. PMID:26779426

  5. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  6. Transvenous Embolization of a Ruptured Deep Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, V.M.; Marcos-Gonzalez, A.; Radovanovic, I.; Bijlenga, P.; Narata, A.P.; Moret, J.; Schaller, K.; Lovblad, K.O.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) usually require treatment to avoid re-bleeding. Depending on the angioarchitecture and center strategy, the treatment can be surgical, endovascular, radiosurgical or combined methods. The classic endovascular approach is transarterial, but sometimes it is not always applicable. The transvenous approach has been described as an alternative for the endovascular treatment of small AVMs when arterial access or another therapeutic method is not possible. This approach can be considered when the nidus is small and if there is a single draining vein. We present a technical note on a transvenous approach for the treatment of a ruptured AVM in a young patient. PMID:23472720

  7. [Leiomyosarcoma of the great veins: a case involving the left iliac vein extending to the inferior vena cava].

    PubMed

    Biasi, G; Gonano, N; Santarelli, R; Fregonese, V; Andolfato, G; Pfeiffer, P; Nozzon, L

    1993-01-01

    Large veins LMS is a rare slow growing malignant tumor originating from smooth muscle cells of the media. The authors report a case of LMS of the left common iliac vein propagating to the Inferior Vena Cava that presented with a left femoral-iliac deep thrombophlebitis. CT scan showed an uneven solid mass approximately 5 cm large within the left side of the pelvis. The mass displaced the left iliac artery and compressed the left iliac vein without a significant cleavage surface between the mass itself and the vascular structures. Location was next to the spine, medially and anteriorily to the psoas muscle. A thrombosis could be noticed within the distal segment of the inferior Vena Cava and within the proximal segment of the left iliac vein. US scan with fine needle biopsy of the mass didn't yield significant information. At surgical exploration a neoplastic mass involving and blocking the left iliac vein was found. Veinotomy performed on the iliac vein and on the distal segment of the Inferior Vena Cava but without infiltration of the vein walls. Surgical treatment consisted of asportation of the neoplastic mass, resection of the left iliac vein and thrombectomy of the Inferior Vena Cava. Histologic examination of the operated specimen revealed a mixoid LMS with vascular origin without involvement of the surrounding lymph nodes. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of relapse eight months after surgery makes further surgical and complementary (drug- and radiotherapy) treatments currently unnecessary. PMID:8248317

  8. [Malignant vascular tumors of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, A; Tchernev, G

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increased vascularity as well as the unique anatomical structure, vascular lesions, which occur in the female reproductive system are common observed and diverse by their morphology. The majority of them are benign, including vascular malformations, lesions due to vascular hyperplasia, tumors with significant vascular component and others. Malignant vascular tumors are rare in the area of the vulva accounting about 1% of all vulvar lesions with vascular origin. Kaposi sarcoma, epithelioid hemangioepithelioma and epithelioid angiosarcoma have been reported with vulvar localization. With a view to their rare incidence, nonspecific clinical manifestation and aggressive behavior associated with high mortality, we present the most common malignant tumors of vascular origin arising in the vulva, as we emphasize on their epidemiology and clinical features, differential diagnosis and therapeutic algorithms for this rare type of malignancies. PMID:25909132

  9. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  10. [Vascular tumors in the aged].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1989-11-15

    In elderly people, we find other vascular malformations and neoplasms to be frequent and important than during the first decades of life. The features of malformations change in the course of the years due to degenerative processes (e.g., venous lakes in solar degeneration, Pasini's ectasias of the lower lip). True angiomas are relatively rare in old people (except "senile" or tardive angiomas). Most of the malignant vascular tumors do not develop until very late in life (e.g., the sporadic type of Kaposi's sarcoma, Stewart-Treves syndrome, multicentric angiosarcoma of the scalp). Except for these malignancies, there is a greater range of therapeutic means in the elderly, since aged skin is more extensible and late sequelae of X-ray therapy are of minor importance. PMID:2692331

  11. 3D MR angiographic visualization and artery-vein separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Odhner, Dewey

    1999-05-01

    The common approach for artery-vein separation applies a presaturation pulse to obtain different image intensity representations in MRA data for arteries and veins. However, when arteries and veins do not run in opposite directions as in the brain, lungs, and heart, this approach fails. This paper presents an image processing approach devised for artery-vein separation. The anatomic separation utilizes fuzzy connected object delineation. The first step of this separation method is the segmentation of the entire vessel structure from the background via absolute connectedness by using scale-based affinity. The second step is to separate artery from vein via relative connectedness. After 'seed' points are specified inside artery and vein in the vessel- only image, the operation is performed in an iterative fashion. The small regions of the bigger aspects of artery and vein are separated in the initial iteration. Further regions are added with the subsequent iterations so that the small aspects of artery and vein are included in alter iterations. Shell rendering is used for 3D display. Combining the strengths of fuzzy connected object definition, object separation, and shell rendering, high- quality volume rendering of vascular information in MRA data has been achieved. MS-325 contrast-enhanced MRA were used to illustrate this approach. Several examples of 3D display of arteries and veins are included to show the considerable promise of this new approach.

  12. Vein graft failure.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher D; Gasper, Warren J; Rahman, Amreen S; Conte, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    After the creation of an autogenous lower extremity bypass graft, the vein must undergo a series of dynamic structural changes to stabilize the arterial hemodynamic forces. These changes, which are commonly referred to as remodeling, include an inflammatory response, the development of a neointima, matrix turnover, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The sum total of these processes results in dramatic alterations in the physical and biomechanical attributes of the arterialized vein. The most clinically obvious and easily measured of these is lumen remodeling of the graft. However, although somewhat less precise, wall thickness, matrix composition, and endothelial changes can be measured in vivo within the healing vein graft. Recent translational work has demonstrated the clinical relevance of remodeling as it relates to vein graft patency and the systemic factors influencing it. By correlating histologic and molecular changes in the vein, insights into potential therapeutic strategies to prevent bypass failure and areas for future investigation are explored. PMID:24095042

  13. Vein graft failure

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christopher D.; Gasper, Warren J.; Rahman, Amreen S.; Conte, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Following the creation of an autogenous lower extremity bypass graft, the vein must undergo a series of dynamic structural changes to stabilize the arterial hemodynamic forces. These changes, commonly referred to as remodeling, include an inflammatory response, the development of a neointima, matrix turnover, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The sum total of these processes results in dramatic alterations in the physical and biomechanical attributes of the arterialized vein. The most clinically obvious and easily measured of these is lumen remodeling of the graft. However, though somewhat less precise, wall thickness, matrix composition, and endothelial changes can be measured in vivo within the healing vein graft. Recent translational work has demonstrated the clinical relevance of remodeling as it relates to vein graft patency and the systemic factors influencing it. By correlating histologic and molecular changes in the vein, insights into potential therapeutic strategies to prevent bypass failure and areas for future investigation are explored. PMID:24095042

  14. Unusual Presentation of Renal Vein Thrombosis in a Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Yo; Fu, Ren-Huei; Lien, Reyin; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis is the most common vascular condition in the newborn kidney, which could lead to serious complication in infants undergoing intensive care. In this study, we report the case of a preterm infant with left renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis, presented with gross hematuria, thrombocytopenia, transient hypertension, and adrenal hemorrhage. Supportive care was offered instead of heparin therapy or thrombolytic agents. In conclusion, our case teaches that, despite the lack of a clinically obvious shock event, renal vein thrombosis should be considered in a macrohematuric newborn without renal failure. PMID:26955561

  15. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  16. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  17. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  18. Vascular compression syndromes.

    PubMed

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view. PMID:26515219

  19. Neurocutaneous vascular syndromes.

    PubMed

    Puttgen, Katherine B; Lin, Doris D M

    2010-10-01

    There have been significant recent advances in the past several years in the field of neurocutaneous vascular syndromes, including the development of more stringent diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the renaming of macrocephaly-cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita to macrocephaly-capillary malformation to accurately reflect the true nature of the syndrome, and discovery of new genetic mutations such as RASA-1. There have also been advances in the understanding and management of Sturge-Weber syndrome.PHACE syndrome is a constellation of neurologic, arterial, cardiac, ophthalmologic, and sternal abnormalities associated with infantile hemangiomas. PHACE is an acronym for Posterior fossa malformation, Hemangioma, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta, Eye abnormalities. Some authors include an "S" for PHACE(S) to denote the association of ventral defects including Sternal clefting and Supraumbilical raphe.The accurate diagnosis and work-up of these patients require coordination of care across multiple disciplines, including neuroradiology, radiology, dermatology, neurology, surgery, and interventional radiology, among others.This paper is meant to update clinicians and researchers about important advances in these rare, important vascular syndromes, to improve care, and lay the foundation for future directions for research. PMID:20582592

  20. [Diagnostic imaging of vascular leiomyosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Kreft, B; Flacke, S; Zhou, H; Textor, J; Remig, J; Schild, H H

    2004-02-01

    Primary vascular leiomyosarcomas are very rare tumors, with the venous variety most often arising from the inferior caval vein and the arterial variety from the pulmonary artery. The tumors show either an exclusive intra- or extravascular pattern or a mixed growth pattern. The clinical symptoms depend on tumor location, with intraluminal tumors of the inferior caval vein causing edema or a Budd-Chiari syndrome. Leiomyosarcomas of the pulmonary artery can mimic chronic central or recurrent peripheral pulmonary embolism. Contrast enhanced spiral CT with multiplanar reconstruction is the diagnostic method of choice when a vascular leiomyosarcoma is suspected. MRI with MR-angiography can be added. If a tumor of undetermined origin shows a broad contact with a vessel and/or an intraluminal component, possible primary vascular leiomyosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:14872371

  1. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan-Chih; Chang, Rachel J.; Xiao, Furen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between the arteries and veins, with possible serious consequences of intracranial hemorrhage. The curative treatment for AVMs includes microsurgery and radiosurgery, sometimes with embolization as an adjunct. However, controversies exist with the treatment options available for large to giant AVMs. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) is one treatment option for such difficult lesions. We aim to review recent literature, looking at the treatment outcome of HSRT in terms of AVM obliteration rate and complications. The rate of AVM obliteration utilizing HSRT as a primary treatment was comparable with that of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For those not totally obliterated, HSRT makes them smaller and turns some lesions manageable by single-dose SRS or microsurgery. Higher doses per fraction seemed to exhibit better response. However, patients receiving higher total dose may be at risk for higher rates of complications. Fractionated regimens of 7 Gy 4 and 66.5 Gy 5 may be accepted compromises between obliteration and complication. Embolization may not be beneficial prior to HSRT in terms of obliteration rate or the volume reduction. Future work should aim on a prospectively designed study for larger patient groups and long-term follow-up results. PMID:22826813

  2. Arteriovenous malformation of the mandible and parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Shailaja, S R; Manika; Manjula, M; Kumar, L V

    2012-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the jaws are relatively rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Their real importance lies in their potential to result in exsanguination, which usually follows an unrelated treatment, such as tooth extraction, surgical intervention, puncture wound or blunt injury in involved areas, with the dentist unaware of the existence of the AVM. The present case illustrates an AVM in an 18-year-old female with swelling on the right side of the face. This case report is unique because although there was no history of bleeding episodes, thorough examination and investigation diagnosed it as high-flow vascular malformation. We ascertain the importance of dentists' awareness of the fatal outcome of these lesions and emphasize that, prior to performing any procedure, necessary investigations should always be done. PMID:22282511

  3. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mouchtouris, Nikolaos; Chitale, Ameet; Starke, Robert M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Jabbour, Pascal M.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatmentmicrosurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative managementdepending on the lesion characteristics. PMID:25629087

  4. Coil embolization for a vast and complex arteriovenous malformation in the posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Ye, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a kind of life threatened disease. Especially AVM in the posterior mediastinum is a rare, painful and it is difficult for treatment. We report a 44-year-old male patient who developed arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the posterior mediastinum. The patient complained 3 years of mild left back pain and chest congestion, and his pain increased over the last 3 months. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations showed an enhancing vascular lesion in the left posterior mediastinum which in contact with the descending thoracic aorta. It was initially misdiagnosed as lung mass. It was considered to be vascular malformations. His pain was completely resolved after steel coil embolization was successfully administered. PMID:26629230

  5. Combined laser and surgical treatment of giant port wine stain malformation - Case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewiera, I.; Drozdowski, P.; Wjcicki, P.

    2012-10-01

    Background:Port-wine stains (PWS) are vascular malformations of the skin concerning about 0,3% of the population. Though various laser systems have been used for various treatment regimens the treatment of PWS of large size is especially difficult and demanding from aesthetic and psychological point of view.

  6. What Are Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body in the veins is darker because your body parts have used up the oxygen in the blood. ... on the legs, ankles, and feet because those body parts are farthest from the heart. Gravity pulls blood ...

  7. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ankle. Your surgeon will then thread a thin, flexible plastic wire into the vein through your groin ... Your legs will be wrapped with bandages to control swelling and bleeding for 3 to 5 days ...

  8. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    You were treated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein that is not on ... especially if it gets worse upon taking a deep breath in You cough up blood

  9. Perivascular mast cells regulate vein graft neointimal formation and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Grassia, Gianluca; Cambrook, Helen; Ialenti, Armando; MacRitchie, Neil; Carberry, Jaclyn; Lawrence, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emerging evidence suggests an important role for mast cells in vein graft failure. This study addressed the hypothesis that perivascular mast cells regulate in situ vascular inflammatory and proliferative responses and subsequent vein graft neointimal lesion formation, using an optimized local mast cell reconstitution method. Methods and Results. Neointimal hyperplasia was induced by insertion of a vein graft into the right carotid artery in wild type and mast cell deficient KitW?sh/W?sh mice. In some experiments, mast cells were reconstituted systemically (tail vein injection of bone marrow-derived mast cells) or locally (directly into the right neck area) prior to vein grafting. Vein graft neointimal lesion formation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in KitW?sh/W?sh mice. Mast cell deficiency reduced the number of proliferating cells, and inhibited L-selectin, CCL2, M-CSF and MIP-3? expression in the vein grafts. Local but not systemic mast cell reconstitution restored a perivascular mast cell population that subsequently promoted neointimal formation in mast cell deficient mice. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that perivascular mast cells play a key role in promoting neointima formation by inducing local acute inflammatory and proliferative responses. These results suggest that ex vivo intraoperative targeting of mast cells may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of pathological vein graft remodeling. PMID:26312183

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Cerebral cavernous malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and families Gene Reviews Clinical summary Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent ... Gene Review: Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Genetic Testing Registry: Cerebral cavernous malformation Genetic Testing Registry: Cerebral cavernous ...

  11. Sonographic features and management options of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A case report.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Halil; Acar, Deniz Kanber; Ekiz, Ali; Kaya, Basak; Sezer, Salim; Ismayilzade, Reshad; Can, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM), an extremely rare condition, is defined as an abnormal connection between artery and vein. Although the pelvis is a common site for AVM, the uterus is involved occasionally and the true incidence is unknown. The objective of this study was to discuss diagnostic features and management options of AVMs. In this paper six cases of AVMs have been reported with a review of diagnosis and management options. PMID:26649357

  12. A rare case of focal multiple medullary venous malformations with ipsilateral cerebral surface varix.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Meguru; Ishigame, Keiichi; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We report here a rare case of focal multiple venous malformations (VMs) in the white matter, via a draining vein arising from each VM, connecting with an ipsilateral cerebral surface venous varix. The male teen was asymptomatic neurologically. A diagnostic process using of MRI/MRDSA in this extremely rare entity is important as the more incidental discovery is expected with increasing opportunities of performing brain CT/MRI for various indications. PMID:24492736

  13. Congenital subcutaneous arteriovenous malformation in a puppy: diagnosis with CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Lorenzova, Jana; Necas, Alois

    2015-10-01

    A 4-month-old, 20 kg, intact male, cane corso dog was presented with a slowly growing subcutaneous lesion on the left caudoventral abdominal wall. Ultrasound and computed tomography angiography revealed a subcutaneous plexus of aberrant tortuous vessels directly connected with the superficial branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery and vein. The arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was successfully surgically removed. Early recognition and surgical removal of AVM can have excellent cosmetic results and prevents potential cardiovascular complications. PMID:26175066

  14. Mesenteric vein thrombosis: CT identification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.; Kelvin, F.M.

    1984-07-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was identified on computed tomographic scans in six patients. In each case, contrast-enhanced scans showed a high-density superior mesenteric vein wall surrounding a central filling defect. Four fo the six patients had isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. A fifth patient had associated portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, and the sixth patient had associated portal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis. One of the six patients had acute ischemic bowel disease. The other five patients did not have acute ischemic bowel symptoms associated with their venous occlusion. This study defines the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  15. Pseudotumour cerebri associated with arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O. C.; Lai, H. M.; Ross-Russell, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    The association of intracranial hypertension and arteriovenous malformations is described in two patients. Both patients had the typical clinical features of pseudotumour cerebri and were found to have intracranial arteriovenous malformations on arteriography. The mechanism of raised intracranial pressure in patients with arteriovenous malformations is discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234111

  16. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE FACE CAPILLARY MALFORMATION].

    PubMed

    Galich, S P; Gindich, O A; Dabizha, A Yu; Ogorodnik, Ya P

    2015-08-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 37 patients for the head and neck capillary malformations were analyzed. Optimal surgical tactics, depending on the malformation form and localization, was proposed. Restitution of the tissues defect after excision of malformation, using the flaps transposition, have permitted to achieve good esthetic results. PMID:26591862

  17. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Kate; Thust, Stefanie; Berkeley, Rupert; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex; Robertson, Fergus; Mankad, Kshitij

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of vascular anomalies in children are found in the head and neck. These lesions can present throughout antenatal, perinatal and childhood development. They broadly fall into two categories: vascular tumours and vascular malformations. Their clinical and, often, psychological impact is determined by both pathological type and location: many lesions follow an uncomplicated natural course and other more complex, extensive or progressive lesions can present a threat to life from mass effect, haemorrhage or large volume arteriovenous shunting. Vascular tumours include infantile haemangioma (IH), congenital haemangioma (CH) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH); of which IH is the most common. Management options for vascular tumours include conservative approaches, oral medications and surgical intervention as determined by tumour type, location and associated complications. Vascular malformations can be categorised into low flow and high flow lesions. Low flow lesions include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations (LMs). High flow lesions describe the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a highly heterogeneous group of lesions which can present in a variety of ways-the mainstay of treatment for these dynamic lesions is endovascular or surgical obliteration. We provide a practical framework for clinical classification of vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. We also explore principles of their clinical and radiological assessment along with management, highlighting the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:26807370

  18. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Kate; Thust, Stefanie; Berkeley, Rupert; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex; Robertson, Fergus

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of vascular anomalies in children are found in the head and neck. These lesions can present throughout antenatal, perinatal and childhood development. They broadly fall into two categories: vascular tumours and vascular malformations. Their clinical and, often, psychological impact is determined by both pathological type and location: many lesions follow an uncomplicated natural course and other more complex, extensive or progressive lesions can present a threat to life from mass effect, haemorrhage or large volume arteriovenous shunting. Vascular tumours include infantile haemangioma (IH), congenital haemangioma (CH) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH); of which IH is the most common. Management options for vascular tumours include conservative approaches, oral medications and surgical intervention as determined by tumour type, location and associated complications. Vascular malformations can be categorised into low flow and high flow lesions. Low flow lesions include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations (LMs). High flow lesions describe the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a highly heterogeneous group of lesions which can present in a variety of ways—the mainstay of treatment for these dynamic lesions is endovascular or surgical obliteration. We provide a practical framework for clinical classification of vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. We also explore principles of their clinical and radiological assessment along with management, highlighting the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:26807370

  19. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  20. [Uncommon malformative association (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Herrero, E; Ruza, F; Martnez-Almoyna, C; Figols, F J

    1975-01-01

    An uncommon malformative association is presented ((hydrocephalus, bilateral renal hypoplasia, aplasia cutis) associated with neonatal gastrointestinal perforation. The bibliography related with these problems is reviewed, discussing the possible relationship between them. The etiological hypothesis is infective, and pathogenic interpretation is pointed out in this context. PMID:1155862

  1. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    MacKay, D

    2001-04-01

    Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. PMID:11302778

  2. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  3. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with a circumaortic left renal vein.

    PubMed

    Kundavaram, Chandan; Gomella, Patrick T; Healy, Kelly A; Klinge, Matthew; Hubosky, Scott

    2012-12-01

    Renal vasculature anomalies can present technical challenges to laparoscopic urologic surgery. The use of preoperative imaging has made it possible to recognize and plan for such aberrant vascular anatomy. We describe a patient with a circumaortic left renal vein who underwent successful laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for the management of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis. PMID:23228298

  4. Vasospasm after intraventricular hemorrhage caused by arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wei-Lung; Tsai, Yi-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) induced vasospasm is rare in clinical practice. We report a case with vasospasm 10 days after IVH due to thalamic bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation. The vasospasm was so severe that transarterial embolization failed. Follow-up angiography could not reveal the vascular lesion and spontaneous thrombosis was considered. The discussion includes literature review and possible mechanism of such phenomenon. IVH-related vasospasm is rare but should always be kept in mind. Early detection with proper treatment provides better clinical outcome in such cases. PMID:25972942

  5. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  6. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta complex in arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Malik, G; Abdulrauf, S; Yang, X Y; Gutierrez, J A; Rempel, S A

    1998-01-01

    The factors responsible for the development of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are not well known. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have cutaneous vascular dysplasia and a high propensity to develop systemic and cerebral AVMs. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) complex has been implicated in HHT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and their two receptors (R1 and R2) in AVMs and in normal brain vessels. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 20 patients with cerebral AVMs (including two patients with HHT) were sequentially sectioned into 6 microns sections. Similar sections from normal brain tissue were obtained from five patients without AVMs and no intracranial pathology, who had died from unrelated causes. The normal tissue sections included large intracranial arteries, small arteries, venous sinuses, cortical veins, and brain tissue containing arterioles, capillaries, and venules. All specimens underwent immunohistochemical analyses with polyclonal antibodies to the following antigens: TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and R1 and R2. The immunoreactivity, when present, was consistently noted in endothelial cells and in the medial smooth muscle. The intensity of vessel wall immunostaining was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. The mean staining grades of normal vessels for TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, R1, and R2 were 0.6 (range 0-1), 3, 2.8 (range 2-3), 1.6 (range 0-2), and 3, respectively, whereas the mean staining grades of AVM vessels were 0.3 (range 0-1), 0.8 (range 0-1), 0.6 (range 0-1), 1.4 (range 0-2), and 0.9 (range 0-1), respectively. The study thus demonstrated that normal brain vessels (arteries, veins, small vessels) have strong (range 2.8-3) immunostaining for TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and R2, and that the AVM nidus vessels have a paucity (range 0.8-0.9) of staining for these factors. In AVM vessels that had zero immunoreactivity to the above three factors, the vessel wall was fibrocollagenous rather than muscular. Further studies to examine the TGF-beta complex behavior in AVMs are needed. PMID:10235000

  7. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC), middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation. PMID:22073081

  8. Ovarian vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenayah, Amel Achour; Saoudi, Sarra; Boudaya, Fethia; Bouriel, Ines; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare cause of abdominal pain that may mimic a surgical abdomen. It is most often diagnosed during the postpartum period. In this report, we present four cases of postoperative ovarian vein thrombosis. The complications of OVT can be significant, and the diagnosis relies on a careful examination of the radiographic findings. It can occur with lower quadrant abdominal pain, especially in the setting of recent pregnancy, abdominal surgery, pelvic inflammatory disease, or malignancy. Diagnosis can be made with confidence using ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of ovarian vein thrombosis is particularly important in the post-partum patients, with anticoagulation therapy being the current recommendation. PMID:26526119

  9. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S.; Hussain, Fuad F.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Lopez, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  10. The Horizon for Treating Cutaneous Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amit M.; Chou, Elizabeth L.; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians. PMID:22640429

  11. Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia Wei; Mai, Hua Ming; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Su, Li Xin; Qin, Zhong Ping; Yang, Yao Wu; Jiang, Yin Hua; Zhao, Yi Fang; Suen, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patients appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patients condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients. PMID:23724158

  12. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J.; Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2009-01-01

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8?mm of vein per mm2 of leaf area and can reach 25?mm?mm?2, whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2?mm?mm?2 throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms. PMID:19324775

  13. Use of the TriSpan Coil to Facilitate the Transcatheter Occlusion of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. E-mail: barbaros@hacettepe.edu.tr; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Akmangit, Ilkay; Cekirge, Saruhan; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2004-11-15

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare vascular malformation of the lung which may occur as an isolated entity or in association with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Because of considerable risk of serious complications such as cerebral embolism, brain abscess and pulmonary hemorrhage, definitive treatment should be considered in most patients. Embolization with coils or detachable balloons is currently the preferred treatment. Paradoxical embolization of coils and balloons may happen, especially in patients with PAVMs with large feeding arteries. In this report we present our initial experience with the use of the TriSpan coil to lower the risk of coil migration during the transcatheter occlusion of PAVMs.

  14. Coil Embolotherapy of Unilateral Diffuse Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in a Nineteen-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Rokni Yazdi, Hadi; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Saberi, Hazhir; Salahi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular malformations of the lung that usually led to a notable risk of serious and life-threatening complications. There is considerable debate about the best management of strategies for the group of patients with diffuse AVMs. Several therapeutic options have been reported for management of this abnormality among which coil embolization is currently the preferred ones. This report describes our experience with the use of coiling method for treatment of multiple AVMs in an adult patient. PMID:26528389

  15. Imaging findings of vascular lesions in the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Gneyli, Serkan; Ceylan, Naim; Bayraktaro?lu, Selen; Acar, Trker; Sava?, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the head and neck include vascular neoplasms, vascular malformations, and hypervascular lesions, derived from nonvascular soft-tissue elements. We retrospectively evaluated magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography images of vascular lesions located in the head and neck. Twelve patients (seven males, five females) aged 168 years (mean age, 35.25 years) were included in this study. Most of the vascular lesions in our study were histologically diagnosed. The lesions were as follows: a hemangioma located in the parotid space (n=1); a hemangioendothelioma located in the parotid space (n=1); a hemangiopericytoma located in the larynx (n=1); a juvenile angiofibroma located in the nasopharynx (n=1); a glomus tumor located in the carotid bifurcation (n=1); venous malformations located in the parapharyngeal space, the pterygoid area, the orbital space, and the larynx (n=4); lymphatic malformations located in the parotid space and the supraclavicular area (n=2); and an arteriovenous malformation located in the infratemporal fossa (n=1). We present rare vascular lesions of the head and neck, which have typical radiological findings. PMID:25010372

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    PubMed

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26969229

  17. Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Kawsar, Khandkar Ali; Sarker, Mainul Haque; Momtazul Haque, A. F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Scalp arterio-venous malformation (AVM) and scalp venous malformation (SVM) are rare conditions that usually need surgical treatment. Here, we have reported our experience of the surgical management of such lesions with a short review of the literature. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 11 patients with scalp AVM and SVM, who underwent surgical excision of lesion in our hospital from 2006 to 2012, were included. All suspected high-flow AVM were investigated with the selective internal and external carotid digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) computed tomography (CT) scan of brain with CT angiogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain with MR angiogram, and all suspected low-flow vascular malformation (VM) was investigated with MRI of brain + MR angiogram. Eight were high-flow and three were low-flow VM. Results: All lesions were successfully excised. Scalp cosmetic aspects were acceptable in all cases. There was no major post-operative complication or recurrence till last follow-up. Conclusions: With preoperative appropriate surgical planning, scalp AVM and SVM can be excised without major complication. PMID:23960313

  18. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the cephalic vein: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting-Ying; Hsieh, Pin-Pen; Chen, Lee-Wei; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Wang, Jyh-Seng

    2007-07-01

    Vascular leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare and represents < 2% of all leiomyosarcomas. The frequency of occurrence of leiomyosarcomas in veins is five times more than in arteries, with approximately half of them occurring in the inferior vena cava. Although leiomyosarcomas originating from large arteries or veins have been widely reported, similar tumors of peripheral vessels of upper extremities are extremely rare. To our knowledge, leiomyosarcomas of the cephalic vein over the wrist area have not been previously documented. We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the cephalic vein in a 63-year-old man who presented with right hand and forearm swelling and tenderness for more than 1 year. Grossly, a solitary, elongated, white, and firm intraluminal growth tumor was infiltrative along the vessel wall with focal nodular formation and filled the lumen of cephalic vein, measuring 11 cm in length. Histological study revealed an intermediate-grade leiomyosarcoma of vascular origin. PMID:17628268

  20. Diverse imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Hina; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated wih surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the "honeycomb" and "sunburst" radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions. PMID:24701461

  1. Diverse imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated wih surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the "honeycomb" and "sunburst" radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions. PMID:24701461

  2. [Vascular anomaly in the midcheek region of an infant--review of the diagnostic procedure].

    PubMed

    Rossler, L; Sander, V; Teuber, I; Stcker, M; Kreuter, A; Stricker, I; Hamelmann, E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical history, physical examination, evolution and imaging findings (Colour Doppler sonography, MRI if available) are of pivotal importance in the diagnostic pathway of an infantile vascular anomaly. Histopathology with specific stains and markers is contributive in difficult cases. Differentiation between vascular tumors (hemangioma) and vascular malformations is now well known and integrated into the ISSVA classification. We report here a 6-months-old boy, who presented with a localized cutaneous and expansive vascular birthmark in the left cheek and developed bleedings at the age of 18 months. Diagnostic features of a hemangioma were not evident, and the final diagnosis of a venous malformation was confirmed by histopathology. PMID:25985453

  3. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborn, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines. PMID:24290023

  4. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis NHLBI Resources Pulmonary Embolism (Health Topics) Non-NHLBI Resources Deep Vein Thrombosis (MedlinePlus) Pulmonary Embolism (MedlinePlus) Clinical Trials ...

  5. Management of vascular birthmarks: review of a multidisciplinary clinic.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, G M; Watson, R; Orr, D; O'Donovan, D; Russell, J; Phelan, E; Ryan, M; Brosnahan, O; Irvine, A

    2007-04-01

    Vascular birthmarks comprise a diverse group of congenital lesions and represent a significant cosmetic and functional burden for patients. They remain a diagnostic and management challenge for physicians due to their extremely variable clinical presentation and often complex anatomical associations. As each type of vascular lesion has a treatment program individual to it, optimal functional and cosmetic outcomes require accurate diagnosis. Primary physicians readily diagnose and manage uncomplicated lesions, such as isolated haemangiomas and innocuous capillary malformations. However, given the complexity and relative rarity of many other vascular birthmarks, specialised multidisciplinary clinics are central to their management. In this review, we present our experience regarding the diagnostic range of vascular anomalies, associated symptomatology, and management of patients with vascular birthmarks attending the multidisciplinary Joint Vascular Birthmark Clinic at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin. Vascular tumours represented 57% of cases reviewed, malformations accounting for 43%. Of patients not previously seen at the JVBC or by any of the individual consultants, the initial or referring diagnosis was incorrect in 42%. Significantly, 62% of vascular malformations were assigned an incorrect diagnosis, highlighting the need for a specialised clinic. PMID:17566475

  6. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and costeffectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a common disease affecting adults and estimated to be the seventh most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a strong familial predisposition to VV with the risk in offspring being 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither is affected, and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent is affected. Globally, the prevalence of VV ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Laser Therapy for VV ELT is an image-guided, minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. It does not require an operating room or general anesthesia and has been performed in outpatient settings by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons (vascular or general), interventional radiologists and phlebologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, ELT works by destroying, cauterizing or ablating the refluxing vein segment using heat energy delivered via laser fibre. Prior to ELT, colour-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The ELT procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target vein under ultrasound guidance followed by the inse

  7. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Vascular Anomalies on the Vermilion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Hoon Soo; Lee, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background The vermilion plays an important role in both the aesthetic and functional aspects of facial anatomy. Due to its structural features, the complete excision of vascular anomalies on the vermilion is challenging, making it difficult to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Thus, the authors analyzed the results of surgical treatment of vascular anomalies on the vermilion. Methods The medical records of 38 patients with vascular anomalies on the vermilion who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2013 were analyzed. Nine of the cases had an involuted hemangioma, and 29 cases had a vascular malformation; of the vascular malformations, 13, 11, one, and four cases involved were capillary malformations (CMs), venous malformations (VMs), lymphatic malformations (LMs), and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), respectively. We investigated the surgical methods used to treat these patients, the quantity of surgical procedures, complications and instances of recurrence, and self-assessed satisfaction scores. Results A total of 50 operations were carried out: 28 horizontal partial excisions, eight vertical partial excisions, and 14 operations using other surgical methods. All cases of AVM underwent complete excision. Six cases experienced minor complications and one case of recurrence was observed. The overall average satisfaction score was 4.1 out of 5, while the satisfaction scores associated with each lesion type were 4.2 for hemangiomas, 3.9 for CMs, 4.2 for VMs, 5.0 for LMs, and 4.0 for AVMs. Conclusions It is difficult to completely excise vascular anomalies that involve the vermilion. This study suggests that partial excision focused on correcting the overall contour of the lips is effective and leads to satisfactory results. PMID:26848441

  8. [Jaboulay, vascular surgeon at Lyon].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Mathieu Jaboulay was an excellent surgeon. He was the first to come up with the principles of vascular surgery as he made a surgical anastomosis between two arteries of a dog by an eversion circular suture. In 1902, he implemented a suture between an artery and a vein in an arteritis by obliteration. Jaboulay also tried the graft of an animal kidney on the crease of a human elbow in 1906. Jaboulay was an initiator for Alexis Carrel. PMID:20527332

  9. Cervicofacial Lymphatic Malformations: A Retrospective Review of 40 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byung Chae; Kim, Jae Bong; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Yang, Jung Dug; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Huh, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a form of congenital vascular malformation with a low incidence. Although LM has been studied, no consensus has emerged regarding its cause or treatment. Methods In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 40 patients who visited our vascular anomalies center for the treatment of cervicofacial LM, which is a common manifestation of LM. The medical records of patients over a period of 12 years were reviewed and analyzed for commonalities regarding the diagnosis and the results of treatment. Results Suspected cervicofacial LM was confirmed through imaging studies. No difference in incidence was observed according to sex, and 73% of patients first presented with symptoms before the age of two years. The left side and the V2–V3 area were most commonly affected. No significant differences in incidence were observed among the macrocystic, microcystic, and combined types of LM. A total of 28 out of 36 patients received sclerotherapy as the first choice of treatment, regardless of the type of lesion. Complete resolution was achieved in only 25% of patients. Conclusions LM is important to confirm the diagnosis early and to choose an appropriate treatment strategy according to the stage of the disease and each individual patient's symptoms. When treatment is delayed or an incorrect treatment is administered, patient discomfort increases as the lesion gradually spreads. Therefore, more so than is the case for most other diseases, a team approach on a case-by-case basis is important for the accurate and appropriate treatment of LM. PMID:26848440

  10. Temporal assessment of vascular reactivity and functionality using MRI during postischemic proangiogenenic vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsiang; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Siow, Tiing-Yee; Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Lin, Teng-Nan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Chen

    2015-09-01

    Postischemic angiogenesis is an important recovery mechanism. Both arteries and veins are upregulated during angiogenesis, but eventually there are more angiogenic veins than arteries in terms of number and length. It is critical to understand how the veins are modulated after ischemia and then transitioned into angiogenic vessels during the proangiogenic stage to finally serve as a restorative strength to the injured area. Using a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, the hypercapnic blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was used to evaluate vascular reactivity, while the hyperoxic BOLD and tissue oxygen level-dependent (TOLD) responses were used to evaluate the vascular functionality at 1, 3, and 7days after ischemia. Vessel-like venous signals appeared on R2* maps on days 3 and 7, but not on day 1. The large hypercapnic BOLD responses on days 3 and 7 indicated that these areas have high vascular reactivity. The temporal correlation between vascular reactivity and the immunoreactivity to desmin and VEGF further indicates that the integrity of vascular reactivity is associated with the pericyte coverage as regulated by the VEGF level. Vascular functionality remained low on days 1, 3, and 7, as reflected by the small hyperoxic BOLD and large hyperoxic TOLD responses, indicating the low oxygen consumption of the ischemic tissues. These functional changes in proangiogenic veins may be critical for angiogenesis. PMID:25944092

  11. Collateral veins in left renal vein stenosis demonstrated via CT.

    PubMed

    Lien, H H; Lund, G; Talle, K

    1983-02-01

    Twelve patients with left renal vein stenosis from tumor compression were studied with CT. All had distended collateral veins in the perirenal space which either formed a radiating or a cobweb pattern or appeared as marked longitudinal veins. Inferior phrenic vein branches were seen in seven patients and were considerably enlarged in two. Other major veins possibly taking part in collateral circulation could not be recognized due to obliteration of fat planes. The renal fascia was thickened in eleven patients, probably due to edema. A close study of the perirenal space with CT may give valuable information about collateral development. PMID:6840101

  12. [Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system malformations].

    PubMed

    Langmr, Zoltn; Nmeth, Mikls; Csaba, kos; Szigeti, Zsanett; Jo, Jzsef Gbor

    2013-07-30

    The prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations have been the subject of numerous publications in the literature. This has dramatically increased in the last 15 years, mainly due to the advent of high-resolution ultrasound. In addition adequate guidelines issued by professional organizations have encouraged the universal approach to the imaging of fetal anatomy as well as malformations. One of the most significant groups of the fetal anomalies is the central nervous system malformation. Due to its prevalence and severity the praenatal diagnostics of central nervous system malformations got basic significance. In this review we attempted to summarize the recent informations concerning the prenatal diagnostics of the central nervous system anomalies. PMID:23971353

  13. Effect of resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation on central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Grant; Hise, Joseph; Thacker, Ike; Layton, Kennith F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first utilization of intraoperative central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in the resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation. A 24-year-old woman with a history of a left orbital mass who had previously undergone resection of a cranio-orbital arteriovenous malformation presented with gradual recurrence in the left orbit. She visited the emergency department with sudden vision loss, which resolved over several hours. This transient vision loss was thought to be due to a steal phenomenon from the ophthalmic artery due to the residual vascular malformation. Further surgical resection was undertaken. A preoperative angiogram identified residual feeding vessels, and the larger vessels were embolized. At the start of the procedure, her CVP was elevated (29 mm Hg), as measured by a central venous line. The remaining feeding vessels were surgically ligated, and an intraoperative arteriogram confirmed their successful ablation. At the conclusion of the procedure, the CVP had decreased to 9 mm Hg. PMID:25829648

  14. Effect of resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation on central venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Starks, Victoria S; Gilliland, Grant; Hise, Joseph; Thacker, Ike; Layton, Kennith F

    2015-04-01

    We report the first utilization of intraoperative central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in the resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation. A 24-year-old woman with a history of a left orbital mass who had previously undergone resection of a cranio-orbital arteriovenous malformation presented with gradual recurrence in the left orbit. She visited the emergency department with sudden vision loss, which resolved over several hours. This transient vision loss was thought to be due to a steal phenomenon from the ophthalmic artery due to the residual vascular malformation. Further surgical resection was undertaken. A preoperative angiogram identified residual feeding vessels, and the larger vessels were embolized. At the start of the procedure, her CVP was elevated (29 mm Hg), as measured by a central venous line. The remaining feeding vessels were surgically ligated, and an intraoperative arteriogram confirmed their successful ablation. At the conclusion of the procedure, the CVP had decreased to 9 mm Hg. PMID:25829648

  15. Macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome in a newborn with tetralogy of fallot and sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Tugba Erener; Oztunc, Funda; Celkan, Tiraje; Bor, Meltem; Kizilkilic, Osman; Vural, Mehmet; Perk, Yildiz; Islak, Civan; Tuysuz, Beyhan

    2013-01-01

    Macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome is characterized by cutaneous vascular malformations with associated anomalies as macrocephaly, macrosomia, hemihypertrophy, hypotonia, developmental delay, lax joints, loose skin, polysyndactyly, and neuroimaging abnormalities. We present a newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of macrosomia and tetralogy of Fallot. He also had macrocephaly; a high forehead; capillary hemangioma on the forehead, upper lip, and philtrum; generalized loose skin; postaxial polydactyly of both hands and feet, with neuroimaging findings of polymicrogyria and thrombosis in sagittal sinus and sinus rectus. His condition was diagnosed as macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome in the neonatal period and he died suddenly during sleep at 6 months of age. The clinical course in this syndrome is not as benign as was previously thought. Careful follow-up of these patients with particular emphasis on neuroradiologic and cardiologic evaluation might help decrease the risk of sudden death and to improve long-term outcome. PMID:22451530

  16. Nasopharyngeal venous malformation: A rare condition managed with Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, David R; Richter, Gresham T

    2015-10-01

    Venous malformations are benign but symptomatic vascular lesions of the head and neck that undergo soft tissue infiltration and relentless growth. Here we present a 31-year-old female referred for an obstructing and painful right posterior nasal mass. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 3 cm 4 cm enhancing mucosal and submucosal venous malformation of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Three staged episodes of transnasal endoscopically guided Nd:YAG laser therapy were performed with dramatic and sustained reduction in size and symptoms. No bleeding or complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of nasopharyngeal venous malformations is a safe and effective alternative to open surgical excision and sclerotherapy. PMID:25684672

  17. Duplication of Right Testicular Vein: Embryological and Clinical Consideration- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Joseph; Sharma, Anshu; Sharma, Mahesh; J P, Jessy; Priyanka

    2015-11-01

    The testis is the organ upon which the survival of the human species depends. Abnormalities of testicular vessels may lead to loss of gametogenesis and hormone production. The gonadal veins are anatomically asymmetric and there are several anatomical variations involving them. In present case, a variation in draining pattern of right gonadal vein was observed during a routine dissection done at Department of Anatomy. Duplication of right gonadal vein near the point of drainage was found. One of the veins was draining in inferior vena cava and other into right renal vein. According to the reviewed literature, a case like this was rarely reported. There was no other vascular abnormality in this case. Variation in gonadal veins remains unnoticed clinically, but these variations are incidental findings during autopsy and surgeries. The presence of such variations can increase risk of varicocoele and infertility in patients. PMID:26673850

  18. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angiography. The left renal vein was single, and just before draining into the inferior vena cava (IVC) made two branches craniocaudally, which both passed posteriorly to the aorta and entered separately into the IVC. PMID:25901255

  19. Duplication of Right Testicular Vein: Embryological and Clinical Consideration- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anshu; Sharma, Mahesh; J P, Jessy; Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    The testis is the organ upon which the survival of the human species depends. Abnormalities of testicular vessels may lead to loss of gametogenesis and hormone production. The gonadal veins are anatomically asymmetric and there are several anatomical variations involving them. In present case, a variation in draining pattern of right gonadal vein was observed during a routine dissection done at Department of Anatomy. Duplication of right gonadal vein near the point of drainage was found. One of the veins was draining in inferior vena cava and other into right renal vein. According to the reviewed literature, a case like this was rarely reported. There was no other vascular abnormality in this case. Variation in gonadal veins remains unnoticed clinically, but these variations are incidental findings during autopsy and surgeries. The presence of such variations can increase risk of varicocoele and infertility in patients. PMID:26673850

  20. Update on the Molecular Genetics of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QING K.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies. Significant advances have been made in recent years in identifying the genetic and molecular determinants of a variety of vascular anomalies using a molecular genetic approach. Several genes for vascular anomalies have been identified. These genes include AGGF1 for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, RASA1 for capillary malformations, KRIT1, MGC4607, PDCD10 for cerebral cavernous malformations, glomulin for glomuvenous malformations, TIE2 for multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations, VEGFR-3, FOXC2, NEMO, SOX18 for lymphedema or related syndromes, ENG, ACVRLK1, MADH4 for HHT or related syndromes, NDP for Coats disease, Notch3 for CADASIL, and PTEN for Proteus Syndrome. These findings have made genetic testing possible in some clinical cases, and may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for vascular anomalies. Furthermore, these studies have identified critical genes involved in vascular morphogenesis, and provided fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:16379592

  1. Deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    This article reviews the incidence, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Various employees, including long-distance drivers or travelers, sedentary office workers, females taking estrogen, those who are obese, those who have cancer, and those who are hospitalized, may be at risk for developing this condition. Genetic testing can determine some inherited factors predisposing workers to clotting. Low-molecular weight heparins can be used to manage DVT on an outpatient basis. PMID:18792613

  2. Flow Reversal Promotes Intimal Thickening in Vein Grafts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fernandez, Chessy M.; Jiang, Zhihua; Tao, Ming; OMalley, Kerri A.; Berceli, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Following vascular interventions, unidentified mechanisms disrupt the homeostasis of a focal narrowing to initiate an intimal thickening response. We hypothesize that perturbations in the hemodynamic microenvironment are the initiating event for this disruption of homeostasis and intimal thickening in vein bypass grafts. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between local flow perturbations and its influence on the vein graft architecture. Methods An external ligature was used to create an 80% focal mid-graft stenosis in bilateral rabbit carotid vein grafts. A unilateral distal ligation created a 9-fold flow rate difference between high and low flow grafts. Vein grafts (n=10) were harvested at 28 days and serially sectioned for morphologic evaluation and vein graft reconstruction. Computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed to examine the hemodynamic environment within these complex flow regions. Results The largest intimal thickening occurred exclusively within the region immediately distal to the maximum stenosis in high flow grafts, which was characterized by persistent flow separation and reversal for the entire cardiac cycle. In low to moderate shear stress regions, less than 5 Pa, the typical inverse correlation between intimal thickness and wall shear was observed. Conclusions Regions of vein bypass grafts exposed to persistent flow reversal are most at risk for intimal thickening and loss of lumen. PMID:24342069

  3. Neonatal intestinal volvulus and preduodenal portal vein associated with situs ambiguus: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Nakano, Miwako; Yamazawa, Kazuki; Maeyama, Katsuhiro; Endo, Masao

    2011-05-01

    Situs ambiguus is a rare lateralization anomaly that is frequently associated with other malformations, including preduodenal portal vein (PDPV), intestinal malrotation, and cardiovascular anomalies. This is a case report on a newborn that was clinically diagnosed with situs ambiguus and midgut volvulus. During surgery the patient was found to have intestinal malrotation, Meckel's diverticulum, and PDPV that was not a direct cause of duodenal obstruction. The patient was treated with Ladd's procedure and resection of Meckel's diverticulum. It is important to be familiar with the spectrum of situs anomalies to prevent trauma to the portal vein with serious complications during surgery. PMID:21533951

  4. Vulvar vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 85 patients.

    PubMed

    Papalas, John A; Sangueza, Omar P; Puri, Puja K; Robboy, Stanley J; Selim, Maria A

    2013-02-01

    The subepidermal hormonally sensitive tissue of the vulva is anatomically unique and may give rise to a wide variety of vascular tumors. As a consequence, classifying vulvar vascular lesions has been challenging due both to the wide variety of lesions that may be encountered and the heterogeneity in reporting across several disciplines. The purpose of this study is to present an institutional experience of vulvar vascular lesions. Overall, 85 patients were identified over a 26-year period. Vascular lesions belonging to the following classes included (n, %total) benign vascular tumors (32, 38%), dilatations of preexisting vessels (31, 36%), hyperplasia/reactive (7, 8%), tumors with significant vascular component (11, 13%), malformations (3, 4%), and malignant vascular tumors (1, 1%). Two reaction patterns based on vulvar lymphatic pathology were identified: one is a stromal dominant pattern and the other is a vascular dominant pattern. Vulvar vascular malformations and true vascular malignancies, although rare, may have associated high morbidity. To accurately classify vulvar lymphatic lesions, the pathologist must carefully consider the patient's clinical history taking into account features such as preexisting lymphedema. PMID:23348141

  5. Caution is recommended prior to sildenafil use in vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Hannah; Zwicker, Kelley; Trenor, Cameron C

    2015-11-01

    Since publication of a single case report of lymphatic malformation improvement during sildenafil therapy for pulmonary hypertension, sildenafil use has propagated across multiple vascular anomalies diagnoses. Vascular anomalies are rare conditions, often with poor long-term outcomes from available therapies, making these patients vulnerable to novel therapy use. We have retrospectively reviewed 14 children with vascular anomalies treated with sildenafil. None of these patients reported improvement of disease while on treatment and some reported side effects including infections and bleeding. Pending more convincing prospective data, we recommend caution prior to sildenafil use for vascular anomalies. PMID:25982365

  6. Bleeding Scrotal Vascular Lesions: Interventional Management with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaganathan, Sriram; Gamanagatti, Shivanand Mukund, Amar; Dhar, Anita

    2011-02-15

    Vascular lesions of the scrotum are uncommon; the most common among them are varicocele lesions. The other vascular lesions that may involve the scrotum are hemangioma, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformations, which are exceedingly rare. The imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and management of scrotal vascular lesions are grayscale sonography, color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We present two cases of scrotal vascular lesions involving the extratesticular scrotal soft tissues. Patients presented with bleeding and were treated by radiological interventional technique. We emphasize the importance of superselective catheterization and distal embolization.

  7. A clinical and experimental overview of sirenomelia: insight into the mechanisms of congenital limb malformations

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; Haro, Endika; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martínez-Frías, María Luisa; Bertocchini, Federica; Ros, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as sirenomelia sequence, is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by fusion of the legs and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. The causes of this malformation remain unknown, although the discovery that it can have a genetic basis in mice represents an important step towards the understanding of its pathogenesis. Sirenomelia occurs in mice lacking Cyp26a1, an enzyme that degrades retinoic acid (RA), and in mice that develop with reduced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling in the caudal embryonic region. The phenotypes of these mutant mice suggest that sirenomelia in humans is associated with an excess of RA signaling and a deficit in Bmp signaling in the caudal body. Clinical studies of sirenomelia have given rise to two main pathogenic hypotheses. The first hypothesis, based on the aberrant abdominal and umbilical vascular pattern of affected individuals, postulates a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. The second hypothesis, based on the overall malformation of the caudal body, postulates a primary defect in the generation of the mesoderm. This review gathers experimental and clinical information on sirenomelia together with the necessary background to understand how deviations from normal development of the caudal part of the embryo might lead to this multisystemic malformation. PMID:21504909

  8. Capillary malformations: a classification using specific names for specific skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    2015-12-01

    The name capillary malformation has caused much confusion because it is presently used to designate numerous quite different disorders such as naevus flammeus, the salmon patch, the vascular naevus of the hereditary 'megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome' and the skin lesions of non-hereditary traits such as 'capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation' and 'microcephaly-capillary malformation'. To avoid such bewilderment, the present review describes the distinguishing clinical and genetic criteria of 20 different capillary malformations, and a specific name is given to all of them. The group of capillary naevi includes naevus flammeus, port-wine naevus of the Proteus type, port-wine naevus of the CLOVES type, naevus roseus, rhodoid naevus, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, congenital livedo reticularis, segmental angioma serpiginosum, naevus anaemicus, naevus vascularis mixtus and angiokeratoma circumscriptum. Capillary lesions that perhaps represent naevi are the mesotropic port-wine patch, Carter-Mirzaa macules, unilateral punctate telangiectasia and unilateral naevoid telangiectasia of the patchy type. Capillary malformations that do not represent naevi include X-linked angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (Fabry disease), autosomal dominant angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, hereditary angioma serpiginosusm and the salmon patch. In this way, we are able to discriminate between various non-hereditary capillary naevi such as naevus roseus and the hereditary rhodoid naevus and several hereditary traits that do not represent naevi such as angiokeratoma corporis diffusum and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; between four different types of port-wine stains, three of them being lateralized and one being mesotropic; between cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita and congenital livedo reticularis; between telangiectatic naevi and the vasoconstrictive naevus anaemicus; and between two different types of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Finally, arguments are presented why the salmon patch ('stork bite', 'naevus simplex') cannot be categorized as a naevus. PMID:25864701

  9. Chiari I malformation presenting as chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Amos, Louella B; Quintero, Diana R

    2008-10-01

    We present a 9-month-old infant with persistent cough refractory to conventional asthma therapy. An extensive evaluation eventually revealed a Chiari I malformation with syringohydromyelia. His cough resolved one month after surgical decompression, suggesting that brainstem compression from the Chiari malformation directly caused his symptoms. PMID:18785260

  10. Impaired cerebral vasoreactivity after embolization of arteriovenous malformations: assessment with serial acetazolamide challenge xenon CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, R.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Horton, J.A.; Yonas, H.; Pentheny, S.; Durham, S.; Jungreis, C.A.; Hecht, S.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Embolization of a portion of the nidus of an arteriovenous malformation not only may alter hemodynamics within the nidus, but also may change blood flow dynamics in adjacent normal vessels. Sequential acetazolamide-challenge xenon CT cerebral blood flow studies were performed in eight patients before and after embolization of arteriovenous malformations to assess the hemodynamic effects on the major vascular territories supplying the malformation. Acetazolamide is a potent cerebral vasodilator, and its administration combined with cerebral blood flow studies allows assessment of cerebral vasoreactivity. In seven of the eight patients, one or more parenchymal areas exhibited a normal cerebral blood flow augmentation response to acetazolamide before embolization, but diminished acetazolamide flow augmentation was seen after embolization, indicating abnormal vasoreactivity. We found that the decrease in vasoreactivity peaked 6-10 days after embolization. In one of the eight patients, a temporary delayed neurologic deficit developed during a period of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity following embolization. Our results suggest that embolization of an arteriovenous malformation can induce vasoreactivity changes in adjacent normal vessels. Because these changes appear to be somewhat time-dependent, an appropriate interval should be observed between embolization stages or before surgical resection of an arteriovenous malformation following embolization to allow hemodynamic equilibration to occur. Acetazolamide challenge combined with serial cerebral blood flow studies following embolization enables determination of this hemodynamic equilibration.

  11. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVERNOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE OBSTRUCTED PORTAL VEIN IN SMALL ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Specchi, Swan; Pey, Pascaline; Ledda, Gianluca; Lustgarten, Meghann; Thrall, Donald; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the process of development of collateral vessels with hepatopetal flow around the portal vein in order to bypass an obstruction is called "cavernous transformation of the portal vein." The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentric study was to describe presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in small animals with portal vein obstruction using ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Databases from three different institutions were searched for patients with an imaging diagnosis of cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to portal vein obstruction of any cause. Images were retrieved and reanalyzed. With MDCT-angiography, two main portoportal collateral pathways were identified: short tortuous portoportal veins around/inside the thrombus and long portoportal collaterals bypassing the site of portal obstruction. Three subtypes of the long collaterals, often coexisting, were identified. Branches of the hepatic artery where involved in collateral circulation in nine cases. Concomitant acquired portosystemic shunts were identified in six patients. With ultrasound, cavernous transformation of the portal vein was suspected in three dogs and one cat based on visualization of multiple and tortuous vascular structures corresponding to periportal collaterals. In conclusion, the current study provided descriptive MDCT and ultrasonographic characteristics of presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in a sample of small animals. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein could occur as a single condition or could be concurrent with acquired portosystemic shunts. PMID:25877678

  12. Germline Mutations in RASA1 Are Not Found in Patients with Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome or Capillary Malformation with Limb Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Revencu, N.; Boon, L.M.; Dompmartin, A.; Rieu, P.; Busch, W.L.; Dubois, J.; Forzano, F.; van Hagen, J.M.; Halbach, S.; Kuechler, A.; Lachmeijer, A.M.A.; Lhde, J.; Russell, L.; Simola, K.O.J.; Mulliken, J.B.; Vikkula, M.

    2013-01-01

    The RASA1 gene encodes p120RASGAP, a multidomain cytoplasmic protein that acts as a negative regulator of the RAS signalling pathway. Heterozygous loss-of-function RASA1 mutations were identified in patients with Parkes Weber syndrome and multifocal capillary malformations. This syndrome is characterised by a capillary blush on an extremity, arteriovenous microfistulas, and bony and soft tissue hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to test RASA1 in 2 disorders characterised by asymmetric limb enlargement and vascular malformations, namely Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and regional capillary malformation with overgrowth. We did not identify any clear pathogenic change in these patients. Thus, besides clinical and radiological criteria, RASA1 testing constitutes an additional tool to differentiate Parkes Weber syndrome of capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) from overlapping disorders. PMID:23801933

  13. A locus for cerebral cavernous malformations maps to chromosome 7q in two families

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, D.A.; Gallione, C.J.; Morrison, L.A.; Davis, L.E.; Clericuzio, C.L.

    1995-07-20

    Cavernous malformations (angiomas) affecting the central nervous system and retina can be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern (OMIM 116860). These vascular lesions may remain clinically silent or lead to a number of neurological symptoms including seizure, intracranial hemorrhage, focal neurological deficit, and migraine. We have mapped a gene for this disorder in two families, one of Italian-American origin and one of Mexican-American origin, to markers on proximal 7q, with a combined maximum lod score of 3.92 ({theta} of zero) with marker D7S479. Haplotype analysis of these families places the locus between markers D7S502 proximally and D7S515 distally, an interval of approximately 41 cM. The location distinguishes this disorder from an autosomal dominant vascular malformation syndrome where lesions are primarily cutaneous and that maps to 9p21. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The epidemiological profile of the Vascular Birthmark Clinic at the Alberta Childrens Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fraulin, Frankie OG; Flannigan, Ryan K; Sharma, Vishal K; McPhalen, Donald F; Harrop, Robertson A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Vascular Birthmark (VBM) Clinic at the Alberta Childrens Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) is a multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the evaluation of children with vascular anomalies. OBJECTIVE: To review the characteristics of patients seen at the VBM Clinic. METHOD: A retrospective data analysis of all pediatric patients presenting to the VBM Clinic between 1998 and 2009 was performed. Data including demographic, referring, diagnostic and treatment information were obtained from the clinics database. RESULTS: Of 932 patients, 621 with hemangiomas and 311 patients with vascular malformations were found in the database. Hemangiomas were more commonly found in girls (68.5%), and most commonly located on the head and neck (54%), with most patients (72.6%) having only one lesion. Of the patients with hemangiomas, 14.7% underwent diagnostic imaging investigation and 23.7% received treatment including medications, surgery, pulsed-dye laser or dressings. The sex distribution among the 311 patients with vascular malformations was almost equal. Venous malformations accounted for 38.9% of patients, isolated capillary malformations for 31.5%, lymphatic malformations for 11.6%, mixed low-flow malformations for 14.8% and arteriovenous malformations for 2.9%. Overall, 37.9% of patients underwent diagnostic imaging investigation and 42.4% received treatment either pulsed-dye laser, surgical excision, sclerotherapy or other treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations can occur at any anatomical site. There is a large variation in clinical presentation necessitating expertise in a variety of diagnostic approaches and treatment modalities. Vascular anomalies are best managed in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:23730152

  15. Vascular lesions of the orbit: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Smoker, Wendy R K; Gentry, Lindell R; Yee, Norbert K; Reede, Deborah L; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the orbit may be classified on the basis of their natural history, growth pattern, and histologic composition as capillary hemangiomas, venous vascular malformations, venous lymphatic malformations, arterial and arteriovenous lesions, or neoplasms. Most follow a characteristic pattern of clinical development and have one or more specific imaging features that allow diagnosis. Hemangiomas typically manifest at or soon after birth and subsequently involute. They are nonencapsulated, poorly circumscribed, often lobulated, and largely extraconal in location. Cavernous malformations are septate and well circumscribed, may exhibit progressive enhancement on delayed images, and do not involute. Orbital varices appear distended on images obtained with the patient prone or during the Valsalva maneuver. Venous lymphatic malformations show multiple fluid-fluid levels, enlarge during viral infections, and may manifest as chocolate-colored cysts after an acute hemorrhage. Arteriovenous malformations, fistulas, and aneurysms have typical angiographic features. Hemangiopericytomas arise from the paranasal sinuses and show early tumor blush and persistent staining on angiographic images. Hemangioblastomas appear as enhancing mural nodules with associated cysts and serpentine flow voids on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Choroidal hemangiomas and melanomas can be differentiated on the basis of their appearances on T2-weighted MR images. Patients with vascular orbital and ocular metastases commonly have a history of breast or lung primary tumors. PMID:18203938

  16. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: toward noninvasive diagnosis and follow-up of pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Blauwblomme, Thomas; Naggara, Olivier; Brunelle, Francis; Grvent, David; Puget, Stphanie; Di Rocco, Federico; Beccaria, Kevin; Paternoster, Giovanna; Bourgeois, Marie; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT Arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI is becoming a routinely used sequence for ischemic strokes, as it quantifies cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for contrast injection. As brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are highflow vascular abnormalities, increased CBF can be identified inside the nidus or draining veins. The authors aimed to analyze the relevance of ASL-MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with brain AVM. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 21 patients who had undergone digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and pseudo-continuous ASL-MRI for the diagnosis or follow-up of brain AVM after radiosurgery or embolization. They compared the AVM nidus location between ASL-MRI and 3D contrast-enhanced T1 MRI, as well as the CBF values obtained in the nidus (CBFnidus) and the normal cortex (CBFcortex) before and after treatment. RESULTS The ASL-MRI correctly demonstrated the nidus location in all cases. Nidal perfusion (mean CBFnidus 137.7 ml/100 mg/min) was significantly higher than perfusion in the contralateral normal cortex (mean CBFcortex 58.6 ml/100 mg/min; p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). Among 3 patients followed up after embolization, a reduction in both AVM size and CBF values was noted. Among 5 patients followed up after radiosurgery, a reduction in the nidus size was observed, whereas CBFnidus remained higher than CBFcortex. CONCLUSIONS In this study, ASL-MRI revealed nidus location and patency after treatment thanks to its ability to demonstrate focal increased CBF values. Absolute quantification of CBF values could be relevant in the follow-up of pediatric brain AVM after partial treatment, although this must be confirmed in larger prospective trials. PMID:25634818

  17. Stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    One of the more challenging problems of vascular neurosurgery is the management of surgically-inaccessible arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we have developed the method of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle (helium-ion) Bragg peak radiosurgery for treatment of inoperable intracranial AVMs in over 300 patients since 1980 (Fabrikant et al. 1989, Fabrikant et al. 1985, Levy et al. 1989). This report describes patient selection, treatment method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered. 4 refs.

  18. Intraocular metallic foreign body causing branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Bypareddy, Ravi; Sagar, Pradeep; Chawla, Rohan; Temkar, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old man with post-traumatic cataract and an intraocular metallic foreign body (IOFB) lying on the retinal surface causing a superotemporal branch retinal vein occlusion. The case was managed using lens aspiration with pars plana vitrectomy and IOFB removal. We only found two previous reports of such a foreign body causing a vascular occlusion. The possibility of a vascular occlusion occurring due to a foreign body within or close to the optic disc is highlighted. PMID:26994054

  19. Role of trauma and infection in childhood hemorrhagic stroke due to vascular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Nilika Shah; Hills, Nancy K.; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Trauma and infection have been postulated as triggers for hemorrhage from underlying brain vascular lesions (arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and aneurysms) in pediatric hemorrhagic stroke. We decided to perform an association study examining these environmental risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study nested within the cohort of 2.3 million children enrolled in a Northern California integrated health plan (19932004), we identified childhood hemorrhagic stroke cases through electronic searches of diagnostic and radiology databases, confirmed through chart review. Three age- and facility-matched controls per case were randomly selected from the study population. Exposure variables were measured using medical records documented before stroke diagnosis. Main outcome measure was hemorrhagic stroke. Results: Of 132 childhood, non-neonatal hemorrhagic stroke cases, 65 had underlying vascular lesions: 34 arteriovenous malformations, 16 cavernous malformations, and 15 aneurysms. A documented exposure to head and neck trauma in the prior 12 weeks was present in 3 cases (4.6%) with underlying vascular lesions, compared with no controls (p < 0.015). However, all 3 vascular lesions were aneurysms, and traumatic pseudoaneurysms were possible. Recent minor infection (prior 4 weeks) was present in 5 cases (7.7%) and 9 controls (4.6%) (p = 0.34). Conclusions: Our observed association between trauma and hemorrhagic stroke with a vascular lesion may be explained by traumatic pseudoaneurysms. Neither recent head or neck trauma nor infection appeared to be a trigger for pediatric hemorrhagic stroke due to underlying vascular malformations. PMID:23825175

  20. Superior vena cava repair with left brachiocephalic vein flap

    PubMed Central

    Tsubochi, Hiroyoshi; Endo, Shunsuke; Minegishi, Kentaro; Endo, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Interposition with a vascular prosthesis or patch closure using autologous pericardium has been applied for superior vena cava (SVC) reconstruction during surgery for thoracic malignancies such as thymic epithelial tumors or lymphadenopathy that invade the SVC. We herein report a novel and simple method for repair of the SVC using a left brachiocephalic vein flap. This procedure is useful to repair the anterior wall of the distal portion of the SVC, which is a common site of invasion of thoracic malignancies. PMID:26932999

  1. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a new risk factor for central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, A K

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have documented that an elevated plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for vascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine whether hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: This case-controlled study involved reassessment of 74 patients with documented central retinal vein occlusion. Control subjects consisted of individuals referred to the same clinic for assessment of a nonretinal vascular disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a total plasma homocysteine level above the 95th percentile in the control group. RESULTS: The mean total plasma homocysteine level was 11.58 mumol/L for cases and 9.49 mumol/L for controls. Of the 74 patients with a central retinal vein occlusion, 21.6% had total plasma homocysteine levels above the 95th percentile in the control group (odds ratio, 6.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.81 to 23.50, P = .003). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 55% of cases with bilateral disease, 30% of ischemic cases, and 31% of cases with severe visual loss. CONCLUSION: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for central retinal vein occlusion. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:11190038

  2. New insights into craniofacial malformations.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Stephen R F; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2015-10-15

    Development of the human skull and face is a highly orchestrated and complex three-dimensional morphogenetic process, involving hundreds of genes controlling the coordinated patterning, proliferation and differentiation of tissues having multiple embryological origins. Craniofacial malformations that occur because of abnormal development (including cleft lip and/or palate, craniosynostosis and facial dysostoses), comprise over one-third of all congenital birth defects. High-throughput sequencing has recently led to the identification of many new causative disease genes and functional studies have clarified their mechanisms of action. We present recent findings in craniofacial genetics and discuss how this information together with developmental studies in animal models is helping to increase understanding of normal craniofacial development. PMID:26085576

  3. Perceptual enhancement of arteriovenous malformation in MRI angiography displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S. H.; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2012-02-01

    The importance of presenting medical images in an intuitive and usable manner during a procedure is essential. However, most medical visualization interfaces, particularly those designed for minimally-invasive surgery, suffer from a number of issues as a consequence of disregarding the human perceptual, cognitive, and motor system's limitations. This matter is even more prominent when human visual system is overlooked during the design cycle. One example is the visualization of the neuro-vascular structures in MR angiography (MRA) images. This study investigates perceptual performance in the usability of a display to visualize blood vessels in MRA volumes using a contour enhancement technique. Our results show that when contours are enhanced, our participants, in general, can perform faster with higher level of accuracy when judging the connectivity of different vessels. One clinical outcome of such perceptual enhancement is improvement of spatial reasoning needed for planning complex neuro-vascular operations such as treating Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs). The success of an AVM intervention greatly depends on fully understanding the anatomy of vascular structures. However, poor visualization of pre-operative MRA images makes the planning of such a treatment quite challenging.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis After Liver Transplantation in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar Borges, Marcus Vinicius; Moreira, Airton Mota; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Maksoud, Joao Gilberto

    2006-06-15

    Although operative techniques in hepatic transplantation have reduced the time and mortality on waiting lists, the rate of vascular complications associated with these techniques has increased. Stenosis or thrombosis of the portal vein is an infrequent complication, and if present, surgical treatment is considered the traditional management. This article describes a case of acute portal vein thrombosis after liver transplantation from a living donor to a child managed by percutaneous techniques.

  5. Percutaneous hydrodynamic thrombectomy for congenital deep vein thrombosis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kobayashi, T; Mayuzumi, H; Morikawa, A

    2006-01-01

    A 1-day-old boy with a complete occlusive inferior vena cava and bilateral renal vein thrombus removed successfully using a hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter is reported. Although blood flow to the inferior vena cava and bilateral renal veins was restored with no distal embolism or vascular injury, he died of bleeding complications due to fibrinolytic therapy after hydrodynamic thrombectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hydrodynamic thrombectomy of a neonate. PMID:16391982

  6. Somatic Uniparental Isodisomy Explains Multifocality of Glomuvenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Amyere, Mustapha; Aerts, Virginie; Brouillard, Pascal; McIntyre, BrendanA.S.; Duhoux, FranoisP.; Wassef, Michel; Enjolras, Odile; Mulliken, JohnB.; Devuyst, Olivier; Antoine-Poirel, Hlne; Boon, LaurenceM.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2013-01-01

    Inherited vascular malformations are commonly autosomal dominantly inherited with high, but incomplete, penetrance; they often present as multiple lesions. We hypothesized that Knudsons two-hit model could explain this multifocality and partial penetrance. We performed a systematic analysis of inherited glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) by using multiple approaches, including a sensitive allele-specific pairwise SNP-chip method. Overall, we identified 16 somatic mutations, most of which were not intragenic but were cases of acquired uniparental isodisomy (aUPID) involving chromosome 1p. The breakpoint of each aUPID is located in an A- and T-rich, high-DNA-flexibility region (1p13.11p12). This region corresponds to a possible new fragile site. Occurrences of these mutations render the inherited glomulin variant in 1p22.1 homozygous in the affected tissues without loss of genetic material. This finding demonstrates that a double hit is needed to trigger formation of a GVM. It also suggests that somatic UPID, only detectable by sensitive pairwise analysis in heterogeneous tissues, might be a common phenomenon in human cells. Thus, aUPID might play a role in the pathogenesis of various nonmalignant disorders and might explain local impaired function and/or clinical variability. Furthermore, these data suggest that pairwise analysis of blood and tissue, even on heterogeneous tissue, can be used for localizing double-hit mutations in disease-causing genes. PMID:23375657

  7. Cerebral cavernous malformation: new molecular and clinical insights

    PubMed Central

    Revencu, N; Vikkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a vascular malformation causing neurological problems, such as headaches, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and cerebral haemorrhages. CCMs can occur sporadically or as an autosomal dominant condition with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. Familial forms have been linked to three chromosomal loci, and loss of function mutations have been identified in the KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3 genes. Recently, many new pieces of data have been added to the CCM puzzle. It has been shown that the three CCM genes are expressed in neurones rather than in blood vessels. The interaction between CCM1 and CCM2, which was expected on the basis of their structure, has also been proven, suggesting a common functional pathway. Finally, in a large series of KRIT1 mutation carriers, clinical and neuroradiological features have been characterised. These data should lead to more appropriate follow up, treatment, and genetic counselling. The recent developments will also help to elucidate the precise pathogenic mechanisms leading to CCM, contributing to a better understanding of normal and pathological angiogenesis and to the development of targeted treatment. PMID:16571644

  8. Somatic uniparental isodisomy explains multifocality of glomuvenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Amyere, Mustapha; Aerts, Virginie; Brouillard, Pascal; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Duhoux, Franois P; Wassef, Michel; Enjolras, Odile; Mulliken, John B; Devuyst, Olivier; Antoine-Poirel, Hlne; Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2013-02-01

    Inherited vascular malformations are commonly autosomal dominantly inherited with high, but incomplete, penetrance; they often present as multiple lesions. We hypothesized that Knudson's two-hit model could explain this multifocality and partial penetrance. We performed a systematic analysis of inherited glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) by using multiple approaches, including a sensitive allele-specific pairwise SNP-chip method. Overall, we identified 16 somatic mutations, most of which were not intragenic but were cases of acquired uniparental isodisomy (aUPID) involving chromosome 1p. The breakpoint of each aUPID is located in an A- and T-rich, high-DNA-flexibility region (1p13.1-1p12). This region corresponds to a possible new fragile site. Occurrences of these mutations render the inherited glomulin variant in 1p22.1 homozygous in the affected tissues without loss of genetic material. This finding demonstrates that a double hit is needed to trigger formation of a GVM. It also suggests that somatic UPID, only detectable by sensitive pairwise analysis in heterogeneous tissues, might be a common phenomenon in human cells. Thus, aUPID might play a role in the pathogenesis of various nonmalignant disorders and might explain local impaired function and/or clinical variability. Furthermore, these data suggest that pairwise analysis of blood and tissue, even on heterogeneous tissue, can be used for localizing double-hit mutations in disease-causing genes. PMID:23375657

  9. PDCD10 Gene Mutations in Multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Cigoli, Maria Sole; Avemaria, Francesca; De Benedetti, Stefano; Gesu, Giovanni P.; Accorsi, Lucio Giordano; Parmigiani, Stefano; Corona, Maria Franca; Capra, Valeria; Mosca, Andrea; Giovannini, Simona; Notturno, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Volpi, Lilia; Estienne, Margherita; De Michele, Giuseppe; Antenora, Antonella; Bilo, Leda; Tavoni, Antonietta; Zamponi, Nelia; Alfei, Enrico; Baranello, Giovanni; Riva, Daria; Penco, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, intracerebral haemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits. Familial form shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Three genes have been identified causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3. Aim of this study is to report additional PDCD10/CCM3 families poorly described so far which account for 10-15% of hereditary cerebral cavernous malformations. Our group investigated 87 consecutive Italian affected individuals (i.e. positive Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with multiple/familial CCM through direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified mutations in over 97.7% of cases, and PDCD10/CCM3 accounts for 13.1%. PDCD10/CCM3 molecular screening revealed four already known mutations and four novel ones. The mutated patients show an earlier onset of clinical manifestations as compared to CCM1/CCM2 mutated patients. The study of further families carrying mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 may help define a possible correlation between genotype and phenotype; an accurate clinical follow up of the subjects would help define more precisely whether mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 lead to a characteristic phenotype. PMID:25354366

  10. Grading and surgical planning for intracranial arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Riina, H A; Gobin, Y P

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has evolved over the last 40 years. These complex vascular lesions remain among the most difficult lesions to treat. Successful treatment of AVMs of the brain includes extensive preoperative planning, multimodality treatment options, and modern postoperative surgical care. The advent of new technologies, including interventional neuroradiology and radiosurgery, has expanded the range of malformations that can be treated effectively and has had a significant impact on those individuals who manifest this disease process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current grading technique used by the authors and to explore the preoperative treatment and planning that leads to successful surgical obliteration of these lesions. Some description of preoperative interventions, including radiosurgery and interventional procedures will be mentioned; however, only in the context of how they impact on the surgical treatment of these lesions. In other articles in this edition of Neurosurgical Focus interventional procedures and radiosurgery as treatment adjuncts and as primary therapies will be discussed in greater detail. PMID:16466235

  11. [Acrania ultrasonography diagnosis: a rare embryologic malformation].

    PubMed

    Rezgui-Marhoul, Lamia; Sad, Wassim; Dridi, Lassaad; Ben Farhat, Leila; Ben M'Rad, Salmen; Hendaoui, Lotfi

    2004-06-01

    The authors report a case of acrania diagnosed on antenatal period in a routine morphologic ultrasonography at 19 weeks of intra uterine gestation on a 20-year-old patient, gravida 1, para 0. Acrania associated with exencephaly is a rare and lethal malformation characterized by a defect of development of the flat bones of the scalp whereas cerebral tissue is present often abnormal. Ultrasonography had allowed to find besides the cerebral malformation, spinal and visceral fetal malformations as well as cord abnormality that included only two vessels. PMID:15517958

  12. Computed tomography of congenital brain malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is illustrated showing each condition. This book is designed to correlate the pathology of CNS malformations with their CT scan appearance, mainly on the axial images. The author has drawn upon his personal experience and the information gleaned from the literature dealing with the description of the CT scan findings of these malformations. The emphasis is on simplicity of description. Since a large degree of morphological variation exists in each entity, numerous illustrations (wherever applicable) are shown to depict those variations. When appropriate, deficiency of the CT scan in the evaluation of these CNS malformations also is indicated. A description of CNS embryology is included as well.

  13. [Thrombosed scapular intramuscular venous malformation: A pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Fekir, A; Balguerie, X; Bardoux, I; Dacher, J-N; Vivier, P-H

    2015-07-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is a frequent soft tissue mass in children that should not be confused with vascular tumors. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a bulky thrombosed VM of the shoulder with functional disability. D-dimer levels were high. Pathognomonic phleboliths were demonstrated on conventional x-rays. Echo-doppler confirmed the venous nature of the lesion and areas without flow suspicious for thrombosis. MRI provides the deep extension and can show non-calcified thrombi that are difficult to see with ultrasound. Localized intravascular coagulopathy is often associated with thrombosis phenomena and has to be confirmed by measurement of D-dimer levels in order to initiate anticoagulation quickly with low-molecular-weight heparin. Follow-up includes measurement of D-dimer levels and potentially MRI to evaluate the anticoagulation efficacy and tailor treatment duration. PMID:26047748

  14. Spinal arteriovenous malformation presenting with prolapsed intervertebral disc: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Farina, M Y; Harunarashid, H; Faridzal, F; Jegan, T; Das, S

    2012-11-01

    The availability of multiple investigating modalities should be utilized to arrive at the correct diagnosis of the spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). We hereby report the case of a 21-year-old, obese female, who presented with paraplegia and impaired bowel control two years after an episode of the fall. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of her spine not only revealed disc prolapse at T11-T12, but also tortuous dilated spinal veins and cord oedema. A diagnosis of a spinal arterio-venous fistula was confirmed after a spinal angiogram. The dilemma of treating the right pathology for the clinical signs and symptoms are being discussed. PMID:23306743

  15. A Child with Lung Hypoplasia, Congenital Heart Disease, Hemifacial Microsomia, and Inguinal Hernia: Ipsilateral Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chengming; Huang, Can; Liu, Jijia; Yang, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old Chinese boy was diagnosed with ipsilateral congenital malformations: right lung hypoplasia, dextroversion of heart, atrial septal defect, hepatic vein drainage directly into the right atrium, facial asymmetry, right microtia and congenital deafness, and indirect inguinal hernia. He underwent indirect inguinal hernia repair at the age of 2. Although without any facial plastic surgery performed, he underwent a repair of atrial septal defect and recovered uneventfully. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was free from any symptom of dyspnea; his heart function returned to the first grade. PMID:26294998

  16. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference in platelet or endothelium function between untreated and verapamil-treated animals, we examined the direct effect of verapamil on smooth muscle. Verapamil significantly inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil treatment significantly reduces intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts and inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture. Furthermore the enhanced reactivity to norepinephrine and histamine in the verapamil-treated vessels has no detrimental effect on the patency rate at 4 weeks. Thus by inhibiting intimal hyperplasia, calcium antagonists may improve the long-term patency of vein bypass grafts. Images Figs. 1A-C. PMID:2363608

  17. Vascular ring

    MedlinePLUS

    ... several curved pieces of tissue (arches). The body breaks down some of the remaining arches, while others form into arteries. Some arteries that should break down do not, which forms a vascular ring. With ...

  18. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  19. Stereotactic proton beam therapy for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Vernimmen, Frederik J.A.I. . E-mail: fv@sun.ac.za; Slabbert, Jacobus P.; Wilson, Jennifer A.; Fredericks, Shaheeda

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate hypofractionated stereotactic proton therapy of predominantly large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by analyzing retrospectively the results from a cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Since 1993, a total of 85 patients with vascular lesions have been treated. Of those, 64 patients fulfilled the criteria of having an arteriovenous malformation and sufficient follow-up. The AVMs were grouped by volume: <14 cc (26 patients) and {>=}14 cc (38 patients). Treatment was delivered with a fixed horizontal 200 MeV proton beam under stereotactic conditions, using a stereophotogrammetric positioning system. The majority of patients were hypofractionated (2 or 3 fractions), and the proton doses are presented as single-fraction equivalent cobalt Gray equivalent doses (SFEcGyE). The overall mean minimum target volume dose was 17.37 SFEcGyE, ranging from 10.38-22.05 SFEcGyE. Results: Analysis by volume group showed obliteration in 67% for volumes <14 cc and 43% for volumes {>=}14 cc. Grade IV acute complications were observed in 3% of patients. Transient delayed effects were seen in 15 patients (23%), becoming permanent in 3 patients. One patient also developed a cyst 8 years after therapy. Conclusions: Stereotactic proton beam therapy applied in a hypofractionated schedule allows for the safe treatment of large AVMs, with acceptable results. It is an alternative to other treatment strategies for large AVMs. AVMs are likely not static entities, but probably undergo vascular remodeling. Factors influencing angiogenesis could play a new role in a form of adjuvant therapy to improve on the radiosurgical results.

  20. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X.; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system. PMID:26478693

  1. [Effort thrombosis of the right subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Tamar, Michael; Farah, Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This case report illustrates a primary upper extremity DVT of the right subclavian vein in an otherwise healthy young male. The pathogenesis of primary upper extremity DVT may be anatomical, such as thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular microtrauma e.g. effort thrombosis, or both. After examining the patient's clinical presentation and imaging results, a diagnosis of effort thrombosis, or "Paget-Schroetter syndrome" was made. Due to the clear insulting factor, the mild clinical presentation, and the fast response to anti-coagulant treatment, a conservative treatment was followed, which included anti-coagulation and close follow-up, as advised by the American College of Chest Physician's evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. PMID:23367728

  2. The endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Valavanis, A; Ya?argil, M G

    1998-01-01

    Advances in superselective microcatheterization techniques, which took place in the past decade, established superselective endovascular exploration as an integral and indispensable tool in the pretherapeutic evaluation of brain AVMs. The strict and routine application of superselective angiography furthered our knowledge on the angioarchitecture of brain AVMs, including vascular composition of the nidus, types of feeding arteries and types and patterns of venous drainage. In addition, various types of weak angioarchitectural elements, such as flow-related aneurysms, intranidal vascular cavities and varix formation proximal to high-grade stenosis of draining veins, could be identified as factors predisposing for AVM rupture. A wide spectrum of secondary angiomorphological changes induced by the arteriovenous shunt of the nidus and occurring up- and downstream of the nidus have been identified as manifestations of high-flow angiopathy. These data help to better predict the natural history, understand the widely variable clinical presentation and to define therapeutic targets of brain AVMs. Correlation of the topography of the AVM as demonstrated by MR with the angioarchitecture as demonstrated by superselective angiography provided a system for topographic-vascular classification of brain AVMs, which proved very useful for patient selection and definition of therapeutic goals. This study showed, that 40% of patients with brain AVMs can be cured by embolization alone with a severe morbidity of 1.3% and a mortality of 1.3%. Part of theses patients can, however, be cured equally effective by microsurgery or radiosurgery. Which modality will be chosen for a particular patient will mainly depend on the locally available expertise and experience, but also on the preference of the patient following its comprehensive information about the chances for cure and the risks associated with each of these therapeutic modalities. Embolization has a significant role in the multimodality treatment of brain AVMs, by either enabling or facilitating subsequent microsurgical or radiosurgical treatment. Appropriately targeted embolization in otherwise untreatable AVMs represents a reasonable form of palliative treatment of either ameliorating the clinical condition of the patient or reducing the potential risk of hemorrhage. Regarding the practical aspects of the endovascular treatment the following conclusions could be drawn from the experience obtained with this series of 387 patients with a brain AVM: (1) The goal of endovascular treatment should be defined prior to the procedure. This does not preclude a change in the goal, if additional information obtained during the procedure make this necessary. (2) The result of endovascular treatment of a brain AVM in terms of the degree of obliteration achieved and complication rate depends mainly on the endovascular strategy developed and the technique applied. These depend on the specific angioarchitecture and topography of the individual AVM, on the past history and clinical presentation of the patient and on the predefined goal of embolization. The strategy should include the definition of embolization targets, the selection of the most appropriate approach for endovascular navigation, the determination of the sequence of catheterization of individual feeding arteries, the selection of the type of catheters and microcatheters, the selection of the appropriate embolic materials as well as the site and mode of their delivery. Thereafter, every endovascular move should be, as in a chess game, the result of a logical plan. (3) Atraumatic superselective microcatheterization is a key point in the endovascular treatment of brain AVMs. It requires manual skills, knowledge of anatomy and respect for the vascular wall. (4) All locations of brain AVMs should be regarded as eloquent, and no distinction should be made between eloquent and non-eloquent areas of the brain when deciding on the execution of embolizatio PMID:10050213

  3. Renal failure due to renal vein thrombosis in a fetus with growth restriction and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Has, Recep; Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Kalelioglu, Ibrahim H; Yumru, Harika; Yüksel, Atil; Ziylan, Orhan

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of renal vein thrombosis diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic twin pregnancy. The left kidney of one fetus was hyperechoic and enlarged with echoic streaks following the direction of interlobular veins and the loss of corticomedullary differentiation. In the following weeks, left kidney became smaller and echoic, and Doppler examination showed no flow in both artery and vein. The right kidney had totally normal appearance in the beginning, but it became enlarged and hyperechoic, and progressed into a small echoic kidney with no flow in artery and vein. In the postnatal ultrasound examination, both kidneys appeared hyperechoic with no vascularization in the hilum region. There was thrombosis in arteries and veins of both kidneys, as well as in the inferior vena cava. The investigation for thrombophilia resulted with the combined presence of heterozygote mutation in factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 genes. PMID:24612313

  4. Contribution of congenital malformation to perinatal mortality in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abudu, O O; Uguru, V; Olude, O

    1988-08-01

    Over a 17-month period we prospectively recorded identifiable congenital malformations at delivery in singleton births in our hospital. Despite the prevailing religious and cultural belief we carried out autopsies in 41% of the perinatal deaths that occurred during the study period. Out of a total of 63 (21/1000 singleton births) congenital malformations discovered, 21 (33%) were identified at autopsy only. About 16% of total perinatal deaths were due to congenital malformation. Cardiovascular malformations accounted for about 40% of perinatal deaths from congenital malformations followed by central nervous system malformation (23.3%), gastrointestinal malformations (20%), musculo-skeletal malformations (6.7%); renal malformations (3.3%) and others (6.7%). No relationship between maternal age, parity and congenital malformation was found. The results from this study suggest that with the use of autopsy, teratology may contribute significantly to the prevailing high perinatal mortality in Lagos more than was previously thought. PMID:2905300

  5. The Management of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Zhang, Shiyi; Sun, Yan; Ren, Shiyan; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current management modalities for varicose veins. There are a variety of management modalities for varicose veins. The outcomes of the treatment of varicose veins are different. The papers on the management of varicose veins were reviewed and the postoperative complications and efficacy were compared. Foam sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation were associated with less pain and faster recovery than endovenous laser ablation and surgical stripping. Patients undergoing endovenous laser ablation and radiofrequency ablation are most likely to have a faster recovery time and earlier return to work in comparison with those undergoing conventional high ligation and stripping. A randomized controlled study in multiple centers is warranted to verify which approach is better than others for the treatment of varicose veins. PMID:25594661

  6. Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... veins do you perform? Sclerotherapy? Heat ablation or laser ablation? Vein stripping? Questions to ask about different procedures for varicose veins are: How does this treatment work? When would it be a good choice for ...

  7. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Dandy-Walker malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... right halves of the brain (agenesis of the corpus callosum), a sac-like protrusion of the brain through ... Walker malformation? agenesis ; atresia ; brainstem ; cell ; cerebellum ; chromosome ; corpus callosum ; diabetes ; disabilities ; disability ; fetus ; gait ; hydrocephalus ; hypoplasia ; imaging ; ...

  9. What Is an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the rest of the body. Are there different types of brain AVMs? All blood vessel malformations involving the brain ... taken of all the blood vessels in the brain. For any type of treatment involving an AVM, an angiogram may ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Cerebral cavernous malformation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and they lack other support tissues, such as elastic fibers, which normally make them stretchy. As a ... cell ; central nervous system ; cerebral hemorrhage ; CNS ; cutaneous ; elastic ; familial ; family history ; gene ; hemangioma ; hemorrhage ; inheritance ; malformation ; ...

  11. Genetic analysis of malformations causing perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Young, I D; Rickett, A B; Clarke, M

    1986-02-01

    An analysis of congenital malformations, other than neural tube defects, which have contributed to perinatal mortality in Leicestershire is presented for the years 1976 to 1982 inclusive. Chromosomal, single gene, or polygenic inheritance accounted for 67% of cases. PMID:3950936

  12. Genetic analysis of malformations causing perinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Young, I D; Rickett, A B; Clarke, M

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of congenital malformations, other than neural tube defects, which have contributed to perinatal mortality in Leicestershire is presented for the years 1976 to 1982 inclusive. Chromosomal, single gene, or polygenic inheritance accounted for 67% of cases. PMID:3950936

  13. Tetrahydrobiopterin Role in human umbilical vein endothelial dysfunction in maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Andrea; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Salsoso, Rocío; Barros, Eric; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Maternal physiological hypercholesterolemia (MPH) allows a proper foetal development; however, maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MSPH) associates with foetal endothelial dysfunction and early development of atherosclerosis. MSPH courses with reduced endothelium-dependent dilation of the human umbilical vein due to reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity compared with MPH. Whether MSPH modifies the availability of the nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin is unknown. We investigated whether MSPH-associated lower umbilical vein vascular reactivity results from reduced bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin. Total cholesterol <7.2mmol/L was considered as maternal physiological hypercholesterolemia (n=72 women) and ≥7.2mmol/L as MSPH (n=35 women). Umbilical veins rings were used for vascular reactivity assays (wire myography), and primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to measure nitric oxide synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase 1, and dihydrofolate reductase expression and activity, as well as tetrahydrobiopterin content. MSPH reduced the umbilical vein rings relaxation caused by calcitonine gene-related peptide, a phenomenon partially improved by incubation with sepiapterin. HUVECs from MSPH showed lower nitric oxide synthase activity (l-citrulline synthesis from l-arginine) without changes in its protein abundance, as well as reduced tetrahydrobiopterin level compared with MPH, a phenomenon reversed by incubation with sepiapterin. Expression and activity of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 was lower in MSPH, without changes in dihydrofolate reductase expression. MSPH is a pathophysiological condition reducing human umbilical vein reactivity due to lower bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin leading to lower NOS activity in the human umbilical vein endothelium. PMID:26826019

  14. Blood flows in tributaries of the portal vein: anatomical and angiographic studies in normal beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Vautravers, G; Meynaud-Collard, P; Deviers, A; Sautet, J

    2015-12-01

    Liver anatomy, particularly its vascularization, has been investigated in many studies in dogs. Knowledge of blood flow from the main tributaries of the portal vein (PV) is necessary to explain the preferential sites of secondary lesions within the liver based on the site of the initial malignant lesion. How these flows come together was established in an earlier ex vivo study. Here, we highlight in vivo the blood flows from the main PV tributaries and their distribution in the liver of normal dogs. Portographs of the main PV tributaries were obtained in seven dogs after injection of an angiographic contrast medium. After euthanasia, the livers and their portal vascularization (PV and tributaries) were extracted for a comparative corrosion cast study. Flows were demonstrated in the cranial mesenteric vein, caudal mesenteric vein and splenic vein. However, no proper flow could be distinguished for the gastroduodenal and ileocolic veins. All these tributaries primarily supply the lateral liver lobes (right or left). Most of our observations indicate that the cranial mesenteric, caudal mesenteric and splenic veins primarily supply the right lateral lobe and the caudate process of the caudate lobe and secondarily the left lateral lobe, left medial lobe and the quadrate lobe. The two other tributaries (gastroduodenal and ileocolic veins) primarily supply the right lateral lobe and the caudate process of the caudate lobe. PMID:25376527

  15. Malformation and plastic surgery in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Ralf; Magritz, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Malformations of the head and neck show a huge variety of clinical symptoms with functional and esthetic consequences. Often times its rehabilitation requires multi-staged and multi-disciplinary procedures and concepts. These must consider eating, speech, mimic expression, hearing and “esthetics” or at least “normality”. A survey of the most common head and neck malformations and their treatment options are presented here. PMID:25587361

  16. Imaging diagnosis--split cord malformation.

    PubMed

    Zani, Davide D; De Zani, Donatella; Morandi, Nicola; Biggi, Marianna; Belloli, Angelo G; Riccaboni, Pietro; Rondena, Marco; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Pravettoni, Davide

    2010-01-01

    The features of a calf with a split cord malformation are described. Clinically, there was severe cervicothoracic kyphoscoliosis and an interscapular dermal sinus associated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Using magnetic resonance imaging, complete duplication of the spinal cord at the cervical intumescence was detected. There was associated syringohydromyelia, multiple cervicothoracic vertebral malformations resulting in kyphoscoliosis and rachischisis, herniation of the cerebellar vermis, meningoencephalocele, and calvarial defects. PMID:20166395

  17. Capillary malformation--arteriovenous malformation syndrome: review of the literature, proposed diagnostic criteria, and recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Orme, Charisse M; Boyden, Lynn M; Choate, Keith A; Antaya, Richard J; King, Brett A

    2013-01-01

    Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the RASA1 gene and characterized by multiple small, round to oval capillary malformations with or without arteriovenous malformations. Ateriovenous malformations occur in up to one-third of patients and may involve the brain and spine. Although making the diagnosis is straightforward in some patients, there are other patients for whom diagnostic criteria may be helpful in their evaluation. Here we review the literature regarding capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss the care of patients with this condition. PMID:23662773

  18. NPHP4 Variants are Associated with Pleiotropic Heart Malformations

    PubMed Central

    French, Vanessa M.; van de Laar, Ingrid M.B.H.; Wessels, Marja W.; Rohe, Christan; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Wang, Guangliang; Frohn-Mulder, Ingrid M.E.; Severijnen, Lies-Anne; de Graaf, Bianca M.; Schot, Rachel; Breedveld, Guido; Mientjes, Edwin; van Tienhoven, Marianne; Jadot, Elodie; Jiang, Zhengxin; Verkerk, Annemieke; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Venselaar, Hanka; Rahimi, Zohreh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; de Graaff, Esther; Helbing, Wim A.; Willemsen, Rob; Devriendt, Koen; Belmont, John W.; Oostra, Ben A.; Amack, Jeffrey D.; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Congenital heart malformations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in young children. Failure to establish normal left-right (L-R) asymmetry often results in cardiovascular malformations and other laterality defects of visceral organs. Objective To identify genetic mutations causing cardiac laterality defects. Methods and Results We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in patients with cardiac laterality defects from a consanguineous family. The patients had combinations of defects that included dextrocardia, transposition of great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, atrio-ventricular septal defects and caval vein abnormalities. Sequencing of positional candidate genes identified mutations in NPHP4. We performed mutation analysis of NPHP4 in 146 unrelated patients with similar cardiac laterality defects. Forty-one percent of these patients also had laterality defects of the abdominal organs. We identified eight additional missense variants that were absent or very rare in controls. To study the role of nphp4 in establishing L-R asymmetry, we used antisense morpholinos to knockdown nphp4 expression in zebrafish. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted L-R patterning as well as cardiac and gut laterality. Cardiac laterality defects were partially rescued by human NPHP4 mRNA, whereas mutant NPHP4 containing genetic variants found in patients failed to rescue. We show that nphp4 is involved in the formation of motile cilia in Kupffers vesicle (KV), which generate asymmetric fluid flow necessary for normal L-R asymmetry. Conclusions NPHP4 mutations are associated with cardiac laterality defects and heterotaxy. In zebrafish, nphp4 is essential for the development and function of KV cilia and is required for global L-R patterning. PMID:22550138

  19. MR imaging: vascular anatomy of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Barbaric, Z L; Wegenius, G A; Anderson, G M

    1989-01-01

    In support of the thesis that MRI may replace more invasive angiography in some applications, a total of 28 MR sections are presented to illustrate the vascular anatomy of the abdomen in coronal, transverse and sagittal planes. More than 20 vessels are identified ranging in size from the aorta to the left inferior adrenal vein and the spermatic veins. There is no anatomic continuity in sections made in the coronal and transverse planes; sequential sections of a single patient are presented in sagittal and parasagittal planes, however. The polarity of the images is reversed for ease of comparison with angiograms. PMID:2913619

  20. Percutaneous embolization of a caroticoazygous fistula with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 1.

    PubMed

    Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Odemi?, Ender; Gzelta?, Alper; Akdeniz, Celal

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a five-year-old boy with a caroticoazygous fistula, which is an extremely rare congenital vascular malformation. The patient also had patent ductus arteriosus, a common cause of continuous murmur. The murmur continued despite successful coil embolization of the ductus. Repeated catheter-angiography revealed a large caroticoazygous fistula. The fistula was successfully embolized using the Amplatzer() Vascular Plug 1. Transcatheter occlusion of caroticoazygous fistula was performed easily, safely, and efficiently with a vascular plug. PMID:22215525

  1. Ultrasound examination of the liver: Normal vascular anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Draghi, F.; Rapaccini, G.L.; Fachinetti, C.; de Matthaeis, N.; Battaglia, S.; Abbattista, T.; Busilacchi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Various treatments for liver diseases, including liver transplant (particularly partial liver resection from a living donor), treatment of liver tumors, and TIPS, require detailed knowledge of the complex vascular anatomy of the liver. The hepatic artery and portal vein provide the organ with a double blood supply whereas venous drainage is furnished by the hepatic veins. Multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide undeniably excellent information on these structures. On ultrasound, the inferior vena cava, the openings of the hepatic veins, and the main branch of the portal vein can always be visualized, but intrasegmental vessels (portal, arterial, accessory hepatic venous branches) can be only partially depicted and in some cases not at all. In spite of its difficulty and limitations, hepatic sonography is frequently unavoidable, particularly in critically ill patients, and the results are essential for defining diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. For this reason, a thorough knowledge of the sonographic features of hepatic vascular anatomy is indispensable. PMID:23396216

  2. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  3. Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Clinically, vascular calcification is now accepted as a valuable predictor of coronary heart disease.153 Achieving control over this process requires understanding mechanisms in the context of a tightly controlled regulatory network, with multiple, nested feedback loops and cross talk between organ systems, in the realm of control theory. Thus, treatments for osteoporosis such as calcitriol, estradiol, bisphosphonates, calcium supplements, and intermittent PTH are likely to affect vascular calcification, and, conversely, many treatments for cardiovascular disease such as statins, antioxidants, hormone replacement therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, fish oils, and calcium channel blockers may affect bone health. As we develop and use treatments for cardiovascular and skeletal diseases, we must give serious consideration to the implications for the organ at the other end of the bone-vascular axis. PMID:11602487

  4. Chiari 1.5 Malformation : An Advanced Form of Chiari I Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Kyeong; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, In-One

    2010-01-01

    The Chiari 1.5 malformation is defined as a tonsillar herniation within a Chiari I malformation with additional caudal descent of the brainstem through the foramen magnum. We describe a patient with Chiari I malformation who evolved to Chiari 1.5 malformation during longitudinal follow-up. A 15-year-old girl presented with neck pain during exercise for two years. She had been diagnosed with Chiari I malformation with mild hydrocephalus after minor cervical trauma at the age of six years. At that time, she was asymptomatic. After she complained of aggravated neck pain, neuroimaging (nine years after first imaging) revealed caudal descent of the brainstem and syringomyelia in addition to progression of tonsillar herniation. Posterior fossa decompressive surgery resulted in complete resolution of neck pain. Based on neuroimaging and operative findings, she was diagnosed as Chiari 1.5 malformation. Neuroimaging performed seven months after surgery showed an increased anterior-posterior diameter of the medulla oblongata and markedly decreased syringomyelia. This case demonstrates progressive developmental process of the Chiari 1.5 malformation as an advanced form of the Chiari I malformation. PMID:21113370

  5. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  6. Variable Somatic TIE2 Mutations in Half of Sporadic Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Soblet, J.; Limaye, N.; Uebelhoer, M.; Boon, L.M.; Vikkula, M.

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are the most frequent vascular malformations referred to specialized vascular anomaly centers. A rare (1-2%) familial form, termed cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), is caused by gain-of-function mutations in TIE2. More recently, sporadic VMs, characterized by the presence of large unifocal lesions, were shown to be caused by somatic mutations in TIE2. These include a frequent L914F change, and a series of double mutations in cis. All of which cause ligand-independent receptor hyperphosphorylation in vitro. Here, we expanded our study to assess the range of mutations that cause sporadic VM. To test for somatic changes, we screened the entire coding region of TIE2 in cDNA from resected VMs by direct sequencing. We detected TIE2 mutations in 17/30 (56.7%) of the samples. In addition to previously detected mutations, we identified 7 novel somatic intracellular TIE2 mutations in sporadic VMs, including 3 that cause premature protein truncation. PMID:23801934

  7. Coexistence of lung alveolar adenoma with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TANG, XIAOPING; WU, ZIHAN; SHEN, YIHONG

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor of the lung derived from type II pneumocytes. To date, only a limited number of alveolar adenoma cases have been reported in the literature. These tumors are usually discovered incidentally on radiographic images. However, other tumor types must be excluded when the characteristics of alveolar adenoma are not typical on the radiographic images. Therefore, diagnosis of alveolar adenomas is based on the combination of gross structural analysis and immunohistochemistry. The present study described a case of alveolar adenoma in a 47-year-old female patient. A chest X-ray revealed a pulmonary lesion in the right lower lobe and, subsequently, the patient underwent a right lower lobectomy. Pathological examination of the surgically resected tissue confirmed the initial diagnosis of alveolar adenoma. In addition, intracranial vascular malformations were detected on a computed tomography scan, but the patient did not experience any notable symptoms. Considering the benign nature of the malformations, as determined by digital subtraction angiography, the patient selected to undergo follow-up with observation only. The postoperative course was uneventful and no recurrence of pulmonary lesions was noted after >4 years, while the condition of the intracranial lesion was stable. In conclusion, the current study described a unique case of adenoma alveolar coexisting with intracranial vascular malformations. A literature review of previously-reported alveolar adenoma cases was also conducted. PMID:26171008

  8. Inflammatory, vascular, and infectious myelopathies in children.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Leonard H; Banwell, Brenda L

    2013-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly recognized as infectious etiologies of myelopathy, and poliomyelitis remains an important etiology in world regions where vaccination programs have not been universally available. Vascular etiologies include vasculopathies (systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel primary angiitis of the central nervous system), arteriovenous malformations, and spinal cord infarction (fibrocartilaginous embolism, diffuse hypoxic ischemia-mediated infarction). Vascular myelopathies are less common than inflammatory and infectious myelopathies, but are more likely to lead to devastating clinical deficits. Current therapeutic strategies include acute anti-inflammatory treatment and rehabilitation. Stem cell transplantation, nerve graft implantation, and stimulation of endogenous repair mechanisms represent promising strategies for spinal cord repair. PMID:23622308

  9. Delayed presentation of anorectal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shandip Kumar; Kanojia, Ravi P.; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, J. D.; Kureel, S. N.; Tandon, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Delayed management of anorectal malformation (ARM) increases the surgical and functional complications for the patient. We defined “delayed presentation of ARM” and reviewed our patients with ARM to find out the incidence and causes of delayed presentation. Materials and Methods: Patients satisfying the criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM” were involved. Detailed information of each patient including the mode of presentation, associated anomalies, plan of management and follow-up was obtained from the hospital records. Results: Between 2003 and 2006, 43 patients satisfied our criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM”. There were 21 males and 22 females. Seventeen of these males presented with low-type ARM. Eleven of them were managed by a single-stage procedure. These “delayed presenters” had to live with constipation, inadequate weight gain and parental anxiety for a greater time. Analysis of the outcomes showed more functional complications in patients who had undergone failed perineal surgery previously. In females with low ARM, the procedure of choice was anterior sagittal anorectoplasty (ASARP). Single stage surgery provides good outcomes for most of low type of ARMs. High-type ARMs in males and females were managed by a staged procedure. Conclusion: “Delayed presentation of ARM” is a major group of ARM in our setup. The management and results of their treatment are not different from those of the early presenters. The most common cause of delayed ARM is wrong advice given by the health care providers followed by inadequate treatment elsewhere. Corrective surgeries taking second attempt in perineum always produces poor outcomes. PMID:20011470

  10. Arteriovenous Malformations in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Graham, Glenn D.

    2002-11-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are a leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage, especially among the young. Because they pose a lifelong risk of serious bleeding, definitive treatment to obliterate the AVM should be pursued in the majority of patients. Microsurgical resection of a small AVM located in the superficial or non- eloquent brain achieves high cure rates with low morbidity, and is the recommended choice for such lesions. Radiosurgery with gamma knife, linear accelerator, or heavy ion beam irradiation is an alternative therapy for AVM treatments less than 3 centimeters in diameter located in brain regions where surgery is likely to produce major neurologic deficits, or for patients unable or unwilling to undergo craniotomy and resection. Cure rates are lower than with microsurgery, and obliteration of the lesion may take 2 to 3 years, during which time the patient remains at risk for hemorrhage. Because rates of recurrent hemorrhage are higher than rates of initial bleeding, radiosurgery may be a good option for patients who have not yet had an intracranial hemorrhage. Endovascular embolization as sole therapy is curative only in a small percentage of cases, but is recommended as part of a multimodal approach to reduce the size of a large AVM, and decrease bleeding risk of lesions with multiple or inaccessible feeding vessels or associated aneurysms prior to surgery or radiotherapy. Currently, treatment decisions must rely solely on Class III evidence from case series and expert opinion. Randomized clinical trials are needed to provide objective guidelines for the future management of patients with an AVM. PMID:12354370

  11. When It Is Better to Regress: Dynamics of Vascular Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Nicolas; Simons, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Blood vascular networks in vertebrates are essential to tissue survival. Establishment of a fully functional vasculature is complex and requires a number of steps including vasculogenesis and angiogenesis that are followed by differentiation into specialized vascular tissues (i.e., arteries, veins, and lymphatics) and organ-specific differentiation. However, an equally essential step in this process is the pruning of excessive blood vessels. Recent studies have shown that pruning is critical for the effective perfusion of blood into tissues. Despite its significance, vessel pruning is the least understood process in vascular differentiation and development. Two recently published PLOS Biology papers provide important new information about cellular dynamics of vascular regression. PMID:25978860

  12. Demonstration of placental vascular anatomy in monochorionic twin gestations.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Monique E; Burke, Sarah; Luks, Francois I; Pinar, Halit; Singer, Don B

    2002-01-01

    Invasive treatment modalities for severe chronic twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), such as fetoscopic laser coagulation of communicating vessels, have revived the need for detailed studies of placental angioarchitecture. We describe a practical placental vascular injection technique using alcohol-resistant tissue-staining dyes. Injection of color-coded gelatin-dye mixtures effectively delineated the intertwin vasculature, and allowed unequivocal macroscopic classification of vascular communications as artery-to-artery, vein-to-vein, or deep artery-to-vein anastomoses. The existence of deep artery-to-vein anastomoses was further confirmed by light microscopic demonstration of venous dye of one twin and arterial dye of the opposite twin within the same stem villus. Furthermore, the injection technique allowed determination of the caliber of the anastomoses, the direction of the artery-to-vein anastomoses, and the relative vascular territory of each twin. Documenting the vascular communications in monochorionic twin placentas with and without TTTS may enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic TTTS. Correlating the anastomotic patterns and location of the laser coagulation scars with post-ablation outcome will aid in the design of rational therapeutic methods for this often lethal condition. PMID:11815867

  13. Genetic Considerations Relevant to Intracranial Hemorrhage and Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Helen; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Chen, Yongmei; Su, Hua; Yang, GY; Young, William L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) cause intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), especially in young adults. Molecular characterization of lesional tissue provides evidence for involvement of both angiogenic and inflammatory pathways, but the pathogenesis remain obscure and medical therapy is lacking. Abnormal expression patterns have been observed for proteins related to angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF, Angiopoietin-2, MMP-9), and inflammation (e.g., IL-6 and MPO). Macrophage and neutrophil invasion has also been observed in the absence of prior ICH. Candidate gene association studies have identified a number of germline variants associated with clinical ICH course and AVM susceptibility. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ALK-1 is associated with AVM susceptibility, and SNPs in IL-6, TNF-? and APOE are associated with AVM rupture. These observations suggest that even without a complete understanding of the determinants of AVM development, the recent discoveries of downstream derangements in vascular function and integrity may offer potential targets for therapy development. Further, biomarkers can now be established for assessing ICH risk. Finally, these data will generate hypotheses that can be tested mechanistically in model systems, including surrogate phenotypes, such as vascular dysplasia and/or models recapitulating the clinical syndrome of recurrent spontaneous ICH. PMID:19066109

  14. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... a dermatologist. This type of doctor specializes in skin conditions. Physical Exam To check for varicose veins in ...

  15. Varicose veins and venous insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Visible, swollen veins Mild swelling of feet or ankles Itching Severe symptoms include: Leg swelling Leg or ... periods Skin color changes of the legs or ankles Dry, irritated, scaly skin that can crack easily ...

  16. Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Patient Section Who Are Interventional Radiologists? Multimedia Insurance Coverage IR Treatments Abdominal aortic aneurysms Angiography ... radiology Interventional radiology case studies Developed by ACR Multimedia gallery Multimedia Archive Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency ...

  17. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... shun) therapy uses lasers or radiowaves to create heat to close off a varicose vein. Your doctor ...

  18. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abrmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  19. Clinical examination of varicose veins--a validation study.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Richards, S.; Kent, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of clinical tests compared to colour duplex imaging in patients with primary varicose veins using a prospective, blinded comparison study. A total of 44 patients (70 limbs) with primary, previously untreated varicose veins presenting to the vascular laboratory of a university teaching hospital were studied. The patients underwent physical examination using the cough test, the tap test, Trendelenbergs' test, Perthes' test and hand-held Doppler (HHD) assessment prior to undergoing colour duplex scanning. Reflux was detected on duplex scanning, at the sapheno-femoral junction in 39/70 limbs (54%), the long saphenous vein in 47/70 limbs (64%) and the sapheno-popliteal junction in 9/70 limbs (13%). The cough test had low sensitivity (0.59) and specificity (0.67). The tap test had low sensitivity (0.18) and high specificity (0.92). The Trendelenberg test had high sensitivity (0.91) but low specificity (0.15). Perthes' test had a high sensitivity (0.97) but low specificity (0.20). Hand-held Doppler assessment of reflux at the sapheno-femoral junction, in the long saphenous vein and at the sapheno-popliteal junction had high sensitivity (0.97, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively) and specificity (0.73, 0.92, and 0.90, respectively) of detecting reflux. Clinical tests used in the examination of patients with primary varicose veins are inaccurate. Assessment using hand-held Doppler is more accurate. Courses and clinical textbooks should be revised to replace these tests with instruction in how to use hand-held Doppler in the clinical examination of patients with varicose veins. PMID:10858678

  20. Paraspinal Arterio-Venous Fistula in Children: Two More Cases of an Exceptional Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Nesrine; Desprechins, Brigitte; Otto, Bernard; Ramaekers, Vincent; Seghaye, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We report on the case of two toddlers who presented in the last 2 years with heart and vascular murmur, respectively, and in whom the diagnosis of paraspinal arterio-venous fistula was made. Paraspinal arterio-venous fistulae in children are extremely rare congenital or post-traumatic vascular malformations. In the rare case of connection with the spinal venous system, they might affect spinal vascularization due to potential venous congestion. Interventional embolization rather than surgery is the treatment of choice for such lesions. Up to now, there is no consensus about the indication of prophylactic closure of asymptomatic fistulae. However, close clinical follow-up with repeated spinal magnetic resonance imaging to exclude venous congestion is mandatory for young asymptomatic patients until treatment. PMID:26236449

  1. Analysis of the hand vein pattern for people recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Marcos, J. Victor; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Hurtado Pérez, R.

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the hand vascular pattern contains useful and unique features that can be used for identifying and authenticating people, with applications in access control, medicine and financial services. In this work, an optical system for the image acquisition of the hand vascular pattern is implemented. It consists of a CCD camera with sensitivity in the IR and a light source with emission in the 880 nm. The IR radiation interacts with the desoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin and water present in the blood of the veins, making possible to see the vein pattern underneath skin. The segmentation of the Region Of Interest (ROI) is achieved using geometrical moments locating the centroid of an image. For enhancement of the vein pattern we use the technique of Histogram Equalization and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE). In order to remove unnecessary information such as body hair and skinfolds, a low pass filter is implemented. A method based on geometric moments is used to obtain the invariant descriptors of the input images. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbors (K-nn) algorithms. Experimental results using our database show a percentage of correct classification, higher of 86.36% with ANN for 912 images of 38 people with 12 versions each one.

  2. Benefits of endoscopic vein harvesting.

    PubMed

    Marty, B; von Segesser, L K; Tozzi, P; Guzmann, J; Frascarolo, P; Muller, X; Hayoz, D

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the benefits of endoscopic saphenous vein harvesting (EVH) with the traditional incision technique (TIT) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in respect to the technical procedure and clinical outcome. In a prospective nonrandomized, case-matched study the greater saphenous vein was harvested for CABG in 22 patients using the endoscopic technique and in 18 patients with the traditional method. Comparisons were made for the operating time, length of incision and vein harvested, graft quality, postoperative complications, and pain assessment. Patient demographics were well matched. EVH required smaller incisions than did the TIT (10.5 +/- 6.6 vs. 31.2 +/- 7.8 cm, respectively; p < 0.0001). Harvest time and vein quality were comparable in the two groups. Total vein operating time was shorter following the endoscopic technique (60 +/- 24 vs. 100 +/- 35 minutes, respectively; p < 0.0001). EVH had fewer complications (NS), and postoperative pain was significantly less (p = 0.0034). The major advantages of endoscopic vein harvesting are a significant reduction of postoperative pain and strikingly better cosmetic results. Wound complications seem to be less frequent. PMID:11036289

  3. An unusual presentation of a vascular birthmark: a focal area of congenital lipoatrophy on the buttock.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Safa E; Bullocks, Jamal M; Hicks, M John; Hollier, Larry H

    2010-04-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with a focal area of congenital lipoatrophy on the buttock. There was no history of trauma or injections to the site. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was performed. The pathology of the lesion was most consistent with a vascular malformation with capillary predominance. This is an unusual presentation of a capillary malformation that has not been reported in the literature. The normal clinical presentation, natural history, pathologic findings, and imaging findings of capillary malformations are reviewed. These characteristics are compared to other easily confused lesions, such as haemangiomas, including infantile, rapidly-involuting, and non-involuting haemangiomas. Usually, the clinical appearance of congenital vascular lesions confers the ability to correctly distinguish these birthmarks. However, as this case demonstrates, the possibility of a vascular lesion should be considered with any congenital cutaneous lesion regardless of its appearance. PMID:19913468

  4. Successful treatment of posttraumatic arteriovenous malformation of the lower lip.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Ho; Choi, Jung Sik; Seo, Bommie F; Moon, Suk-Ho; Oh, Deuk Young; Lee, Hae Giu; Rhie, Jong Won

    2015-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are most commonly reported in the brain. Head and neck AVMs are reported to occur in 0.1% of the general population. On the other hand, posttraumatic AVMs are quite rare. Traumatic AVMs are extremely rare in the head and neck and are mostly seen in the extremities. The management of such lesions may include selective embolization or surgical exploration with ligation. A 13-year-old male adolescent visited our hospital for lower lip swelling, which developed 5 years ago after a lower lip laceration. The AVM was expanded and was graded as stage II. It was fed by the mandibular branch of both facial arteries and drained to the posterior facial vein. The radiologic intervention department performed an embolization before the operation. The main operation was performed 12 days after the embolization. A well-demarcated AVM lesion was found in the oral mucosa and was totally excised under general anesthesia. The authors easily performed the operation owing to the embolization making the AVM definitely demarcated and firmly palpable. The lip closure was done carefully considering the lip contour. No sign of recurrence was seen during 6 months of follow-up. The excellent treatment result of the posttraumatic facial AVMs occurs largely because of a collaboration with the radiologic intervention department using the selective embolization. PMID:25974817

  5. Comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation of a patient with maxillary arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Hossein; Jafarian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Seyedan, Kaveh

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the maxilla are rare and potentially life-threatening conditions that can pose a therapeutic dilemma. We reported the first case of maxillary AVM in a 15-year-old girl who was treated by marginal hemimaxillectomy including overlying palatal mucosa and immediate replantation of the segment after removing the AVM tissues and teeth and covering by a full-thickness pedicled temporal muscle flap rotated into the mouth. Then, this preserved bone underwent distraction osteogenesis and dental implant rehabilitation successfully. This method was previously used for the definitive treatment of mandibular AVMs, and in this case, we applied this method for the first time in maxillary AVMs. In conclusion, this surgical method may be considered as a safe, convenient, and effective treatment and reconstructive modality for such vascular malformations in the maxilla and restores function and symmetry of the jaws while obviating the need for bone harvesting and future major reconstructive operations. PMID:25148624

  6. High-flow orbital arteriovenous malformation in a child: current management and options.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Ryan; Sandberg, David I; Wolfe, S Anthony; Ragheb, John

    2006-07-01

    Vascular malformations of the orbit cause significant morbidity such as chronic pain, diplopia, amblyopia, and cosmetic disfigurement. They are rare lesions which require multidisciplinary care, and in the modern era results of treatment have been greatly improved with the assistance of endovascular therapy. Other treatment options include laser therapy, percutaneous embolization, open surgery, or a combination of these modalities. Nevertheless some patients suffer poor results despite modern medical advances. A case of an orbital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) initially treated independently by a dermatologist, a plastic surgeon, and a neuroendovascular interventionalist is presented. When treating patients with these rare but disabling lesions it is of the highest importance to coordinate efforts between all pertinent specialists in order to promote the best possible result. PMID:16877934

  7. Detection of Novel Mutation in Ccm3 Causes Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Scimone, Concetta; Bramanti, Placido; Ruggeri, Alessia; Katsarou, Zoe; Donato, Luigi; Sidoti, Antonina; D'Angelo, Rosalia

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular lesions that usually involve brain micro-vessels. They can occur both in a sporadic form and familial one. Causes of familial forms are mutations at three loci: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10. Here, we describe a novel CCM3 missense mutation (c.422T>G) detected in two Greek brothers showing multiple lesions at magnetic resonance imaging; to date, only the youngest is symptomatic. Bioinformatics tools showed this novel variant causes a loss of function in Pdcd10 protein due to its localization in the eighth helix and, particularly, affects Leu141, a highly conserved amino acid. Roles of Pdcd10 in angiogenesis regulation and its association with early development of cerebral cavernous malformations were also considered. PMID:26115622

  8. Heart failure and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yu-Lin; Li, Sha; Huang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited vascular-malformation syndrome associated with gene mutations including ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4 gene. Clinically indistinguishable HHT1 and HHT2 are caused by mutations in ENG and ACVRL1 gene, respectively. Generally, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare manifestations of HHT related to ACVRL1 gene mutations. We described a female patient with HHT2 whose clinical features included epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectases, systemic AVMs and PAH. She also suffered from severe iron deficiency anemia and recurrent heart failure. A genetic mutation analysis disclosed a missense mutation in exon 7 of ACVRL1 gene in this patient and her daughter. A nonsense mutation in exon 7 of ACVRL1 gene was detected in her brother and her niece. This case supports that PAVMs and PAH can be rare manifestations of HHT2 patients. PMID:26245826

  9. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following γ knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed. PMID:21990534

  10. Cryofixation of vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R C; Andrews, S B

    1991-11-01

    Cryofixation refers to the immobilization of tissue components by the rapid removal of heat from the specimen, so that the structure is interred and stabilized in a natural embedding medium, namely, frozen (amorphous or microcrystalline) tissue water. Cryofixation is now often used as a complement to the more traditional fixation methods, especially when the cell structure is delicate or dynamic and may be inaccurately preserved by the slow selective action of chemical fixatives. Vascular endothelial cells are specialized for transcellular transport and for the regulation of blood flow and composition. The dynamic and labile subcellular organization of these cells, presumably reflecting these functional specializations, makes them ideal candidates for cryofixation. Several different types of endothelial cells were directly frozen at temperatures below 20 degrees Kelvin by pressing them against a liquid-helium-cooled block. These samples were subsequently processed for structural analysis by freeze-substitution. Detailed rationales, designs, and protocols are described for both freezing and freeze-substitution. Electron micrographs of cryofixed arterial and venous capillaries (rete mirabile of the American eel), iliac vein (rabbit), and cultured endothelium from the iliac vein (human) reveal that the organization of the characteristic intracellular membrane system of endothelial vesicles is qualitatively similar to that seen in chemically fixed endothelium, especially with regard to the interconnection of clusters of individual vesicles to form elaborate networks. The luminal and abluminal networks are not in communication, at least not in static images. Quantitatively, however, most directly frozen endothelial cells have far fewer vesicular profiles than comparable glutaraldehyde-fixed cells. The differences can be explained by presuming that the rapid action of cryofixation (approximately 1 msec) gives a more accurate picture of the vesicular network because it captures the transient structure of labile or dynamic membranes. PMID:1795182

  11. TGF-? signaling mediates endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) during vein graft remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Hilaire, Cynthia St.; Negro, Alejandra; Fang, Fang; Chen, Guibin; San, Hong; Walts, Avram D.; Schwartzbeck, Robin L.; Taylor, Brandi; Lanzer, Jan D.; Wragg, Andrew; Elagha, Abdalla; Beltran, Leilani E.; Berry, Colin; Feil, Robert; Virmani, Renu; Ladich, Elena; Kovacic, Jason C.; Boehm, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Veins grafted into an arterial environment undergo a complex vascular remodeling process. Pathologic vascular remodeling often results in stenosed or occluded conduit grafts. Understanding this complex process is important for improving the outcome of patients with coronary and peripheral artery disease undergoing surgical revascularization. Using in vivo murine cell lineage-tracing models, we show that endothelial-derived cells contribute to neointimal formation through endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which is dependent upon early activation of the Smad2/3-Slug signaling pathway. Antagonism of TGF-? signaling by TGF-? neutralizing antibody, shRNA-mediated Smad3 or Smad2 knockdown, Smad3 haploinsufficiency, or endothelial cell-specific Smad2 deletion resulted in decreased EndMT and less neointimal formation compared to controls. Histological examination of postmortem human vein graft tissue corroborated the changes observed in our mouse vein graft model, suggesting that EndMT is operative during human vein graft remodeling. These data establish that EndMT is an important mechanism underlying neointimal formation in interpositional vein grafts, and identifies the TGF-?/Smad2/3-Slug signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target to prevent clinical vein graft restenosis. PMID:24622514

  12. Anorectal Malformation: Paediatric Problem Presenting in Adult

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahulkumar N.; Chikkala, Bhargav; Das, Cinjini; Biswas, Somak; Sarkar, Diptendra Kumar; Pandey, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of 22-year-old girl admitted with abdominal distension, vomiting, and chronic constipation since birth. Abdomen was distended, and perineal examination revealed imperforate anus with vestibular fistula (ARM). So far worldwide very few cases have been reported about anorectal malformation presenting in adulthood, and thus extremely little data is available in the literature about an ideal management of anorectal malformation in adults. In our case in the treatment instead of conventional procedure of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) anal transposition was done and till two years after the definitive treatment during follow-up patient has been doing well with Kelly's score of six. Our experience suggests that anal transposition provides satisfactory outcome in adults presenting late with anorectal malformation. PMID:26539301

  13. Segmentation of arteries and veins on 4D CT perfusion scans for constructing arteriograms and venograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrik, Adrinne; Vonken, Evert-jan; Waaijer, Annet; Smit, Ewoud; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-02-01

    3D CT Angiography (CTA) scans are currently used to assess the cerebral arteries. An additional 4D CT Perfusion (CTP) scan is often acquired to determine perfusion parameters in the cerebral parenchyma. We propose a method to extract a three dimensional volume showing either the arteries (arteriogram) or the veins (venogram) from the 4D CTP scan. This would allow cerebrovascular assessment using the CTP scan and obviate the need for acquiring an additional CTA scan. Preprocessing steps consist of registration of the time volumes of the CTP scan using rigid registration and masking out extracranial structures, bone and air. Next a 3D volume is extracted containing the vessels (vascular volume) by using the absolute area under the first derivative curve in time. To segment the arteries and veins we use the time to peak of the contrast enhancement curve combined with region growing within a rough vessel segmentation. Finally the artery/vein segmentation is used to suppress either the veins or the arteries in the vascular volume to construct the arteriogram and venogram. To evaluate the method, 11 arteriograms and venograms were visually inspected by an expert observer, with special attention to the important cerebral arteries (Circle of Willis) and veins (straight and transverse sinus). Results show that the proposed method is effective in extracting the major cerebral arteries and veins from CTP scans.

  14. Recanalization of an Occluded Infrainguinal Vein Graft Complicated by Graft Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Kakani, Nirmal; Travis, Simon; Hancock, John

    2007-11-15

    The technique of subintimal angioplasty has been described for the recanalisation of native vessels after occlusion of infrainguinal vascular bypass grafts. We report a case in which an attempt at such treatment resulted in inadvertent but successful recanalisation of the occluded vein graft instead. This was complicated by graft perforation and subsequent graft aneurysm which was successfully treated with a covered stent.

  15. Duodenal atresia with a deletion of midgut associated with left lung, kidney, and upper limb absences and right upper limb malformation.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji; Arima, Tohru; Nakatsuji, Takanori; Kukita, Joji; Toyoshima, Satoshi

    2003-11-01

    Duodenal atresia with midgut deletion without abdominal wall defects is extremely rare. The authors report a newborn boy with this disease associated with left pulmonary, kidney, and upper limb absences and a contralateral upper limb malformation. At autopsy, agenesis of the arteries to such organs was confirmed. A fetal vascular disruption is presumed to be the main cause of these anomalies. PMID:14614732

  16. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limb: extensions, refinements, and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Caggiati, Alberto; Bergan, John J; Gloviczki, Peter; Eklof, Bo; Allegra, Claudio; Partsch, Hugo

    2005-04-01

    The relative deficiency of the official Terminologia Anatomica with regard to the veins of the lower limbs was responsible for a nonuniform anatomic nomenclature in the clinical literature. In 2001, an International Interdisciplinary Committee updated and refined the official Terminologia Anatomica regarding the veins of the lower limbs. Recommendations for terminology were included in an updating document that appeared in the Journal of Vascular Surgery (2002;36:416-22). To enhance further the use of a common scientific language, the committee worked on the present document, which includes (1) extensions and refinements regarding the veins of the lower limbs; (2) the nomenclature of the venous system of the pelvis; (3) the use of eponyms; and (4) the use of terms and adjectives of particular importance in clinical vascular anatomy. PMID:15874941

  17. Extrapyramidal dysfunction with cerebral arteriovenous malformations 1

    PubMed Central

    Lobo-Antunes, Joao; Yahr, Melvin D.; Hilal, Sadek K.

    1974-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations have only rarely been implicated as a cause of basal ganglia dysfunction. In four instances where such a lesion was uncovered, abnormal involuntary movements were present. In two, tremor involving the contralateral limbs occurred, while in others the head and neck were involved in dystonic movements and posture. The clinical and angiographic characteristics of these four patients have been assessed and are presented in detail in this report. The possible mechanism by which arteriovenous malformations may disturb the internal circuitry of the basal ganglia and induce symptoms are discussed. Images PMID:4829531

  18. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation type I

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Frederico Becker; Schultz, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is an hamartomatous congenital pulmonary airway malformation with incidence ranging between 1:10,000 and 1:35,000 newborns. Currently CCAM is classified into five groups according to clinical and pathological features. The clinical outcome varies depending on the subtype and the extent of involvement. The authors report the case of a premature male newborn with the prenatal diagnosis of CCAM Type 1 associated with cardiac right axis deviation, who died 67 hours after birth due to respiratory failure. In addition to the autopsy report of this rare entity, the authors present its classification and prognosis. PMID:26558243

  19. CT of congenital malformations of the lung.

    PubMed

    Mata, J M; Cceres, J; Lucaya, J; Garca-Conesa, J A

    1990-07-01

    We reviewed 40 cases of congenital malformations of the lung that were studied with both plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). We compared the CT findings with those of radiography. We found that CT was helpful in the management of these cases because it helped confirm the diagnosis, demonstrated unsuspected findings, and better depicted anatomic extent of anomalies, thus allowing better planning for surgery. We believe that CT is the method of choice for the study of congenital lung malformations and that it should be used before more invasive procedures such as bronchography or aortography. PMID:2377765

  20. Osteochondroma mimicking deep vein thrombosis in a young cricketer.

    PubMed

    Watura, Christopher; Patel, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondromas are bony outgrowths covered by thin cartilaginous caps, accounting for 35% of all benign bone tumours. The majorities are solitary and usually arise at the metaphysis of long bones. They may be associated with bursa formation, while vascular complications are rare. We report a 34-year-old man who presented with a 2-week history of pain, stiffness and swelling of the left lower leg following a cricket match. Clinically, a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was suspected but D-dimer test was negative. Initial Doppler ultrasound scan (USS) was reported as showing a haematoma and possible DVT. A repeat Doppler USS did not detect a DVT, however the popliteal vein appeared collapsed and a pedunculated osteochondroma of the proximal tibia was found. An MRI confirmed this and also showed an extensive oedema around the calf muscles tracking distally in all compartments, most likely the result of a ruptured bursa. PMID:23188850

  1. Asymptomatic anomalous pulmonary veins in a Siberian Husky.

    PubMed

    Abraham, L A; Slocombe, R F

    2003-07-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered male Siberian Husky presented with depression, weight loss and an inability to prehend food and water. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected under general anaesthesia prior to euthanasia. The elevated white cell count comprised mostly mononuclear cells. Histological changes within the brain were variable and multifocal. Non-suppurative meningitis secondary to lymphoma was diagnosed. At necropsy, abnormal venous drainage of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was found. A dilated major pulmonary vein from these lobes passed across the lateral aspect of the right caudal lung lobe prior to entering the heart, and subpleural veins from the affected lobes were enlarged and tortuous. These vascular abnormalities were considered incidental. There were no apparent congenital abnormalities of the heart and the animal's clinical signs were related to lymphoma of the brain. PMID:15084052

  2. Neurodevelopmental malformations of the cerebellar vermis in genetically engineered rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cerebellar vermis is particularly vulnerable to neurodevelopmental malformations in humans and rodents. Sprague-Dawley, and Long-Evans rats exhibit spontaneous cerebellar malformations consisting of heterotopic neurons and glia in the molecular layer of the vermis. Malformati...

  3. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F. Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices.Patients with longer catheter dwell time were more likely to develop central vein abnormalities. In order to preserve vascular access for dialysis fistulae and grafts and adhere to Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, alternative venous access sites should be considered for patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease.

  4. Vascular parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Sibon, Igor; Fenelon, Gilles; Quinn, Niall P; Tison, Franois

    2004-05-01

    The concept of vascular parkinsonism (VP) has been highly controversial since the initial paper by Critchley in 1929. This review tentatively delineates the extent of the spectrum of VP. Much confusion has arisen owing to the lack of clear definitions of parkinsonism, "atypical parkinsonism" and "pseudoparkinsonism", which we here attempt to define. Confusion has also arisen because incidental vascular lesions occurring in true idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) are up to 10 times more common than parkinsonism due to cerebrovascular disease. VP is clinically heterogeneous. Most often VP is atypical and can be separated from IPD, on the basis of the presence of additional focal signs, and the absence of typical resting tremor in the upper limbs, of true akinesia (i. e.: with decrement and fatiguing of alternating movements), and of definite benefit from levodopa. Exceptionally, VP may mimic IPD or other degenerative diseases such as progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal degeneration. The lesions responsible for VP are mostly basal ganglia lacunes and/or subcortical white matter vasculopathy of the "Binswanger" type. Rarely, a single striatal infarct, striatal cribriform cavities or ischaemic changes in the substantia nigra have been described. Vascular "pseudo-parkinsonism" refers to isolated gait disorders called "lower body parkinsonism", "frontal-type gait disorders" or "gait ignition failure" that are reminiscent of, but distinct from, that found in IPD. The pathophysiology of VP is poorly understood. Why some patients develop parkinsonism and others do not, despite the same apparent lesion load, remains a mystery. PMID:15164182

  5. [Lymphatic malformations in the head and neck area].

    PubMed

    Wiegand, S; Werner, J A

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic malformations are congenital malformations of the lymphatic system. They are mainly located in the head and neck area, and grow proportional to the patients' body growth. Depending on the morphology, it can be distinguished between macrocystic, microcystic and mixed lymphatic malformations. Due to their infiltrative growth, microcystic lymphatic malformations are particularly difficult to treat. Therapeutic approaches include conventional surgical resection, laser therapy, sclerotherapy and systemic drug therapies. PMID:26820157

  6. A Somatic MAP3K3 Mutation Is Associated with Verrucous Venous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Couto, JavierA.; Vivero, MatthewP.; Kozakewich, HarryP.W.; Taghinia, AmirH.; Mulliken, JohnB.; Warman, MatthewL.; Greene, ArinK.

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called verrucous hemangioma, is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans. PMID:25728774

  7. A somatic MAP3K3 mutation is associated with verrucous venous malformation.

    PubMed

    Couto, Javier A; Vivero, Matthew P; Kozakewich, Harry P W; Taghinia, Amir H; Mulliken, John B; Warman, Matthew L; Greene, Arin K

    2015-03-01

    Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called "verrucous hemangioma," is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans. PMID:25728774

  8. The coexistence of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and arteriovenous malformation. A case report.

    PubMed

    Nagańska, Ewa; Matyja, Ewa; Pucko, Emanuela; Ząbek, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, low-grade astrocytic tumour corresponding to WHO grade II that is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults with epileptic seizures. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma typically appears as a superficial, often cystic mass lesion predominantly affecting the temporal lobe. Cases with typical pathology and total tumour excision have a favourable prognosis. Occasionally, the tumour reveals anaplastic features and behaves more aggressively due to local recurrences or subarachnoid spread. The treatment of PXA includes gross total resection followed by neuroradiological monitoring. The association between vascular malformations and cerebral gliomas is rarely encountered, especially if both such lesions occur as separate parts of the same tumour. The vascular pathology of such changes most often refers to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), less frequently - cavernous angioma. The coexistence of PXA and AVM is extremely rare, especially when dealing with two distinct patterns found within the same tumour mass. We present a 36-year-old woman with tumour of parasagittal localization in the right occipital lobe that was composed of two different and clearly demarcated components: PXA and vascular lesion of AVM morphology. The pathogenesis of such coexistence remains still unclear. PMID:24114645

  9. Brain vascular lesions: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural approach.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Marisol Galvn; Hernndez, Alma Dalia; Collado-Ortiz, Miguel Angel; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia

    2014-08-01

    Brain vascular malformations are relatively common lesions that cause serious neurologic disability or death in a significant proportion of individuals bearing them. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemistry these lesions, looking for common antibodies expressed such as CD31, CD34, CD15, factor VIII, nestin, vimentin, vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial grow factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), glial fibrillar acidic protien (GFAP), and fibroblastic grow factor ? (?-FGF) and ultrastructure in endothelial cells as well as in vessel walls. Fifty cases of vascular lesions were included in this study: 29 (58%) of them were arteriovenous malformations and 21 (52%) were brain cavernomas. Twenty-six (52%) patients were women and 24 (48%) men. The age range was from 13 to 68 years (mean age, 35.86 15.19 years). The size of the lesions ranged between 1 and 8 cm (3 1.65 cm), and parieto-occipital lesions had a bigger size. Evolution time varied from 1 month to 1 year (mean, 7.5 months). There was a significant statistical correlation between age and sex (P = -035), rupture of lesion (P = .015), brain hemorrhage (P = .033), necrosis (P = .011), hemosiderin deposit (P = .042), VEGF (P = .015), and VEGFR (P = .037), as well as localization of rupture (P = .017), loss of consciousness (P = .000), visual deficit (P = .026), hyaline vessels (P = .000), and CD31 (.009). Interactions between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) in blood vessel walls have recently come into focus as central processes in the regulation of vascular formation, stabilization, remodeling, and function in brain vascular lesions. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation and growth of brain arteriovenous malformations are still poorly understood. PMID:24881784

  10. Umbilical vein varix: Importance of ante- and post-natal monitoring by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Beraud, E; Rozel, C; Milon, J; Darnault, P

    2015-01-01

    Foetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein varix is rare. Colour Doppler ultrasonography helps distinguish this vascular anomaly. A detailed anatomic scan must be performed to exclude associated anomalies: forms associated with additional complications are found in 29 to 35% of the cases. Intra-uterine foetal demise (IUFD) is a complication of umbilical vein varix. However, recent studies are more reassuring. When foetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein varix is isolated, there is no reason to change the management of the pregnancy. Foetal sonographic follow-up is recommended, focusing on an increase in the size of the varix and the appearance of a clot. A particular clinical form, connecting the umbilicus to the extra-hepatic portal vein should be known, because of a high risk of thrombosis. On the basis of this finding, postnatal monitoring by ultrasound is necessary. PMID:24631035

  11. Ipsilateral leg swelling after renal transplantation as an alarming sign of Iliac vein stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Hyeon; Bae, Seong Man; Park, Su-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein stenosis is a rare vascular complication of renal transplantation that may compromise allograft function if not recognized and corrected in a timely fashion. Because chronic venous stenosis may remain undiagnosed for several years, a high index of suspicion should be maintained until diagnosing this rare disease. A 56-year-old renal transplant recipient presented with unilateral leg swelling and renal dysfunction 16 years after transplantation. Computed tomography excluded deep vein thrombosis and revealed tight iliac vein stenosis on the side of the renal transplant. Following angiographic confirmation of the stenosis, endovascular treatment was successfully performed with a purposefully designed, self-expanding, venous stent. Ipsilateral leg swelling is an alarming sign for the diagnosis of iliac vein stenosis after renal transplantation. Percutaneous intervention with venous stent placement seems to be a safe and effective treatment of this rare condition. PMID:26885480

  12. Infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos vein formation in mammals with different degrees of mesonephric development.

    PubMed

    Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mekonen, Hayelom K; Mommen, Greet M C; Cornillie, Pieter; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2016-03-01

    Controversies regarding the development of the mammalian infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos veins arise from using topography rather than developmental origin as criteria to define venous systems and centre on veins that surround the mesonephros. We compared caudal-vein development in man with that in rodents and pigs (rudimentary and extensive mesonephric development, respectively), and used Amira 3D reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodelling software for visualisation. The caudal cardinal veins (CCVs) were the only contributors to the inferior caval (IVC) and azygos veins. Development was comparable if temporary vessels that drain the large porcine mesonephros were taken into account. The topography of the CCVs changed concomitant with expansion of adjacent organs (lungs, meso- and metanephroi). The iliac veins arose by gradual extension of the CCVs into the caudal body region. Irrespective of the degree of mesonephric development, the infrarenal part of the IVC developed from the right CCV and the renal part from vascular sprouts of the CCVs in the mesonephros that formed 'subcardinal' veins. The azygos venous system developed from the cranial remnants of the CCVs. Temporary venous collaterals in and around the thoracic sympathetic trunk were interpreted as 'footprints' of the dorsolateral-to-ventromedial change in the local course of the intersegmental and caudal cardinal veins relative to the sympathetic trunk. Interspecies differences in timing of the same events in IVC and azygos-vein development appear to allow for proper joining of conduits for caudal venous return, whereas local changes in topography appear to accommodate efficient venous perfusion. These findings demonstrate that new systems, such as the 'supracardinal' veins, are not necessary to account for changes in the course of the main venous conduits of the embryo. PMID:26659476

  13. Biomechanical basis of vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q

    1999-01-01

    Blood vessels develop under the influence of mechanical stresses and strains and remodel in response to alterations in these factors. It has long been hypothesized that mechanical stresses and strains contribute to the development of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertrophy. A large number of studies have been conducted to verify this hypothesis and have demonstrated that increased tensile stress and strain due to hypertension may induce and/or facilitate vascular hypertrophy, and oscillatory low fluid shear stress and/or altered shear gradients due to eddy blood flow may initiate and/or promote focal atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. A variety of cellular components, including growth-related factors, cell membrane proteins and lipids, intracellular signaling molecules and transcriptional factors, and immediate early genes and mitogenic genes, have been shown to mediate these mechanical stress-related pathological processes. These discoveries suggest that a modulation of tensile and fluid shear stresses and strains, if possible, may prevent mechanical stress-induced pathological changes in blood vessels and thus constitute a foundation for the development of vascular engineering approaches. Recent studies have demonstrated by using an experimental vein graft model that biomechanical engineering approaches can be used to reduce tensile stress and strain due to exposure to arterial blood pressure and to prevent eddy blood flow in vein grafts. Such engineering modulations significantly reduced the rate of focal intimal hyperplasia and medial and adventitial hypertrophy in vein grafts. These preliminary studies have provided convincing evidence for further development of vascular biomechanical engineering approaches. In this article, the background, principles, clinical potentials, as well as the limitations of vascular biomechanical engineering are discussed. PMID:10638850

  14. Blood and lymphatic vascular tube formation in mouse.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Sofia; Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-07-01

    The blood and lymphatic vasculatures are essential for nutrient delivery, gas exchange and fluid homeostasis in all tissues of higher vertebrates. They are composed of a hierarchical network of vessels, which are lined by vascular or lymphatic endothelial cells. For blood vascular lumen formation to occur, endothelial cell cords polarize creating apposing apical cell surfaces, which repulse each other and give rise to a small intercellular lumen. Following cell shape changes, the vascular lumen expands. Various junctional proteins, polarity complexes, extracellular matrix binding and actin remodelling molecules are required for blood vascular lumen formation. In contrast, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to lymphatic vascular tube formation. Current models agree that lymphatic vessels share a blood vessel origin, but they differ in identifying the mechanism by which a lymphatic lumen is formed. A ballooning mechanism was proposed, in which lymph sacs are connected via their lumen to the cardinal veins. Alternatively, a mechanism involving budding of streams of lymphatic endothelial cells from either the cardinal veins or both the cardinal veins and the intersomitic vessels, and subsequent assembly and lumenisation was recently described. Here, we discuss what is currently known about the molecular and cellular machinery that guides blood and lymphatic vascular tube formation in mouse. PMID:24631829

  15. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  16. Genetic basis of congenital cardiovascular malformations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular malformations are a singularly important class of birth defects and due to dramatic improvements in medical and surgical care, there are now large numbers of adult survivors. The etiologies are complex, but there is strong evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role. Over the la...

  17. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5mg once daily for 6weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. PMID:25903684

  18. Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2014-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10-25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33-45% and 15-35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal hypertension, are associated with higher morbidity and mortality risks in the short term. PMID:25755579

  19. Cardiovascular Agents Affect the Tone of Pulmonary Arteries and Veins in Precision-Cut Lung Slices

    PubMed Central

    Rieg, Annette D.; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular agents are pivotal in the therapy of heart failure. Apart from their action on ventricular contractility and systemic afterload, they affect pulmonary arteries and veins. Although these effects are crucial in heart failure with coexisting pulmonary hypertension or lung oedema, they are poorly defined, especially in pulmonary veins. Therefore, we investigated the pulmonary vascular effects of adrenoceptor agonists, vasopressin and angiotensin II in the model of precision-cut lung slices that allows simultaneous studies of pulmonary arteries and veins. Materials and Methods Precision-cut lung slices were prepared from guinea pigs and imaged by videomicroscopy. Concentration-response curves of cardiovascular drugs were analysed in pulmonary arteries and veins. Results Pulmonary veins responded stronger than arteries to ?1-agonists (contraction) and ?2-agonists (relaxation). Notably, inhibition of ?2-adrenoceptors unmasked the ?1-mimetic effect of norepinephrine and epinephrine in pulmonary veins. Vasopressin and angiotensin II contracted pulmonary veins via V1a and AT1 receptors, respectively, without affecting pulmonary arteries. Discussion Vasopressin and (nor)epinephrine in combination with ?2-inhibition caused pulmonary venoconstriction. If applicable in humans, these treatments would enhance capillary hydrostatic pressures and lung oedema, suggesting their cautious use in left heart failure. Vice versa, the prevention of pulmonary venoconstriction by AT1 receptor antagonists might contribute to their beneficial effects seen in left heart failure. Further, ?1-mimetic agents might exacerbate pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure by contracting pulmonary arteries, whereas vasopressin might not. PMID:22216346

  20. A Congenital High Flow Arteriovenous Malformation of the Bladder Presenting With Polypoid Cystitis and Ureteral Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Addo, Eric A; Emtage, Justin; Massis, Kamal; Hernandez, David J

    2015-11-01

    A 21-year-old male with a history of Down's syndrome presented with hematuria and right flank pain. Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen/pelvis revealed right hydronephrosis and a right-sided pelvic vascular abnormality. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) fed by the right superior and inferior vesical arteries and nephrostogram showed a long segment of obstructed distal right ureter. Cystoscopy revealed erythema and edema of the right hemi-bladder and biopsy diagnosed polypoid cystitis. Treatment was performed by transarterial embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Follow up cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography at 3months post-procedure showed resolution of all visible pathology. PMID:26793545

  1. A Congenital High Flow Arteriovenous Malformation of the Bladder Presenting With Polypoid Cystitis and Ureteral Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Addo, Eric A.; Emtage, Justin; Massis, Kamal; Hernandez, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old male with a history of Down's syndrome presented with hematuria and right flank pain. Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen/pelvis revealed right hydronephrosis and a right-sided pelvic vascular abnormality. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) fed by the right superior and inferior vesical arteries and nephrostogram showed a long segment of obstructed distal right ureter. Cystoscopy revealed erythema and edema of the right hemi-bladder and biopsy diagnosed polypoid cystitis. Treatment was performed by transarterial embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Follow up cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography at 3months post-procedure showed resolution of all visible pathology. PMID:26793545

  2. Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jrgen S; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Peperkamp, Klaas; Windsor, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing the cause of bovine congenital malformations (BCMs) is challenging for bovine veterinary practitioners and laboratory diagnosticians as many known as well as a large number of not-yet reported syndromes exist. Foetal infection with certain viruses, including bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV), blue tongue virus (BTV), Akabane virus (AKAV), or Aino virus (AV), is associated with a range of congenital malformations. It is tempting for veterinary practitioners to diagnose such infections based only on the morphology of the defective offspring. However, diagnosing a virus as a cause of BCMs usually requires laboratory examination and even in such cases, interpretation of findings may be challenging due to lack of experience regarding genetic defects causing similar lesions, even in cases where virus or congenital antibodies are present. Intrauterine infection of the foetus during the susceptible periods of development, i.e. around gestation days 60-180, by BVDV, SBV, BTV, AKAV and AV may cause malformations in the central nervous system, especially in the brain. Brain lesions typically consist of hydranencephaly, porencephaly, hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia, which in case of SBV, AKAV and AV infections may be associated by malformation of the axial and appendicular skeleton, e.g. arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Doming of the calvarium is present in some, but not all, cases. None of these lesions are pathognomonic so diagnosing a viral cause based on gross lesions is uncertain. Several genetic defects share morphology with virus induced congenital malformations, so expert advice should be sought when BCMs are encountered. PMID:26399846

  3. Effects of gravitational stress, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the structure of the vascular bed of the spleen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesterenko, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two extreme factors, hypokinesia and hypodynamia, on spleen vascular beds were studied on 180 male and female albino rats. Vessels were studied by roentgenography, microroentgenography, clearing of sections and histology. Gravity stress yielded construction of all links of arterial bed and of order 5-7 veins. Large intraorganic vein diameters changed significantly but erratically. Hypokinesia in early phases produced pronounced spleen size reduction. Veins and arteries constricted along entire length. Later hypokinetic stages showed arteries still constricted; veins began to dilate from week 4 of hypokinesia. Sinuosity, uneven contours and varicose dilations of walls in large arteries and veins occurred. Abrupt changes in parenchyma, e.g., atrophy of folliculi, narrowing of lumen of central arteries from thickening of muscular wall. After exposure to hypokinesia followed by gravitational stress, pronounced lesions such as deformation of vascular wall, including rupture, in all vessels of the spleen vascular bed.

  4. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysms--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Santo, Susana; Pinto, Lusa; Clode, Nuno; Cardoso, Edite; Marques, Joo Paulo; Melo, Antonieta; Cardoso, Conceio; Graa, Lus Mendes

    2008-03-01

    Aneurysms of the vein of Galen (AVG) represent less than 1% of all intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Two cases of prenatal diagnosis made by color Doppler ultrasonography at 32 weeks of gestation are reported. Both cases presented with antenatal mild cardiomegaly and both developed severe cardiac failure in the neonatal period. Embolization was unsuccessful and both infants died. These cases highlight the need for a careful evaluation of the time and mode of delivery; embolization must be performed after a fully informed decision. PMID:18297576

  5. Vascular Tumor on the Forehead of an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ibarguren, Ander Mayor; Ramos, Jssica Gonzlez; Merino, Mara Beato; Pedrero, Roco Maseda; Fernndez, Cristina Gmez; Pinto, Pedro Herranz

    2015-01-01

    Cirsoid aneurysm is a small vascular proliferation characterized by small to medium-sized channels with features of arteries and veins, that present as small, blue or red asymptomatic papule. We report a case of a crisoid aneurysm on the forhead of an HIV patient that suggested a Kaposi sarcoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26288449

  6. Renal transplantation with venous drainage through the superior mesenteric vein in cases of thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Aguirrezabalaga, Javier; Novas, Serafín; Veiga, Francisco; Chantada, Venancio; Rey, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Marcelino; Gomez, Manuel

    2002-08-15

    Renal transplantation usually is performed by placing the graft in the iliac fossa, anastomosing the renal vein to the iliac vein or, when this is not possible, to the vena cava. When vascular complications occur, particularly on the venous side, the position of the graft may have to be changed. This report describes orthotopic renal grafts and positioning of the organ with anastomosis to the splenic vessels. Venous drainage was established directly into the mesenteric-portal territory, with two cases to the portal vein and one to the inferior mesenteric vein. A new technique for the venous drainage of the renal graft is shown. We have used this model in two cases of infrarenal inferior vena cava thrombosis. The kidney was located in a retroperitoneal position, with venous drainage to the superior mesenteric vein through an orifice in the posterior peritoneum. PMID:12177625

  7. Vascular proteomics.

    PubMed

    Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases constitute the largest of death in developed countries, being atherosclerosis the major contributor. Atherosclerosis is a process of chronic inflammation, characterized by the accumulation of lipids, cells, and fibrous elements in medium and large arteries. There is a continuum in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology that extends from the initial endothelial damage to diseases such as angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The extent of inflammation, proteolysis, calcification, and neovascularization influences the development of advanced lesions (atheroma plaques) on the arteries. Plaque rupture and the ensuing thrombosis cause the acute complications of atherosclerosis, i.e., myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia. Thus, identification of early biomarkers of plaque unstability and susceptibility to rupture is of capital importance in preventing acute events. In recent years proteomics has been successfully applied to study proteins involved in these pathological processes. Thus, proteomic studies have been carried out focusing on different elements such as vascular tissues (arteries), artery layers, cells looking at proteomes and secretomes, plasma/serum, exosomes, lipoproteins, and metabolites. This chapter will provide an overview of latest advances in proteomic studies of atherosclerosis and related vascular diseases. PMID:23585080

  8. Genetic animal models of malformations of cortical development and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael; Roper, Steven N

    2016-02-15

    Malformations of cortical development constitute a variety of pathological brain abnormalities that commonly cause severe, medically-refractory epilepsy, including focal lesions, such as focal cortical dysplasia, heterotopias, and tubers of tuberous sclerosis complex, and diffuse malformations, such as lissencephaly. Although some cortical malformations result from environmental insults during cortical development in utero, genetic factors are increasingly recognized as primary pathogenic factors across the entire spectrum of malformations. Genes implicated in causing different cortical malformations are involved in a variety of physiological functions, but many are focused on regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal migration. Advances in molecular genetic methods have allowed the engineering of increasingly sophisticated animal models of cortical malformations and associated epilepsy. These animal models have identified some common mechanistic themes shared by a number of different cortical malformations, but also revealed the diversity and complexity of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of the pathological lesions and resulting epileptogenesis. PMID:25911067

  9. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  10. Leaf Vascular Systems in C3 and C4 Grasses: A Two-dimensional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    UENO, OSAMU; KAWANO, YUKIKO; WAKAYAMA, MASATAKA; TAKEDA, TOMOSHIRO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is well documented that C4 grasses have a shorter distance between longitudinal veins in the leaves than C3 grasses. In grass leaves, however, veins with different structures and functions are differentiated: large longitudinal veins, small longitudinal veins and transverse veins. Thus, the densities of the three types of vein in leaves of C3 and C4 grasses were investigated from a two-dimensional perspective. • Methods Vein densities in cleared leaves of 15 C3 and 26 C4 grasses representing different taxonomic groups and photosynthetic subtypes were analysed. • Key Results The C4 grasses had denser transverse veins and denser small longitudinal veins than the C3 grasses (1·9 and 2·1 times in interveinal distance), but there was no significant difference in large longitudinal veins. The total length of the three vein types per unit area in the C4 grasses was 2·1 times that in the C3 grasses. The ratio of transverse vein length to total vein length was 14·3 % in C3 grasses and 9·9 % in C4 grasses. The C3 grasses generally had greater species variation in the vascular distances than the C4 grasses. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses tended to have a denser vascular system than the festucoid C3 grasses. There were no significant differences in the interveinal distances of the three vein types between C4 subtypes, although the NADP-malic enzyme grasses tended to have a shorter distance between small longitudinal veins than the NAD-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase grasses. • Conclusions It seems that C4 grasses have structurally a superior photosynthate translocation and water distribution system by developing denser networks of small longitudinal and transverse veins, while keeping a constant density of large longitudinal veins. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses have a vascular system that is more similar to that in C4 grasses than to that in the festucoid C3 grasses. PMID:16464879

  11. Quartz Vein in the Gunsight Formation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Quartz vein in biotite-rich rock in the Gunsight Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group. Bluish green copper-bearing minerals coat the quartz vein. Pale pinkish cobalt bloom and white caliche coat adjacent biotite-rich wallrock....

  12. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fetus puts pressure on the veins in the mother's legs. Varicose veins that occur during pregnancy usually get better within 3 to 12 months of delivery. Overweight or Obesity Being overweight or obese can put extra pressure ...

  13. Anti-VEGF Therapy for Retinal Vein Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Campa, Claudio; Alivernini, Giuseppe; Bolletta, Elena; Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Perri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common cause of visual loss in the Western World. RVO is usually classified into branch RVO (BRVO) and central RVO (CRVO) according to the anatomical site of the vascular occlusion. The pathogenesis of RVO is not yet fully understood, however an important event is the intraluminal thrombus formation, which is usually secondary to several conditions such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and thrombophilia. The blockage of venous circulation causes an elevation of intraluminal pressure in the capillaries, leading to hemorrhages and leakage of fluid within the retina, increase of interstitial pressure and a consequent reduction of retinal perfusion. Ischemia may develop resulting in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that causes further vascular leakage and retinal oedema. VEGF has therefore a leading role in RVO pathogenesis and symptoms. As a consequence use of anti-VEGF agents by intravitreal injections has become very common with the aim to improve the clinical outcomes in these patients. Currently 2 anti-VEGF agents (ranimizumab and aflibercept) have been FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and EMA (European Medicine Agency) approved for the treatment of RVO, while another VEGF inhibitor (bevacizumab) is often used "off-label" in clinical practice. Many treatment regimens have been suggested in the clinical trials with these drugs, as monthly injections or injections when needed, however the ideal regimen has not been defined yet. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE for the following terms: retinal vein occlusion, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept, vascular endothelial growth factor, macular oedema. Data were extracted by one author (AG and BE) and checked by a second (BPM, CC). Aim of this article was to review available data for each drug, focusing on their efficacy and safety trying to compare their advantages and limits. PMID:26073857

  14. Vascular Access in the Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    DeWitty, Robert L.; Siram, Suryanarayana M.; Balkissoon, Jay

    1986-01-01

    Patients requiring frequent blood sampling and/or frequent intravenous fluid administration can be difficult to manage clinically once peripheral veins become exhausted. Not only can peripheral vascular access be difficult in these patients, but patients begin to dread the attempts at blood sampling and intravenous line placement more than the chemotherapy regimen. At Howard University Hospital, several different types of commercial vascular access devices have been employed that afford reliable and dependable use in cancer patients requiring chemotherapy and blood monitoring. With the increased use of these devices, one unpleasant aspect in the management of the cancer patient, that of repeated attempts at vascular access, can be eliminated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:3086561

  15. Vascular AnastomosisSutures, Staples or Glue?

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, W.; Khodadadeh, M.

    1964-01-01

    Different vascular suturing techniques were assessed in the experimental laboratory. Staples made of tantulum wire were employed for vascular anastomoses in normal dogs' arteries and veins and in atherosclerotic rabbits' aortas. The staples were driven with the NRC Vascular Suturing Instrument. In a similar series of experiments a plastic bonding agent (Eastman 910) was used. The anastomosed vessels were found to be patent and few complications were encountered. However, it is unlikely that the conventional suture technique with the currently available materials will be replaced by these methods except under special circumstances. Clinical application of the stapling method is envisaged in the anastomosis of small vessels and in situations when speed is essential, whereas the bonding agent promises to be useful as an ancillary method in combination with sutures or staples. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:14199107

  16. Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation of benign oral vascular lesions: a case series.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Rui; Silva, Igor Henrique; Carvalho, Alessandra Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2015-11-01

    Vascular anomalies of the head and neck are common lesions usually associated with functional and/or aesthetic limitations. The aim of the present paper was to report a case series of oral vascular malformations treated with Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation, highlighting the clinical evolution and post-surgical complications. Fifteen patients diagnosed with oral vascular malformations were treated with Nd:YAG laser followed by three sessions of biostimulation. None of the patients presented post-surgical pain, but 6 of 15 patients (40%) experienced minimal post-surgical complications. All cases presented complete resolution of the lesions after laser treatment. More importantly, 12 out of 15 (80%) resolved after a single session. Low morbidity, minimal patient discomfort, and satisfactory aesthetic results point Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation as a promising option for the management of benign oral vascular lesions. PMID:25962368

  17. Nevus roseus: a distinct vascular birthmark.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    The new term nevus roseus is proposed to denote a lateralized telangiectatic birthmark with a light-red or pale-pink color, unlike the dark hue of nevus flammeus. It appears to be a distinct entity rather than just a color variant of nevus flammeus. Remarkably, nevus flammeus is a characteristic component of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type II ("phacomatosis cesioflammea"), whereas nevus roseus represents a distinguishing feature of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type III ("phacomatosis spilorosea"). In analogy to "port-wine stain" that is used as a synonym for nevus flammeus, nevus roseus could also be called "ros-wine stain". This lateralized vascular birthmark should be distinguished from the salmon patch that always involves the midline of the body. Nevus roseus belongs to the rather broad category of telangiectatic nevi, as well as to the even larger group of "capillary malformations". For obvious reasons these terms are not suitable to designate any specific type of vascular birthmark such as nevus roseus. PMID:16048748

  18. Intraosseous venous malformation of the zygoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Matsumiya, Toshie; Nemoto, Hitoshi; Kasai, Yoshiaki; Maruyama, Naoki; Sumiya, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous malformations of the zygoma are rare. Historically, venous malformations have been misrepresented as hemangiomas. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomaly (ISSVA) classification is a reasonable classification that leads to appropriate clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies. Collaboration between surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists is necessary for accurate diagnosis and management. Presentation of case We present here a case of an IOVM in a 59-year-old woman who was treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Superselective arteriography and embolization were effective for diagnosis as well as for prevention of large hemorrhage during surgery. En-bloc resection of the zygoma was performed within hours after embolization and autologous calvarial bone graft was used for primary reconstruction. Discussion We performed a literature review consisting of reviewing 52 cases of IOVM of the zygoma discussing optimal material for reconstruction of the defect for intraosseous venous malformation of the zygoma nationally and internationally. Conclusion The combination of surgery and preoperative angiography makes it possible to prevent high risk of hemorrhage. For primary reconstruction of the zygoma, use of autologous calvarial bone can maintain the volume and reconstruct the natural malar contour. PMID:26072005

  19. Massive glosso-cervical arteriovenous malformation: The rationale for a challenging surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Garca, Ral; Moreno-Garca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Massive arterivenous malformations (AVM) in the cervico-facial area are rare but potentially life-threatening. Treatment protocols are not well-established. A 41-year old man presented large painless rubber-like mass within the entire neck, which also extended intraorally through the floor of the mouth, showing a slow growing pattern for 5 years. Angiography diagnosed it as cervicofacial AVM. Treatment approach consisted on the embolization of the right upper thyroid, lingual and facial arteries under intravenous sedation. Three days later, bilateral radical neck dissection and subtotal glossectomy was performed. A musculo-cutaneous pectoralis major pedicled flap was harvested to reconstruct the floor of the mouth. Treatment of massive AVMs in the cervico-facial area is challenging due to the associated disfigurement and frequent recurrence rate due to incomplete resection. Also, massive bleeding may be present despite pre-operative super-selective embolization. A new case is presented with focus on surgical treatment considerations. Key words:Arteriovenous malformation, high-flow vascular malformation, cervical region, tongue, surgical resection PMID:25593675

  20. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, Frank; Esch, Jan Schulte am; Hammerschlag, Sascha; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Fuerst, Guenter

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  1. phenoVein-A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hlskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software. PMID:26468519

  2. Disappearance of a Ruptured Distal Flow-Related Aneurysm after Arteriovenous Malformation Nidal Embolization.

    PubMed

    He, Lucy; Gao, Junwei; Thomas, Ajith J; Fusco, Matthew R; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are well represented in the literature. Their exact etiology is poorly understood, but likely global hemodynamic changes coupled with vascular wall pathology play into their formation. Flow-related and intranidal aneurysms, in particular, appear to have an increased risk for hemorrhagic presentation. Treatment strategies for these aneurysms are particularly challenging. We report the case of an AVM-associated aneurysm causing intraventricular hemorrhage that disappeared after embolization of unrelated, distal feeding pedicles to the nidus, at a site distant from the aneurysm. We also review the literature with regards to these so-called "disappearing aneurysms" in the context of AVMs and other vascular pathologies. PMID:26072456

  3. Ischemic Colitis Due to a Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with a Connective Tissue Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Poullos, Peter D.; Thompson, Atalie C.; Holz, Grant; Edelman, Lauren A.; Jeffrey, R. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a rare, life-threatening, consequence of mesenteric arteriovenous malformations. Ischemia ensues from a steal phenomenon through shunting, and may be compounded by the resulting portal hypertension. Computed tomographic angiography is the most common first-line test because it is quick, non-invasive, and allows for accurate anatomic characterization. Also, high-resolution three-dimensional images can be created for treatment planning. Magnetic resonance angiography is similarly sensitive for vascular mapping. Conventional angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and also allows for therapeutic endovascular embolization. Our patient underwent testing using all three of these modalities. We present the first reported case of this entity in a patient with a vascular connective tissue disorder. PMID:25926912

  4. Endovascular Management of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Charles A.; Meyers, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are rare, complex, vascular lesions that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Modern treatment of brain AVMs is a multimodality endeavor, requiring a multidisciplinary team with expertise in cerebrovascular neurosurgery, endovascular intervention, and radiation therapy in order to provide all therapeutic options and determine the most appropriate treatment regimen depending on patient characteristics and AVM morphology. Current therapeutic options include microsurgical resection, radiosurgery (focused radiation), and endovascular embolization. Endovascular embolization is primarily used as a preoperative adjuvant before microsurgery or radiosurgery. Palliative embolization has been used successfully to reduce the risk of hemorrhage, alleviate clinical symptoms, and preserve or improve neurological function in inoperable or nonradiosurgical AVMs. Less frequently, embolization is used as primary therapy particularly for smaller, surgically difficult lesions. Current embolic agents used to treat brain AVMs include both solid and liquid agents. Liquid agents including N-butyl cyanoacrylate and Onyx are the most commonly used agents. As newer embolic agents become available and as microcatheter technology improves, the role of endovascular treatment for brain AVMs will likely expand. PMID:25187772

  5. Cortical plasticity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Liu, Kenneth C; Crowley, R Webster

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review is to ascertain the evidence for cortical plasticity in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. Chronic hypoperfusion due to vascular steal from cerebral AVM can result in a translocation of eloquent neurological functions to other brain areas, a phenomenon known as cortical plasticity. We performed a systematic literature review of the studies that have evaluated cortical plasticity in AVM patients. A total of 22 studies from 1996 to 2014 were included for the analyses. The evaluation of cortical plasticity was performed prior to AVM intervention in 109 patients, and during or after AVM intervention in 18. The most commonly assessed neurological functions were motor in 85% and language in 11% of the former cohort, and motor in 78% and language, cognition, and memory each in 39% of the latter cohort. Functional MRI was the most frequently used method for evaluating cortical plasticity, and was performed in 63% of the former and 56% of the latter cohort. In conclusion, cortical plasticity appears to be influenced by both AVM pathogenesis and intervention. Given the limited evidence that is currently available for cortical plasticity in AVM patients, further studies are warranted to determine its incidence and impact on long term clinical outcomes. PMID:26256067

  6. Effects of preserving different veins on flow-through flap survival: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JIAN; LI, ZONGHUAN; YU, AIXI

    2016-01-01

    Flow-through skin flap grafting is becoming widely used for the reconstruction of skin and soft tissue defects, particularly for patients with poor blood supply around the defect. However, the treatment of the veins remains controversial. In the present study, 52-cm skin flaps were created on the left inner thighs of rabbits in order to investigate the effects of various treatments of the veins on the survival of a flow-through skin flap. A femoral artery perforator running through the flap was preserved. Five groups were established in which no veins, one superficial vein (SV), one accompanying vein (AV), one SV plus one AV, or all trunk veins (control) were retained. The percentage of flap area survival was determined on day 10. On days 3, 5, 7 and 9, tissues were harvested from the skin flaps and immunohistochemical analysis was performed in order to count the number of microvessels. Western blot analysis was subsequently completed in order to determine the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The flap areas in which no veins were retained demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates on day 10, as compared with those in the other four groups (P<0.01). Furthermore, flaps with the retention of a SV also demonstrated reduced survival rates, as compared with the AV, AV plus SV and all veins groups (P<0.01); however, there no significant differences were detected between the latter three groups (P>0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis on day 3 detected a greater number of microvessels in the flaps of the control group, as compared with the flaps of the other groups. Furthermore, the AV and AV plus SV groups demonstrated a greater number of microvessels, as compared with the SV and no vein groups, and he no vein group demonstrated the fewest microvessels. No significant differences were found between the AV, AV plus SV and control groups on day 5, 7 and 9. Western blot analysis on day 5 demonstrated that the expression levles of VEGF were significantly increased in the flaps of the AV, AV plus SV and control groups, as compared with those in the SV and no vein groups. No significant differences were detected between the former three groups, and increased VEGF expression levels were detected in the flaps of the SV group, as compared with the no vein group. The flow-through flap grafts with no retained veins barely survived. Anastomosing one AV was adequate for flap survival; however, further studies are required in order to investigate the survival of flow-through flaps in more detail.

  7. FTO variant associated with malformation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rohena, Luis; Lawson, Michelle; Guzman, Edwin; Ganapathi, Mythily; Cho, Megan T; Haverfield, Eden; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame

    2016-04-01

    Common FTO variants are associated with obesity. However, it has recently been shown that homozygous FTO c.947G>A variant, which predicts p.R316Q, and c.956C>T, which predicts p.S319F, are associated with a malformation syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We present a similar homozygous FTO c.965G>A variant that predicts p.R322Q, associated with a lethal malformation syndrome in a consanguineous Yemeni family. Functional studies showed that the p.R316Q, p.S219F, and p.R322Q variants render the FTO protein inactive. We further expand on the phenotype of homozygous FTO loss-of-function mutations to include eye abnormalities, gingival overgrowth, craniosynostosis, and cutaneous photosensitivity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26697951

  8. Arteriovenous malformation of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, José-Fernando; Hermana, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon cause of uterine bleeding. Location of this lesion in the uterine cervix is exceptional. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with chronic menorrhagias and hypochromic anemia. A sonographic study revealed a 10-cm, fundal, intramural, uterine well-circumscribed mass that distorted the endometrial cavity. The patient underwent hysterectomy for a large uterine leiomyoma. The pathological study revealed an incidental AVM of the posterior half of the cervix measuring 5.5cm in major diameter. We suggest that in our case cervical AVM might have occurred due to a large corporal leiomyoma distorting the uterine circulation. Differential diagnosis includes capillary hemangioma, venous malformation, or arteriovenous fistula. PMID:26810780

  9. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Xu, Hongzhi; Qin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected. PMID:26649296

  10. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  11. Immunohistochemistry comparing endoscopic vein harvesting vs. open vein harvesting on saphenous vein endothelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study attempts to compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of von Willebrand factor (vWf) , endothelial cadherin, Caveolin and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) in VasoView Endoscopic Vein Harvesting (EVH) versus traditional Open Vein Harvesting (OVH) techniques for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery performed in Javad al Aemeh Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2013,. Methods and materials Forty-seven patients were scheduled for CABG (30 EVH and 17 OVH) among whom patients with relatively same gender and similar age were selected. Three separate two cm vein samples were harvested from each patients saphenous vein. Each portion was collected from distal, middle and proximal zones of the saphenous vein. The tissues were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was done using EZ-retriever followed by an immunohistochemistry evaluation with vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS. In addition, demographic questioner as of Lipid profile, FBS, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were undertaken using the SPSS 16 software. A P value??0.05). Qualitative report of vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS reveals no significant difference between the EVH and OVH (P?>?0.05). Conclusion This study indicates that VasoView EVH technique causes no endothelial damage in comparison with OVH. This study could be a molecular confirmation for the innocuous of EVH technique. PMID:24938544

  12. Statins and congenital malformations: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Fischer, Michael A; Seely, Ellen W; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Franklin, Jessica M; Desai, Rishi J; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Mogun, Helen; Avorn, Jerry; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the teratogenic potential of statins. Design Cohort study. Setting United States. Participants A cohort of 886?996 completed pregnancies linked to liveborn infants of women enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2007. Methods We examined the risk of major congenital malformations and organ specific malformations in offspring associated with maternal use of a statin in the first trimester. Propensity score based methods were used to control for potential confounders, including maternal demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical conditions, and use of other drugs. Results 1152 (0.13%) women used a statin during the first trimester. In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of malformations in the offspring of these women was 6.34% compared with 3.55% in those of women who did not use a statin in the first trimester (relative risk 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.23). Controlling for confounders, particularly pre-existing diabetes, accounted for this increase in risk (1.07, 0.85 to 1.37). There were also no statistically significant increases in any of the organ specific malformations assessed after accounting for confounders. Results were similar across a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis did not find a significant teratogenic effect from maternal use of statins in the first trimester. However, these findings need to be replicated in other large studies, and the long term effects of in utero exposure to statins needs to be assessed, before use of statins in pregnancy can be considered safe. PMID:25784688

  13. Ocular Malformations with Presumable Intraocular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Nitirungjaras, Anupong; Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Kiddee, Weerawat; Singha, Penny

    2015-07-01

    This is a case of ocular malformations with presumable intraocular calcification based on computed tomography (CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ocular ultrasound (US) findings. The authors presented the clinical, imaging and pathological findings of this case. Intraocular calcification is the most important finding in retinoblastoma, which requires aggressive management. It is important to distinguish it from other intraocular lesions, especially intraocular calcified hematoma. PMID:26267997

  14. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  15. A semi-automated vascular access system for preclinical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry-Pusey, B. N.; Chang, Y. C.; Prince, S. W.; Chu, K.; David, J.; Taschereau, R.; Silverman, R. W.; Williams, D.; Ladno, W.; Stout, D.; Tsao, T. C.; Chatziioannou, A.

    2013-08-01

    Murine models are used extensively in biological and translational research. For many of these studies it is necessary to access the vasculature for the injection of biologically active agents. Among the possible methods for accessing the mouse vasculature, tail vein injections are a routine but critical step for many experimental protocols. To perform successful tail vein injections, a high skill set and experience is required, leaving most scientists ill-suited to perform this task. This can lead to a high variability between injections, which can impact experimental results. To allow more scientists to perform tail vein injections and to decrease the variability between injections, a vascular access system (VAS) that semi-automatically inserts a needle into the tail vein of a mouse was developed. The VAS uses near infrared light, image processing techniques, computer controlled motors, and a pressure feedback system to insert the needle and to validate its proper placement within the vein. The VAS was tested by injecting a commonly used radiolabeled probe (FDG) into the tail veins of five mice. These mice were then imaged using micro-positron emission tomography to measure the percentage of the injected probe remaining in the tail. These studies showed that, on average, the VAS leaves 3.4% of the injected probe in the tail. With these preliminary results, the VAS system demonstrates the potential for improving the accuracy of tail vein injections in mice.

  16. Venous Endothelial Marker COUP-TFII Regulates the Distinct Pathologic Potentials of Adult Arteries and Veins

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Lu, Yao Wei; Lee, Vivian; Kim, Diana; Dorsey, Taylor; Wang, Qingjie; Lee, Young; Vincent, Peter; Schwarz, John; Dai, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Arteries and veins have very different susceptibility to certain vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. The molecular mechanisms of these differences are not fully understood. In this study, we discovered that COUP-TFII, a transcription factor critical for establishing the venous identity during embryonic vascular development, also regulates the pathophysiological functions of adult blood vessels, especially those directly related to vascular diseases. Specifically, we found that suppression of COUP-TFII in venous ECs switched its phenotype toward pro-atherogenic by up-regulating the expression of inflammatory genes and down-regulating anti-thrombotic genes. ECs with COUP-TFII knockdown also readily undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and subsequent osteogenic differentiation with dramatically increased osteogenic transcriptional program and calcium deposition. Consistently, over-expression of COUP-TFII led to the completely opposite effects. In vivo validation of these pro-atherogenic and osteogenic genes also demonstrates a broad consistent differential expression pattern in mouse aorta vs. vena cava ECs, which cannot be explained by the difference in hemodynamic flow. These data reveal phenotypic modulation by different levels of COUP-TFII in arterial and venous ECs, and suggest COUP-TFII may play an important role in the different susceptibilities of arteries and veins to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. PMID:26537113

  17. Duplication of the superior vena cava associated with atrial termination of the left hepatic vein.

    PubMed

    Milisavljevic, M; Marinkovic, S; Radak, D; Cetkovic, M; Vucurevic, G; Trifunovic, D

    2013-10-01

    Duplication of the superior vena cava (SVC), associated with an aberrant left hepatic vein (LHV), was found in one of the 58 dissected specimens. The right SVC virtually showed a typical appearance. The persistent left SVC, which drained into the right atrium via the enlarged coronary sinus, was formed by the persistence of the left anterior cardinal vein. The LHV opened into the right atrium, due to the persistent left hepatocardiac channel. The left common carotid artery arose from the brachiocephalic trunk as a consequence of a regression of the embryonic aortic sac. The revealed venous and arterial variations seem to be the first reported vascular combination of this type. PMID:22865421

  18. An adult case of idiopathic internal carotid-internal jugular vein arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Puca, Aniello E; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Carotid-jugular fistula is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and/or its branches and jugular vein. It can develop either because of trauma or spontaneous causes. Traumatic fistula may occur after head injuries and can range from minor falls to severe penetrating wounds. Traumatic fistula may also result from endovascular therapy; however, these fistulas may be congenital arteriovenous connections that open spontaneously in the setting of collagen vascular disease, atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, or childbirth. Spontaneous fistulas between internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein are very exceptional diseases; therefore, this case is presented for its rare incidence in literature. PMID:25749610

  19. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Oellers, Patrick; Grewal, Dilraj S; Fekrat, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema, and the visual outcomes of these eyes are better than ever. However, a variety of available treatment options including intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have established novel challenges with regard to appropriate drug selection. This review summarizes the available clinical studies with special emphasis on the comparison of intravitreal aflibercept with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and steroid agents.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations of Midbrain-Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of malformations of midbrain and hindbrain. These can be classified as predominantly cerebellar malformations, combined cerebellar and brain stem malformations, and predominantly brain stem malformations. The diagnostic criteria for the majority of these morphological malformations are based on neuroimaging findings. The predominantly cerebellar malformations include predominantly vermian hypoplasia seen in Dandy-Walker malformation and rhombencephalosynapsis, global cerebellar hypoplasia reported in lissencephaly and microlissencephaly, and unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia seen in PHACES, vanishing cerebellum, and cerebellar cleft. Cerebellar dysplasias are seen in Chudley-McCullough syndrome, associated with LAMA1 mutations and GPR56 mutations; Lhermitte-Duclos disease; and focal cerebellar dysplasias. Cerebellar hyperplasias are seen in megalencephaly-related syndromes and hemimegalencephaly with ipsilateral cerebellomegaly. Cerebellar and brain stem malformations include tubulinopathies, Joubert syndrome, cobblestone malformations, pontocerebellar hypoplasias, and congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia. Predominantly brain stem malformations include congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome, pontine tegmental cap dysplasia, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia, disconnection syndrome, and pontine clefts. PMID:26599961