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1

Nursing care and Hickman's catheter: the search for evidence El cuidado de enfermeria y el catéter Hickman: la búquela de evidencias O cuidado de enfermagem e o cateter de Hickman: a busca de evidências  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients submitted to Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) need a safe venous access for the infusion of bone marrow. The implantation of a central venous catheter is a part of therapy, with Hickman's catheter as the most commonly used type; however, its presence entails risks, the most preoccupying of which is infection. Objective: Integrative literature review aimed to look for

Renata Cristina de Campos; Pereira Silveira; Cristina Maria Galvão

2

[The Hickman catheter as vascular access in bone marrow transplantation].  

PubMed

From 1984 to 1995, 522 Hickman catheters were placed in the Institute of Clinica Chirurgica B of the University of Genova to treat malignant haemathologic diseases. Aims and reasons of this choice, surgical technique, advantages and related problems are reported here. PMID:9091836

Baiardi, A; Galleano, R; Lazzari, I; Bocchio, M; Carrabetta, S; Van Lint, M T; Bonalumi, U; Simoni, G

1996-10-01

3

Repositioning of malpositioned or flipped central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Primary misplaced or secondary flipped implanted catheters are located mostly in the right jugular vein. We demonstrate an effective method to replace fix implanted catheters such as Ports, Grochomg or Hickman catheters. Using a femoral venous approach, replacement into the superior vena cava can easily be done with a Sidewinder 1 catheter which is hooked over the misplaced central venous approach. In all our patients the method was successful. The repositioning technique described is simple, fast and has low costs. We can keep sterile conditions and do not need to solve the catheters' fixation. PMID:11870490

Thalhammer, A; Jacobi, V; Balzer, J; Vogl, T J

2002-03-01

4

Central venous catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are used with increasing frequency in the intensive care unit and in general medical wards. Catheter infection, the most frequent complication of CVC use, is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and duration of hospital stay. Risk factors in the development of catheter colonisation and bloodstream infection include patient factors (increased risk associated with malignancy, neutropenia, and

K. H. Polderman; A. R. J. Girbes

2002-01-01

5

A prospective survey on incidence and outcome of Broviac\\/Hickman catheter-related complications in pediatric patients affected by hematological and oncological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective pediatric survey on the incidence of central venous catheter (CVC) complications was performed aimed at identifying risk factors of premature CVC removal. The study comprised 129 Broviac-Hickman CVCs inserted during a 13-month period in 112 children. The total number of CVC days was 19,328 (median: 122 days, range: 1–385). The overall rate of complications was 6.2\\/1000 CVC days, i.e.,

Simone Cesaro; Roberta Corrò; Anna Pelosin; Piergiorgio Gamba; Nicola Zadra; Fabio Fusaro; Marta Pillon; Riccardo Cusinato; Chiara Zampieri; Laura Magagna; Mara Cavaliere; Gloria Tridello; Gianfranco Zanon; Luigi Zanesco

2004-01-01

6

Central venous catheter - flushing  

MedlinePLUS

... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... and under your nails. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

7

[Electromagnetic location of central venous catheters].  

PubMed

A new technique, the Cath Finder (Pharmacia Deltec) system, for locating central venous catheters is described. It was initially designed to facilitate the insertion of the PAS Port (Pharmacia Deltec), a long central venous catheter with an implantable chamber. It is based on a low intensity high frequency electromagnetic field generated by a locator wand. A preconnected sensor guide wire is introduced into the catheter so as to make the catheter tip detectable by the electromagnetic field. The wand is placed over an appropriate landmark on the anterior chest wall (third right rib, parasternally). When the centre of the field has been passed over by the sensor tip in the catheter-sensor assembly, a light signal is set off. This technique is simple and easily mastered. It is far less cumbersome than the usual techniques, like fluoroscopy and chest X-rays. The Cath Finder provides reliable continuous information on the position of the catheter tip during its insertion. It seems to provide an acceptable alternative to peroperative fluoroscopy. The accuracy of this system was assessed in ten patients. All had malignancies and required long term central venous access. In 6 cases, catheterisation and locating of the catheter were uneventful. In 2 cases, the catheter entered a wrong vein. The diagnosis having been made with the Cath Finder system, the false route was amended and the catheter placed accurately. In one case, the sensor in the catheter broke.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1416278

Ranchére, J Y; Gordiani, B; Hassid, C

1992-01-01

8

Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

SciTech Connect

Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: alexbarnacle@yahoo.co.uk; Kleidon, Tricia M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

9

Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy  

PubMed Central

We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC) was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were secured surgically.

Malhotra, Ashima; Sharma, Prakash; Kumar, Ashvini; Malhotra, Nikhil

2014-01-01

10

Central venous catheter infections: Concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are widely used in critically ill patients in intensive care units. However, infectious complications are common and may limit their utility. We critically review the literature to determine the impact of CVC design amd composition, insertion site selection, insertion procedures, care and removal of temporary CVCs on infectious complications. Relevant articles were identified and selected for

C. R. Reed; C. N. Sessler; F. L. Glauser; B. A. Phelan

1995-01-01

11

Complications of central venous catheters in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors.  

PubMed

We report our clinical experience with central venous catheters (CVCs) in 15 patients with haemophilia who, in total, had 34 catheters inserted. Eighteen devices were Hickman, six were Port-A-Cath and 10 were nontunnelled catheters (one Quinton, seven antecubital, one jugular and one subclavian vein access). All patients had factor VIII/IX inhibitors at the time of insertion. The mean age at operation was 8.8 years (range 16 months-39 years). Eight of the 15 patients (26/34 implanted catheters, 76%) presented some kind of complication. Pericatheter bleeding during the postoperative period affected a total of seven CVCs (7/34, 20%) in six patients, which required substitutive treatment for several days. Infection was reported in 15 of the CVCs (15/34, 44%), and four of these (4/15, 26%) had more than one episode, with a mean of 1.4 infection episodes per catheter (21/15). The infection rate was 0.2 infections per 1000 patient days or 0.1 per 1000 catheter days. Despite the usefulness of CVCs in haemophilic patients, the high incidence of complications requires careful assessment of the type of device as well as continuous surveillance. PMID:11851752

Morado, M; Jimenez-Yuste, V; Villar, A; Quintana, M; Del Castillo, F; Garzon, G; Acitores, I; Ibañez, F; Sanjurjo, M J; Gago, J; Hernandez-Navarro, F

2001-11-01

12

Optimal Management of Central Venous Catheters for Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good medical practices for optimizing the management of central venous catheters (CVCs) can be summarized in the following ten commandments: (1) the indications of CVC use you will restrict; (2) the choice of the catheter type and site venous you will discuss; (3) an experienced operator you will choose; (4) validated protocols of use and maintenance of catheters you will

B. Canaud; L. Chenine; D. Henriet; H. Leray

2008-01-01

13

Central Venous Catheter-associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters, often needed by cancer patients, can be the source of Nocardia bacteremia. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 17 cancer patients with Nocardia bacteremia. For 10 patients, the bacteremia was associated with the catheter; for the other 7, it was a disseminated infection. N. nova complex was the leading cause of bacteremia. Nocardia promoted heavy biofilm formation on the surface of central venous catheter segments tested in an in vitro biofilm model. Trimethoprim- and minocycline-based lock solutions had potent in vitro activity against biofilm growth. Patients with Nocardia central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections responded well to catheter removal and antimicrobial drug therapy, whereas those with disseminated bacteremia had poor prognoses.

Al Akhrass, Fadi; Hachem, Ray; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Haydoura, Souha; Chaftari, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

14

Dynamics of central venous catheter-related sepsis in rats.  

PubMed Central

To determine when catheter-related sepsis clears after removal of an infected central venous catheter (CVC) and when a new sterile CVC can be inserted without risk of recolonization, a catheter infected with 10(5) CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis per ml was inserted into 40 Fischer 344 rats. Five control rats had sterile catheters. Insertion of an infected CVC was followed by a significant rise in leukocytes after 4 days and the presence of S. epidermidis in lungs, livers, spleens, kidneys, and the catheter tip, as examined by bacteriological assay. After the infected catheter was removed, the rat recovered from the induced catheter-related sepsis within 12 h. When a new sterile CVC was inserted into the femoral vein, the leukocyte count remained normal, and all catheter tips and tissue cultures were sterile 4 days later.

Paston, M J; Meguid, R A; Muscaritoli, M; Forbes, B; Yang, Z J; Meguid, M M

1993-01-01

15

Evaluation of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection in intensive care unit patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheterization represents a significant medical advancement, particularly in the treatment of critical ill. However, there is a high risk of central venous catheters-related infection. A novel antiseptic central venous catheter, made of polyurethane and impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine, was developed to reduce the risk of catheters-related infection. In this study, we did a randomized clinical study

Wang-Huei Sheng; Wen-Je Ko; Jann-Tay Wang; Shan-Chwen Chang; Po-Ren Hsueh; Kwen-Tay Luh

2000-01-01

16

Paradoxical air embolism following central venous catheter removal.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters are commonly used in the management of critically ill patients. This case report described a rare but potentially fatal complication of central venous catheter use. A 52-year-old man underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement for infective endocarditis. On day 8 postoperatively he accidentally removed his catheter and collapsed with symptoms and signs suggestive of a cerebral air embolism. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed air bubbles in both the right and left ventricles of the heart confirming the presence of a paradoxical air embolism. PMID:24072837

Khan, Hiba; Zaidi, Afzal

2013-01-01

17

A Rare Central Venous Catheter Malposition: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is a routine procedure for the management of critically ill patients; however, it is important to ensure its proper placement. A central venous catheter malposition may cause various complications, some of which can be fatal. Case Presentation: We report an unexpected malposition of a catheter in the left internal jugular vein, where it entered into the left internal mammary vein. Conclusions: We think one of the influential factors for leading a guidewire and catheter into a nominated vein may be the left sided bevel of the needle at the time of internal jugular vein needle and catheter insertion. We were required to continue going towards the subclavian vein and accidentally turned into the left internal mammary vein.

Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Hafez, Saeed; Izanloo, Azra; Khorsand, Mahmood

2014-01-01

18

Effectiveness of different central venous catheters for catheter-related infections: a network meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the effectiveness of various catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection and to evaluate whether specific catheters are superior to others for reducing catheter-related infections. We identified randomised, controlled trials that compared different types of central venous catheter (CVC), evaluating catheter-related infections in a systematic search of articles published from January 1996 to November 2009 via Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Network meta-analysis with a mixed treatment comparison method using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to combine direct within-trial, between-treatment comparisons with indirect trial evidence. Forty-eight clinical trials (12 828 CVCs) investigating 10 intervention catheters contributed to the analyses. For prevention of CVC colonisation, adjusted silver iontophoretic catheters (odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.95), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine catheters (0.49; 0.36-0.64), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine blue plus catheters (0.37; 0.17-0.69), minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.28; 0.17-0.43) and miconazole-rifampicin catheters (0.11; 0.02-0.33) were associated with a significantly lower rate of catheter colonisation compared with standard catheters. For prevention of CRBSI, adjusted heparin-bonded catheters (0.20; 0.06-0.44) and minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.18; 0.08-0.34) were associated with a significantly lower rate of CRBSI with standard catheters. Rifampicin-based impregnated catheters seem to be better for prevention of catheter-related infection compared with the other catheters. PMID:20638155

Wang, H; Huang, T; Jing, J; Jin, J; Wang, P; Yang, M; Cui, W; Zheng, Y; Shen, H

2010-09-01

19

Calcified catheter “cast”: a rare complication of indwelling central venous catheters in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peri-catheter calcification is an unusual and previously unreported complication of central venous (CV) catheterization in\\u000a infants. A 1.9 Fr Silastic CV catheter was placed in a term infant for administration of total parenteral nutrition and antibiotics\\u000a following intra-abdominal sepsis. The catheter was removed, without complication, at a later date after another septic episode.\\u000a Imaging studies performed in the investigation of

M. A. B. Anderson; D. Poenaru; I. Kamal

1998-01-01

20

[Thrombotic complications of central venous catheters in hematooncological patients].  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in patients with a hematological disorders in order to administer drugs, stem cell infusions, blood products, parenteral alimentation as well as for blood sampling. There are known mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications of central venous catheters in hematological patients. Infectious and thrombotic complications have been considered as separate entities so far, but there are theory and accumulating evidence that they are interrelated. Since data on central venous catheters-related thrombosis in hematological patients have been obtained mainly from retrospective studies of small size, prospective randomized studies are warranted. In this review we present current opinions about epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis of CVC-related thrombosis and also its correlations with infectious CVC-related complications. PMID:20687388

Joks, Monika; Kroll, Renata; Komarnicki, Mieczys?aw

2010-01-01

21

Spontaneous migration of central venous catheter tip following extubation.  

PubMed

Migration of the tip of central venous catheters is not an uncommon event and the mechanism for this is not clear. Increased intrathoracic pressure due to coughing, sneezing or weight lifting, changing the body position or physical movements such as abduction or adduction of the arms is thought to be the cause of such migration. We present here a case of a patient with a port catheter tip that migrated from the left subclavian to the superior vene cava following extubation. PMID:24665255

Prabaharan, Balaji; Thomas, Sara

2014-01-01

22

Bone cement embolism attached to central venous catheter.  

PubMed

We report on a rare complication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), injected into the spine, which then inadvertently leaked into the venous system. This resulted in an embolism of PMMA and produced a mass surrounding a triple lumen central venous catheter located in the superior vena cava. The catheter as well as the attached mass of PMMA was retrieved safely by cardiothoracic surgery. This case emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment and illustrates the need for close monitoring of patients undergoing any spinal surgery that includes vertebroplasty. PMID:24318858

Schummer, W; Schlonski, O; Breuer, M

2014-04-01

23

Central venous catheter failure is induced by injury and can be prevented by stabilizing the catheter tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Thrombosis associated with central venous catheters is a significant cause of device failure, morbidity, and loss of access sites. We hypothesized that central vein thrombosis is caused by catheter injury to the vein wall and that it can be reduced by stabilizing the catheter tip. To test these hypotheses, we studied central vein catheters in a porcine model. Test

Ted R. Kohler; Thomas R. Kirkman

1998-01-01

24

[Early and late complications after implantation of central venous catheters].  

PubMed

The use of implantable central venous catheters by the puncture-technique of Nagy is a safe method performed by trained surgeons. Due to the high mobility and then reduction of painful blood samples this method contributes favourably to the improvement of the quality of life of children with chronic diseases. The analysis of 140 catheters implanted in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Leipzig between 1995 and 2000 showed 11 cases with early complications. As the most frequent late complications were infection and thrombosis in 51 children. Neutropenia is a particular risk factor during polychemotherapy of malignant tumors. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated bacillus. Catheter associated infections are only partly treatable by antibiotic therapy. In 29 of 44 cases the explantation of the catheter was necessary. Only a strict hygienic regimen would minimize the risk of infection PMID:12545422

Herold, A; Rothe, K; Woller, T; Bierbach, U; Bennek, J

2003-01-01

25

Central venous catheter-related sepsis in a cohort of 366 hospitalised patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred two central venous catheters inserted in 366 patients were evaluated prospectively over a one-year period to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with catheter-related sepsis. For study purposes, in cases in which catheter infection was suspected but the initial blood cultures were negative, the catheters were replaced by guidewire technique; otherwise, the catheters were routinely changed after

E. Tacconelli; M. Tumbarello; M. Pittiruti; F. Leone; M. B. Lucia; R. Cauda; L. Ortona

1997-01-01

26

Echocardiographically detected fibrinous sheaths associated with central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Several million catheters are annually placed in the United States and worldwide for a multitude of clinical conditions. Potential delayed complications relating to central venous catheters include infections, thrombosis and fibrin sheath formation. Fibrin sheaths form frequently around central catheters but seldom cause clinical symptoms by themselves that warrant further investigation. It is likely that with the advent of echocardiographic imaging techniques, these "sleeves" get detected more often, which may result in early and correct diagnosis of this potential hazardous condition. Retained fibrin sleeves can cause malfunction of indwelling catheters, can persist after removal of the catheter, and be a nidus for thrombus formation or vegetation with a potential for distal embolization. Future research directed at creating new coatings with cytotoxic or cytostatic agents is warranted to reduce the incidence of fibrin sheath formation and hence prevent potential complications. We report three cases of persistent fibrin sheaths forming at the site of previously inserted tunneled catheters two of which were complicated by thrombus formation and vegetations. PMID:22098597

Sinno, Mohamad C N; Alam, Mohsin

2012-03-01

27

Composition and formation of the sleeve enveloping a central venous catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:After catheterization, 42% to 100% of central venous catheters are surrounded by a “fibrin sleeve.” This sleeve has been considered the cause of catheter-related infections, withdrawal occlusion, and pulmonary embolism. The reactions between the vein wall and the catheter were studied. Methods: A silicone catheter was placed in the anterior caval vein of 123 rats. After in situ fixation at

D. Z. Xiang; E. K. Verbeken; A. T. L. Van Lommel; M. Stas; I. De Wever

1998-01-01

28

Modification of central venous catheter polymers to prevent in vitro microbial colonisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of an antimicrobial catheter for the prevention of bacterial colonisation was investigated. The catheter was hydrophilic coated (Hydrocath) and impregnated with the quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent, benzalkonium chloride (BZC). Microbial colonisation of this central venous catheter was compared to that of polyurethane catheters with or without a hydrophilic coating. Adherence of five strains ofStaphylococcus epidermidis to the three

S. E. Tebbs; T. S. J. Elliott

1994-01-01

29

[Neonatology nurses' knowledge about Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter].  

PubMed

The Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) has been used as a safe venous access for infants at risk. The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and practice of nurses from the five public Neonatal Intensive Care Units, of Recife-PE, Brazil, about the use of the PICC. The sample was comprised by 52 nurses; data were collected from January to February/2010. It was found that 64,8% of nurses did not have license for insertion of the PICC. Only two units routinely used the PICC. About the indication of the access, the accuracy was above 70%. In unit B only 8,3% of nurses reported adequate initial location of the catheter tip. It was concluded that is necessary greater incentives to train nurses to use the PICC. PMID:22751707

Belo, Marcela Patricia Macêdo; Silva, Roberta Albuquerque Mello de Castro; Nogueira, Isis Larissa Maia; Mizoguti, Daniele Pereira; Ventura, Claudiane Maria Urbano

2012-01-01

30

Thrombogenicity testing of central venous catheters in vitro.  

PubMed

To date there have been no standard methods for assessing the thrombogenicity of central venous catheters. A procedure for testing the thrombogenicity of intravenous lines such as the silver-impregnated catheter by continuous blood flow in vitro was therefore developed. For this test, fresh blood was drawn from healthy human donors and anti-coagulated with sodium citrate (1:9). All material tested (catheter tubes with and without silver manufactured in the same way, polyethylene tubes and tubes with potentially thrombogenic material) were perfused through their lumen with anticoagulated blood for up to 31 hours. Blood samples were collected at different times from the test system at sites before and after the perfusion of the test catheters. The hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte, leukocyte and thrombocyte counts and markers for thrombin activation (thrombin-antithrombin III-complex, F1 + 2)-prothrombin fragments) and for hyperfibrinolysis (d-dimers) were determined. No thrombin activation or signs of hyperfibrinolysis were detected in any material tested. Polyethylene tubes were found to cause hemolysis, as shown by a decrease in hemoglobin content from 15 g% to 4.5 g%. Tecothane tubes with and without silver did not induce hemolysis. PMID:10379440

Böswald, M; Lugauer, S; Bechert, T; Greil, J; Regenfus, A; Guggenbichler, J P

1999-01-01

31

Calcified catheter "cast": a rare complication of indwelling central venous catheters in infants.  

PubMed

Peri-catheter calcification is an unusual and previously unreported complication of central venous (CV) catheterization in infants. A 1. 9 Fr Silastic CV catheter was placed in a term infant for administration of total parenteral nutrition and antibiotics following intra-abdominal sepsis. The catheter was removed, without complication, at a later date after another septic episode. Imaging studies performed in the investigation of a possible intra-abdominal abscess revealed a cylindrical density within a clot in the inferior vena cava (IVC). The density was presumed to be a retained catheter fragment. Further investigation indicated total occlusion of the IVC. Surgical exploration of the IVC revealed only a calcified thrombus. This case represents a rare and previously unreported complication of CV catheterization in infants. Diagnosing this condition on radiographic evidence alone can be difficult. It is hoped that awareness of the potential for this complication will avoid unnecessary invasive procedures in the future. We also suggest a high level of clinical suspicion and routine Doppler ultrasound investigations to detect IVC thrombosis when indwelling CV catheters are used in infants. PMID:9799390

Anderson, M A; Poenaru, D; Kamal, I

1998-10-01

32

Retrograde venous cerebral air embolism from disconnected central venous catheter: an experimental model.  

PubMed

There are few reported cases of death attributed to retrograde cerebral air embolism from central venous catheter. The pathophysiological mechanism and the necessary conditions are not fully understood, also because of missing experimental data. We performed experimental simulation while working on a possible case of retrograde cerebral air embolism. A hermetic system consisting of two containers connected to each other and to an electric pump by means of rubber hoses was built. In this system, a fluid (water and blood) could continuously flow under conditions similar to those of the common jugular vein. The part of the system representing the jugular vein could be freely positioned at angles between 0 and 90°. A central venous catheter was inserted into this part. After disconnection, the behavior of the air bubbles entering the hose through the tip of the catheter was evaluated at different positions. At angles between 0 and 45°, the air bubbles followed the fluid flow. At angles >45°, the air bubbles showed the tendency to flow upstream; this phenomenon was more evident the more vertically the hose was located. We were able to demonstrate that a retrograde air embolism can be caused by a disconnected catheter and is even more likely if the neck is in a vertical position. PMID:20887355

Fracasso, Tony; Karger, Bernd; Schmidt, Peter F; Reinbold, Wolf D; Pfeiffer, Heidi

2011-01-01

33

Cost-effectiveness of Ultrasound in Preventing Femoral Venous Catheter-associated Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral central venous catheter use is complicated by a high risk of deep venous thrombosis despite antithrombotic prophylaxis. Although some have recommended screening for femoral catheter- associated thrombosis to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE), this strategy's economic implications are unclear. Therefore, we used a decision model to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of a Doppler ultrasound-based screening strategy versus no ultrasound in

Christopher E. Cox; Shannon S. Carson; Andrea K. Biddle

2003-01-01

34

Comparison of Antimicrobial Impregnation With Tunneling of Long-term Central Venous Catheters  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to compare the impact of antimicrobial impregnation to that of tunneling of long-term central venous catheters on the rates of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Summary Background Data: Tunneling of catheters constitutes a standard of care for preventing infections associated with long-term vascular access. Although antimicrobial coating of short-term central venous catheters has been demonstrated to protect against catheter-related bloodstream infection, the applicability of this preventive approach to long-term vascular access has not been established. Methods: A prospective, randomized clinical trial in 7 university-affiliated hospitals of adult patients who required a vascular access for ?2 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive a silicone central venous catheter that was either impregnated with minocycline and rifampin or tunneled. The occurrence of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection was determined. Results: Of a total of 351 inserted catheters, 346 (186 antimicrobial-impregnated and 160 tunneled) were analyzed for catheter-related bloodstream infection. Clinical characteristics were comparable in the 2 study groups, but the antimicrobial-impregnated catheters remained in place for a shorter period of time (mean, 30.2 versus 43.8 days). Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were as likely to be colonized as tunneled catheters (7.9 versus 6.3 per 1000 catheter-days). Bloodstream infection was 4 times less likely to originate from antimicrobial-impregnated than from tunneled catheters (0.36 versus 1.43 per 1000 catheter-days). Conclusions: Antimicrobial impregnation of long-term central venous catheters may help obviate the need for tunneling of catheters.

Darouiche, Rabih O.; Berger, David H.; Khardori, Nancy; Robertson, Claudia S.; Wall, Matthew J.; Metzler, Michael H.; Shah, Seema; Mansouri, Mohammad D.; Cerra-Stewart, Colleen; Versalovic, James; Reardon, Michael J.; Raad, Issam I.

2005-01-01

35

Mini-review: Antimicrobial central venous catheters – recent advances and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) nowadays constitute critical devices used in medical care, namely in intensive care units. However, CVCs also represent one of the indwelling medical devices with enhanced risk of nosocomial device-related infection. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, often justifying premature catheter removal and an increase in costs and use of resources.

Cláudia Sousa; Mariana Henriques; Rosário Oliveira

2011-01-01

36

Retention of antibacterial activity and bacterial colonization of antiseptic-bonded central venous catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined how long antiseptic impregnation with silver sulphadiazine and chlorhexidine (SCC) on polyurethane central venous double- or triple-lumen catheters is retained in vivo. A total of 116 antiseptic catheters were tested for antibacterial activity in an in-vitro bioassay after various periods of iv catheterization. Segments from the subcutaneous (sc) and intravenous (iv) portions of the catheters were cultured. The

A. Bach; H. Schmidt; B. Böttiger; B. Schreiber; H. Böhrer; J. Motsch; E. Martin; H. G. Sonntag

1996-01-01

37

Changing concepts in long-term central venous access: Catheter selection and cost savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background And Objectives: Long-term central venous access is becoming an increasingly important component of health care today. Long-term central venous access is important therapeutically for a multitude of reasons, including the administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition. Central venous access can be established in a variety of ways varying from catheters inserted at the bedside to surgically placed

Mark C. Horattas; John Trupiano; Steve Hopkins; Debbie Pasini; Carl Martino; Aparna Murty

2001-01-01

38

Techniques in dosing for thrombolysis of occluded central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Dosing of thrombolytic agents for restoration of flow to thrombotically occluded central venous catheters has been empiric. The lowest effective dose of any agent is not known. Given that none of the dosing regimens in current use has ever been found to be toxic, this is probably not a major clinical problem as long as the regimen is highly effective. Thrombolytic regimens differ in the type of drug, dose of drug, method of administration (injection versus prolonged infusion), and duration of administration. All of these variables are important in determining the efficacy, and possibly the toxicity, of a regimen. Active research is being conducted to determine the most effective ways of using the expanding number of thrombolytic medications that are now, or soon may be, on the market. PMID:11981800

Haire, W D

2001-06-01

39

Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement  

SciTech Connect

Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James [SDI Radiology, Department of Radiology, Saint Joseph's Hospital, 3001 Dr. Martin Luther King Blvd., Tampa, FL 33607 (United States)

2001-03-15

40

Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors and Central Venous Catheter Infections in the Acutely Ill Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic factors and central venous catheter infections in acutely ill patients. Intrinsic factors (inherent) included sex, age, diagnoses, surgical procedures, and medical ...

H. F. Edwards

1991-01-01

41

Impact of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters on in vitro quantitation of catheter-associated bacteria.  

PubMed Central

To assess the impact of the antiseptic effects of silver sulfadiazine-chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheters on catheter culture systems, a series of in vitro experiments was performed. Segments of antiseptic and non-antiseptic-impregnated catheters were sonicated in thioglycolate broth and removed. After the addition of 10(3) CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis per ml, aliquots of catheter-exposed broth were subcultured onto blood agar at 15-min intervals. Decreased mean colony counts were noted at 45 min for broth exposed to antiseptic-impregnated catheters compared with the colony counts for broth exposed to non-antiseptic-impregnated catheters (170 versus 540 CFU/ml). These effects, which were also demonstrated by the roll-plate method, were abrogated by the use of medium containing inhibitors of silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine. To assess the duration of the antiseptic effects, catheter segments were suspended for up to 14 days in phosphate-buffered saline, incubated with 10(6) CFU of S. epidermidis per ml, and cultured. Inhibition of bacterial growth by antiseptic-impregnated catheters disappeared after 14 days. These studies suggest that antiseptic compounds elute from catheters during broth- and solid medium-based culturing processes, making necessary the addition of inhibitors of these compounds in culture media. They further suggest that the antimicrobial effects of antiseptic-impregnated catheters wane within several days of placement.

Schmitt, S K; Knapp, C; Hall, G S; Longworth, D L; McMahon, J T; Washington, J A

1996-01-01

42

Long-term, tunneled, noncuffed central venous catheter in cancer patients (Vygon): safety, efficacy, and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Totally implantable or partially cuffed central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in cancer patients, but they are often expensive and may produce complications. To minimize costs, we have been using a low-cost, partially tunneled, silicone elastomer catheter with no Dacron cuff or antireflux valve (Vygon) since 2001. This study is a retrospective investigation of our experience using the Vygon

Giovanna Masci; Massimo Magagnoli; Vittorio Pedicini; Dario Poretti; Luca Castagna; Carlo Carnaghi; Emanuela Morenghi; Antonietta Del Vecchio; Rita Finotto; Giorgio Brambilla; Armando Santoro

2006-01-01

43

Percutaneous Retrieval of a Central Venous Catheter Sutured to the Wall of the Right Atrium  

SciTech Connect

A transjugular central venous catheter was inadvertently sutured to the wall of the right atrium in a 63-year-old female during coronary bypass surgery. Using two nitinol Goose Neck snares via a transfemoral and a transjugular approach the catheter was severed into two pieces and retrieved percutaneously.

Neuerburg, Joerg-M.; Guenther, Rolf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Chalabi, Khaled [Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Hunter, David [Department of Radiology, Fairview-University Medical Center, 420 Delaware Street S.E., Box 292, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

1999-01-15

44

Investigation of an outbreak of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection due to contaminated water.  

PubMed

An outbreak of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections was reported in a hospital in Ecuador. Commercially produced ampoules of water for injection were found to be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia and Myroides odoratus. Removal of these ampoules yielded a 10-fold reduction in the incidence of catheter-associated infection. PMID:18462150

Douce, Richard W; Zurita, Jeannete; Sanchez, Olga; Cardenas Aldaz, Paul

2008-04-01

45

Central venous catheter infections in pediatric patients — in a community hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We reviewed the records of 23 pediatric patients who had received at least one central venous catheter during a two-year period. Nine patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), nine had other hematologic\\/oncologic diagnoses, and five had cystic fibrosis. Twenty-nine of 65 febrile episodes in 16 patients were associated with a catheter-related infection. Twenty of 40 catheters were associated with

A. Kumar; S. S. Brar; D. L. Murray; Renuka Gera; Roshni Kulkarni; Isabel Leader

1988-01-01

46

Incidence of catheter-related complications in patients with central venous or hemodialysis catheters: a health care claims database analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheter (CVC) and hemodialysis (HD) catheter usage are associated with complications that occur during catheter insertion, dwell period, and removal. This study aims to identify and describe the incidence rates of catheter-related complications in a large patient population in a United States-based health care claims database after CVC or HD catheter placement. Methods Patients in the i3 InVision DataMart® health care claims database with at least 1 CVC or HD catheter insertion claim were categorized into CVC or HD cohorts using diagnostic and procedural codes from the US Renal Data System, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association’s Physician Performance Measures. Catheter-related complications were identified using published diagnostic and procedural codes. Incidence rates (IRs)/1000 catheter-days were calculated for complications including catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), thrombosis, embolism, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding (MB), and mechanical catheter–related complications (MCRCs). Results Thirty percent of the CVC cohort and 54% of the HD cohort had catheter placements lasting <90 days. Catheter-related complications occurred most often during the first 90 days of catheter placement. IRs were highest for CRBSIs in both cohorts (4.0 [95% CI, 3.7-4.3] and 5.1 [95% CI, 4.7-5.6], respectively). Other IRs in CVC and HD cohorts, respectively, were thrombosis, 1.3 and 0.8; MCRCs, 0.6 and 0.7; embolism, 0.4 and 0.5; MB, 0.1 and 0.3; and ICH, 0.1 in both cohorts. Patients with cancer at baseline had significantly higher IRs for CRBSIs and thrombosis than non-cancer patients. CVC or HD catheter–related complications were most frequently seen in patients 16 years or younger. Conclusions The risk of catheter-related complications is highest during the first 90 days of catheter placement in patients with CVCs and HD catheters and in younger patients (?16 years of age) with HD catheters. Data provided in this study can be applied toward improving patient care.

2013-01-01

47

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis in Patients with Chronic Venous Catheters: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Chronic indwelling catheters have been reported to be associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) via the activation of the classical complement pathway in association with bacterial infections such as coagulase negative staphylococcus. We herein provide supporting evidence for the direct causal relationship between chronic catheter infections and MPGN via a case of recurrent MPGN associated with recurrent catheter infections used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in a man with short gut syndrome. We also present a literature review of similar cases and identify common clinical manifestations that may serve to aid clinicians in the early identification of MPGN associated with infected central venous catheterization or vice versa. The importance of routine monitoring of kidney function and urinalysis among patients with chronic central venous catheterization is highlighted as kidney injury may herald or coincide with overtly infected chronic indwelling central venous catheters.

Nast, Cynthia C.; Pham, Phuong-Thu T.; Pham, Phuong-Chi T.

2014-01-01

48

Evaluation of catheter placement in the treatment of venous air embolism.  

PubMed Central

Venous air embolism is a potential complication of many surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic procedures. Aspiration of air via a catheter placed in the superior vena cava or right atrium or placed in the pulmonary outflow tract and pulled through the right heart chambers had been advocated for the treatment of venous air embolism. In this study, three catheter positions were analyzed to determine which was best for removal of gas after induction of massive venous air embolism in dogs. In 18 dogs, 9 of which were suspended by their forelegs to simulate the sitting position used in posterior fossa exploration and 9 of which were supine, a Swan-Ganz catheter was placed in the right atrium, right ventricle, or pulmonary artery. A measured amount of air was injected into the left jugular vein and syringe aspiration of the air was attempted through the catheter. In the group with the catheter in the pulmonary artery, aspiration was continuous while the catheter was withdrawn through the right heart chambers. The amount of air aspirated varied widely among the three catheter positions, and no one catheter position proved superior to the other two.

Sink, J D; Comer, P B; James, P M; Loveland, S R

1976-01-01

49

Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Context: Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) and to identify the factors influencing it. So far, there are very few studies that have been conducted on CRBSI in the intensive care unit in India. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) over a period of 1 year from January to December 2004. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients with indwelling central venous catheters of age group between 20 and 75 years were included. The catheters were cultured using the standard semiquantitative culture (SQC) method. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software. Results: A total of 54 CVC catheters with 319 catheter days were included in this study. Of 54 patients with CVCs studied for bacteriology, 39 (72.22%) catheters showed negative SQCs and also negative blood cultures. A total of 15 (27.77%) catheters were positive on SQC, of which 10 (18.52%) were with catheter-associated infection and four (7.41%) were with catheter-associated bacteremia; the remaining one was a probable catheter-associated bacteremia. CRIs were high among catheters that were kept in situ for more than 3 days and emergency procedures where two or more attempts were required for catheterization (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis of covariance duration of catheter in situ for >3 days, inexperienced venupucturist, more number of attempts and emergency CVC were associated with more incidence of CVCBSIs, with P <0.02. The duration of catheter in situ was negatively correlated (-0.53) and number of attempts required to put CVC was positively correlated (+0.39) with incidence of CVCBSIs. Sixty-five percent of the isolates belonged to the CONS group (13/20). Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum susceptibility to amikacin, doxycycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid and was susceptible to vancomycin (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Escherichia coli was susceptible to amikacin and cefotaxime. Conclusions: The overall incidence of CRI was 27.77% (15/54). Catheter-associated BSIs were 47.31 per 1000 catheter-days. CRI was low in the catheters inserted by the experienced venipuncturists, elective procedure and CVC kept in situ for ?3 days. S. epidermidis was the most common isolate.

Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.; Ramteerthkar, M. N.; Kulkarni, R. D.

2011-01-01

50

Creating and Evaluating a Data-Driven Curriculum for Central Venous Catheter Placement  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheter placement is a common procedure with a high incidence of error. Other fields requiring high reliability have used Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to prioritize quality and safety improvement efforts. Objective To use FMEA in the development of a formal, standardized curriculum for central venous catheter training. Methods We surveyed interns regarding their prior experience with central venous catheter placement. A multidisciplinary team used FMEA to identify high-priority failure modes and to develop online and hands-on training modules to decrease the frequency, diminish the severity, and improve the early detection of these failure modes. We required new interns to complete the modules and tracked their progress using multiple assessments. Results Survey results showed new interns had little prior experience with central venous catheter placement. Using FMEA, we created a curriculum that focused on planning and execution skills and identified 3 priority topics: (1) retained guidewires, which led to training on handling catheters and guidewires; (2) improved needle access, which prompted the development of an ultrasound training module; and (3) catheter-associated bloodstream infections, which were addressed through training on maximum sterile barriers. Each module included assessments that measured progress toward recognition and avoidance of common failure modes. Since introducing this curriculum, the number of retained guidewires has fallen more than 4-fold. Rates of catheter-associated infections have not yet declined, and it will take time before ultrasound training will have a measurable effect. Conclusion The FMEA provided a process for curriculum development. Precise definitions of failure modes for retained guidewires facilitated development of a curriculum that contributed to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of this complication. Although infections and access complications have not yet declined, failure mode identification, curriculum development, and monitored implementation show substantial promise for improving patient safety during placement of central venous catheters.

Duncan, James R.; Henderson, Katherine; Street, Mandie; Richmond, Amy; Klingensmith, Mary; Beta, Elio; Vannucci, Andrea; Murray, David

2010-01-01

51

Association of Hemodialysis Central Venous Catheter Use With Ipsilateral Arteriovenous Vascular Access Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheters are frequently used for hemodialysis vascular access while patients await placement and maturation of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Catheters may cause central vein stenosis, which can adversely affect vascular access outcomes. We compared the vascular access outcomes in patients with a history of ipsilateral and contralateral dialysis catheters. Study design Retrospective analysis of a prospective computerized vascular access database. Setting & Participants Patients at a large medical center who initiated hemodialysis with a catheter and subsequently received a fistula (n=233) or graft (n=89). Predictor History of central venous catheter placement ipsilateral vs. contralateral to the AV fistula or graft. Outcome & Measurements Primary access failure (access never suitable for dialysis) and cumulative access survival (time from successful cannulation until permanent access failure). Results Among patients receiving a fistula, the primary failure rate was similar for those with ipsilateral and contralateral catheters (50 vs 53%; HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.71–1.26; p=0.7), and the time to fistula maturation was similar (101±41 vs 107±39 days, p=0.5). However, the cumulative fistula survival was inferior in patients with ipsilateral catheters (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.33–7.33; p=0.009). Among patients receiving a graft, the primary failure rate was similar for those with ipsilateral and contralateral catheter (35 vs 38%; HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.49–1.73; p=0.8), but the cumulative graft survival tended to be shorter with ipsilateral catheters (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.92–5.38; p=0.07) Limitations Retrospective analysis, single medical center. Conclusions The primary failure rate of fistulas and grafts is not affected by the presence of an ipsilateral catheter. However, cumulative access survival is inferior in patients with prior ipsilateral catheters. Avoidance of ipsilateral catheters may improve long–term vascular access survival.

Shingarev, Roman; Barker-Finkel, Jill; Allon, Michael

2014-01-01

52

Bacteriophage K for reduction of Staphylococcus aureusbiofilm on central venous catheter material  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to determine whether bacteriophage can reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on central venous catheter material. Twenty silicone discs were inoculated for 24 h with broth culture of Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (0.5 McFarland standard). The inoculate was aspirated and discs placed into two equal groups for 24 h: (1) untreated controls; (2) bacteriophage treatment (staphylococcal bacteriophage K, propagated titer > 108). At the completion of the experiment discs were processed for quantitative culture. Statistical testing was performed using the rank sum test. Mean colony forming units (CFU) were significantly decreased in experimental compared with controls (control 6.3 × 105 CFU, experimental 6.7 × 101, P ? 0.0001). Application of bacteriophage to biofilm infected central venous catheter material significantly reduced bacterial colonization and biofilm presence. Our data suggests that bacteriophage treatment may be a feasible strategy for addressing central venous catheter staph aureus biofilm infections.

Lungren, Matthew P; Christensen, Diana; Kankotia, Ravi; Falk, Irene; Paxton, Ben E; Kim, Charles Y

2013-01-01

53

The Efficacy of the Arrow Staple Device for Securing Central Venous Catheters to Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that the force necessary to dis- lodge a central venous catheter from human skin is re- lated to its method of attachment. Specifically, we com- pared the peak axial force and torque required to remove a catheter hub attached to human skin with 2 3-0 silk sutures, 4 0.022-in. staples, or 4 0.025-in. staples. We used

Gregg K. Motonaga; Keith K. Lee; Jeffrey R. Kirsch

2004-01-01

54

Catheter-directed thrombolysis for double inferior vena cava with deep venous thrombosis: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Double inferior vena cava (DIVC) with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is rare, and there is only one reported case of DIVC with DVT treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with an extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a double IVC who received filter implantation and catheter-directed thrombolysis. PMID:23761872

Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhengxin; Cai, Qianrong

2013-05-17

55

Endovascular coiling of an internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm following placement of an internal jugular central venous catheter.  

PubMed

We discuss an interesting case of a right internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm discovered after an attempted right internal jugular venous catheter placement. Such injury to the internal mammary artery is a rare complication of traumatic injuries to the chest, sternotomies, and central venous catheter placements. It has been reported after subclavian line placements, but not after an internal jugular catheterization. PMID:20731269

Kindelan, Joshua; Crandall, Benjamin; Whittaker, David

2010-08-01

56

Extravasation of Parenteral Alimentation Fluid Into the Renal Pelvis — A Complication of Central Venous Catheter in a Neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complications of central venous catheters, which include perforation of the vessel walls and extravasation of the infusate into pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, have been reported. We report an infant with a central venous catheter in inferior vena cava who experienced extravasation of parenteral alimentation fluid into the right renal pelvis secondary to perforation of the renal vein. To

Ali M Nadroo; AM Al-Sowailem

2001-01-01

57

Successful tunneled catheter placement in a hemodialysis patient with idiopathic multiple central venous stenoses.  

PubMed

Central venous stenosis (CVS) in hemodialysis patients could be secondary to central venous catheterization, high flow arteriovenous fistula, as well as extrinsic compression. However, we report a senile hemodialysis patient of left internal jugular vein stenosis and right innominate vein occlusion unrelated to any known risk factors. Aided by computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography, we managed to dilate the stenosis by percutaneous balloon angioplasty, followed by successful tunneled catheter placement. Nephrologists should be aware of idiopathic CVS and its impact on the creation and preservation of vascular access. When confronted with difficulties in catheter placement, practitioners need to consider the possibilities of idiopathic CVS and refer to radiological tests. PMID:23879465

Zhao, Yuliang; Cui, Tianlei; Yu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping; Zhou, Li; Li, Xiao

2014-01-01

58

Pulmonary venous atrial obstruction after the Senning procedure: relief by catheter balloon dilatation.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary venous atrial stenosis developed after a modified Senning procedure in an infant with transposition of the great arteries. The pulmonary venous atrium was surgically revised, but the obstruction recurred. The stenosis was then enlarged by percutaneous balloon catheter dilatation. There was an immediate haemodynamic and echocardiographic improvement. Clinical and echocardiographic improvement persisted nine months after dilatation. The procedure was complicated by staphylococcal endarteritis. Images

Coulson, J D; Jennings, R B; Johnson, D H

1990-01-01

59

Control of Hepatic Venous Bleeding by Transvenous Balloon Catheter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective control of the hepatic veins to prevent hemorrhage and air embolism has been accomplished in dogs by inflation of a transvenous double lumen balloon catheter placed in the retrohepatic vena cava. Concomitant aortic occulsion and rapid infusion o...

D. B. Doty I. R. Berman

1970-01-01

60

Successful catheter-directed venous thrombolysis in an ankylosing spondylitis patient with phlegmasia cerulea dolens.  

PubMed

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is a severe form of deep vein thrombosis characterized by swelling, pain, and bluish discoloration. Treatment delay may cause venous gangrene, tissue ischemia, limb loss or death. Here, we present an AS case who presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens and treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis. PMID:24046784

Rokni Yazdi, Hadi; Rostami, Nematollah; Hakimian, Homa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

2013-06-01

61

Successful Catheter-Directed Venous Thrombolysis in an Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient with Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens  

PubMed Central

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is a severe form of deep vein thrombosis characterized by swelling, pain, and bluish discoloration. Treatment delay may cause venous gangrene, tissue ischemia, limb loss or death. Here, we present an AS case who presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens and treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis.

Rokni Yazdi, Hadi; Rostami, Nematollah; Hakimian, Homa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

2013-01-01

62

Comparative In Vitro Efficacies and Antimicrobial Durabilities of Novel Antimicrobial Central Venous Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacies and durability of novel antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVCs) in preventing the adherence of microbial organisms to the surfaces of the CVCs. Novel antimicrobial CVCs investigated in this in vitro study were impregnated with antibiotics (minocycline and rifampin), with Oligon agent (silver, platinum, and carbon black), with approved antiseptics (chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine), or with a

Hend Hanna; Paul Bahna; Ruth Reitzel; Tanya Dvorak; Gassan Chaiban; Ray Hachem; Issam Raad

2006-01-01

63

Managing central venous catheters: a prospective randomised trial of two methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised, prospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact on central venous catheter (CVC) infection when fluids and lines connected to a CVC were changed using a 'sterile’ compared to an ’aseptic, non–touch’ technique. The study sought to determine whether there were any differences in CVC tip colonisation (CTC) or CVC-related bacteraemia (CRB) as a result of the technique

Kelvin A Larwood; Chris M Anstey; Sandra V Dunn

2000-01-01

64

Long-term indwelling silastic central venous catheters: clinical audit leading to improved surgical technique.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective audit of the surgical insertion and clinical outcome of silastic venous catheters on our Haematology Unit was performed for the period 1985 to 1988. Twenty-three (58%) of the 40 lines had complications, and analysis showed that many were due to problems related to the surgical technique used. This altered our clinical practice, and over a 12 month period (January 1989 to January 1990) 26 central venous catheters have been placed in 24 patients by a dedicated surgical team using a standardized, altered technique. This has been to place all catheters via the right internal jugular vein and to confirm line position by on-table radiographic screening. A significant improvement in results is presented.

Dennis, M J; Hunter, A E; Ryan, J J

1990-01-01

65

Embolization of a fractured central venous catheter placed using the internal jugular approach  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Fracture and embolization of central venous catheters placed via the subclavian approach is well recognized, but fractured catheters placed via the internal jugular vein are extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 65-year-old man presented with a catheter embolus after placement of a central venous port using the internal jugular approach undertaken to administer adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer with lung metastases. Goose neck and conformational loop snares were successfully used to percutaneously retrieve the severed catheter, which had migrated to the right ventricle. DISCUSSION Catheter fracture may occur even after placement via the internal jugular approach and may be underestimated because it is often asymptomatic. Interventional radiology techniques using goose-neck and conformational loop snares may be useful to retract an intravascular foreign body. CONCLUSION Imaging studies such as a chest X-ray are mandatory to check that the catheter tip is in the appropriate position during the entire follow-up period even if it was placed through the internal jugular vein.

Shimizu, Atsushi; Lefor, Alan; Nakata, Manabu; Mitsuhashi, Umehachi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

2014-01-01

66

Transbrachial Access for Radiologic Manipulation of Problematic Central Venous Catheters in a Pediatric Population  

SciTech Connect

A transfemoral venous approach is the current standard for accessing malpositioned and fractured central venous catheters (CVCs). The purpose of this study was (1) to describe a transbrachial approach for correction and (2) to assess the success and failure of this method in a pediatric population. A 12-year retrospective review of all patients referred for correction of malpositioned, retained, and fractured CVCs was conducted. Based on the performing interventionalist's preference, transbrachial or transfemoral venous sheaths where placed under ultrasonographic guidance. Diagnostic angiographic catheters and snares were used to manipulate the catheters. Patients who underwent the transfemoral approach received postprocedural monitoring for 4 hours, whereas patients who underwent the transbrachial approach were allowed unrestricted activity immediately after hemostasis was obtained. Technical success of malpositioned lines was defined (1) by final position in the superior vena cava or at the cavoatrial junction on postprocedural imaging or (2) by successful removal of retained catheter fragments, if present. Transbrachial approach was used for access in 11 patients. Problematic lines included malpositioned (n = 10) and retained (n = 1) lines. The ipsilateral arm was used for transbrachial entry in 7 patients. Initial use of angiographic catheters was attempted in 7 cases, of which 4 were successful. All 3 unsuccessful cases had tips positioned in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein, and these were successfully repositioned using snares. A combination of snares and angiographic catheters was used in 2 cases. Snares were used for all other cases. Technical success by way of the transbrachial approach was observed in all cases. Periprocedural follow-up demonstrated no immediate complications. We conclude that the transbrachial approach is a suitable alternative to the transfemoral approach for catheter tip position correction. Tip malposition in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein suggests higher rate of conversion to use of snare devices.

Rao, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep.rao@osumc.edu; Hogan, Mark J. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

2010-08-15

67

Catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We performed a meta-analysis for systematic evaluation of the status quo of catheter thrombolysis for the treatment of acute lower limb deep vein thrombosis in China. We searched the China Biomedical bibliographic database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Weipu full-text electronic journals, Wanfang full-text database, and Medline (1990 through June 2011) for clinical randomized controlled trials of catheter-directed thrombolysis and superficial venous thrombolysis to compare their efficacies for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis. The results were analyzed by using the Cochrane-recommended RevMan 4.2 software package, and the odds ratio (OR) was used as the combined measure of efficacy. The search retrieved 8 randomized controlled trials, and meta-analysis using the total rate of effective treatment as the clinical observation index found that the combined OR for the catheter thrombolysis group versus the superficial venous thrombolysis group was significant (P < 0.01; OR = 11.78; 95% confidence interval = 6.99-19.87). In conclusion, the meta-analysis indicated that catheter thrombolysis was more effective than superficial venous thrombolysis for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis in the lower limb in Chinese individuals. However, the included trials were only of medium quality, so more rational and scientific clinical trials are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:25078578

Zheng, J J; Zhang, Z H; Shan, Z; Wang, W J; Li, X X; Wang, S M; Li, Y-X; Cheng, G-S

2014-01-01

68

Do central venous catheters have advantages over arteriovenous fistulas or grafts?  

PubMed

Central venous accesses have become an integral component of vascular access procedures for hemodialysis. Although the DOQI guidelines recommend that less than 10% of chronic hemodialysis patients should be maintained on catheters, in some countries higher prevalences are reported, as in the United States and the United Kingdom (18% and 24%, respectively, according to the DOPPS). The native arteriovenous fistulas are still the best suited accesses for hemodialysis. However, this option is impractical in many situations, so that several justifiable reasons exist for protracted dialysis catheter use; these include the catheter as a bridge angioaccess device, while the patient is awaiting living-related kidney donor transplantation or maturation of an autologous fistula or graft or, increasingly, as the permanent vascular access for patients with unsuitable vascular anatomy who have exhausted all other options. Moreover, the surgical creation of an AVF is felt to be impossible or at least seems to entail significant risks in situations of high output cardiac failure, myocardial ischaemic events and steal syndrome. In these cases, the dialysis access catheter brings considerable advantages, but it also carries tremendous drawbacks. In addition to the increased risk of luminal thrombosis, infection, unreliable blood flows, central venous stenosis, shorter use life and patient cosmetic concern, tunneled catheters are associated with an increased risk of death. Tunnellization, exit site protection, antibiotic-coated or antiseptic-impregnated hemodialysis catheters, antibiotic lock solutions could be helpful in preventing and treating catheter-related bacteremias. Moreover, the development of a subcutaneous port, that is durable, offers a high blood flow and is fully implantable subcutaneously, may become an alternative for chronic use. In our 10-year experience we implanted in our center over 450 central venous catheters with a satisfactory survival (86% at 1 year and 79% at 2 years for the subcutaneous port). In a matched comparison between Tesio twin catheters and Dialock ports (37 vs. 35, respectively), followed for a 2 year period, no significant differences emerged as regards bacteremia incidence, 0.58/1,000 catheter-days in the Tesio catheter group vs. 0.9/1000 catheter-days in the subcutaneous port group, p=0.12; thrombolytic agents needed, 4.5% vs 4.3% of dialysis sessions; or access failure with removal of the device, 8.1% vs 14.2%, p=0.4. The longer duration of antibiotic therapy in the Tesio group (24.6 vs 14.3 days, p=0.006) was due to the higher incidence of cutaneous infectious episodes (3.8 vs 0.16/1,000 catheter-days). In conclusion, although central venous catheter is the vascular access of last choice, in particular cases it can be a useful alternative, provided that strict protocols for nursing care and proper catheter management are implemented in every center. PMID:16874685

Quarello, Francesco; Forneris, Giacomo; Borca, Marco; Pozzato, Marco

2006-01-01

69

Subclavian venous thrombosis due to indwelling catheters: a prospective study on 52 patients.  

PubMed

Clinical occurrence of subclavian venous thrombosis due to indwelling catheters is rare, but there is some evidence that subclinical thrombosis frequently occurs. It is purpose of this study to report the results of a prospective investigation in patients with subclavian vein catheters. Fifty-two patients admitted to the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan and candidate to infraclavicular percutaneous catheterization of the subclavian vein were evaluated. There were 26 polyvinyl chloride and 26 rubber silicone catheters, which were correctly positioned in the superior vena cava-atrium. Average duration of the intravenous stay was 12.8 days. Asymptomatic thrombosis was venographically demonstrated in 46.1% of the polyvinyl chloride catheters and in 11.5% of the silicone ones (p = 0.005). The average age of catheters with or without thrombosis was 10.8 and 13.8 days, respectively. Addition of heparin to the infusate (1 U/ml) did not reduce the thrombosis rate in polyvinyl chloride or in silicone catheters, but risk of thrombosis was significantly higher (p = 0.03) in polyvinyl chloride catheters without heparin in comparison to the silicone ones. Osmolarity of the infusional fluid, manipulation during the cannulation, colonization of the catheter tip, and duration of the intravenous stay of the catheter apparently did not influence the rate of thrombosis. Since the natural history of the thrombotic subclavian veins is not known, some caution must be paid to repeat the percutaneous cannulation of the same vein and the change the catheter over a guidewire. PMID:6418913

Bozzetti, F; Scarpa, D; Terno, G; Scotti, A; Ammatuna, M; Bonalumi, M G; Ceglia, E

1983-01-01

70

Catheter venography and endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder characterized by damage to the myelin sheath insulation of nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord affecting nerve impulses which can lead to numerous physical and cognitive disabilities. The disease, which affects over 500,000 people in the United States alone, is widely believed to be an autoimmune condition potentially triggered by an antecedant event such as a viral infection, environmental factors, a genetic defect or a combination of each. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a condition characterized by abnormal venous drainage from the central nervous system that has been theorized to have a possible role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology of MS (1). A significant amount of attention has been given to this theory as a possible explanation for the etiology of symptoms related to MS patients suffering from this disease. The work of Dr. Zamboni, et al, who reported that treating the venous stenoses causing CCSVI with angioplasty resulting in significant improvement in the symptoms and quality of life of patients with MS (2) has led to further interest in this theory and potential treatment. The article presented describes endovascular techniques employed to diagnose and treat patients with MS and CCSVI. PMID:22640501

Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Keating, Lawrence; Vachon, Jason; Siskin, Gary P

2012-06-01

71

Do dressings with increased permeability reduce the incidence of central venous catheter related sepsis?  

PubMed

The incidence of catheter-related sepsis associated-with the use of Tegaderm or Opsite IV3000 dressings on 100 critically ill patients with liver disease was studied. All the patients had central venous catheters in situ and they were randomly assigned to one of the two dressings. In this study the sites of insertion were assessed at each dressing change, together with any fluid under the dressing. No statistically significant difference between the two dressings was found in accumulation of fluid, skin microbial colonization, local infection or systemic infection of patients in our sample. There was no apparent advantage to using the more permeable Opsite IV3000 dressing. PMID:9095879

Reynolds, M G; Tebbs, S E; Elliott, T S

1997-02-01

72

A Randomized Trial Comparing Long-term and Short-term Use of Umbilical Venous Catheters in Premature Infants With Birth Weights of Less Than 1251 Grams  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Umbilical vein and percutaneous central venous catheters are often used in preterm infants, but they can lead to complications, including infection. OBJECTIVE. We hypothesized that long-term umbilical vein catheter use would result in fewer infections than short-term umbilical vein catheter use followed by per- cutaneous central venous catheter placement. DESIGN\\/METHODS. Infants 1250 g with umbilical vein catheters placed at

Meggan Butler-O; Carol J. Buzzard; Linda Reubens; Michael P. McDermott; William DiGrazio; Carl T. D'Angio

2010-01-01

73

Guidewire-Related Complications during Central Venous Catheter Placement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Seldinger's technique is widely used to place central venous and arterial catheters and is generally considered safe. The technique does have multiple potential risks. Guidewire-related complications are rare but potentially serious. We describe a case of a lost guidewire during central venous catheter insertion followed by a review of the literature of this topic. Measures which can be taken to prevent such complications are explained in detail as well as recommended steps to remedy errors should they occur.

Khasawneh, Faisal A.; Smalligan, Roger D.

2011-01-01

74

Radiographic mislead: apparent arterial placement of subclavian central venous catheter due to mediastinal shift.  

PubMed

Optimal placement of central venous catheters (CVC) is essential for accurate monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP) in major surgeries and ensuring long-term use of the catheter for managing the critically ill patient. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization is one of the most serious complications of the procedure. Radiography is commonly used to ensure optimal placement of CVC tip and rule out subclavian artery catheterization in the absence of Doppler ultrasound and a pressure transducer. We present a case of a haemodynamically unstable and hypoxaemic patient with mediastinal shift, in which the anaesthesiologist was in a dilemma about the arterial placement of the right subclavian CVC. The CVC crossing the midline due to mediastinal shift gave the false impression of it being placed in subclavian artery rather than the vein. Subsequently, it was proved to be correctly placed in the subclavian vein. PMID:24700905

Mathew, Shaji; Goyal, Kush; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Kumar, Arun; Abdulsamad, Amjad

2014-01-01

75

Complications Associated With Surgically Placed Central Venous Catheters In Low Birth Weight Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of complications in low birth weight neonates with surgically inserted central venous catheters (CVCs).STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective chart review of all neonates ? 1500-gm birth weight from three tertiary care neonatal intensive care units who required CVC insertion.RESULTS:A total of 112 CVCs was inserted in 104 neonates with birth weight of 798 (490 to 1380) gm, age 16

Paresh B Pandit; Florence A Pandit; Jairaj Govan; Karel O’Brien; Paresh B. Pandit MB MRCP

1999-01-01

76

Interventional therapies for venous thromboembolism: vena caval interruption, surgical embolectomy, and catheter-directed interventions.  

PubMed

Therapeutic strategies other than anticoagulation sometimes require consideration in the setting of acute venous thromboembolism. Vena caval filter placement is increasingly common, in part because of the availability of nonpermanent filter devices. Filter placement, surgical embolectomy, and catheter embolectomy have not been subjected to the same prospective, randomized clinical trial scrutiny as anticoagulation but seem appropriate in certain clinical settings. The indications, contraindications, and available data supporting these therapeutic methods are discussed. PMID:21047582

Tapson, Victor F

2010-12-01

77

Diagnosis of thrombosis by catheter phlebography after prolonged central venous catheterization.  

PubMed Central

Sixty central venous catheterizations in 53 patients were prospectively studied with respect to phlebographic findings after prolonged parenteral nutrition. Phlebography was performed by a special technique on completion of the intravenous therapy. Under fluoroscopic control, the central venous catheter was slowly removed, while simultaneously contrast medium was continuously injected through it. Two types of thrombosis were demonstrated--sleeve thrombosis, on 25 occasions (42%), and mural veno-occlusive thrombosis, on five occasions (8%). On removal of the catheter the sleeve thrombosis peeled off the catheter and in several cases it was noticed that parts of the sleeve thrombus or the entire sleeve became detached and were carried away with the blood flow. Although the sleeve thrombus seldom gave rise to any symptoms, this type of thrombosis is of great importance in view of the risk of pulmonary embolism, especially in connection with removal of the catheter. With use of the described phlebographic technique thrombi of this type can be visualized. Images Fig. 1A. Fig. 1B. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Brismar, B; Hardstedt, C; Jacobson, S

1981-01-01

78

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Three Different Central Venous Catheters Against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of three different catheters against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and the slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 (RP62A). Three central venous catheters were evaluated: one impregnated with silver sulfadiazine–chlorhexidine,\\u000a one to which minocycline\\/rifampin is bonded and a novel one into which silver, platinum and carbon are incorporated. A nonantiseptic\\u000a catheter

K. Yorganci; C. Krepel; J. Weigelt; C. Edmiston

2002-01-01

79

Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: an analysis of incidence and risk factors in a cohort of 400 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the incidence of central catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) and to compare patient and catheter\\u000a characteristics of those with and without CR-BSI from a clinically suspected subgroup. Secondly, to assess the efficacy of\\u000a the acridine orange leucocyte cytospin test (AOLC) as a rapid in situ method of detecting central venous catheter (CVC) infection.\\u000a Design: One-year prospective audit. Setting:

J. R. Gowardman; C. Montgomery; S. Thirlwell; J. Shewan; A. Idema; P. D. Larsen; J. H. Havill

1998-01-01

80

An evaluation of Groshong central venous catheters on a gynecologic oncology service.  

PubMed

One hundred ten women with gynecologic malignancies underwent 116 subclavian vein Groshong catheter insertions at the bedside under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Three (2.6%) additional patients had unsuccessful insertions because of an inability to access the subclavian vein or thread the guidewire. Fluoroscopy was not used. There was one delayed pneumothorax and no insertion-related infections. The 111 single-lumen catheters used primarily for the administration of chemotherapy are the subject of this report. The mean age of patients was 60 (range 13 to 89) years and their average Gynecologic Oncology Group performance score was 1.1 (range, 0 to 3). Diagnoses include 74 ovarian, 19 cervical, 13 uterine, and 5 other gynecologic malignancies. Hyperalimentation was administered in 16 (14%) patients. Grade IV neutropenia occurred in 57 (51%) patients and 44 (40%) received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during therapy. The average lifespan of catheters was 247 (range, 37 to 703) days, and 39 (35%) women died from disease with their catheter in situ at a mean time of 288 days. Thirty-seven (33%) catheters were removed after completion of chemotherapy at an average time of 239 (range, 78 to 448) days. As of 1/1/94, 22 patients continued to use their catheters at a mean of 313 (range, 182 to 509) days. The remaining 13 (11.7%) catheters were removed due to complications (7 episodes of bacteremia, 3 tunnel infections, 2 catheter migration/thromboses, and 1 catheter laceration). Twenty episodes of fever in 17 (15.3%) patients were evaluated with blood cultures in the absence of a tunnel infection. None of the 10 culture negative cases resulted in catheter removal, whereas 7 of 10 patients with bacteremia had catheters removed. Exit site infections occurred in 23 (21%) patients and were resolved with local measures and oral antibiotics. The risk of exit site cellulitis was 3.3% per month. When compared to placement of permanent central venous access devices at our institution in the operating room or radiology suite, bedside placement of Groshong catheters resulted in a savings of $1448 and $231 per case, respectively. PMID:7896188

Holloway, R W; Orr, J W

1995-02-01

81

[Sterile film as a barrier method in central venous catheter placement].  

PubMed

Sepsis related to central venous catheter (CVC) is an important reason of nosocomial infection in which most of the causal microorganisms are originated in the patient's skin. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of a sterile film as a method of antimicrobial barrier in the placement of CVC. We have studied the infection incidence and the number of days of the catheter placement in two groups, one experimental group in which the CVC was inserted through a sterile adherent film and another group in which the CVC was inserted according to the current hospital protocol. This is a randomized experimental quantitative study in the setting of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Bellvitge University Hospital. Our study sample was made up of 100 critical patients. The effectiveness of this film was measured by controlling the infection incidence in the different groups, using a point of insertion smear, culture of the catheter tip and blood cultures after withdrawal. The results were interpreted according to the criteria of the ICACC (Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy). A decrease of the percentage of positive smears (12.3%), positive tops of catheter (6.1%) and bacteriemia related to the catheter (8.9%) with the use of the barrier method has been demonstrated. We conclude that using the polyethylene hypoallergenic sterile adherent film is an effective antimicrobial barrier method in insertion of the CVC. PMID:18358117

Izquierdo Fuentes, M T; Justel García, R; Moral Quintana, C; García Pastor, E; Mora Muñiz, V; Martínez Estalella, G

2008-01-01

82

Randomized, controlled trial of amoxicillin prophylaxis for prevention of catheter-related infections in newborn infants with central venous silicone elastomer catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To clarify the effectiveness of amoxicillin prophylaxis in the prevention of catheter-related infections. Method: We performed a randomized, controlled, sequential, prospective trial in newborn infants undergoing percutaneous central venous catheterization. Results: Seventy-five infants (median birth weight, 1240 gm; median age at catheter insertion, 3 days) received prophylactic amoxicillin (100 mg\\/kg per day); 73 infants in the control group (median

Karsten Harms; Egbert Herting; Martina Kron; Holger Schiffmann; Heide Schulz-Ehlbeck

1995-01-01

83

Evaluation of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters for the prevention of bloodstream infection in leukaemic patients: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that central venous catheters impregnated with antiseptics such as chlohexidine and silver-sulfadiazine reduce the risk of catheter-related bacteraemia in intensive care patients. Patients suffering from haematologic malignancy treated by chemotherapy through a central venous catheter are at even greater sisk of catheter-related bacteraemia. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in order to investigate the

C. Logghe; Ch. Van Ossel; W. D'Hoore; H. Ezzedine; G. Wauters; J. J. Haxhe

1997-01-01

84

Intensivist supervision of resident-placed central venous catheters decreases the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections  

PubMed Central

Catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) cause significant morbidity and mortality. A retrospective study of a performance improvement project in our teaching hospital's surgical intensive care unit (SICU) showed that intensivist supervision was important in reinforcing maximal sterile barriers (MSB) use during the placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the prevention of CRBSI. A historical control period, 1 January 2001–31 December 2003, was established for comparison. From 1 January 2003–31 December 2007, MSB use for central venous line placement was mandated for all operators. However, in 2003 there was no intensivist supervision of CVC placements in the SICU. The use of MSB alone did not cause a significant change in the CRBSI rate in the first year of the project, but close supervision by an intensivist in years 2004–2007, in conjunction with MSB use, demonstrated a significant drop in the CRBSI rate when compared to the years before intensivist supervision (2001–2003), p < .0001. A time series analysis comparing monthly rates of CRBSI (2001–2007) also revealed a significant downward trend, p = .028. Additionally, in the first year of the mandated MSB use (2003), 85 independently observed resident-placed CVCs demonstrated that breaks in sterile technique (34/85), as compared those placements that had no breaks in technique (51/85), had more CRBSI, 6/34 (17.6%) vs. 1/51 (1.9%), p < .01. Interventions to reduce CRBSI in our SICU needed emphasis on adequate supervision of trainees in CVC placement, in addition to use of MSB, to effect lower CRBSI rates.

Papadimos, Thomas J; Hensely, Sandra J; Duggan, Joan M; Hofmann, James P; Khuder, Sadik A; Borst, Marilyn J; Fath, John J

2008-01-01

85

Are central venous catheter tip cultures reliable after 6-day refrigeration?  

PubMed

Present guidelines recommend culturing only central venous catheter (CVC) tips from patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, a high proportion of these suspicions are not confirmed. Moreover, CVC tip culture increases laboratory workload, and reports of colonization may be meaningless or misleading for the clinician. Our working hypothesis was that CVC tips should be refrigerated and cultured only in patients with positive blood cultures. We evaluated the effect of 6-day refrigeration of 215 CVC tips. We selected all the catheters with a significant count according to the Maki's roll-plate technique and randomly assigned them to 2 groups. In group A, the catheters were recultured after 24 h of refrigeration, and in group B, the catheters were recultured after 6 days more of refrigeration, so that the refrigeration time evaluated would be of 6 days. The yield of refrigerated CVC tips that grow significant colony counts of primary culture in group B was compared with the yield of refrigerated catheter tips in group A. The difference showed that 6-day refrigeration reduced the number of significant CVCs by 15.2%. Only 61 CVCs were obtained from patients with CR-BSI, and in most of them, blood cultures were already positive before CVC culture, so only 0.91% of the CR-BSI episodes would have been misdiagnosed as culture negative after refrigeration. Refrigeration of CVC tips sent for culture and culturing only those from patients with positive blood cultures reduce the workload in the microbiology laboratory without misdiagnosing CR-BSI. PMID:19501790

Bouza, Emilio; Guembe, Maria; Gómez, Haydee; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Rivera, Marisa; Alcalá, Luis

2009-07-01

86

Low Cardiac Output Secondary to a Malpositioned Umbilical Venous Catheter: Value of Targeted Neonatal Echocardiography  

PubMed Central

Systemic hypotension is common in very low birthweight preterm infants but the nature of the precipitating cause may be unclear. Targeted neonatal echocardiography (TnEcho) is being increasingly used to support hemodynamic decisions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), including identifying impairments in the transitional circulation of preterm infants, providing timely re-evaluation after institution of therapies and evaluating the placement of indwelling catheters. We present a case of a preterm infant with systemic hypotension and low cardiac output secondary to a large transatrial shunt induced by a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter. Repositioning of the line led to resolution of the hemodynamic disturbance and clinical instability, highlighting the utility of TnEcho in the NICU.

Weisz, Dany E.; Poon, Wei Bing; James, Andrew; McNamara, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

87

Effective use of alteplase for occluded tunneled venous catheter in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Despite their propensity for significant infectious and mechanical complications, tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) have become a common means of vascular access in the world for patients requiring chronic hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. The objective of this study was to explore if cryopreserved solutions of the thrombolytic agent alteplase could be used as an effective, safe, and economically reasonable alternative in hemodialysis patients with occluded tunneled CVC. Patients requiring chronic hemodialysis and presenting with occluded tunneled CVC received a sufficient volume of the alteplase solution to fill the occluded catheter. To make alteplase economically feasible, it was diluted to 1-mg/mL aliquots and they were stored at -20°C until use. Eighty-one patients accounting for 179 attempted clearances were assessable for efficacy. One hundred forty-seven (82.1%) of the 179 catheter clearance attempts resulted in successful catheter clearance after one dose. Twenty-seven (15.1%) of all occluded CVCs were successful after two doses whereas five (2.8%) were not. No adverse events were reported. Cryopreserved 1-mg/mL aliquots of alteplase are safe and effective in the clearance of occluded CVC for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24117542

Mendes, Marcela L; Castro, João H; Silva, Tricya N; Barretti, Pasqual; Ponce, Daniela

2014-05-01

88

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated microorganisms from central venous catheters in ICU patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The abundance of infections associated with intensive care unit (ICU) is increasing due to the increased use of aggressive medical equipments like the central venous catheter (CVC). This study was designed and performed in 2010-2011 at Alzahra hospital, which is a referral center. This study aimed at determining the relative abundance and microbial sensitivity of organisms, which were creating contamination with CVCs in hospitalized patients in the ICUs of Alzahra hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed on 71 patients who were hospitalized in the Alzahra hospital ICU and had CVCs during 2010-2011. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS version 20 software and descriptive statistical approaches and chi-square and t-test trials. Results: In the sample culture obtained from the patients’ catheter in 19 cases (26/8%), no microorganism was grown and in 52 cases (73.3%) at least one type of microorganism including bacteria or fungus was grown. In this study, average hospitalization time in patients who got positive results from their catheter culture was significantly more compared with patients who did not grow any kinds of microorganism in their sample cultures. Conclusion: In this study, CVCs microbial contamination has a high prevalence, which is a major cause of prolonged patients staying in ICUs, and therefore, it is essential to take precaution and discharge the patient early for decreasing the catheter contamination and preventing the hospital infections incidence in the ICU patients.

Khorvash, Farzin; Abbasi, Saeed; Meidani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Mehrnoosh

2014-01-01

89

Management of complications related to central venous catheters in cancer patients: an update.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important for the treatment of patients with cancer, especially in the perioperative and palliative care settings. These devices not only allow for the administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and other intravenous therapies, but they may also improve the patients' quality of life by reducing the need for repeated peripheral venipunctures. Thrombotic and infectious complications are common, especially in the long-term use of CVCs. There are different types of thrombotic complications associated with CVCs, that is, a thrombotic occlusion of the catheter, a mural thrombus at the catheter tip and classical deep vein thrombosis, which occurs most frequently in the upper extremity where the majority of long-term catheters are inserted. Infections are common complications associated with CVCs. Patients with cancer who receive intensive chemotherapy and those patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a markedly increased risk for insertion site and bloodstream infections. In this review, the epidemiology and risk factors that predispose patients to CVC-related thrombosis and infection are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the published data and the current guidelines are summarized and data for establishing primary and secondary preventative strategies are provided. PMID:24595880

Linnemann, Birgit

2014-04-01

90

Intraperitoneal extravasation of total parental nutrition infusate from an umbilical venous catheter.  

PubMed

A preterm male infant who had an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) in situ for infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) subsequently developed abdominal distension. He was initially diagnosed to have necrotising enterocolitis. However, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis yielded fluid which biochemical analysis found to be consistent with TPN. TPN is often infused through a UVC, in the first few days of life, for the nutritional support of a premature infant. Various complications have been reported to be associated with this path of delivery, one of which will be illustrated in this case report. PMID:18301823

Shareena, I; Khu, Y S; Cheah, F C

2008-02-01

91

Incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in hematological patients.  

PubMed

Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered. PMID:24293091

Joks, Monika; Czy?, Anna; Pop?awski, Dariusz; Komarnicki, Mieczys?aw

2014-01-01

92

Guidelines for the prevention of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections with prostanoid therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Intravenous prostanoids are the backbone of therapy for advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and have improved long-term outcome and quality of life. Currently, two prostanoids are approved by the US Food and Drug administration for parenteral administration: epoprostenol (Flolan) and treprostinil (Remodulin). Chronic intravenous therapy presents considerable challenges for patients and caregivers who must learn sterile preparation of the medication, operation of the pump, and care of the central venous catheter. Patients are routinely counseled and advised regarding the risks of CR-BSIs and catheter care before central line insertion. Central line infections as well as bacteremia are well documented risks of chronic intravenous therapy and may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports have suggested a possible increase in CR-BSI; therefore, the Scientific Leadership Council of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association decided to provide guidelines for good clinical practice regarding catheter care. Although data exits regarding patients with central venous catheters and the risk of blood stream infections in patients with cancer or other disorders, there is little data regarding the special needs of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension requiring central venous access. These guidelines are extrapolated from the diverse body of literature regarding central venous catheter care.

Doran, A. K.; Ivy, D. D.; Barst, R. J.; Hill, N.; Murali, S.; Benza, R. L.

2011-01-01

93

[Case of large vein perforation caused by pumping using central venous catheter revealed by postoperative CT].  

PubMed

A 72-year-old woman, 157 cm in height and weighing 45 kg, was scheduled for emergency surgery for acute abdomen suggestive of gastrointestinal perforation. During the procedure, a triluminal central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted via the left internal jugular vein; venous blood could be aspirated separately through its lumens. On attempting blood transfusion, we noticed that the opening of one the CVC lumen tips was blocked and blood pumping was thus performed to achieve rapid transfusion. Colostomy was then performed and the transverse colon resection surgery was completed. Postoperative CT revealed right-sided hemothorax, a mediastinal hematoma located in the anterior region, and extravascular findings of CVC. The CT findings suggested a perforation of the left internal jugular vein due to the catheter tip. In the present case, the intraoperative pumping performed to enable rapid blood transfusion was believed to have caused blood vessel perforation. After the intraoperative blood vessel perforation, the condition may have been aggravated by steroid use, amyloidosis, and blood vessel fragility, ultimately presenting the extravascular findings observed on CT. We thus believe that in cases where CVC is inserted via the left internal jugular vein, blood pumping in particular is believed to be dangerous. Although the risks of blood vessel perforation when using CVC are relatively low, the possibility of unexpected complications should be borne in mind. PMID:22111365

Kajiyama, Seiji; Migita, Takako; Saeki, Noboru; Kawamoto, Masashi

2011-10-01

94

To reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections: Is the subclavian route better than the jugular route for central venous catheterization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important targets of hospital-acquired infection control are to reduce the incidence of surgical-site, catheter-related,\\u000a and ventilator-associated infections. In this report, we address previously presented infection-control strategies for central\\u000a venous (CV) line catheterization, using a CV catheter-related infection surveillance system. Data concerning CV catheter insertion\\u000a were collected from all facilities in our 650-bed hospital, excluding the operating and hemodialysis

Goro Nagashima; Toshiki Kikuchi; Hitomi Tsuyuzaki; Rumiko Kawano; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Hiroshi Nemoto; Kazumi Taguchi; Kazuhisa Ugajin

2006-01-01

95

Total Parenteral Nutrition Is a Major Risk Factor for Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Postoperative Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CVCR-BSI) in patients receiving chemotherapy after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: CVCR-BSI was evaluated retrospectively from a database of patients who had received postoperative chemotherapy using central venous catheters (CVC). Results: One hundred and nine patients received 542 CVC for a total of 5,558 catheter-days. There were

M. Ishizuka; H. Nagata; K. Takagi; K. Kubota

2008-01-01

96

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Heparin Versus Placebo Infusion to Prolong the Usability of Peripherally Placed Percutaneous Central Venous Catheters (PCVCs) in Neonates: The HIP (Heparin Infusion for PCVC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Mechanical and infectious complications shorten the effective duration of peripherally inserted central venous catheters. Heparin use to prevent such complications and prolong the usability of peripherally inserted central venous catheters is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of heparin in prolonging the usability of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in neonates. DESIGN\\/METHODS. We performed a multicenter,

Prakesh S. Shah; Angela Kalyn; Prakash Satodia; Michael S. Dunn; Boriana Parvez; Alan Daneman; Shia Salem; Phyllis Glanc; Arne Ohlsson; Vibhuti Shah

2010-01-01

97

Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Cancer With Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: A Retrospective Analysis of Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are often used in place of mediport catheters because of cost and lack of operating room time and to prevent delays in therapy. One common complication associated with their use is upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT). The purpose of this study was to ascertain risk factors associated with an increased risk of PICC-associated UEVT in patients with cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis identified 237 patients with cancer who received PICCs at the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 2006 to 2009. We analyzed many risk factors, including PICC infection (PI), use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), antiplatelet agents (APAs), treatment dose anticoagulation (TDA), and bevacizumab. Results: Of 237 patients, 36 (15%) were found to have UEVT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed risk factors positively associated with UEVT were use of ESAs (odds ratio [OR], 10.66; 95% CI, 2.25 to 50.49), hospitalization (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.05 to 5.39), PI (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.86), and TDA (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.98 to 23.33), whereas patients receiving APAs had a lower risk of UEVT (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.92). Conclusion: Specific factors significantly increase the risk of UEVT in patients with cancer with PICCs, whereas use of APAs seems to have a protective effect against UEVT. These results may aid in the development of a predictive model for identifying patients at high risk of UEVT who may benefit from APAs, as well as in determining preventive strategies for reducing the risk of PICC-associated UEVT.

Ahn, Daniel H.; Illum, Henrik Bo; Wang, David H.; Sharma, Anant; Dowell, Jonathan E.

2013-01-01

98

Risk Factors for Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) To characterize the epidemiology and identify risk factors for complications necessitating removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children. Design Cohort study Setting The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Hospitalized children who had a PICC inserted outside of the neonatal ICU between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2009. Main Exposures Age, PICC dwell time, PICC insertion site, PICC tip location, pediatric ICU exposure, indication for PICC insertion Outcome Measures Complications necessitating PICC removal as recorded by the PICC Team. Results During the study period, 2574 PICCs were placed in 1807 children. Complications necessitating catheter removal occurred in 20.8% of PICCs during 46,021 catheter days (11.6 complications per 1,000 catheter days). These included accidental dislodgement (4.6%), infection (4.3%), occlusion (3.6%), local infiltration (3.0%), leakage (1.5%), breaks (1.4%), phlebitis (1.2%) and thrombosis (0.5%). From 2003 to 2009 complications decreased by 15% per year (IRR 0.85; 95%CI 0.81-0.89). In adjusted analysis, all non-central PICC tip locations - midline (IRR 4.59, 95% CI 3.69-5.69), mid-clavicular (IRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.54-2.98), and other (IRR 3.26 95% CI 1.72-6.15) - compared to central tip location were associated with an increased risk of complications. Pediatric ICU exposure and age less than one year old were independently associated with complications necessitating PICC removal. Conclusion(s) Non-central PICC tip locations, younger age, and pediatric ICU exposure were independent risk factors for complications necessitating PICC removal. Despite reductions in PICC complications, further efforts are needed to prevent PICC-associated complications in children.

Jumani, Ketan; Advani, Sonali; Reich, Nicholas G.; Gosey, Leslie; Milstone, Aaron M.

2012-01-01

99

Hospital-Wide Multidisciplinary, Multimodal Intervention Programme to Reduce Central Venous Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is the major complication of central venous catheters (CVC). The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a hospital-wide strategy on CLABSI reduction. Between 2008 and 2011, all CVCs were observed individually and hospital-wide at a large university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital. CVC insertion training started from the 3rd quarter and a total of 146 physicians employed or newly entering the hospital were trained in simulator workshops. CVC care started from quarter 7 and a total of 1274 nurses were trained by their supervisors using a web-based, modular, e-learning programme. The study included 3952 patients with 6353 CVCs accumulating 61,366 catheter-days. Hospital-wide, 106 patients had 114 CLABSIs with a cumulative incidence of 1.79 infections per 100 catheters. We observed a significant quarterly reduction of the incidence density (incidence rate ratios [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.88–0.96]; P<0.001) after adjusting for multiple confounders. The incidence densities (n/1000 catheter-days) in the first and last study year were 2.3/1000 and 0.7/1000 hospital-wide, 1.7/1000 and 0.4/1000 in the intensive care units, and 2.7/1000 and 0.9/1000 in non-intensive care settings, respectively. Median time-to-infection was 15 days (Interquartile range, 8-22). Our findings suggest that clinically relevant reduction of hospital-wide CLABSI was reached with a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and multimodal quality improvement programme including aspects of behavioural change and key principles of good implementation practice. This is one of the first multimodal, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide training strategies successfully reducing CLABSI.

Zingg, Walter; Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Touveneau, Sylvie; Theriault, Michel; Gayet-Ageron, Angele; Clergue, Francois; Pittet, Didier; Walder, Bernhard

2014-01-01

100

Hospital-wide multidisciplinary, multimodal intervention programme to reduce central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection.  

PubMed

Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is the major complication of central venous catheters (CVC). The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a hospital-wide strategy on CLABSI reduction. Between 2008 and 2011, all CVCs were observed individually and hospital-wide at a large university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital. CVC insertion training started from the 3rd quarter and a total of 146 physicians employed or newly entering the hospital were trained in simulator workshops. CVC care started from quarter 7 and a total of 1274 nurses were trained by their supervisors using a web-based, modular, e-learning programme. The study included 3952 patients with 6353 CVCs accumulating 61,366 catheter-days. Hospital-wide, 106 patients had 114 CLABSIs with a cumulative incidence of 1.79 infections per 100 catheters. We observed a significant quarterly reduction of the incidence density (incidence rate ratios [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.88-0.96]; P<0.001) after adjusting for multiple confounders. The incidence densities (n/1000 catheter-days) in the first and last study year were 2.3/1000 and 0.7/1000 hospital-wide, 1.7/1000 and 0.4/1000 in the intensive care units, and 2.7/1000 and 0.9/1000 in non-intensive care settings, respectively. Median time-to-infection was 15 days (Interquartile range, 8-22). Our findings suggest that clinically relevant reduction of hospital-wide CLABSI was reached with a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and multimodal quality improvement programme including aspects of behavioural change and key principles of good implementation practice. This is one of the first multimodal, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide training strategies successfully reducing CLABSI. PMID:24714418

Zingg, Walter; Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Touveneau, Sylvie; Theriault, Michel; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Clergue, François; Pittet, Didier; Walder, Bernhard

2014-01-01

101

Computed Tomography-Guided Central Venous Catheter Placement in a Patient with Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-year-old man with a gastrointestinal hypomotility syndrome required lifelong parenteral nutrition. Both the superior and inferior vena cava were occluded. Computed tomography guidance was used to place a long-term central venous catheter via a large tributary to the azygos vein.

Maria A. Rivero; Dennis W. W. Shaw; Robert T. Jr. Schaller

1999-01-01

102

Central venous catheterization in infants and children with congenital heart diseases: Experiences with 500 consecutive catheter placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study results of central venous catheter (CVC) placements in a consecutive group of 500 patients with less than 20 kg body weight undergoing cardiac surgery were evaluated. The incidence of previous cardiac surgery was 21% and the incidence of factors preventing the primary puncture of the right jugular or innominate vein was 13.4%. The anesthesiologists were free

Peter Mitto; Andreas Barankay; Paul Späth; Regula Kunkel; Josef A. Richter

1992-01-01

103

Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these

R. Murga; J. M. Miller; R. M. Donlan

2001-01-01

104

Fibrin sheath removal from central venous catheters: an internal snare manoeuvre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Dysfunction of haemodialysis catheters is most commonly due to a narrowing of the catheter lumen and\\/or formation of a fibrin sheath around the catheter tip. Reported methods for restoring patency of the catheter lumen include passage of a J-tipped guide wire, passage of a biopsy brush through the catheter, or infusion of a thrombolytic agent into the catheter. While

Arra S. Reddy; Elvira V. Lang; Jennifer Cutts; Shaun Loh; Max P. Rosen

105

Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?  

PubMed

Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation. PMID:24347530

Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

2014-02-01

106

Risk Factors for Umbilical Venous Catheter-Associated Thrombosis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombosis in neonates is a rare but serious occurrence, usually associated with central catheterization. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with catheter related thrombosis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Procedure The present retrospective study was performed using data from a randomized trial of duration of umbilical venous catheters (UVC) placement among infants <1250 g birth weight. Twenty-two cases of UVC-associated thrombosis were identified in this sample. The remaining study sample (n=188) served as the comparison group. Data on thrombosis, platelets, gestational age, birth weight, hematocrit, serum sodium, maternal preeclampsia, blood group, infant of diabetic mother and demographic factors were collected using database and record review. Results Among the total subjects (n=210), 112 (53%) were males and 126 (60%) were Caucasians, with mean gestational age of 27.7 ± 2.1 weeks (standard deviation) and mean birth weight of 923 ± 195 grams. Bivariate analysis revealed significant association of thrombosis with hematocrit >55% in the first week (odds ratio [OR] 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-14.6; p=0.0003), being small for gestational age (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.4; p=0.02) and maternal preeclampsia (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.6-9.84; p=0.0017). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only hematocrit >55% was independently associated with thrombus (OR, 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-11.8; p=0.03). Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant, independent association between elevated hematocrit and development of UVC-associated thrombosis. Careful monitoring for catheter-associated thrombosis may be indicated in VLBW infants who have hematocrit >55% in the first week of life.

Narang, Shalu; Roy, Jason; Stevens, Timothy P.; Butler-O'Hara, Meggan; Mullen, Craig A.

2008-01-01

107

Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. Methods/Design The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. Discussion The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094

2014-01-01

108

Catheter Related Bloodstream Infection (CR-BSI) in ICU Patients: Making the Decision to Remove or Not to Remove the Central Venous Catheter  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 150 million central venous catheters (CVC) are used each year in the United States. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are one of the most important complications of the central venous catheters (CVCs). Our objective was to compare the in-hospital mortality when the catheter is removed or not removed in patients with CR-BSI. Methods We reviewed all episodes of CR-BSI that occurred in our intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2000 to December 2008. The standard method was defined as a patient with a CVC and at least one positive blood culture obtained from a peripheral vein and a positive semi quantitative (>15 CFU) culture of a catheter segment from where the same organism was isolated. The conservative method was defined as a patient with a CVC and at least one positive blood culture obtained from a peripheral vein and one of the following: (1) differential time period of CVC culture versus peripheral culture positivity of more than 2 hours, or (2) simultaneous quantitative blood culture with 5?1 ratio (CVC versus peripheral). Results 53 CR-BSI (37 diagnosed by the standard method and 16 by the conservative method) were diagnosed during the study period. There was a no statistically significant difference in the in-hospital mortality for the standard versus the conservative method (57% vs. 75%, p?=?0.208) in ICU patients. Conclusion In our study there was a no statistically significant difference between the standard and conservative methods in-hospital mortality.

Deliberato, Rodrigo Octavio; Marra, Alexandre R.; Correa, Thiago Domingos; Martino, Marines Dalla Vale; Correa, Luci; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavao; Edmond, Michael B.

2012-01-01

109

Use of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter as a Conduit for Central Venous Access Across Thrombosed Great Veins  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

Guntur Ramkumar, Prasad, E-mail: prasad.guntur@nhs.net; Chakraverty, Sam, E-mail: schakraverty@nhs.net; Zealley, Ian, E-mail: ian.zealley@nhs.ne [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, NHS Tayside (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

110

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities  

SciTech Connect

Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002-2007) of patients (n = 30) with DVT in the upper extremities. PTS was assessed by a modified Villalta scale. UEDVT was unprovoked in 11 (37%) cases and effort related in 9 (30%) cases. The median duration of symptoms prior to CDT was 7.0 days (range, 1-30); median duration of thrombolysis treatment, 70 h (range, 24-264 h); and the median amount of rt-PA infused during CDT, 52 mg (range, 19-225 mg). Major bleeding was registered in three (9%) patients, and CDT was stopped prematurely in three patients due to local hematoma. No intracerebral bleeding, clinical pulmonary embolism, or deaths occurred during treatment. Grade II (>50%) or III (>90%) lysis was present in 29 patients (97%) at the end of CDT. Bleeding complications increased by each day of delay from the debut of symptoms to the start of treatment (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42). At follow-up (n = 29; median, 21 months; range, 5-58 months), 11 (38%) patients had occluded veins, whereas 18 (62%) had patent veins. However, stenosis of varying severity was present in eight of those with a patent vein. No patients had severe PTS, whereas six (21%) experienced mild PTS. In conclusion, our retrospective cohort study of patients with UEDVT showed that treatment restored venous drainage, with a subsequent low frequency of mild PTS at follow-up. Early intervention with CDT prevented bleeding complications.

Vik, Anders, E-mail: anders.vik@unn.n [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Medicine (Norway); Holme, Pal Andre [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Division of Haematology, Medical Department (Norway); Singh, Kulbir [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology (Norway); Dorenberg, Eric [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Norway); Nordhus, Kare Christian; Kumar, Satish [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology (Norway); Hansen, John-Bjarne [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Medicine (Norway)

2009-09-15

111

Central venous catheter-related infections in children on long-term home parenteral nutrition: incidence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: This study aimed to assess the incidence and etiology of central venous catheter (CVC) infections in children on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Methods: 207 CVC-years were studied retrospectively in 47 children on HPN, aged 8.1±5.0 years. Results: 125 CVC were used (means: 2.6 CVC\\/patient and 21 months utilization\\/CVC). Half of the hospitalizations (162) were due to proven

V. COLOMB; M. FABEIRO; M. DABBAS; O. GOULET; J. MERCKX; C. RICOUR

2000-01-01

112

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous.

2013-01-01

113

Peripherally inserted central venous catheters: frequency of complications in premature newborn depends on the insertion site.  

PubMed

Objective:The use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC lines) has reduced the mortality and morbidity of premature newborns. The usual sites of insertion are the veins in the upper arms but other locations are being used as well.Study Design:To examine whether using the axillary vein as a site of insertion of a PICC line affects the frequency of complications. Our study has a clinical trial design. A total of 62 neonates that had a PICC line inserted were recruited and randomly divided equally in two groups: in Group A (mean birth weight, standard deviation (s.d.)=1353 (142)?g), the PICC line was inserted through the axillary vein, and in Group B (birth weight=1308 (112)?g), the PICC line was inserted in other sites further from the axillary vein. The outcomes measured were the total PICC line-related complications, the reason for removing the catheter, the number of total attempts until successful insertion and the mean duration of stay of the catheter. The likelihood of having an adverse outcome was assessed with Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR).Results:Premature neonates with axillary PICC lines were 12 times less likely to have line-related complications (inflammation, blockage, edema, infection) as compared with any other site of insertion (OR= 95%, confidence interval (CI)=0.10 (0.01 to 0.8)) and they were seven times more likely to have the PICC line removed because they achieved full enteral nutrition as compared with the other causes (OR 95%, confidence interval (CI)=10.35 (4.88 to 21.96)). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the number of attempts until successful PICC line insertion (P=0.667) and the mean duration of stay of the PICC line (P=0.97).Conclusion:The use of the axillary vein as a site of insertion of a PICC line was correlated with significantly less complications in premature newborns as opposed to the other sites of insertion. PMID:24625519

Panagiotounakou, P; Antonogeorgos, G; Gounari, E; Papadakis, S; Labadaridis, J; Gounaris, A K

2014-06-01

114

Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal) and internal (luminal) side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods improves the detection of microorganisms involved in central catheter-related infections. The importance of these microorganisms needs to be investigated further, also in relation to contamination risk from improper catheter handling, as only in vivo contaminants are of interest. This information can be used for development of fast and more reliable diagnostic tools, which can be used in combination with traditional methods.

Larsen, Mette KS; Thomsen, Trine R; Moser, Claus; H?iby, Niels; Nielsen, Per H

2008-01-01

115

Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging  

PubMed Central

The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC), indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins) yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

Colombo, Alberto; Maccari, Giuseppe; Congiu, Terenzio; Basso, Petra; Baj, Andreina; Toniolo, Antonio

2013-01-01

116

Effects of dexmedetomidine on procedural pain and discomfort associated with central venous catheter insertion  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion induces pain and discomfort to a conscious patient despite application of a local anaesthetic (LA) field block and this pain can be greatly lessened by using additional analgesics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine along with LA field infiltration in controlling pain and discomfort associated with CVC insertion. Methods: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 54 patients scheduled for planned CVC insertion was undertaken. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups of 27 each, to receive either dexmedetomidine (1 ?g/kg) or 0.9% normal saline, along with LA field infiltration. Pain and discomfort score was measured at 5 time points. Results: The median pain score was worst for placebo group at local anaesthetic injection (6 [4-7]) and at the end of procedure (5 [4-5]), which was significantly attenuated in the dexmedetomidine group (4 [4-5] and 4 [3-5]; P = 0.007 and 0.040 respectively). The lower procedure related discomfort score in the immediate post-procedural period was statistically significant in dexmedetomidine group compared to placebo (4 [4-5] vs. 5 [4-6]; P = 0.008). Conclusions: Pre-procedural bolus dexmedetomidine infusion provides adequate analgesia and patient comfort for CVC insertion along LA field block. However, the tendency for excessive sedation and bradycardia associated with dexmedetomidine render it less desirable for this purpose.

Samantaray, Aloka

2014-01-01

117

Prophylactic Administration of Doxycycline Reduces Central Venous Catheter Infections in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells are generally transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC), which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed a high rate of CVC infections at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) unit. Accordingly, we evaluated the impact of administration of doxycycline as a prophylactic strategy to reduce CVC infection rates. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 who received doxycycline (doxycycline group), and we compared their outcomes to a previous cohort of 28 subjects who did not receive doxycycline (comparison group). The groups were comparable in regards to age, gender, transplant type, and CD34 cell dose. No (0%) CVC infection was observed in the doxycycline group, while 5 infection episodes (18%) occurred in 4 patients in the comparison group (p<0.001). Isolated organisms included: Escherichia-coli (EC)=1, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus-spp (CNSS)=2, both EC & CNSS=1. Notwithstanding the non-randomized comparative nature of our study, results suggest that CVC infection rate was reduced significantly after adding doxycycline for prophylaxis. A randomized controlled study is warranted to confirm these findings.

Baydoun, Mohamed; Otrock, Zaher K.; Okaily, Samar; Nehme, Rita; Abu-Chahine, Racha; Hamdan, Ali; Noureddine, Samar; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.

2013-01-01

118

A Rare Case of Jejunal Arterio-Venous Fistula: Treatment with Superselective Catheter Embolization with a Tracker-18 Catheter and Microcoils  

SciTech Connect

Arterio-venous fistulas may develop spontaneously, following trauma or infection, or be iatrogenic in nature. We present a rare case of a jejunal arterio- venous fistula in a 35-year-old man with a history of pancreatic head resection that had been performed two years previously because of chronic pancreatitis. The patient was admitted with acute upper abdominal pain, vomiting and an abdominal machinery-type bruit. The diagnosis of a jejunal arterio-venous fistula was established by MR imaging. Transfemoral angiography was performed to assess the possibility of catheter embolization. The angiographic study revealed a small aneurysm of the third jejunal artery, abnormal early filling of dilated jejunal veins and marked filling of the slightly dilated portal vein (13-14 mm). We considered the presence of segmental portal hypertension. The patient was treated with coil embolization in the same angiographic session. This case report demonstrates the importance of auscultation of the abdomen in the initial clinical examination. MR imaging and color Doppler ultrasound are excellent noninvasive tools in establishing the diagnosis. The role of interventional radiological techniques in the treatment of early portal hypertension secondary to jejunal arterio-venous fistula is discussed at a time when this condition is still asymptomatic. A review of the current literature is included.

Sonnenschein, Martin J., E-mail: martin.sonnenschein@insel.ch; Anderson, Suzanne E.; Lourens, Steven; Triller, Juergen [University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

2004-11-15

119

Ultraviolet-C Irradiation for Prevention of Central Venous Catheter Related Infections: An In-vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters (CVC) are widely used in the United States and are associated with 250,000 to 500,000 CVC-related infections in hospitals annually. We used a catheter made from ultraviolet-C (UVC) transmissive material to test whether delivery of UVC from the lumen would allow inactivation of microorganisms on the outer surface of CVC. When the catheter was exposed to UVC irradiation from a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) inside the catheter lumen at a radiant exposure of 3.6 mJ/cm2, more than 6-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria adhered to the outer surface of the catheter were inactivated. Three to 7-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and 2.8 log10 of fungi were inactivated at a radiant exposure of 11 mJ/cm2. UVC irradiation also offered a highly selective inactivation of bacteria over keratinocytes under exactly comparable conditions. After 11 mJ/cm2 UVC light had been delivered, over 6 log10 of bacteria were inactivated while the viability loss of the keratinocytes was only about 57%.

Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Anderson, Don; Sinofsky, Ed; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

120

Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer: a randomized controlled open-labelled trial of taurolidine versus heparin.  

PubMed

Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was 0.1 per 1000 catheter-days using taurolidine and 0.9 per 1000 catheter-days using heparin (p = 0.03). This randomized trial confirmed that the use of taurolidine as catheter-lock compared with heparin reduced the rate of CRBSIs; this reduction was not related to a reduction in the intraluminal biofilm formation and the rate of bacterial colonization detected by scanning electron microscopy in the two groups. PMID:22958287

Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

2012-10-01

121

Prevention of infections caused by central venous catheters-established and novel measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Intravascular catheters play an important role in infections in intensive care and hemodialysis patients. This becomes evident\\u000a only if full microbiological diagnoses are made. Difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of microbially colonized catheters\\u000a make the prevention of infection particularly important. The most important preventive measures are a strict evaluation of\\u000a the indications for the use of the catheter and

A. Bach

1999-01-01

122

Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection and colonisation of insertion site and catheter tip. What are the rates and risk factors in haematology patients?  

PubMed

Skin colonisation is an important source for central venous catheter (CVC) colonisation and infection. This study intended to identify risk factors for skin colonisation prior to CVC placement (baseline colonisation) and within 10 days after CVC insertion (subsequent colonisation), for CVC-tip colonisation and for bloodstream infection (BSI). Within a randomised clinical trial, data of 219 patients with haematological malignancies and inserted CVC (with a total of 5,501 CVC-days and 4,275 days at risk) in two university hospitals were analysed. Quantitative skin cultures were obtained from the insertion site before CVC placement and at regular intervals afterwards. CVC-tip cultures were taken on CVC removal and data collection was performed. Statistical analysis included linear and logistic regression models. Age was an independent risk factor for colonisation prior to CVC placement (baseline colonisation). Independent risk factors for subsequent colonisation were baseline colonisation and male gender. High level of subsequent skin colonisation at the insertion site was a predictor of CVC-tip colonisation, and a predictor of BSI. High level of skin colonisation predicts catheter tip colonisation and possibly subsequent infection. Sustained reduction of bacterial growth at the CVC insertion site is therefore indispensable. Male patients are at particular risk for skin colonisation and may be a target population for additional insertion-site care before and during catheterisation. PMID:20532506

Luft, Dirk; Schmoor, Claudia; Wilson, Christine; Widmer, Andreas F; Bertz, Hartmut; Frei, Reno; Heim, Dominik; Dettenkofer, Markus

2010-12-01

123

Bilateral Pneumothoraces in a Pediatric Patient Undergoing Hickman Catheter Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

se of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA; Laryn- geal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, UK) in adults and children is widespread in the field of anesthesia. LMA provides an excellent airway in individuals not requiring the placement of a tracheal tube. Complications arising from the use of the LMA are typically mild and correctable, although more se- rious complications have been described.

G. Brent Shulman; Neil Roy Connelly

2002-01-01

124

Skin disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride for central venous catheter site care: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

To compare the efficacy of two commercially available, alcohol-based antiseptic solutions for preparation and care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites, with and without octenidine dihydrochloride, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken in the haematology units and in one surgical unit of two university hospitals. Adult patients with a non-tunnelled CVC were randomly assigned to two different skin disinfection regimens at the insertion site: 0.1% octenidine with 30% 1-propanol and 45% 2-propanol, and as control 74% ethanol with 10% 2-propanol. Endpoints were (i) skin colonization at the insertion site; (ii) positive culture from the catheter tip (> or = 15 CFU); and (iii) occurrence of CVC-associated bloodstream infection (defined according to criteria set by the CDC). Four hundred patients with inserted CVC were enrolled from May 2002 through April 2005. Both groups were similar in respect of patient characteristics and co-morbidities. Skin colonization at the CVC insertion site during the first 10 days was significantly reduced by octenidine treatment (relative difference octenidine vs. control: 0.21; 95%CI: 0.11-0.39, p <0.0001). Positive culture of the catheter tip was significantly less frequent in the octenidine group (7.9%) than in the control group (17.8%): OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.20-0.80, p 0.009). Patients treated with octenidine had a non-significant reduction in catheter-associated bloodstream infections (4.1% vs. 8.3%; OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.18-1.08, p 0.081). Side effects were similar in both groups. This randomized controlled trial supports the results of two observational studies demonstrating octenidine in alcoholic solution to be a better option than alcohol alone for the prevention of CVC-associated infections. PMID:19686276

Dettenkofer, M; Wilson, C; Gratwohl, A; Schmoor, C; Bertz, H; Frei, R; Heim, D; Luft, D; Schulz, S; Widmer, A F

2010-06-01

125

Cardiac tamponade due to umbilical venous catheter in the new born  

PubMed Central

With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade following umbilical venous catheterisation in a neonate, an uncommon, yet potentially fatal complication. The patient was diagnosed at the appropriate time by echocardiography and urgent pericardiocentesis proved lifesaving.

Abdellatif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashfag; Alsenaidi, Khalfan

2012-01-01

126

Evidence-Based EducationThe Use of a DVD to Educate Parents on the Care of a Central Venous Catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 5 million central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year, which results in more than 200 000 nosocomial blood stream infections. Many of these infections are attributed to improper placement or substandard care of the CVC. Limiting the number of infections with proper training will improve a child’s quality of life and outcome. Children and their caregivers need

Danielle K. Sebbens; Judith Kaufmann; Kristen L. Straka; Patricia R. Houck

2009-01-01

127

[Inferior vena cava thrombosis reaching the right atrium after removal of the central venous catheter at femoral vein in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis].  

PubMed

A 19-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis. A central venous catheter for fluid loading and insulin administration was inserted from the right femoral vein. The catheter was placed for 4days and was removal. Three days after removal thrombus was pointed out with echocardiography. Cardiac ultrasound revealed floating thrombi in the right atrium. Venography demonstrated a large thrombus from the right femoral vein to the end of the inferior vena cava. Emergency surgery was performed. A tubular thrombus was trapped from the inferior vena cava departure at the right atrium under cardiopulmonary bypass. The surgeon also implanted an inferior vena caval filter. The patient was weaned from ventilator assist next day and was discharged from the hospital 13 days later. This case suggests that deep vein thrombosis should be checked in diabetic ketoacidosis even after removal of a central venous catheter implanted at the femoral vein. PMID:24864582

Morita, Yoko; Ariyama, Jun; Mieda, Tsutomu; Terao, Kazuhisa; Ueshima, Hironobu; Imanishi, Hirokazu; Kitamura, Akira

2014-05-01

128

A time and motion study of peripheral venous catheter flushing practice using manually prepared and prefilled flush syringes.  

PubMed

Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the simplest and most frequently used method for drug, fluid, and blood product administration in the hospital setting. It is estimated that up to 90% of patients in acute care hospitals require a PVC; however, PVCs are associated with inherent complications, which can be mechanical or infectious. There have been a range of strategies to prevent or reduce PVC-related complications that include optimizing patency through the use of flushing. Little is known about the current status of flushing practice. This observational study quantified preparation and administration time and identified adherence to principles of Aseptic Non-Touch Technique and organizational protocol on PVC flushing by using both manually prepared and prefilled syringes. PMID:24583939

Keogh, Samantha; Marsh, Nicole; Higgins, Niall; Davies, Karen; Rickard, Claire

2014-01-01

129

Micrococcus-Associated Central Venous Catheter Infection in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: To determine the incidence of catheter-related infection in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) receiving epoprostenol (EPO), and to note an etiologic role for Micrococcus spp, which is rarely reported as a pathogen in the medical literature. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two PAH specialty treatment centers, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (Torrance, CA), and the College of Physicians and Surgeons,

Ronald J. Oudiz; Allison Widlitz; X. Joy Beckmann; Daisy Camanga; Jose Alfie; Bruce H. Brundage; Robyn J. Barst

2004-01-01

130

Lymphocutaneous Fistula As a Long-Term Complication of Multiple Central Venous Catheter Placement  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a lymphocutaneous fistula in a 19-month-old boy who had been a premature neonate, born in the 23rd week of gestation. The fistula, an apparent complication of central venous line placement during the patient's first 5 months of life, was composed of a distinct lymphatic vessel bundle in the right supraclavicular region, with its exit point at the posterior aspect of the right shoulder. The drainage ceased imme-diately after resection and repair of a 1-cm obstruction in the superior vena cava.

Scharff, Robert P.; Recto, Michael R.; Austin, Erle H.; Wilkerson, Shirley A.

2000-01-01

131

Linezolid Compared with Eperezolid, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin in an In Vitro Model of Antimicrobial Lock Therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis Central Venous Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified

John Curtin; Martin Cormican; Gerard Fleming; John Keelehan; Emer Colleran

2003-01-01

132

Falsely elevated cyclosporin and tacrolimus concentrations over prolonged periods of time due to reversible adsorption to central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Falsely elevated concentrations of immunosuppressants can be caused by reversible adsorption to central venous catheter (CVC) systems. If undetected, this may lead to dose reduction resulting in underdosage which may even entail graft-versus-host disease or organ rejection. We analyzed the adsorption and release for cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) in vitro and in vivo. Four types of CVCs were examined in vitro: two made from polyurethane (PU), one from silicone and one from PU with an incorporated silver ion-based antimicrobial agent. All 26 CVCs analyzed in vitro showed significant reversible adsorption of CsA (n=13; p=0.001) and Tac (n=13; p=0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Immediately after infusing the drugs, the mean concentrations of 6420ng/mL of CsA and 250ng/mL of Tac were measured. Flushing with NaCl lowered the drug release. Besides, blood samples of fifteen patients were taken simultaneously from all lumina of the CVC and via venipuncture. The samples from contaminated lumina showed the mean elevations by a factor of 11 for CsA (n=12) and 89 for Tac (n=3). Blood sampling for immunosuppressant monitoring should thus never be performed from lumina previously used for infusing the drug even after prolonged periods of time and extensive rinsing. PMID:24631133

Hacker, Charlotte; Verbeek, Mareike; Schneider, Heike; Steimer, Werner

2014-06-10

133

Early and late complications related to central venous catheters in hematological malignancies: a retrospective analysis of 1102 patients.  

PubMed

Several severe complications may be associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVC). We retrospectively evaluated on a large cohort of patients the incidence of CVC-related early and late complications. From 7/99 to 12/2005, 1102 CVC have been implanted at our Institution in 881 patients with hematological malignancies (142,202 total day number of implanted CVC). Early mechanic complications were 79 (7.2% - 0.55/1,000 days/CVC). Thirty-nine episodes of early infective complications (<1 week from CVC implant) occurred (3.5% - 0.3/1000 days/CVC): furthermore, 187 episodes of CVC-related sepsis (17% - 1.3/1000 days/CVC) were recorded. There were 29 episodes (2.6%) of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications, with a median interval from CVC implant of 60 days (range 7 - 395). The rate of CVC withdrawal due to CVC-related complications was 26%. The incidence of CVC-related complications in our series is in the range reported in the literature notwithstanding cytopenia often coexisting in hematological patients. PMID:24678388

Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Coppola, Lorenzo; Latagliata, Roberto; Berneschi, Paola; Chistolini, Antonio; Micozzi, Alessandra; Girmenia, Corrado; Breccia, Massimo; Brunetti, Gregorio; Massaro, Fulvio; Rosa, Giovanni; Guerrisi, Pietro; Mandelli, Franco; Foà, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

134

Dyslipidemia is associated with tunneled-cuffed catheter-related central venous thrombosis in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective, multicenter study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors of tunneled-cuffed catheter (TCC)-related central venous thrombosis (CVT) for the maintenance of hemodialysis patients. In this study, 285 patients on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled who had received their first TCC in the right jugular vein. Patients were divided into CVT and control groups according to the diagnosis of TCC-related CVT 6 months after catheterization. Patients with CVT had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (50.74 vs. 26.85%, respectively) and low protein store compared with the control group. After adjusting for confounders, serum triglycerides (OR: 3.632; 95% CI: 2.105-6.267), non-HDL cholesterol (OR: 1.463; 95% CI:1.067-2.007), and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) cholesterol ratio (OR: 2.904; 95% CI: 1.797-4.692) were positively correlated with TCC-related CVT, while serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.097; 95% CI: 0.037-0.257) and serum albumin (OR: 0.922; 95% CI: 0.864-0.985) were negatively correlated. Dyslipidemia and low serum albumin levels were significantly associated with TCC-related CVT in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23634689

Cheng, Yuan; Cui, Tianlei; Fu, Ping; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Li

2013-08-01

135

"Scrub the hub": cleaning duration and reduction in bacterial load on central venous catheters.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study on the effect of alcohol disinfection duration on bacterial load on catheter hubs. Three different levels of disinfection (3, 10, and 15 seconds) were analyzed as well as a positive and negative control. All hubs with the exception of the negative controls were contaminated with a 10 bacterial solution and allowed to dry for 24 hours. Through each hub, 1 mL of sterile saline was flushed; a 10-?L calibrated loop was used to plate the flush onto blood agar. Colony counts were performed on the plates after a 24-hour incubation period. Results revealed that the 3 different levels of disinfection duration were not found to differ significantly in reduction in bacterial load. The duration of disinfection did not significantly change the bacterial load on the hub. However, any disinfection duration significantly decreased the bacterial load as compared to the positive control. A larger study would likely detect a significant result among the disinfections. PMID:21160298

Simmons, Sarah; Bryson, Celestina; Porter, Susan

2011-01-01

136

The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of suspected central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis by guide wire exchange (GWX) is not recommended. However, GWX for new antimicrobial surface treated (AST) triple lumen CVCs has never been studied. We aimed to compare the microbiological outcome of triple lumen AST CVCs inserted by GWX (GWX-CVCs) with newly inserted triple lumen AST CVCs (NI-CVCs). Methods We studied a cohort of 145 consecutive patients with GWX-CVCs and contemporaneous site-matched control cohort of 163 patients with NI-CVCs in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Results GWX-CVC and NI-CVC patients were similar for mean age (58.7 vs. 62.2 years), gender (88 (60.7%) vs. 98 (60.5%) male) and illness severity on admission (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III: 71.3 vs. 72.2). However, GWX patients had longer median ICU lengths of stay (12.2 vs. 4.4 days; P < 0.001) and median hospital lengths of stay (30.7 vs. 18.0 days; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the number of CVC tips with bacterial or fungal pathogen colonization among GWX-CVCs vs. NI-CVCs (5 (2.5%) vs. 6 (7.4%); P = 0.90). Catheter-associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) occurred in 2 (1.4%) GWX patients compared with 3 (1.8%) NI-CVC patients (P = 0.75). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (35 (24.1%) vs. 48 (29.4%); P = 0.29). Conclusions GWX-CVCs and NI-CVCs had similar rates of tip colonization at removal, CA-BSI and mortality. If the CVC removed by GWX is colonized, a new CVC must then be inserted at another site. In selected ICU patients at higher central vein puncture risk receiving AST CVCs GWX may be an acceptable initial approach to line insertion.

2013-01-01

137

Prevention and treatment of central venous catheter sepsis by exchange via a guidewire. A prospective controlled trial.  

PubMed

A new approach for preventing and treating sepsis due to central venous catheter (CVC) has been devised at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. A prospective protocol has been developed that includes the weekly exchange of the CVC via a guidewire as well as its exchange when a CVC-related sepsis is suspected. Growth of microorganisms on the tip of the CVC is defined as contamination if peripheral blood culture is negative and as sepsis if it is positive for the same microorganism. Colonization simply means growth of microorganism independently of the results of peripheral blood culture. Two hundred seven CVCs (64 polyvinyl chloride and 143 rubber silicone) were evaluated in 62 patients, for a total of 170 exchanges. The incidence of colonization and sepsis was 33.8% and 4.8%, respectively, a rate which is not significantly different from the values found in 81 historical controls (30.8% and 11.1%). However, it is noteworthy that the sepsis rate was reduced strongly during the first month of observation (0% vs. 11.9%; p = 0.01), whereas in the second month, it was similar in both groups (15% vs. 7.1%). Moreover, it should be noted that three-fourths of the colonized CVCs became negative after the first exchange, and virtually all were negative at the fourth exchange. All of the episodes of sepsis resolved spontaneously with the CVC exchange. The study, therefore, concludes that this procedure: 1) is without risk for CVC cross contamination, 2) is effective in the treatment of contaminated CVCs and of septic patients without any interruption of total parenteral nutrition, and 3) can reduce the incidence of CVC sepsis during the first month of total parenteral nutrition. One must be cautious about the possible onset of pulmonary embolism in patients with subclavian venous thrombosis, since a transient pulmonary embolism occurred in one of the patients. With the use of silastic CVCs, which are less thrombogenic than polyvinyl ones, the rate of pulmonary embolism due to blind exchange (without previous venography) is estimated to be 0.1% to 0.2%. PMID:6407410

Bozzetti, F; Terno, G; Bonfanti, G; Scarpa, D; Scotti, A; Ammatuna, M; Bonalumi, M G

1983-07-01

138

Prevention and treatment of central venous catheter sepsis by exchange via a guidewire. A prospective controlled trial.  

PubMed Central

A new approach for preventing and treating sepsis due to central venous catheter (CVC) has been devised at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. A prospective protocol has been developed that includes the weekly exchange of the CVC via a guidewire as well as its exchange when a CVC-related sepsis is suspected. Growth of microorganisms on the tip of the CVC is defined as contamination if peripheral blood culture is negative and as sepsis if it is positive for the same microorganism. Colonization simply means growth of microorganism independently of the results of peripheral blood culture. Two hundred seven CVCs (64 polyvinyl chloride and 143 rubber silicone) were evaluated in 62 patients, for a total of 170 exchanges. The incidence of colonization and sepsis was 33.8% and 4.8%, respectively, a rate which is not significantly different from the values found in 81 historical controls (30.8% and 11.1%). However, it is noteworthy that the sepsis rate was reduced strongly during the first month of observation (0% vs. 11.9%; p = 0.01), whereas in the second month, it was similar in both groups (15% vs. 7.1%). Moreover, it should be noted that three-fourths of the colonized CVCs became negative after the first exchange, and virtually all were negative at the fourth exchange. All of the episodes of sepsis resolved spontaneously with the CVC exchange. The study, therefore, concludes that this procedure: 1) is without risk for CVC cross contamination, 2) is effective in the treatment of contaminated CVCs and of septic patients without any interruption of total parenteral nutrition, and 3) can reduce the incidence of CVC sepsis during the first month of total parenteral nutrition. One must be cautious about the possible onset of pulmonary embolism in patients with subclavian venous thrombosis, since a transient pulmonary embolism occurred in one of the patients. With the use of silastic CVCs, which are less thrombogenic than polyvinyl ones, the rate of pulmonary embolism due to blind exchange (without previous venography) is estimated to be 0.1% to 0.2%.

Bozzetti, F; Terno, G; Bonfanti, G; Scarpa, D; Scotti, A; Ammatuna, M; Bonalumi, M G

1983-01-01

139

Modeling and simulation approaches to evaluate pharmacokinetic sampling contamination from central venous catheters in pediatric pharmacokinetic studies of actinomycin-D: a report from the children's oncology group  

PubMed Central

Background The binding of drugs to catheters can be a source variation in dosing chemotherapeutics. Drug contamination from the dosing central venous line (CVL) can impact the reporting of pharmacokinetic (PK) results and analysis. Peripheral venipuncture avoids binding complications from the CVL but dissuades patients from enrolling. Our group has developed a catheter clearing procedure to minimize the extent of contamination so that dosing and sampling from the CVL can ensue, promoting patient willingness to participate in phase I pediatric oncology trials. Objectives To develop a population pharmacokinetic model of actinomycin-D (AMD) in children with cancer incorporating expressions for drug contamination from PK samples obtained via indwelling CVLs and to evaluate the efficiency of a catheter clearing procedure in removing contamination as well as the impact of contamination on PK results. Methods A dataset of 199 AMD plasma concentration measurements from 36 patients (age 1.6–20.3 years) was analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Quantitative modeling approaches, including baseline contamination model, covariate model, and catheter clearance model, were evaluated to describe catheter contamination. Monte Carlo simulations mimicking a prospective study in children with cancer were performed to assess the performance of the final model and impact of catheter contamination on PK reporting. Results The PK of AMD was best described by a linear 3-compartment model with first-order elimination. A baseline contamination model including a contamination factor proportional to the model-predicted concentration for samples obtained from central catheters was chosen as the most parsimonious and accurate among competing models. The final model parameters were allometrically scaled to a 70 kg person. The estimated mean parameter values were 11 L/h, 5.79, 24.2, 490 L, 17.7, and 42.8 L/h for total clearance, central volume of distribution, peripheral volume 1, peripheral volume 2, inter-compartmental clearance 1, and inter-compartmental clearance 2, respectively. The proportional contamination factor was 19.3 % immediately post-drug administration and decreased at a first-order rate of 0.0932 h?1. Simulations precisely re-estimated kinetic parameters with catheter contamination adjustment. Large uncertainty and poor estimation were observed when contamination was ignored. Conclusions Drug contamination from sampling catheter can impact AMD PK results and should be accounted for in the analysis. We provide a framework for evaluating catheter contamination and guidance on adjustment in the PK model.

Edwards, Alena Y. Z.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.; Dombrowsky, Erin; Patel, Dimple; Barrett, Jeffrey S.

2012-01-01

140

Satisfactory reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC ASSESS to evaluate management of peripheral venous catheters.  

PubMed

Purpose: Nursing students should be given opportunities to participate in clinical audits during their education. However, audit tools are seldom tested for reliability among nursing students. The aim of this study was to present reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC assess to assess management of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) and PVC-related signs of thrombophlebitis.Methods:PVC assess was used to assess 67 inserted PVCs in 60 patients at ten wards at a university hospital. One group of nursing students (n=4) assessed PVCs at the bedside (inter-rater reliability) and photographs of these PVCs were taken. Another group of students (n=3) assessed the PVCs in the photographs after 4 weeks (test-retest reliability). To determine reliability, proportion of agreement [P(A)] and Cohen's kappa coefficient (?) were calculated.Results: For bedside assessment of PVCs, P(A) ranged from good to excellent (0.80-1.0) in 55% of the 26 PVC assess items that were tested. P(A) was poor (<0.70) for two items: "adherence of inner dressing to the skin" and "PVC location." In 81% of the items, ? was between moderate and almost perfect: moderate (n=5), substantial (n=3), almost perfect (n=5). For edema at insertion site and two items on PVC dressing, ? was fair (0.21-0.40). Regarding test-retest reliability, P(A) varied between good and excellent (0.81-1) in 85%-95% of the items, and the ? ranged between moderate and almost perfect (0.41-1) in 90%-95%.Conclusions:PVC assess demonstrated satisfactory reliability among nursing students. However, students need training in how to use the instrument before assessing PVCs. PMID:24170582

Ahlqvist, Margary; Berglund, Britta; Nordström, Gun; Klang, Birgitta; Johansson, Eva

2014-05-01

141

Heparin solution for maintaining peripheral venous catheter patency in children: a survey of current practice in italian pediatric units.  

PubMed

Background: Prolonging the duration of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) as long as possible in children is a nursing priority. However, available studies provide conflicting evidence on what kind of flush/lock solution should be used to increase the life of PVCs in children. Objectives: To describe the clinical behavior of nurses working in Italian pediatric units with regards to PVCs flushing and locking practices. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Nurses were invited to participate using the network of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nursing Science. Those participating completed an online questionnaire available on a website established for this specific purpose. Results: 405 questionnaires were completed. Results: The majority of nurses reported using Normal saline solution (NS) to flush 22 gauge PVCs: 77.6% in children up to 6 months of age, 74.7% in children 6 months to 2 years, and 74.6% in children over 2 years. Nurses tend to use heparin solutions (HS) more frequently when a smaller gauge PVC is used (24 instead of 22) and when access is less frequent. The use of HS for PVC lock is more common in onco-hematology units (54.5% in children over 6 months with 24 gauge PVC), pediatric surgery units (35%), and in short-stay units (55.6%), whereas NS is used more frequently in Intensive care units (9.4%) and neonatology units (12.2%). Conclusion: Although the majority of respondents use NS, we found a high variability in practices among Italian nurses. More research on the effectiveness and safety of HS in maintaining the patency of PVCs is needed. PMID:24666274

Bisogni, Sofia; Giusti, Francesca; Ciofi, Daniele; Festini, Filippo

2014-06-01

142

Efficacy of 1.0% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol compared with 10% povidone-iodine for long-term central venous catheter care in hematology departments: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The efficacy of 1% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol and 10% povidone-iodine for skin antisepsis of central venous catheter (CVC) sites were compared among hematology patients. The CVC site colonization rates of those groups were 11.9% and 29.2%, respectively, and the catheter-associated blood stream infections were 0.75 and 3.62 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. One percent chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol was superior to povidone-iodine to reduce skin colonizers at CVC sites even when catheters were used for long duration. PMID:24655901

Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kimura, Hideo; Misao, Hanako; Matsumoto, Hayato; Imafuku, Yuji; Watanabe, Akemi; Mori, Hiroko; Yoshida, Akiko; Miura, Saori; Abe, Yoshinobu; Toba, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kanemitsu, Keiji

2014-05-01

143

Rescue therapy of difficult-to-treat indwelling central venous catheter-related bacteremias in cancer patients: a review for practical purposes.  

PubMed

Device-related bacteremia is the most frequent complication in patients with indwelling central venous catheter. Guidelines recommend treatment based on epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, but catheter removal is advocated in the presence of particular clinical conditions or pathogen isolations. Anti-infective drugs might become less effective in the presence of pathogens with increases in minimal inhibitory concentrations or slime production, and sometimes catheter removal is not feasible, for example, in patients with limited vascular sites or in the presence of life-threatening clinical conditions. Catheter lock with anti-infective drugs (antibacterials or antifungals) or other substances with anti-infective properties (e.g., taurolidine, 70% ethanol, 2M HCl) might represent a possible rescue treatment in the presence of difficult-to-treat infections and/or when the device cannot be removed. In the present review, the authors summarize these possible therapeutic options. The aim of the report is not to perform a systematic review of the literature, but to give an 'easy to read' text for everyday practice. PMID:23409823

Castagnola, Elio; Ginocchio, Francesca

2013-02-01

144

[A Retrospective Study of the Relationship between Bacterial Numbers from Central Venous Catheter Tip Cultures and Blood Cultures for Evaluating Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections].  

PubMed

Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an infectious disease requiring special attention. It is a common cause of nosocomial infections; catheter insertion into the central veins particularly increases the risk of infection (CLA-BSI: central line-associated bloodstream infection). We examined the relationship between the number of bacterial colonies cultured from shredded central venous catheter (CVC) tips and from blood cultures in our hospital from 2011 to 2012. Coagulase-negative staphylococci topped the list of microbe isolated from the CVC tip culture, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. S. aureus and Candida spp., with growth of over 15 colony-forming units in the CVC tip culture, were also detected at high rates in the blood culture. However, gramnegative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa) did not show a similar increase in colony number in the CVC tip culture. Because microbes adhering to shredded catheter tips are readily detected by culture, this method is useful as a routine diagnostic test. In addition, prompt clinical reporting of the bacterial number of serious CLA-BSI-causing S. aureus and Candida spp. isolated from CVC tips could contribute to earlier CLA-BSI diagnosis. PMID:24694240

Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Nakayama, Asami; Yonetamari, Jun; Ando, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takashi; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamayo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Seishima, Mitsuru

2014-03-30

145

Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

146

Successful treatment of recurrent candidemia due to candidal thrombophlebitis associated with a central venous catheter using a combination of fosfluconazole and micafungin.  

PubMed

We herein report the case of an 85-year-old woman presenting with right internal jugular vein candidal thrombophlebitis associated with central venous catheters (CTCVC). The infecting agent was Candida albicans, which caused recurrent candidemia five times in total. Micafungin (MCFG) alone was ineffective; however, the combination of MCFG with fosfluconazole (F-FLCZ) successfully treated the patient without a need for any anticoagulant or surgical therapies. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report of CTCVC being successfully treated with a combination of F-FLCZ and MCFG. These new antifungal agents have better efficacy, tolerability and bioavailability; therefore, they can be useful alternatives to classical combination therapies such as amphotericin-B and 5-fluorocytosine. PMID:24042529

Hagiya, Hideharu; Kajioka, Hiroki

2013-01-01

147

Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided.

2011-01-01

148

Continuous insulin administration via complex central venous catheter infusion tubing is another risk factor for blood glucose imbalance. A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed the potential impact of infusion tubing on blood glucose imbalance in ICU patients given intensive insulin therapy (IIT). We compared the incidence of blood glucose imbalance in patients equipped, in a nonrandomized fashion, with either conventional tubing or with a multiport infusion device. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the nursing files of 35 patients given IIT through the distal line of a double-lumen central venous catheter. A total of 1389?hours of IIT were analyzed for occurrence of hypoglycemic events [defined as arterial blood glucose below 90?mg/dL requiring discontinuation of insulin]. Results Twenty-one hypoglycemic events were noted (density of incidence 15 for 1000?hours of ITT). In 17 of these 21 events (81%), medication had been administered during the previous hour through the line connected to the distal lumen of the catheter. Conventional tubing use was associated with a higher density of incidence of hypoglycemic events than multiport infusion device use (23 vs. 2 for 1,000?hours of IIT; rate ratio = 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.71–48.8; p < 0.001). Conclusions The administration of on-demand medication through tubing carrying other medications can lead to the delivery of significant amounts of unscheduled products. Hypoglycaemia observed during IIT could be related to this phenomenon. The use of a multiport infusion device with a limited dead volume could limit hypoglycemia in patients on IIT.

2012-01-01

149

Risk factors for pneumothorax during percutaneous hickman line insertion in patients with solid and haematological tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for pneumothorax during percutaneous subclavian Hickman line insertion in patients with haematological (HT) or solid tumours (ST). One hundred and twelve patients (55 HT, 57 ST) had 132 subclavian Hickman lines inserted under fluoroscopic control. Lines were inserted on the left on 116 occasions and the right in 16. Thirty-five

K. J. Harrington; H. S. Pandha; J. S. Hollyer; S. A. Kelly; A. R. Bateman; C. Lewanski; P. Morris; J. E. Jackson

1995-01-01

150

[Completely implantable venous access systems. A study of the morbidity and benefits of a model third-generation device, the PAS Port with Cath-Finder].  

PubMed

Venous access for chemotherapy in oncological patients, has experienced continuous modifications in recent years, both with regard to the types of devices used as with regard to the venous access itself. We present a prospective study of two groups of 25 patients, in which the patients in the first group were given a Port-A-Cath PAS Port venous access system with a Cath-Finder catheter locating system, and those in the second group were given a conventional Implantofix and Hickman venous access system. The device placed in the first group belongs to a third generation venous access system, involving a simple and safe placing technique which neither requires an operating room nor radiology. The incidence of complications in the first group was similar to that seen in conventional systems. To prevent early or late phlebitis in the cephalic or basilar vein, we recommended the prophylactic use of low molecular weight heparin during the procedure and maintaining this during the next three to five days, as well as during each new chemotherapy session and at any time this complication may arise. The economic benefits of this device are much greater than those of conventional systems. PMID:7756397

Miguelena Bobadilla, J M; Sousa Domínguez, R; Güemes Sánchez, A; Cabezali Sánchez, R; Gil Romea, I; Palacín García-Valiño, R; Burdio Pinilla, F

1995-01-01

151

Venous air embolism through central venous access  

PubMed Central

An 25-year-old man was buried by an avalanche during off-slope skiing. He was rescued by his companions and resuscitated by mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The emergency physician from a helicopter based emergency medical service placed two venous lines in both external jugular veins and secured the airway with a tracheal tube. When transferred to the emergency department an additional central venous catheter was inserted via his right femoral vein. The subsequent computed tomography scan revealed several small air bubbles adjacent to the endothelium of the brachiocephalic vein. In an experimental setting, it was shown that air could enter the circulation via a central venous catheter within a few seconds, but measured values of embolising air were smaller than the calculated values when applying the law of Hagen-Poiseuille. Nevertheless, it is important to keep the lumens of a central venous catheter filled with saline before any manipulation in order to prevent or attenuate venous air embolism.

Schlimp, Christoph J; Loimer, Thomas; Schmidts, Michael B; Rieger, Michael; Lederer, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

152

Comparison of 0.05% Chlorhexidine and 10% PovidoneIodine as Cutaneous Disinfectant for Prevention of Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline recommended the use of 2% chlorhexidine as a percutaneous disinfectant for central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. However, in Japan, 0.05% chlorhexidine is commonly used as well as 10% povidone-iodine, instead of 2% chlorhexidine. Purpose: It was the aim of this study to examine whether the use of 0.05% chlorhexidine is inferior

M. Ishizuka; H. Nagata; K. Takagi; K. Kubota

2009-01-01

153

Central venous catheter insertion in peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell sibling donors: the SIdEM (Italian Society of Hemapheresis and Cell Manipulation) point of view.  

PubMed

Collection of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) is the practice of choice for graft procurement in both autologous and allogeneic setting. The success of this procedure depends on the use of adequate vascular accesses. Well-sized peripheral veins are the first option in autologous and allogeneic donations. In autologous setting, in case of lack of adequate veins, central venous catheters (CVC) may be used for collection. In the allogeneic setting, although available data have shown the safety of the use of CVC, there are still some controversies about the possible insertion of a CVC in donors. A specific policy from competent registries is usually applied in the different countries to regulate the use of CVC in unrelated donors. In siblings, the question is still undefined due both to the lack of shared guidelines and to the specific characteristics of this donation. In fact, in not so rare cases, larger stem cell doses for specific cell manipulations (e.g., T/B cell depletion in the haploidentical setting) are needed. The lack of international rules or standard that forbid the use of a CVC in siblings and published data that document the safety of this procedure, allowed the Società Italiana di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIdEM) national Board to identify a possible, shared, operational approach to address this issue by a case-specific risk-benefit assessment. PMID:24569005

Vacca, Michele; Perseghin, Paolo; Accorsi, Patrizia; Pierelli, Luca

2014-04-01

154

Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for CRBSI. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey in reducing bacterial skin colonization at insertion sites. Methods A prospective, single-center, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed at the ICU of a university hospital in The Netherlands to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey to reduce skin colonization of insertion sites. Medical-grade honey was applied in addition to standard CVC-site dressing and disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Skin colonization was assessed on a daily basis before CVC-site disinfection. The primary end point was colonization of insertion sites with >100 colony-forming units at the last sampling before removal of the CVC or transfer of the patient from the ICU. Secondary end points were quantitative levels of colonization of the insertion sites and colonization of insertion sites stratified for CVC location. Results Colonization of insertion sites was not affected by the use of medical-grade honey, as 44 (34%) of 129 and 36 (34%) of 106 patients in the honey and standard care groups, respectively, had a positive skin culture (P = 0.98). Median levels of skin colonization at the last sampling were 1 (0 to 2.84) and 1 (0 to 2.70) log colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for the honey and control groups, respectively (P = 0.94). Gender, days of CVC placement, CVC location, and CVC type were predictive for a positive skin culture. Correction for these variables did not change the effect of honey on skin-culture positivity. Conclusions Medical-grade honey does not affect colonization of the skin at CVC insertion sites in ICU patients when applied in addition to standard disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Registry, NTR1652.

2012-01-01

155

'Matching Michigan': a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England  

PubMed Central

Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438?887 (404?252 adult and 34?635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20?months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20?months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (? 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care.

Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

2013-01-01

156

The impact of staffing on central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in preterm neonates - results of nation-wide cohort study in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Very low birthweight (VLBW) newborns on neonatal intensive care units (NICU) are at increased risk for developing central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC BSI). In addition to the established intrinsic risk factors of VLBW newborns, it is still not clear which process and structure parameters within NICUs influence the prevalence of CVC BSI. Methods The study population consisted of VLBW newborns from NICUs that participated in the German nosocomial infection surveillance system for preterm infants (NEO-KISS) from January 2008 to June 2009. Structure and process parameters of NICUs were obtained by a questionnaire-based enquiry. Patient based date and the occurrence of BSI derived from the NEO-KISS database. The association between the requested parameters and the occurrance of CVC BSI and laboratory-confirmed BSI was analyzed by generalized estimating equations. Results We analyzed data on 5,586 VLBW infants from 108 NICUs and found 954 BSI cases in 847 infants. Of all BSI cases, 414 (43%) were CVC-associated. The pooled incidence density of CVC BSI was 8.3 per 1,000 CVC days. The pooled CVC utilization ratio was 24.3 CVC-days per 100 patient days. A low realized staffing rate lead to an increased risk of CVC BSI (OR 1.47; p=0.008) and also of laboratory-confirmed CVC BSI (OR 1.78; p=0.028). Conclusions Our findings show that low levels of realized staffing are associated with increased rates of CVC BSI on NICUs. Further studies are necessary to determine a threshold that should not be undercut.

2013-01-01

157

Analysis of Risk Factors for Central Venous Catheter-Related Complications: A Prospective Observational Study in Pediatric Patients With Bone Sarcomas.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: The incidence of central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications reported in pediatric sarcoma patients is not established as reports in available literature are limited. The analysis of risk factors is part of the strategy to reduce the incidence of CVC complications. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of CVC complications in children with bone sarcomas and if defined clinical variables represent a risk factor. METHODS:: During an 8-year period, 155 pediatric patients with bone sarcomas were prospectively followed up for CVC complications. Incidence and correlation with clinical features including gender, age, body mass index, histology, disease stage, and use of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin were analyzed. RESULTS:: Thirty-three CVC complications were recorded among 42 687 CVC-days (0.77 per 1000 CVC-days). No correlation between the specific clinical variables and the CVC complications was found. A high incidence of CVC-related sepsis secondary to gram-negative bacteria was observed. CONCLUSIONS:: The analysis of CVC complications and their potential risk factors in this sizable and relatively homogeneous pediatric population with bone sarcomas has led to the implementation of a multimodal approach by doctors and nurses to reduce the incidence and morbidity of the CVC-related infections, particularly those related to gram-negative bacteria. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: As a result of this joint medical and nursing study, a multimodal approach that included equipping faucets with water filters, the reeducation of doctors and nurses, and the systematic review of CVC protocol was implemented. PMID:23782516

Abate, Massimo Eraldo; Sánchez, Olga Escobosa; Boschi, Rita; Raspanti, Cinzia; Loro, Loretta; Affinito, Domenico; Cesari, Marilena; Paioli, Anna; Palmerini, Emanuela; Ferrari, Stefano

2013-06-17

158

New technologies to prevent intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections.  

PubMed Central

Most intravascular catheter-related infections are associated with central venous catheters. Technologic advances shown to reduce the risk for these infections include a catheter hub containing an iodinated alcohol solution, short-term chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine- impregnated catheters, minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters, and chlorhexidine- impregnated sponge dressings. Nontechnologic strategies for reducing risk include maximal barrier precautions during catheter insertion, specialized nursing teams, continuing quality improvement programs, and tunneling of short-term internal jugular catheters.

Mermel, L. A.

2001-01-01

159

Broviac catheter infection with Kluyvera cryocrescens: a case report.  

PubMed Central

Kluyvera cryocrescens was isolated from a blood culture drawn from a patient with a Broviac catheter-related infection. K. cryocrescens has been considered an opportunistic pathogen but has not previously been associated with central venous catheter infections.

Wong, V K

1987-01-01

160

Flailed tricuspid valve as a complication of retrieving fractured catheter.  

PubMed

The implantable venous port system has gained popularity as venous access when prolonged chemotherapy is needed in cancer patients. Intravascular fracture and embolization of catheter fragments from port-catheter systems is rare. Here we report a 49-year-old lady who was found having a fractured port-catheter located over the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter retrieval of the fractured catheter was performed but complicated with flailed tricuspid valve. PMID:17069907

Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Chu, Kai-Min; Tzeng, Bing-Hsiean; Yang, Shih-Ping; Lin, Wei-Shiang

2007-07-10

161

Colonization of intravascular catheters in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

A prospective study of intravascular catheters (arterial, Swan-Ganz, and central venous) in two hospitals with similar intensive care units revealed an overall 25 percent colonization rate (more than 15 colony counts). Arterial catheters had the lowest colonization rate and central venous catheters had the highest. Arterial, Swan-Ganz, and central venous catheters are possible sources of nosocomial infections and septicemia. They should be inserted only when necessary. A critical review of our data and the literature suggests that future studies should examine the potential benefits of assiduous insertion technique, improved dressing care, intravascular delivery systems, and the choice of catheter. PMID:3893177

Samsoondar, W; Freeman, J B; Coultish, I; Oxley, C

1985-06-01

162

Antimicrobial Impregnated Catheters in the Prevention of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Catheter-related bloodstream infections have a significant impact on increasing health care costs and morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Many technologies have been created in an attempt to decrease the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection. One of these is the impregnation of central venous catheters with antiseptics (e.g., chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine) or antibiotics (e.g., minocycline and rifampin). While studies evaluating the efficacy of impregnated catheters have been conducted, the data are limited and their use remains variable across institutions. This paper will discuss catheter-related factors that predispose patients to catheter-related bloodstream infection, the types of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in use today, studies evaluating their efficacy, and common concerns associated with the use of these catheters. Issues related to the cost-effectiveness of impregnated catheters and future directions for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection will also be presented.

Wassil, Sarah K.; Crill, Catherine M.; Phelps, Stephanie J.

2007-01-01

163

Guidelines for the use of long-term central venous catheter in children with hemato-oncological disorders. On behalf of supportive therapy working group of Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP).  

PubMed

In the last 30 years, the use of long-term central venous catheters (CVC) is increased especially for children with hemato-oncological disorders. However, the use of CVC is associated to complications, as mechanical accidents, thrombosis, and infections that can determine a prolongation of hospital stay, an increase of costs, and sometimes life-threatening conditions that require urgent systemic treatment or CVC removal. CVC removal may be troublesome especially in neonates, infants, or any other "highly needed CVC patients"; in these selected cases, the prevention and treatment of CVC-related complications play a pivotal role and specific surveillance programs are crucial. While extensive literature is focused on CVC management in adults, no guidelines are available for children. To this aim, the first recommendations for the management of CVC infectious complication in pediatric age have been written after pediatric and adult literature review and collegial discussion among members of Supportive Therapy working group of Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Compared to the adult age, the necessity of peripheral vein cultures for the diagnosis of CVC-related infection remains controversial in children because of the poorer venous asset and a conservative, pharmacologically focused management through CVC remains mandatory, with CVC removal to be performed only in selected cases. PMID:23771477

Carraro, F; Cicalese, M P; Cesaro, S; De Santis, R; Zanazzo, G; Tornesello, A; Giordano, P; Bergadano, A; Giacchino, M

2013-10-01

164

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen catheter in a SynCardia total artificial heart patient  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 55 years old caucasian male patient with cardiogenic shock due to an extended myocardial infarction who underwent SynCardia Total Artificial Heart implantation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen cannula for the treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome.

2013-01-01

165

Daily Catheter-directed Single Dosing of t-PA in Treatment of Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

The strong fibrin affinity of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) theoretically obviates continuous infusion or replacement of t-PA after direct intrathrombic injection. This hypothesis led the authors to evaluate single daily catheter-directed injection of rt-PA as a thrombolytic treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Once-daily injection of rt-PA was performed in large thrombosed veins (popliteal or larger) with use of pulse-spray catheters and in small thrombosed veins in patients' calves with use of 3?4-F coaxial catheters. Patients received only full systemic anticoagulation on his/her patient care unit. This dosing regimen has been tested in 10 patients (12 legs) with a maximum dose of 50 mg per leg per day. Extensive thrombolysis was achieved in nine patients and partial thrombolysis was achieved in one patient, at an average total dose of 106 mg of rt-PA per leg. Minor bleeding was seen in three patients and no transfusions were needed. Our technique and the rationale for this pilot study is the focus of this article.

Chang, Richard; Cannon, Richard O.; Chen, Clara C.; Doppman, John L.; Shawker, Thomas H.; Mayo, Donna Jo; Wood, Bradford; Horne, McDonald K.

2008-01-01

166

Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by gallium 67 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

Miller, J.H.

1981-07-01

167

[Tunnelled internal jugular vein catheters with taurolidine lock: an acceptable challenge to arterio-venous fistula in 70 years old haemodialyzed patients: a prospective pilot study].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is still in 2010 the gold standard of vascular(2) access in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Nevertheless it may be difficult to obtain and/or to use AVF in elderly. With this prospective randomised pilot study, we compare two strategies of vascular access in 70 years old or more new HD patients. AVF were compared to tunnelled jugular vein catheters (TIJC) with taurolidine as bacterial lock solution. Results were as follow: [table: see text] The responses with the visual analogic scale of comfort was 8/10 for TIJC and 5/10 with AVF * P<0.05. In five TIJC patients, heparin was added with success to taurolidine because of partial clotting of catheters. Albuminemia was significantly lower in AVF failure patients compared to AVF success patients (24.8g/L vs 31.1g/L). This pilot study allows to conclude that TIJC is an acceptable challenge to AVF in haemodialysed patients of 70 years or more in a two years long use. PMID:21601549

Branger, Bernard; Reboul, Pascal; Prelipcean, Camélia; Noguera, Maria Eugenia; Cariou, Sylvain; Granolleras, Céline; Vecina, Frédérique; Zabadani, Bachir; Boubenider, Samir; Rousseau, Philippe; Deshodt, Gérard; Ramperez, Pierre; Hory, Bernard; Picard, Eric; Branchereau, Pascal; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fourcade, Jacques

2011-07-01

168

Catheter-related bloodstream infections  

PubMed Central

Central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Consequences depend on associated organisms, underlying pre-morbid conditions, timeliness, and appropriateness of the treatment/interventions received. We have summarized risk factors, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and management of CRBSI in this review.

Gahlot, Rupam; Nigam, Chaitanya; Kumar, Vikas; Yadav, Ghanshyam; Anupurba, Shampa

2014-01-01

169

[CT 1341 in continuous administration in 75 cases of prolonged general anesthesia in odontostomatology (constant flow assured by a double-lumen venous catheter and electric perfuser)].  

PubMed

The authors used during 75 prolonged general anaesthesia in maxillo-facial surgery CT. 1341 (Alfatesine) administered pure at constant flow rate through a double lumen venous cannula and electric perfuser. Four series of patients were thus distinguished depending on their use or not of N2O as the only analgesic and of gallamine. We do not agree with the classical assertion that CT. 1341 has a cumulative effect on some EEG results. The technique is quite inocuous and the authors propose a technique using CT. 1341 at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg for induction of anaesthesia with, later, 1 mg/kg of gallamine. Under a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide at 60 p. 100, the maintenance dose advised in 6.17 microliters per kilo, per minute of CT. 1341. PMID:10818

Muir, J F; Milhaud, A; Dore, P R; Desmet, G; Boitieux, J L

1976-01-01

170

Evaluation of the impact of a new synthetic vitamin E-bonded membrane on anemia and rHuEPO requirement in ESRD patients with central venous catheters: a pilot study.  

PubMed

In the last years, the number of hemodialysis (HD) patients with erythropoietin (rHuEPO) resistance is increasing. Probably, central venous catheters (CVCs) contribute to this resistance by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. This study was aimed to compare vitamin E-bonded dialyzer (PSVE) versus polyethersulfone membrane. Sixteen subjects with CVCs were included in a prospective two-arm crossover 12-month study. The primary endpoints were the rHuEPO requirement and the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) index, which was defined by the ratio between weekly EPO dosage (IU/kg/week) and Hb levels (g/dl). The mean dosages of rHuEPO to maintain hemoglobin between 10.5 and 12 g/dl were 135 ± 59 and 101 ± 57 IU/kg/week with polysulfone and PSVE, respectively (P = 0.14). The ESA indexes were 12.1 ± 5.2 and 8.7 ± 5.2 (P < 0.0001) with polysulfone and PSVE, respectively. A trend towards consensual changes in protein glycoxidation, antioxidant, and inflammatory markers was observed. In conclusion, the study suggests a role for PSVE in the reduction of ESA index in HD patients with CVCs. PMID:21960369

Mandolfo, S; Corradi, B; Bucci, R; Farina, M; Pilolli, F; Galli, F

2012-10-01

171

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare and potentially deadly condition. Common etiologies include hypercoagulable diseases, low flow states, dehydration, adjacent infectious processes, oral contraceptives, hormonal replacement therapy, pregnancy, and puerperium. Symptoms include nausea, seizures, severe focal neurological deficits, coma, and headache (the most common presenting symptom). Anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for CVST. Transvenous clot lysis can be performed using injected thrombolytic agents and specialized catheters for clot retrieval. PMID:16379132

Lemke, Denise M; Hacein-Bey, Lofti

2005-10-01

172

Urinary catheters  

MedlinePLUS

... is a tube placed in the body to drain and collect urine from the bladder. ... Urinary catheters are used to drain the bladder. Your health care provider may recommend that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or ...

173

Synchronized Coronary Venous Retroperfusion During Coronary Angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Synchronized diastolic coronary venous retroperfusion is a technique by which autologous arterial blood is shunted from the\\u000a femoral artery into the coronary veins. Phasic diastolic occlusion of the coronary sinus by a balloon catheter compartmentalizes\\u000a the coronary venous system, preventing regurgitation of arterial blood into the right atrium. Triggered collapse of the balloon\\u000a during systole facilitates normal physiologic coronary venous

Sheila Kar; Alice K. Jacobs; David P. Faxon

174

[Transvenous extraction of venous katheter by Simmons-katheter (sidewinder I) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Report about successful extraction of cutoff embolised venous katheter from V. jugularis with help of a SIMMONS-catheter. Further possibilities of use of superselective arteriography catheters in this connection are mentioned. PMID:601762

Poser, H; Yükseltan, J

1977-12-01

175

DNA fingerprinting analysis of coagulase negative staphylococci implicated in catheter related bloodstream infections  

PubMed Central

Aims: The epidemiological assessment of cases of coagulase negative staphylococcal catheter related bloodstream infection. Methods: Two hundred and thirty patients with suspected catheter related bloodstream infection were evaluated over a two year period. Central venous catheters were cultured both endoluminally and extraluminally. Peripheral blood, catheter hubs, skin entry, and skin control sites were also cultured. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to DNA fingerprint coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from patients with presumptive catheter related bloodstream infection. Results: Sixty cases of catheter related bloodstream infection were identified, 21 of which were attributed to coagulase negative staphylococci. Two hundred and ninety four separate isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci from the 21 cases of catheter related bloodstream infection were subjected to PFGE (mean of 14 for each case). Catheter related bloodstream infection was only confirmed by PFGE analysis in 16 of the 21 cases because in the remaining five cases peripheral blood and central venous catheter coagulase negative staphylococci isolates were different. Skin entry, control skin, and central venous catheter hub isolates matched peripheral blood isolates in six, four, and seven cases, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococci isolates could not be cultured from the patients’ own skin in seven cases of catheter related bloodstream infection. Central venous catheter lumens were colonised in all cases of catheter related bloodstream infection compared with 44–81% of cases that had positive external surface catheter tip cultures, depending on the threshold used to define significant growth. Conclusions: Catheter related bloodstream infection as a result of coagulase negative staphylococci may be over stated in about a quarter of cases, unless a discriminatory technique is used to fingerprint isolates. No single, simplistic route of bacterial contamination of central venous catheters was identified, but endoluminal catheter colonisation is invariably present in cases of catheter related bloodstream infection.

Dobbins, B M; Kite, P; Kindon, A; McMahon, M J; Wilcox, M H

2002-01-01

176

Central vascular catheters and infections.  

PubMed

Newborn infants in critical conditions require a permanent intra-venous line to allow for the administration of fluids, parenteral nutrition and drugs. The use of central venous catheters, however, is associated with an increased risk of infections, leading to prolongation of length of stay and higher hospitalization costs, particularly in extremely preterm infants. Dwell time is a significant factor for complications, with a predicted risk of catheter related infections of about 4 per 1000 catheter-days. To reduce the incidence of complications, several requirements must be met, including adequate staff and resources to provide education, training, and quality improvement programs, within a culture of communication and teamwork. Rigorous reporting schedule on line care and the implementation of unique bundle elements, the use of health care failure mode and effect analysis, the judicious use of antibiotics through an antimicrobial stewardship strategy, the application of specific antifungal prophylaxis are among the most effective interventions, while the addition of heparin to parenteral solution, or the use of antibiotic plus heparin lock therapy are under evaluation. Nursing assistance plays a fundamental role in managing central venous lines and in reducing or preventing the incidence of infection, by the application of several complex professional strategies. PMID:24709460

Dioni, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Renata; Marzollo, Roberto; Oprandi, Daniela; Chirico, Gaetano

2014-03-01

177

Venous pseudo-aneurysm as a late complication of short-term central venous catheterisation  

PubMed Central

Complications following central venous catheterisation abound in the medical literature. This reflects the under-estimated potential hazards associated with this procedure as well as an increase in the number of such procedures performed in high-risk patients. We report on a case where a venous pseudo-aneurysm developed four months after the removal of a short-term central venous catheter in a moderately high-risk patient.

Luckraz, Heyman

2003-01-01

178

Advantages of dual-lumen umbilical vessel catheters versus single-lumen umbilical vessel catheters and additional peripheral intravenous catheters.  

PubMed

Once the decision to place an umbilical venous catheter has been made, the opportunity to provide some relief to the patient clinically as well as fiscally is possible with the use of a dual-lumen umbilical vessel catheter (UVC). Although the necessity of catheterization of the umbilical vein remains controversial, successful completion of this procedure provides the practitioner immediate access to the venous circulation of a newborn and allows administration of various solutions and blood products. The cost of a dual-lumen UVC was compared with a single-lumen UVC used in conjunction with peripheral intravenous catheters. By limiting the number of peripheral intravenous catheterization attempts, these patients are spared the pain and possible sequelae associated with wide fluctuations in blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation. Once a patient requires more than two peripheral intravenous catheterization attempts, the cost savings of a dual-lumen UVC becomes evident and is amplified with each successive peripheral catheterization attempt. PMID:9210078

Ginsberg, H G

1997-01-01

179

Endoluminal dilation technique to remove "stuck" tunneled hemodialysis catheters.  

PubMed

Most tunneled catheters can be easily removed after the retention cuff is dissected. Occasionally, these catheters can become resistant to removal even after application of potentially hazardous forceful traction. In addition, an infected catheter may cause life-threatening septicemia. Several methods have been described for their extraction, some of which may be available only in tertiary-care facilities. The present report describes the successful extraction of five such "stuck" catheters by using a recently described technique of endoluminal dilation. The technique appears safe and straightforward and can be performed in any interventional suite while allowing preservation of venous access. PMID:22840807

Ryan, Stephen E; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Aquino, Jose; Cunningham, Ian; O'Kelly, Kevin; Rasuli, Pasteur

2012-08-01

180

Catheter-related thrombosis in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters are commonly used in haematology departments for the administration of chemotherapy, blood products and parenteral nutrition in patients with haematological malignancy. Thrombosis is a recognized complication of such devices especially in oncology patients. Catheter-related thrombi (CRT) may lead to pulmonary embolism and infection, as well as catheter failure and potential delays in treatment. The vast majority of CRT are asymptomatic, thus a high index of suspicion is required in making the diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound or venography may be employed to identify CRT. Once confirmed, the initiation of treatment is a balance between the risks of anticoagulation against potential complications of CRT. A number of risk factors for CRT are discussed along with an overview of catheter types, their appropriate choice and intravascular positioning. PMID:23848991

Murray, Jim; Precious, Elizabeth; Alikhan, Raza

2013-09-01

181

Increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Patients with malignancies have an increased risk for venous thromboembolisms (VTE), but data on patients with acute leukaemia are very limited so far. We found VTE in 12% of 455 patients with acute leukaemia, half of which occurred in association with central venous catheters, with equal risk of ALL and AML.

Mohren, M; Markmann, I; Jentsch-Ullrich, K; Koenigsmann, M; Lutze, G; Franke, A

2006-01-01

182

Increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukaemia.  

PubMed

Patients with malignancies have an increased risk for venous thromboembolisms (VTE), but data on patients with acute leukaemia are very limited so far. We found VTE in 12% of 455 patients with acute leukaemia, half of which occurred in association with central venous catheters, with equal risk of ALL and AML. PMID:16421591

Mohren, M; Markmann, I; Jentsch-Ullrich, K; Koenigsmann, M; Lutze, G; Franke, A

2006-01-30

183

Catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are regularly used in intensive care units, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in preterm infants. Increased survival rate of extremely-low-birth-weight infants can be partly attributed to routine practice of CVC placement. The most common types of CVCs used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) include umbilical venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, and tunneled catheters. CRBSI is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI) with either a positive catheter tip culture or a positive blood culture drawn from the CVC. BSIs most frequently result from pathogens such as gram-positive cocci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and sometimes gram-negative organisms. CRBSIs are usually associated with several risk factors, including prolonged catheter placement, femoral access, low birth weight, and young gestational age. Most NICUs have a strategy for catheter insertion and maintenance designed to decrease CRBSIs. Specific interventions slightly differ between NICUs, particularly with regard to the types of disinfectants used for hand hygiene and appropriate skin care for the infant. In conclusion, infection rates can be reduced by the application of strict protocols for the placement and maintenance of CVCs and the education of NICU physicians and nurses.

2011-01-01

184

Venous thromboembolism in adults with sickle cell disease: A serious and under-recognized complication  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease is recognized as a hypercoagulable state; however the frequency and characteristics of venous thromboembolism in sickle cell patients have not been well-defined. PURPOSE To establish the prevalence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism in a large cohort of patients with sickle cell disease and determine the relationship between venous thromboembolism and mortality. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of 404 sickle cell disease patients cared for at the Sickle Cell Center for Adults at Johns Hopkins. Demographic, sickle cell disease-specific comorbidity, and venous thromboembolism data were collected on all patients. RESULTS 101 patients (25%) had a history of venous thromboembolism with a median age at diagnosis of 29.9 years. A history of non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism was found in 18.8% of patients. Sickle variant genotypes conferred a higher risk of non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism compared to sickle cell anemia genotypes (SS/S?0) (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18–2.66). Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity ? 2.5 m/s was also associated with non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism (RR 1.65, CI 1.12–2.45). Thirty patients (7.4%) died during the study period. Adjusting for all variables, non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism was independently correlated with death (RR 3.63, CI 1.66–7.92). CONCLUSION Venous thromboembolism is common in adults with sickle cell disease. Sickle variant genotypes and tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity ? 2.5m/s are associated with non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism. In addition, non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism appears to be an independent risk factor for death in our cohort. These results suggest that disease-specific prophylaxis and treatment strategies for venous thromboembolism should be investigated in sickle cell disease patients.

Naik, Rakhi P.; Streiff, Michael B.; Haywood, Carlton; Nelson, Julie A.; Lanzkron, Sophie

2013-01-01

185

Site of catheter insertion in burn patients and infection: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review to identify and appraise the evidence on possible association of the site of venous catheter insertion in burn patients and an increased occurrence of catheter-related infection. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library. Nine studies were selected for the review; four of them mentioned, directly or indirectly, an association between catheter-related infection and the insertion of the catheter either in the burn wound or in surrounding area, and five studies investigated the occurrence of infection related to both the catheter and the anatomical sites of catheter insertion. Higher infection rates occurred when the catheters were inserted directly in the burn wound or near the wound (level of evidence IV) or in the femoral vein (level of evidence IV). No significant differences in infection occurrence rates were observed between central catheters and peripherally inserted central catheter (level of evidence IV). Further investigations for techniques and types of coverage of venous catheter insertion dressings are important for preventing infection in burn patients. Also, new technologies for venous access must be evaluated. PMID:24280528

Ciofi Silva, Caroline Lopes; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Gonçalves, Natália; Furuya, Rejane Kiyomi

2014-05-01

186

Dialysis Catheter-Related Superior Vena Cava Syndrome with Patent Vena Cava: Long Term Efficacy of Unilateral Viatorr Stent-Graft Avoiding Catheter Manipulation  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters are the most frequent causes of benign central vein stenosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman on hemodialysis through a twin catheter in the right internal jugular vein, presenting with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome with patent SVC. The clinically driven endovascular therapy was conducted to treat the venous syndrome with a unilateral left brachiocephalic stent-graft without manipulation of the well-functioning catheter. The follow-up was uneventful until death 94 months later.

Galli, Franco; Moramarco, Lorenzo Paolo; Corti, Riccardo; Leati, Giovanni; Fiorina, Ilaria; Maestri, Marcello

2014-01-01

187

Evaluation of a novel endoluminal brush method for in situ diagnosis of catheter related sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To determine the accuracy of a novel endoluminal brush method for the diagnosis of catheter related sepsis (CRS), which is performed in situ and hence does not require line sacrifice. METHODS: 230 central venous catheters in 216 patients were examined prospectively for evidence of CRS or colonisation using an endoluminal brush method in conjunction with peripheral blood cultures. The

P Kite; B M Dobbins; M H Wilcox; W N Fawley; A J Kindon; D Thomas; M J Tighe; M J McMahon

1997-01-01

188

Suture of the right internal jugular vein catheter in a mitral valve replacement: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Central venous catheterization can be necessary for patients undergoing a cardiac operation. Accidental suturing of the catheter to the heart is a rare complication that is difficult to correct; excessive traction force on the central venous catheter can lead to heart breakage or even death. Case presentation We describe the case of a 56-year-old Han Chinese woman who was scheduled to undergo mitral valve replacement. The central venous catheter placed into her right internal jugular vein was accidentally sutured to the left atrial suture line during the operation. The stuck catheter was successfully removed without having to perform a cardiopulmonary bypass. Conclusions Attaching a catheter to the heart by cardiac sutures can occur when the tip of the catheter locates directly above the atrial-caval junction. Care should be taken when closing the cephalad end of a left atrial incision in a mitral valve replacement. Although rare, accidental suturing of the central venous catheter must be kept in mind, and an approach should be chosen to remove the catheter that best avoids additional insult to the heart function.

2014-01-01

189

Intravascular catheter related infections in children admitted on the paediatric wards of Mulago hospital, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Worldwide use of intravascular catheters (IVC) has been associated with both local and systemic infections. No studies have been done in the sub-Saharan region on IVC related infections. Objective: To determine the prevalence, causative organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the factors associated with infections related to short term peripheral venous catheters in children admitted to the general

Patricia Nahirya; Justus Byarugaba; Sarah Kiguli; Deogratias Kaddu-Mulindwa

190

Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients on hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are frequently used as vascular access for patients who require hemodialysis, but infectious complications remain a major clinical problem. Specifically, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) have an adverse effect on survival, hospitalization, mortality, and the overall cost of care in this setting. The growing number of patients who require hemodialysis, combined with an increasing number of patients

Michiel G. H. Betjes

2011-01-01

191

Long-term performance and complications of the Tesio twin catheter system for hemodialysis access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tesio twin catheter system (Medcomp, Harleysville, PA) was developed to overcome the problems with the existing central venous catheters in providing high-efficiency dialysis, such as inadequate blood flows, high recirculation rates, and need for surgical insertion. The relatively large internal lumens and multiple side holes in a spiral pattern allow for high blood flow rates and lower tendency to

Prakash N. Prabhu; Scott R. Kerns; Frank W. Sabatelli; Irvin F. Hawkins; Edward A. Ross

1997-01-01

192

Venous thromboembolism in pediatric nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

Childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common pediatric kidney diseases, with an incidence of 2-7 per 100,000. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and occurs in ?3 % of children with NS, though incidence approaches 25 % in high-risk groups. VTE etiology is multifactorial, with disease-associated coagulopathy thought to be a significant contributor. Other risks include age, disease severity, and treatment-related hazards, such as the presence of central venous catheters. Non-pharmacologic preventive measures such as ambulation and compression stockings are recommended for patients with identified VTE risks. Central venous catheters should be avoided whenever possible. Symptoms of VTE include venous catheter dysfunction, unilateral extremity symptoms, respiratory compromise, flank pain, and gross hematuria. When VTE is suspected, confirmatory imaging studies should be obtained, followed by appropriate laboratory evaluation and treatment. Therapeutic goals include limiting thrombus growth, extension, and embolization by early institution of anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulation is recommended for a minimum of 3 months, but should be continued until NS remission is achieved. Further studies are necessary to identify VTE-risk biomarkers and optimal therapeutic regimens. Observational cohort studies are needed to identify VTE-risk groups who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis and to define disease-specific treatment algorithms. PMID:23812352

Kerlin, Bryce A; Haworth, Kellie; Smoyer, William E

2014-06-01

193

Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised pediatric patient.  

PubMed Central

Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised child is reported. The presence of a central venous catheter and the patient's immunocompromised status were felt to be predisposing factors for this unusual infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of P. lilacinus catheter-related fungemia, and our patient may be the youngest reported patient with this mycosis who was cured. Images

Tan, T Q; Ogden, A K; Tillman, J; Demmler, G J; Rinaldi, M G

1992-01-01

194

Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization.  

PubMed

Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space. We present a novel optical epidural catheter with integrated polymer light guides that allows for optical spectra to be acquired from tissues at the distal tip. To obtain an initial indication of the information that could be obtained, reflectance values and photon penetration depth were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and optical reflectance spectra were acquired during a laminectomy of a swine ex vivo. Large differences between the spectra acquired from epidural adipose tissue and from venous blood were observed. The optical catheter has the potential to provide real-time detection of intravascular catheter placement that could reduce the risk of complications. PMID:24298420

Soto-Astorga, R P; West, S; Putnis, S; Hebden, J C; Desjardins, A E

2013-01-01

195

Catheter-related complications in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-seven patients (22 adults, five adolescents, and one child) were treated with home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for 662 patient-months. A Broviac Silastic right atrial catheter which is tunnelled subcutaneously down the anterior chest wall served as a venous access. Thirty-four catheters were used in 27 patients, and the mean catheter life spans to date for adults and adolescents have been 21 and 14 months, respectively. There were no deaths attributable to the catheters. Infections and damaged external catheter segments were clustered in adult patients, whereas serious mechanical problems occurred in adolescents. Five of 27 patients (19%) experienced septicemia and one patient had two episodes. These six episodes (five of Staphylococcus aureus, one of Candida parapsilosis) in 662 patient-months represented only one case of sepsis every 9.1 patient-years on HPN. The external segments of 12 catheters were damaged and all were repaired in the outpatient setting. Eight of nine major mechanical problems occurred in five adolescents and one child; the most serious being four intravascular displacements, one extravascular displacement with mediastinitis, and a fractured catheter with a retained intravascular catheter segment. Although the HPN catheter is associated with definite risks, there has been a very acceptable incidence of complications resulting in a high benefit-to-risk ratio for HPN. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 2.

Fleming, C R; Witzke, D J; Beart, R W

1980-01-01

196

Venous Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation depicts the function of a venous valve. It is shown in the context of a transverse section. During systole corpuscles are shown flowing through the open valve. As the pressure reverses during diastole, the valve closes and back flow is blocked.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2009-11-20

197

[Surveillance of permanent central venous access for hemodialysis].  

PubMed

Central venous catheters have emerged as a valuable alternative for permanent access in hemodialysis. Thanks to steady improvements of materials and design they have been successfully used as bridging solution until another vascular access became available or even long term solution for patients with limited or insuffisant vascular resources. Since the use of central venous catheters is affiliated with a higher dysfunction rate and morbidity, special attention is indicated. This should include regular surveillance, clinical examination and intervention using specific methods, bacteriological exams and regular dialysis quantification. Such a constant quality control followed by strict and adapted rules for catheter handling are essential necessities to reduce catheter-related complications and assure an adequate dialysis. PMID:11810999

Bosc, J Y; Martin, K; Leray-Moragues, H; Canaud, B

2001-01-01

198

Clinical inquiries: what's the best way to manage upper extremity venous thrombosis?  

PubMed

Standard management is best: start with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin and follow with long-term therapy with a vitamin K antagonist. Some evidence supports thrombolytic therapy, placement of a superior vena cava filter, or surgical thrombectomy in selected patients. Whether to remove venous catheters during initial treatment for catheter-induced venous thrombosis remains unclear, because limited studies address this issue specifically. PMID:20714458

Rabens, Clayton; Goodemote, Patricia; Jamieson, Barbara

2010-08-01

199

Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation  

PubMed Central

Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed.

Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

2011-01-01

200

Prospective study on central venous line associated bloodstream infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo prospectively assess the incidence rates and characteristics of central venous line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in one institution.MethodsAll patients with indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 were enrolled. The medical records of patients were reviewed and information on relevant characteristics entered into a standardised questionnaire. Central laboratory records were regularly checked for

Mine Wagner; Jan Bonhoeffer; Thomas O Erb; René Glanzmann; Frank Martin Häcker; Michael Paulussen; Daniel Weibel; Ulrich Heininger

2011-01-01

201

[The use of the Export Catheter device in a patient with acute myocardial infarction for thrombotic occlusion of the venous graft on the left anterior descending coronary artery: a case report].  

PubMed

Coronary angioplasty, eventually followed by stent implantation, represents the gold standard of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treatment. Optimal reperfusion implies both patency of the infarct-related artery and a good myocardial microrevascularization with normal tissue reperfusion. The so called no-reflow phenomenon mainly occurs in the presence of highly thrombotic lesions, especially during primary angioplasty and it represents a negative prognostic factor of the outcome of AMI patients treated with angioplasty. A 77-year-old high-risk male patient, previous coronary artery bypass graft with the saphenous vein graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery for post-AMI angina in 1984, aided by 118 ambulance for anterior AMI was admitted to our cath-lab for primary coronary angioplasty. During the transport he was given aspirin i.v. 300 mg, heparin 5000 IU and abciximab (9.4 ml bolus plus infusion for 12 hours). The time of treatment (from symptom onset to first inflation) was about 90 min. Coronary angiography showed a massive thrombus occlusion of the vein graft with TIMI 0 distal flow. We employed the Export Catheter for mechanical aspiration of the occluding thrombus. The procedure was completed with direct stent implantation with good angiographic outcome. The use of thrombus aspiration and protection devices (filters or occlusive balloons) associated or not with the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers, has reduced the risk of distal embolization and of no-reflow phenomenon. PMID:16013434

Romano, Michele; Buffoli, Francesca; Lettieri, Corrado; Rosiello, Renato; Aroldi, Marco; Kuwornu, Helène; Tomasi, Luca; Baccaglioni, Nicola; Zanini, Roberto

2005-06-01

202

Principles of chronic venous access: recommendations based on the Roswell Park experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Roswell Park Cancer Institute, we have seen a dramatic increase in the need for long-term venous access. Chronic venous catheters are an indispensible part of the treatment provided to oncology patients. Cancer patients are often at higher risk for complications secondary to their underlying disease and treatment. These risks may be minimized by paying close attention to several important

Michael S. Sabel; Judy L. Smith

1997-01-01

203

American Venous Forum  

MedlinePLUS

... Complete free venous disease assessment Promoting venous and lymphatic health through education and disease awareness. Addressing your ... disease questions and needs. Learn about venous and lymphatic diseases Get a free access to the Layman's ...

204

Venous thrombosis - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... clot formation in the veins is called venous thrombosis. Venous thrombosis most commonly forms in the veins of the legs. Risk factors for venous thrombosis include prolonged bed rest or immobility, as can ...

205

Thrombolysis for central venous occlusion causing bilateral chylothorax in a patient with down syndrome.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old woman with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with severe respiratory compromise secondary to bilateral chylothorax as a result of central venous thrombosis and extensive upper-limb deep venous thrombosis. The chylothorax was successfully managed by catheter-directed thrombolysis and angioplasty of the venous occlusions. The development of venous thrombosis was likely to have been multifactorial. It is recognized that there is an increased incidence of congenital lymphatic anomalies in Down syndrome, which may have been a contributing factor in the development of chylothorax in this patient. This report illustrates the angiographic findings, demonstrates the successful vascular recanalization, and discusses the etiology and management of central venous thrombosis and chylothorax. The case is also presented to contribute to the expanding evidence in support of catheter-directed venous thrombolysis in selected clinical circumstances. PMID:15126664

Manghat, Nathan; Hancock, John; Walsh, Mark; Puckett, Mark; Noble, Richard; Travis, Simon

2004-05-01

206

Bilateral Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling by Unilateral Femoral Venous Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is a direct method of distinguishing between pituitary and ectopic ACTH secretion. We present unilateral femoral route technique avoiding bilateral femoral venous puncture using two 4F catheters into both sides of IPSS in these obese patients. Materials and Methods Unilateral femoral puncture using 9F guiding catheter allowed two 4F catheters which can be introduced in each side of inferior petrosal sinus. To reduce bleeding in the gap between 2 catheters at the diaphragm of the 9F femoral sheath, we introduced a short guidewire provided along with femoral sheath. After removing the 9F sheath after procedure, we applied manual compression as usual. We evaluated any technical difficulty and other complications including the presence of hematoma at the puncture site 1 day and 30 days later. Results Bilateral IPSS by using two 4F catheters in both inferior petrosal sinuses was possible via unilateral femoral route via 9F sheath. There was no technical difficulty introducing 4F catheters into each IPS of both sides. After removing 9F femoral sheath, there was no other complication and no hematoma at the puncture site at 1 day and 30 days later. Conclusion Unilateral femoral venous approach with a 9-French sheath can be used in IPSS. This technique allowed to pass two 4F catheters for IPSS at both sides and could avoid unnecessary bilateral femoral puncture in these obese patients without any hematoma formation after the procedure.

Park, Jee Won; Park, Soonchan; Kim, Jong Lim; Lee, Ha Young; Shin, Ji Eun; Hyun, Dong Ho; Jang, Seung Won

2011-01-01

207

Sterile hepatic abscess due to umbilical venous catheterization.  

PubMed

A preterm infant with isolated fetal ascites was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to the appearance of respiratory distress at birth. An umbilical venous catheter (UVC) was inserted. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed localization of the catheter tip in the portal vein. It was removed and replaced with a newer one. UVC tip location was confirmed with X-ray. His condition had been improving until he worsened suddenly on the sixth day of life. US showed hepatic abscess and intraabdominal hemorrhage derived from the malpositioned UVC. A drainage catheter was inserted to the abscess and paracentesis was applied. Practitioners should be cautious about any signs of UVC complications, even if true localization of the catheter tip is proven at the first application. Furthermore, if it is difficult to decide whether the catheter tip is in the right location, confirmation with US can be considered. PMID:23692799

Bayhan, Cihangül; Takc?, ?ahin; Ciftçi, Türkmen Turan; Yurdakök, Murat

2012-01-01

208

Catheter-Associated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Fungemia in an Immunocompetent Host  

PubMed Central

Rhodotorula species live in the environment, but can also colonize human epithelium, as well as respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection, especially in the past 2 decades, have noted increasing numbers of Rhodotorula infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, leading it to be considered emerging opportunistic pathogen. The major risk factors for infection were prolonged use of central venous catheters in patients with hematological and solid malignancies who are taking corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we report a case of catheter-associated fungemia due to R. mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent host. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. After 10 days, the patient developed new-onset fever confirmed to be a result of catheter-associated blood-stream infection by R. mucilaginosa. It was successfully treated by catheter removal and intravenous amphotericin B.

Kim, Hyun Ah; Hyun, Miri

2013-01-01

209

The permanent catheter.  

PubMed

An elderly woman receiving hemodialysis via a right brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula presented to the clinic for elective removal of a tunneled hemodialysis catheter inserted 5 years ago. The catheter had not been removed earlier at the patient's request. Removal was now unsuccessful in the clinic. Exploration in the operating room revealed the innominate vein had fibrosed around the length of the catheter. The procedure was abandoned, catheter cut short and the remnant left in situ. This case serves as a reminder to exercise caution if there is difficulty in removing the catheter even after the cuff is dissected free, and to remove them once a working fistula or graft is available. Failing which, the patient bears an unnecessary risk of line infection, or as in this case, the catheter may unintentionally end up what its common misnomer "perm-cath" alludes to--becoming truly "permanent." PMID:24164973

Tan, Ek Khoon; Tan, Seck Guan

2014-04-01

210

[Catheter- associated bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi].  

PubMed

Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish perspiration and sensorium deterioration. He had type 2 diabetes and antecedent of cerebrovascular accident. A double-lumen dialysis catheter was present due to chronic renal insufficiency. An episode of catheter-related bloodstream infection was documented by using Bact-Alert Blood Culture System and Differential-Time-to-Positivity Method for central venous catheter versus peripheral blood cultures (>120 min). Once removed, it was confirmed through Maki semi quantitative technique (>15 FCU). The microorganism was identified by API 20NE and Vitek 1 as Ochrobactrum anthropi. PMID:20053608

Soloaga, Rolando; Carrion, Natalia; Pidone, Juan; Guelfand, Liliana; Margari, Alejandra; Altieri, Roxana

2009-01-01

211

[Candida catheter related-blood stream infection].  

PubMed

Candida catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a biofilm-related disease, which is usually refractory because antifungals show limited effect. With medical development and increase in number of compromised hosts, CRBSI became more frequent. Candida, which is one of the opportunistic pathogens, ranks the fourth causative organism of bacteremia. The onset of bacteremia is greatly associated with the presence of catheter. Repeated blood cultures and the central venous catheter (CVC) tip culture are done for the definitive diagnosis of Candida CRBSI. Additionally serological examinations such as (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan and mannan antigen are also useful for early diagnosis. It is important for the appropriate treatment to remove CVC, which is an artificial contaminated material, and administer antifungals promptly. As to the choice of antifungals, we should also take into account the ability of antibiofilm effect of antifungals as well as immunological state of host including neutropenia, prior administration of azoles, isolated or estimated Candida species, sensitivity against antifungals, administration route, pharmacokinetics (bioavailability, metabolic and excretion pathway, distribution) and drug interaction. As to complication of Candida bacteremia, first we should check endophthalmitis, which occurs frequently and leads to the loss of eyesight, as well as infective endocarditis, arthritis, metastatic infections such as embolic pneumonia and suppurative thrombotic phlebitis of catheter insertion site. Lastly we emphasize that the appropriate treatment based on the character of Candida bacteremia and biofilm leads to favorable prognosis. PMID:24809204

Kadowaki, Masako; Shimono, Nobuyuki

2014-02-01

212

In Vitro Activity and Durability of a Combination of an Antibiofilm and an Antibiotic against Vascular Catheter Colonization  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated infections can cause severe complications and even death. Effective antimicrobial modification of catheters that can prevent device colonization has the potential of preventing clinical infection. We studied in vitro the antimicrobial activities of central venous catheters impregnated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antibiofilm agent, and a broad-spectrum antibiotic against a range of important clinical pathogens. NAC-levofloxacin-impregnated (NACLEV) catheters were also evaluated for their antiadherence activity. NACLEV catheters produced the most active and durable antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and significantly reduced colonization (P < 0.0001) by all tested pathogens compared to control catheters. These in vitro results suggest that this antimicrobial combination can potentially be used to combat catheter colonization and catheter-associated infection.

Hull, Richard A.; Stager, Charles E.; Cadle, Richard M.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

2013-01-01

213

Assessment of reused catheters.  

PubMed

Demands for health care cost containment have prompted the assessment of recycling medical devices, including catheters. The investigation of catheter reuse for effectiveness and safety began at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute in early 1994. This report provides the preliminary results from this ongoing assessment on the feasibility of catheter reuse. Burst tests were conducted to detect changes in catheter mechanical integrity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess surface changes and protein deposition after use and the subsequent cleaning process. Results of burst testing showed no significant difference in burst patterns or burst pressures between single use and unused catheters. Surface differences were observed between used and unused catheters. SEM studies detected physical changes such as scratches, gouges, cuts, and deposits on the used catheters. Unused balloon surfaces appeared to be clean and uniform compared to used ones. Residue and cracking were identified on other used devices. In conclusion, the methods used can assess various effects of recycling. A blind study of large samples of used catheters is planned to establish statistically the level and variance of structural damage to catheters during typical use. PMID:8573878

Mussivand, T; Duguay, D G; Valadares, M J; Rajagopalan, K; Mackenzie, A M; Blohon, R; Marquis, J F; Beanlands, D S; Keon, W J

1995-01-01

214

Functional study of antibodies against a fibrogenin-binding protein in Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to polyethylene catheters.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important pathogen in foreign body-associated infections. In a previous study, we showed that a surface-located fibrinogen-binding protein, termed Fbe, from S. epidermidis mediated the bacterial adherence to fibrinogen-coated surfaces in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that antibodies against Fbe can block adherence of S. epidermidis to fibrinogen-coated catheters, subcutaneously implanted catheters from rats, and peripheral venous catheters from human patients. PMID:11398109

Pei, L; Flock, J I

2001-07-01

215

Internal jugular versus subclavian vein catheterization for central venous catheterization in orthotopic liver transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications associated with central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the subclavian vein (SV) among 45 consecutive patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2000 and June 2004. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the site of central venous catheterization (IJV or SV). We recorded each patient's physical characteristics, international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time, platelet levels, number of puncture attempts, success/failure of central venous catheterization, duration of catheter placement, occurrence of catheter tip misplacement, arterial puncture, incidence of hematoma or pneumothorax, catheter-related infection, or bacterial colonization of the catheter. Senior staff anesthesiologists performed 22 SV and 23 IJV catheterizations for the 45 OLT procedures. The SV and IVJ groups both had minor coagulation abnormalities with slightly increased INR values at the time of catheterization. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to success of central venous catheterization (100% for both), numbers of attempted punctures, duration of catheter placement, and incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications. Both groups showed high frequencies of catheter tip misplacement, with right atrium as the site of misplacement in all cases. Two patients in the IJV group (8.7%) developed hematomas after accidental carotid artery puncture. The results suggest that, when performed by experienced anesthesiologists, central venous catheterization via the SV is an acceptable alternative to IJV catheterization for patients undergoing OLT. PMID:16213340

Torgay, A; Pirat, A; Candan, S; Zeyneloglu, P; Arslan, G; Haberal, M

2005-09-01

216

[Central venous catheterization in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units].  

PubMed

This descriptive, prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the process of central venous catheterization in neonatal intensive care and pediatric units; describe the variables related to study characterization, including admission unit, age, and sex; and to investigate related variables, such as catheter type, reason for insertion, number of lumens, insertion site, type of professional who performed the procedure, medication therapy infused, reason for withdrawal, length of time catheter was in situ, and mechanical and infectious complications. Data collection was performed with 82 charts in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira. In the majority of cases, the indications for catheter insertion were prolonged drug infusion and total parenteral nutrition. Removal was predominantly required due to mechanical and infectious complications. This study assessed the process of central venous catheterization with the aim of improving care provided to the neonatal and pediatric patients. PMID:24310674

Gomes, Aline Verônica de Oliveira; Nascimento, Maria Aparecida de Luca

2013-08-01

217

Care of the central venous catheterization site: the use of a transparent polyurethane film.  

PubMed

Studies of care of patients with central venous catheters report a 3-7% incidence of catheter-induced sepsis when sterile gauze and tape are used as an occlusive dressing. The technique requires that the dressing be changed three times each week for catheterization site inspection. From June 1979 to September 1980, a noncomparative evaluation of a transparent, self-adhesive, polyurethane dressing which is permeable to water vapor but not bacteria was performed. This dressing was used for the care of 100 consecutive patients with central venous catheters. Dressing life averaged 5.3 days with silicone rubber catheters and 4.3 days for polyvinyl chloride catheters. One patient developed catheter induced sepsis (incidence 1%). This dressing material: (1) is acceptable for use as a dressing of central venous catheters; (2) continuously permits inspection of the insertion sites; (3) decreases nursing hours; (4) provides a comfortable dressing which secures the catheter to the patient; and (5) is durable even when exposed to high humidity therapy devices, or when possible permits the patient to take showers. PMID:6425522

Vazquez, R M; Jarrard, M M

1984-01-01

218

Catheter-directed interventions for acute iliocaval deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with significant morbidity in the form of acute limb-threatening compromise from phlegmasia cerulea dolens, development of the postthrombotic syndrome (PTS), and even death secondary to pulmonary embolism. Initial therapy for DVT is anticoagulation, which inhibits thrombus propagation but lacks the thrombolytic properties to facilitate active thrombus removal. The existing thrombus burden can cause increased venous hypertension from occlusion as well as damage to venous valves by initiating an inflammatory response, which can ultimately result in PTS in up to half of patients on anticoagulation. The manifestations of PTS include leg pain, swelling, lifestyle-limiting venous claudication, skin hyperpigmentation, venous varicosities, and, in rare cases, venous stasis ulcers. Furthermore, patients with iliocaval DVT and large, free-floating thrombus are at an increased risk for pulmonary embolism despite adequate anticoagulation. Early attempts at thrombus removal with surgical thrombectomy or systemic thrombolysis or both demonstrated reductions in the incidence of PTS but were of limited utility owing to their invasiveness and increased risk of bleeding complications. New minimally invasive endovascular therapies, such as pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis, have been proposed, which focus on rapid thrombus removal while decreasing the rate of bleeding complications associated with systemic therapy. This article provides an overview of the current pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis protocol utilized at the Mount Sinai Hospital for acute iliocaval DVT. PMID:24840964

Amin, Vinit B; Lookstein, Robert A

2014-06-01

219

Reduction in catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill patients through a multiple system intervention.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to determine the utility of a multiple system intervention to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) in our intensive care unit (ICU). A prospective cohort study was undertaken in the medical and surgical ICU at a university hospital. We applied five measures: educational sessions about inserting and maintaining central venous catheters, skin cleaning with chlorhexidine, a checklist during catheter insertion, subclavian vein insertion and avoiding femoral insertion whenever possible, and removing unnecessary catheters. We determined the rate of CR-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days during the intervention (March to December 2007) and compared it with the rate during the same period in 2006 in which we applied only conventional preventive measures. CR-BSI was defined as the recovery of the same organism (same species, same antibiotic susceptibility profile) from catheter tip and blood cultures. We registered 4,289 patient-days and 3,572 catheter-days in the control period and 4,174 patient-days and 3,296 catheter-days in the intervention period. No significant differences in the number of patients with central venous catheters during the two periods were observed: catheters were used in 81.5% of patients during the control period and in 80.6% of patients during the intervention period. During the control period, 24 CR-BSI were diagnosed (6.7/1,000 catheter-days); during the intervention period, 8 CR-BSI were diagnosed (2.4/1,000 catheter-days) (relative risk 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16 to 0.80; p = 0.015). Nurses interrupted the procedure to correct at least one aspect when completing the checklist in 17.7% of insertions. In conclusion, a multiple system intervention applying evidence-based measures reduced the incidence of CR-BSI in our ICU. PMID:20533071

Peredo, R; Sabatier, C; Villagrá, A; González, J; Hernández, C; Pérez, F; Suárez, D; Vallés, J

2010-09-01

220

Rhodococcus Bacteremia in Cancer Patients Is Mostly Catheter Related and Associated with Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94%) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%). Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated.

Al Akhrass, Fadi; Al Wohoush, Iba; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Reitzel, Ruth; Jiang, Ying; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

2012-01-01

221

Fibrin Sheath Angioplasty: A Technique to Prevent Superior Vena Cava Stenosis Secondary to Dialysis Catheters  

PubMed Central

Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8?×?4 or 10?×?4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters.

Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

222

Performance of angiographic catheters.  

PubMed

Simple methods of quantifying selected physical characteristics of angiographic catheters, which are likely to influence their in vivo performance, have been developed. The torsional stiffness ('torque') of catheters was measured, and tip control ('manoeuvrability') in an angiographic phantom was studied. Both braided and unbraided catheters were investigated all having the 'headhunter' tip shape. Significant differences between measurements made at 20 and 37 degrees C were found. Torsional stiffness was not a good predictor of performance in the angiographic phantom. Ethylene oxide re-sterilization has only a limited effect on the physical characteristics studied. PMID:7562981

Marshall, I; Sellar, R J

1995-01-01

223

Is it feasible to diagnose catheter-related candidemia without catheter withdrawal?  

PubMed

Many bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) are not catheter-related (CR). Assessment of catheter involvement without catheter withdrawal has not been studied in candidemia. We assessed the value of conservative techniques to evaluate catheters as the origin of candidemia in patients with CVC in a prospective cohort study (superficial Gram stain and culture, Kite technique (Gram stain and culture of the first 1 cm blood drawn from the CVC), proportion of positive blood cultures (PPBCs), differential time to positivity (DTP), and minimal time to positivity (MTP)). All catheters were cultured at withdrawal. From June 2008 to January 2012, 22 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CR-candidemia (CRC) was confirmed in 10. Validity values for predicting CRC were: superficial Gram stain (S, 30%; Sp, 81.83%; PPV, 60%; NPV, 56.3%; Ac, 57.1%), superficial cultures (S, 40%; Sp, 75%; PPV, 57.1%; NPV, 60%; Ac, 59.1%), Kite Gram stain (S, 33.3%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 50%; NPV, 50%; Ac, 50%), Kite culture (S, 80%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 80%; Ac, 72.7%), PPBC (S, 50%; Sp, 41.7%; PPV, 41.7%; NPV, 50.0%; Ac, 45.5%), DTP (S, 100%; Sp, 33.3%; PPV, 55.6%; NPV, 100%; Ac, 63.6%), and MTTP (S, 70%; Sp, 58.3%; PPV, 58.3%; NPV, 70%; Ac, 63.6%). While combinations of two tests improved sensitivity and NPV, more than two tests did not improve validity values. Classic tests to assess CR-BSI caused by bacteria cannot be reliably used to diagnose CRC. Combinations of tests could be useful, but more and larger studies are required. PMID:24847039

Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Suárez-Salas, Marisol; Rojas-Wettig, Loreto; Pérez, María Jesús; Guinea, Jesús; Guembe, María; Peláez, Teresa; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio

2014-07-01

224

Persistent Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria rhizophila Related to a Damaged Central Catheter  

PubMed Central

A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair.

Becker, Karsten; Merens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnes; Dubern, Beatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

2012-01-01

225

Narrowing of the superior vena cava–right atrium junction during radiofrequency catheter ablation for inappropriate sinus tachycardia: analysis with intracardiac echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe study explored the potential for tissue swelling and venous occlusion during radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation procedures using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE).BACKGROUNDTransient superior vena cava occlusion has been reported following catheter ablation procedures for inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST). Presumably, venous occlusion could occur owing to thrombus formation or tissue swelling with resultant narrowing of the superior vena cava–right atrial (SVC-RA) junction.METHODSIntracardiac

David J Callans; Jian-Fang Ren; David Schwartzman; Charles D Gottlieb; Farooq A Chaudhry; Francis E Marchlinski

1999-01-01

226

The electrified catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catheter was designed to decrease the incidence of catheter-induced urinary infections. A randomized, controlled study was performed to assess its safety and efficacy. The study comprised 24 patients subjected to hemorrhoidectomy. The criteria for entry were a preoperative urinary pathogen count below 105 colony-forming units\\/ml urine as well as postoperative urinary retention that did not respond to conservative measures.

A. Shafik

1993-01-01

227

Pain abatement catheter system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A pain abatement catheter system particularly suited for treatment within the epidural space of a patient which includes an epidural introducer assembly, an epidural catheter and a steerable epidural guidewire assembly. The introducer assembly provides a one-piece introduction into the epidural space and includes an elongated introducer needle, an inner stylet, and a flexible outer sheath with a hub. The improved epidural catheter may be safely introduced into the epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance and can be effectively steered through tortuous anatomy, adhesions, or scar tissue for the purpose of delivering medications or contrast dyes to highly selective areas of the epidural space including nerve-root-sleeve injections. The epidural catheter/hub assembly is advanced over a soft atraumatic tip guidewire which significantly decreases the risk of device breakage, nerve root damage, or spinal cord injury. The improved catheter also increases efficacy, maneuverability, and safety in the diagnosis and intervening treatment of acute and chronic back and limb pain. The steerable epidural guidewire assembly allows for safely introducing a guidewire into the epidural space through a flexible sheath cannula and effectively maneuvering the catheter into highly specific areas while reducing the risk of epidural, nerve root, or spinal cord injury.

2006-04-04

228

[Urinary catheter biofilm infections].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

Holá, V; R?zicka, F

2008-04-01

229

Central vascular catheter infections in a Hospital of Central Italy.  

PubMed

The insertion and the permanence of central venous catheters (CVC) represent potential sources of infection contracted in hospital. The evaluation of the risk of CVC-associated infections was evaluated in a retrospective study during the period 2007-2010 in a Hospital of Central Italy. A total of 514 CVC were collected and examined by microbiological techniques and, among the examined patients, 450 CVC blood cultures were collected. Cultures were performed collecting a portion of 5-6 cm of intravenous catheters in liquid medium and spread on selective media for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts; blood specimens were obtained through peripheral venous punctures and analyzed by a commercial automated system. 308/514 (59.90%) samples were positive to the microbiological culture. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae were the main bacteria isolated. A higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria was observed in Neonatal Pathology (90.90%). The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) showed 73.10% of positive cultures with 54.12% of Gram-positive isolates. Among positive blood cultures (38%), Gram-positive bacteria were the main bacteria isolated. The high prevalence of catheter-related infections requires accurate surveillance and the assumption of preventive measures in particular during catheter insertion. PMID:24531170

Lombardi, Silvia; Scutell, Massimiliano; Felice, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Giulio, Mara; Cellini, Luigina

2014-01-01

230

Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava  

SciTech Connect

Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

Saettele, Megan R., E-mail: SaetteleM@umkc.edu [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital (United States); Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C. [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)] [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)

2013-12-15

231

Peripheral venous embolized intracardiac foreign body.  

PubMed

Embolized intracardiac foreign bodies have been previously described in the literature. Those related to iatrogenic procedures, such as catheters and pacemaker electrodes, are the most common. However, traumatic embolization of a metal foreign body is scantily described. We report a case of a peripheral venous embolized intracardiac metal foreign body after traumatic elbow injury. A review of the literature is therefore performed. Intracardiac foreign body removal must be considered when its diameter exceeds 5 mm, its shape is irregular or when symptomatic. PMID:19762420

Marcello, Pietro; García-Bordes, Luis; Méndez López, José Manuel

2009-12-01

232

Central Venous Catheter (CVC) - Related Bloodstream Infections in Pediatric Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the preliminary results of the first six-months of a randomized crossover single-site pilot study testing the use of a CVC RN team compared to standard care for the reduction of CVC-related BSIs in pediatric oncology patients. The pr...

R. Secola

2013-01-01

233

Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients  

SciTech Connect

Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

Butler, Philip J., E-mail: philip.butler@yale.edu; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G. [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

234

Clinical review: New technologies for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections  

PubMed Central

Intravascular catheters have become essential devices for the management of critically and chronically ill patients. However, their use is often associated with serious infectious complications, mostly catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), resulting in significant morbidity, increased duration of hospitalization, and additional medical costs. The majority of CRBSIs are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs), and the relative risk for CRBSI is significantly greater with CVCs than with peripheral venous catheters. However, most CVC-related infections are preventable, and different measures have been implemented to reduce the risk for CRBSI, including maximal barrier precautions during catheter insertion, catheter site maintenance, and hub handling. The focus of the present review is on new technologies for preventing infections that are directed at CVCs. New preventive strategies that have been shown to be effective in reducing risk for CRBSI, including the use of catheters and dressings impregnated with antiseptics or antibiotics, the use of new hub models, and the use of antibiotic lock solutions, are briefly described.

Cicalini, Stefania; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Petrosillo, Nicola

2004-01-01

235

Management of venous ulcers.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux, as well as venous obstruction. The most severe clinical manifestation of CVI is venous leg ulceration that can result in significant morbidity, including venous gangrene and amputation, albeit rare. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous hypertension. Diuretic therapy, although widely used, only provides short-term improvement of the edema but provides no long-term benefit. Compression therapy is the cornerstone in the management of CVI. Compression can be achieved using compression bandaging, compression pumps, or graduated compression stockings. Topical steroid creams may reduce inflammation, venous eczema, and pain in the short term, but they can be detrimental in the long run. Apligraf (a living, bilayered, cell-based product) in conjunction with compression therapy was noted to be more effective in healing venous leg ulcerations, when compared with treatment with compression therapy and zinc paste. Endovascular and surgical techniques that minimize valvular reflux and relieve venous obstruction improve venous hemodynamics, promoting wound healing. PMID:24840970

Kolluri, Raghu

2014-06-01

236

Association Between Disruption of Fibrin Sheaths Using Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Balloons and Late Onset of Central Venous Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

To compare the rates of central venous stenosis in patients undergoing hemodialysis who underwent disruption of fibrin sheath with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloons and those who underwent over-the-wire catheter exchange. This study is a retrospective review of 209 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption and 1304 over-the-wire catheter exchange procedures performed in 753 patients. Approval from the Human Investigations Committee was obtained for this study. Up to 10-year follow-up was performed. A {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare the rates of central venous stenosis after balloon disruption versus catheter exchange. A t-test was used to compare time to central venous stenosis development. Of the 753 patients in the study, 127 patients underwent balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and 626 had catheter exchange. Within the balloon disruption group, 18 (14.2%) of 127 patients subsequently developed central venous stenosis, compared with 44 (7.0%) of 626 in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Time to central venous stenosis development was approximately 3 years in both groups and not significantly different (1371 and 1010 days, P = 0.20). A total of 25.2% of patients in the balloon disruption group had four or more subsequent catheter exchanges, versus 12.6% in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). In conclusions, there is a possible association between percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and late-onset central venous stenosis. Because venography was not routinely performed in catheter exchange patients, future randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

Ni, Nina, E-mail: nina.ni@yale.edu; Mojibian, Hamid; Pollak, Jeffrey; Tal, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Tal@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

237

Congenital extensive central venous thrombosis with chylous ascites and chylothoraces.  

PubMed

We describe a case of congenital extensive central venous thrombosis presenting as polyhydramnios and massive ascites, requiring amnioreduction prenatally and refractory chylous ascites and chylothoraces postnatally. Echocardiography, computed tomography angiogram (CTA), and magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) were helpful in defining the nature and extent of the lesion. The patient underwent staged procedures of repeated abdominal paracentesis, chest drain insertion, and right internal jugular vein exploration initially. Subsequently, open thromboembolectomy from the upper venous system veins and pericardial patch angioplasty of the right internal jugular and right innominate veins were required and managed by catheter-directed thrombolysis for the residual thrombosis with successful recovery. PMID:23414902

Patel, Ramnik; Griselli, Massimo; Barrett, A M

2013-02-01

238

Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

1994-01-01

239

Percutaneous retrieval of malpositioned, kinked and unraveled guide wire under fluoroscopic guidance during central venous cannulation  

PubMed Central

The placement of central venous catheter using Seldinger's technique, remains a commonly performed procedure with its own risks and benefits. Various complications have been reported with the use of guide wire as well as catheter. We report a unique problem during subclavian vein cannulation due to guidewire malposition which led to its kinking and difficult retrieval requiring removal in fluoroscopy suit. The probable mechanism of guide wire entrapment and possible bedside management of similar problems is described.

Jalwal, Gopal Krishan; Rajagopalan, Vanitha; Bindra, Ashish; Rath, Girija Prasad; Goyal, Keshav; Kumar, Atin; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

2014-01-01

240

How to deal with dialysis catheters in the ICU setting  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation.

2012-01-01

241

Is catheter rupture rare after totally implantable access port implantation via the right internal jugular vein? Report of a case.  

PubMed

Catheter rupture after totally implantable access port (TIAP) implantation via the right internal jugular vein is thought to be very rare. We report a case of catheter rupture found 682 days after TIAP surgery in a 52-year-old woman with recurrent right breast cancer. It is possible that chronic stress at the flexure of the catheter induced by neck movements caused the catheter to rupture. Therefore, when inserting a TIAP via the right internal jugular vein, the site of venous puncture should be decided on carefully. Although a fracture of this type is rarely reported in the literature, the incidence of catheter injury of a TIAP inserted via the internal jugular vein at our institute is 1.8 %. This highlights the need to educate and caution medical staff and patients about preventing catheter fracture being caused by external factors. PMID:23732842

Nagasawa, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Chou, Hirotomi; Mekata, Eiji; Tani, Tohru

2014-07-01

242

Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed, E-mail: sarfraznazir@doctors.org.uk; Ganeshan, Arul [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Nazir, Sheraz [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

243

STS-40 MS Bagian removes catheter from Payload Specialist Gaffney's arm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-40 Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian (left) removes the central venous system catheter from Payload Specialist F. Drew Gaffney's right arm. The two crewmembers are in front of Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) module Rack 10 as they conduct this procedure associated with Experiment No. 294, Cardiovascular Adaptation to Zero Gravity.

1991-01-01

244

Improved Antibiotic-Impregnated Catheters with Extended-Spectrum Activity against Resistant Bacteria and Fungi  

PubMed Central

Minocycline-rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters (M/R CVCs) have been shown to be efficacious in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and inhibiting the biofilm adherence of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp. To expand the spectrum of antimicrobial activity, a novel second-generation M/R catheter was developed by adding chlorhexidine (CHX-M/R). CVCs and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were impregnated with CHX-M/R and compared with first-generation M/R catheters, CHX-silver sulfadiazine-treated CVCs (CHX/SS-CVCs), chlorhexidine-treated PICCs, and uncoated catheters. A biofilm catheter colonization model was used to assess the efficacy of catheters against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), P. aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata. CHX-M/R-impregnated CVCs were the only antimicrobial catheters that completely inhibited the biofilm colonization of all resistant bacterial and fungal organisms tested at all time intervals, and they were significantly superior to uncoated catheters (all P values were ?0.003). Furthermore, CHX-M/R-coated CVCs had a significantly more effective and prolonged (up to 3 weeks) antimicrobial activity against MRSA and P. aeruginosa than M/R, CHX/SS, and uncoated CVCs (P < 0.0001). Similarly, CHX-M/R-coated PICCs were also superior to M/R-coated and CHX-coated PICCs in preventing biofilms of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and Candida species (P value = 0.003 for all). Our study shows that novel CHX-M/R-coated catheters have unique properties in completely inhibiting biofilm colonization of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and fungi in a manner superior to that of M/R- and chlorhexidine-treated catheters.

Mohamed, Jamal A.; Reitzel, Ruth A.; Jiang, Ying; Raad, Sammy; Al Shuaibi, Munirah; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray Y.

2012-01-01

245

Factors influencing the RR interval during central venous injection in newborn swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Yorkshire swine, ages 7–11 days and weighing 1.4–2.8 kg were studied to determine the effects of temperature and volume\\u000a of injectate, depth of anaesthesia, position of the central venous catheter tip and vagotomy on the R-R interval after central\\u000a venous injection of saline. The swine were anaesthetized with halothane in 100 per cent oxygen and their lungs ventilated\\u000a to

J. P. Oyston; F. A. Burrows; J. Lerman

1989-01-01

246

Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula, using Scepter C Balloon Catheter: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report our experience using Onyx for embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) under dual lumen balloon catheter flow arrest. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed a superior sagittal sinus (SSS) DAVF that was supplied via multiple branches of the external carotid arteries, the right anterior cerebral arteries, and the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery. There was no anterograde venous drainage through the SSS, and venous drainage was almost retrograde through the medullary and cortical veins. Under general anesthesia, a transvenous approach was utilized to place the microcatheter close to the fistula site. After intravenous embolization with various coils, DAVF was partially occluded; Balloon catheter gained access to the DAVF via the right middle meningeal artery. We injected Onyx through the Scepter C catheter, after which DAVF was nearly completely occluded. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization is a feasible and effective approach for the management of DAVF.

Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jeonghwa

2013-01-01

247

Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula, using Scepter C Balloon Catheter: a Case Report.  

PubMed

We report our experience using Onyx for embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) under dual lumen balloon catheter flow arrest. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed a superior sagittal sinus (SSS) DAVF that was supplied via multiple branches of the external carotid arteries, the right anterior cerebral arteries, and the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery. There was no anterograde venous drainage through the SSS, and venous drainage was almost retrograde through the medullary and cortical veins. Under general anesthesia, a transvenous approach was utilized to place the microcatheter close to the fistula site. After intravenous embolization with various coils, DAVF was partially occluded; Balloon catheter gained access to the DAVF via the right middle meningeal artery. We injected Onyx through the Scepter C catheter, after which DAVF was nearly completely occluded. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization is a feasible and effective approach for the management of DAVF. PMID:24024076

Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Seo, Jeonghwa

2013-09-01

248

Use of femoral vein catheters for the assessment of perfusion parameters  

PubMed Central

The use of central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2) and arterial lactate in the diagnosis of severe tissue hypoperfusion is well established, and the optimization of these parameters is currently under investigation, particularly in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. However, the only place for deep venous puncture or the first choice for puncture is often the femoral vein. Although venous saturation obtained from blood sampling from this catheter, instead of SvcO2, has already been used in the diagnosis of severe tissue hypoperfusion, little is known about the accuracy of the results. The venous lactate in place of arterial puncture has also been used to guide therapeutic decisions. We conducted this literature review to seek evidence on the correlation and concordance of parameters obtained by collecting femoral venous blood gases in relation to SvcO2 and arterial lactate. Few studies in the literature have evaluated the use of femoral venous oxygen saturation (SvfO2) or venous lactate. The results obtained thus far demonstrate no adequate agreement between SvfO2 and SvcO2, which limits the clinical use of SvfO2. However, the apparent strong correlation between arterial and peripheral and central venous lactate values suggests that venous lactate obtained from the femoral vein could eventually be used instead of arterial lactate, although there is insufficient evidence on which to base this procedure at this time.

Marti, Yara Nishiyama; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

2013-01-01

249

Clinical guidelines on central venous catheterisation.  

PubMed

Safe and reliable venous access is mandatory in modern health care, but central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, This paper describes current Swedish guidelines for clinical management of CVCs The guidelines supply updated recommendations that may be useful in other countries as well. Literature retrieval in the Cochrane and Pubmed databases, of papers written in English or Swedish and pertaining to CVC management, was done by members of a task force of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. Consensus meetings were held throughout the review process to allow all parts of the guidelines to be embraced by all contributors. All of the content was carefully scored according to criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We aimed at producing useful and reliable guidelines on bleeding diathesis, vascular approach, ultrasonic guidance, catheter tip positioning, prevention and management of associated trauma and infection, and specific training and follow-up. A structured patient history focused on bleeding should be taken prior to insertion of a CVCs. The right internal jugular vein should primarily be chosen for insertion of a wide-bore CVC. Catheter tip positioning in the right atrium or lower third of the superior caval vein should be verified for long-term use. Ultrasonic guidance should be used for catheterisation by the internal jugular or femoral veins and may also be used for insertion via the subclavian veins or the veins of the upper limb. The operator inserting a CVC should wear cap, mask, and sterile gown and gloves. For long-term intravenous access, tunnelled CVC or subcutaneous venous ports are preferred. Intravenous position of the catheter tip should be verified by clinical or radiological methods after insertion and before each use. Simulator-assisted training of CVC insertion should precede bedside training in patients. Units inserting and managing CVC should have quality assertion programmes for implementation and follow-up of routines, teaching, training and clinical outcome. Clinical guidelines on a wide range of relevant topics have been introduced, based on extensive literature retrieval, to facilitate effective and safe management of CVCs. PMID:24593804

Frykholm, P; Pikwer, A; Hammarskjöld, F; Larsson, A T; Lindgren, S; Lindwall, R; Taxbro, K; Oberg, F; Acosta, S; Akeson, J

2014-05-01

250

Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Central Venous Access Device Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infection is a well-known complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use, with an incidence of 3–6 bloodstream infections\\u000a per 1,000 catheter days in children. Prevention of CVAD infections has improved with new strategies including the use of chlorhexidine\\u000a antisepsis, bundles, maximal sterile barriers for insertion, prophylactic locks, antibiotic impregnated catheters and tunnelling\\u000a of long-term devices. Despite these strategies, catheter-related

Asha Bowen; Jonathan Carapetis

251

Aspiration of parenteral nutrition - a previously unreported complication of central venous access in an infant: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The insertion of percutaneous central venous catheters is a common procedure in neonatal intensive care nurseries. Placement of the catheter tip in a large central vein is most desirable. Occasionally, due to difficult venous access, catheter tips are left in places that are less than ideal. Case presentation A female infant with a complicated gastroschisis developed signs of short bowel syndrome post surgery. She was treated with a combination of parenteral nutrition and enteral feeds. A central venous line was inserted through a scalp vein. The tip was noted to be in a vessel at the level of the mandible. She subsequently became unwell with large milky pharyngeal aspirates and episodes of bradycardia. Chest radiography revealed aspiration. The central venous line was removed because of presumed extravasation. This is the first reported case of parenteral nutrition extravasation into the pharynx causing aspiration in an infant. Conclusion This complication may have been prevented by recognising that the tip of the catheter was not correctly placed. When catheters are in unusual positions it may be useful to obtain a second radiograph from a different angle or an ultrasound scan to confirm the positioning of the catheter tip.

Jardine, Luke A; Inglis, Garry DT; Davies, Mark W

2008-01-01

252

Catheter associated urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.

2014-01-01

253

Mesenteric venous thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the intestine. ... Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a clot that blocks blood flow a mesenteric vein, one of two veins through which blood leaves ...

254

Feasibility and Safety of Endovascular Stripping of Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous stripping of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) in case of catheter-related sleeve and to report a technique to free the catheter tip from vessel wall adherence. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 stripping procedures in 35 patients (14 men, 40%, and 21 women, 60%, mean age 53 {+-} 14 years) were reviewed. Totally implantable venous access devices were implanted because of malignancy in most cases (85.7%). Catheter-related sleeve was confirmed as cause of persistent catheter dysfunction despite instillation of thrombolytics. A technique to mobilize the catheter tip from the vessel wall was used when stripping with the snare catheter was impossible. Technical success, complication rate, and outcome were noted. Results: A total of 55.9% (n = 19) of the 34 technically successful procedures (91.9%) could be done with the snare catheter. In 15 cases (44.1%), additional maneuvers to free the TIVAD's tip from the vessel wall were needed. Success rate was not significantly lower before (72.4%) than after (96.7%) implementation of the new technique (P = 0.09). No complications were observed. Follow-up was available in 67.6% of cases. Recurrent catheter dysfunction was found in 17 TIVADs (78.3%) at a mean of 137.7 days and a median of 105 days. Conclusions: Stripping of TIVADs is technically feasible and safe, with an overall success rate of 91.9%. Additional endovascular techniques to mobilize the distal catheter tip from the wall of the superior vena cava or right atrium to allow encircling the TIVAD tip with the snare catheter may be needed in 44.1% of cases.

Heye, Sam, E-mail: sam.heye@uzleuven.be; Maleux, Geert [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Goossens, G. A. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Surgical Oncology (Belgium); Vaninbroukx, Johan [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Jerome, M.; Stas, M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Surgical Oncology (Belgium)

2012-06-15

255

Upper extremity venous aneurysm as a source of pulmonary emboli.  

PubMed

Spontaneous venous aneurysms of the upper extremities and neck are rare and typically asymptomatic. We present the first reported case of a symptomatic, primary upper extremity venous aneurysm in a patient who initially presented with pulmonary emboli. A 22-year-old patient was admitted with chest pain, dyspnea, and a right axillary mass. Computed tomography revealed diffuse, bilateral pulmonary emboli in addition to a thrombosed axillary vein. Venography confirmed the diagnosis, and also revealed a subclavian vein stenosis at the crossing of the first rib. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and venoplasty were performed with adequate flow restoration, also revealing the presence of a previously thrombosed proximal brachial/distal axillary venous aneurysm. Hematologic testing showed a positive and persistent lupus anticoagulant. The patient declined surgical reconstruction and opted for long-term anticoagulation. At 24 months, the patient continued to remain symptom-free. PMID:23380560

Wallace, Justin R; Baril, Donald T; Chaer, Rabih A

2013-02-01

256

The problem of catheter encrustation  

PubMed Central

Catheter encrustation was studied in a group of long-stay hospital patients using both latex and silicone catheters. Moisture accounted for 80% by weight of the encrusted material with both catheters. Of the dry weight 90% was composed of protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and uric acid. No relationship was found between the amounts of these substances in the urine and in the encrusted material. High levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were found in the encrusted material from patients infected with Proteus organisms. No direct relationship was found between the duration of catheter drainage and the degree of encrustation, and there was a variation in patient susceptibility to encrustation irrespective of the catheter material. There was significantly less encrustation associated with silicone catheters. ImagesFIG. 2

Bruce, A. W.; Sira, S. S.; Clark, A. F.; Awad, S. A.

1974-01-01

257

Simple external manual manoeuvres to pass the radiofrequency catheter through a bending segment of a saphenous vein.  

PubMed

Smooth passage of a catheter through a varicose saphenous vein during radiofrequency ablation may prove a challenging task. Various types of venous bending in the transverse and sagittal planes and their combinations within the saphenous compartment may be pretty well appreciated by ultrasound examination. Several simple manual manoeuvres like stretching, pushing or lifting along with limb re-positioning may often help the surgeon to advance the catheter through the segments by temporarily changing their special configuration. In this way the number of patients otherwise considered unsuitable for endovascular catheter procedures like radiofrequency or laser ablation may be considerably reduced. PMID:22490723

Schuller-Petrovi?, S; Adamic, M; Pavlovi?, M D

2013-06-01

258

Catheter and method of manufacture  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A blood vessel catheter includes a dual lumen catheter tube and a bolus insert attached to the distal end of the tube. First and second ports are formed between the nose section of the bolus and distal end openings of first and second lumens in the tube. The catheter is fabricated by insert molding a thermoplastic bolus onto the distal end of a thermoplastic tube.

2011-08-02

259

Catheter-Induced Thrombosis of the Superior Vena Cava  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in clinical practice. One of the most dangerous complications associated with their use is symptomatic or asymptomatic thrombosis (T), sometimes associated with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, resulting from impaired venous drainage. The right heart clots can induce an increased risk of mortality due the potential pulmonary embolism (PE). We report a case of asymptomatic 83-year-old woman in whom the thrombosis was detected after an echocardiogram. Echocardiography demonstrated a cardiac mass, and the T was confirmed by (magnetic resonance imaging) MRI. The clinical scenario, a high index of suspicion and routine use of echocardiogram in patients with CVC, can lead to a correct diagnosis, preventing dangerous complications.

Venturini, Elio; Becuzzi, Lucia; Magni, Lucia

2012-01-01

260

Blind axillar venous access.  

PubMed

The axillary vein has been suggested as an alternate site for venous access to avoid the "subclavian crush phenomenon. " Many techniques have been used to access this structure. They include complicated anatomical landmarks, contrast venography, Doppler, and ultrasound. A simple technique using the basic anatomical landmark of the deltopectoral groove and a blind venous stick has been used successfully in 165 of 168 consecutive pacemaker and ICD procedures; there were only three failures. These required an alternate approach. With a thorough knowledge of the regional anatomy, the axillary vein can be safely used as a primary site of venous access. PMID:10456639

Belott, P H

1999-07-01

261

Venous leg ulcers.  

PubMed

Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers and their incidence is increasing as the population ages. The diagnosis should be confirmed with tests for venous insufficiency and an assessment of arterial disease determined by a Doppler Ankle-Brachial ratio. The most important component of venous ulcer treatment is the use of high compression bandages for pitting edema. Non-healing ulcers may require a skin biopsy of the edge to confirm the diagnosis, medical treatment for woody fibrosis, adjustment of compression therapy, or use of a skin substitute or biological preparation. PMID:9866605

Sibbald, R G

1998-09-01

262

In vitro oxyhaemoglobin saturation measurements in haemoglobin solutions using fibreoptic pulmonary artery catheters.  

PubMed

We compared in vitro oxyhaemoglobin saturations using two pulmonary artery catheters (catheter SO2), with oxyhaemoglobin saturations (SO2) measured by the IL282 co-oximeter and derived partial oxyhaemoglobin saturations (partial SO2) at different oxygen tensions (PO2) in six solutions: whole blood, 50:50 mixture of whole blood and Plasmalyte A (haemodiluted blood), 50:50 mixture of whole blood and 8% pyridoxylated haemoglobin-polyoxyethylene (PHP) conjugate (WB-PHP), 75:25 mixture of 8% PHP and Plasmalyte A solution (PHP66), 50:50 mixture of 8% PHP and Plasmalyte A solution (PHP44) and stroma-free haemoglobin solution (SFH). Calculated P50 values (PO2 vs SO2) were 3.79, 3.58, 3.49, 3.15, 3.04 and 2.07 kPa, respectively. However, if partial SO2 was used the curves were shifted to the left, reducing P50. Catheter SO2 correlated well with SO2 in whole blood (r2 > 0.99 for both catheters), haemodiluted blood (r2 > 0.98 for both catheters) and WB-PHP solution (r2 = 0.94 for both catheters). In PHP44 (r2 = 0.64 and r2 = 0.57), PHP66 (r2 = 0.40 for the Oximetrix and r2 = 0.25 for the Edwards catheter) and SFH solutions (r2 = 0.33 for the Oximetrix and r2 = 0.22 for the Edwards catheter) both catheters performed poorly. We conclude that mixed venous oxyhaemoglobin saturations measured by oximetric pulmonary artery catheters are inaccurate in the presence of haemoglobin solutions. For accuracy a multi-wavelength co-oximeter should be used if blood containing PHP or SFH is to be analysed. PMID:7696072

Kong, C S; Ryder, I G; Kahn, R; Gregory, L; Mackenzie, C F

1995-02-01

263

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... sterile sheet. • Clean the patient’s skin with an antiseptic cleanser before putting in the catheter. • Clean their ... gloves, and clean the catheter opening with an antiseptic solution before using the catheter to draw blood ...

264

Postintervention duration of anticoagulation in venous surgery.  

PubMed

For a substantial proportion of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), current treatment strategies are suboptimal and new treatment options are needed. Especially for the group of patients who are at the highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, new treatment modalities such as catheter-directed thrombolysis and additional stenting are being investigated. With current clinical studies addressing new technical options, the medical management of patients following these interventions deserves attention. The duration of anticoagulant treatment following surgical or radiological interventions for DVT seems not to be influenced by the presence of a venous stent. According to recent ACCP 2012 guidelines the anticoagulant management in patients who have had any method of thrombus removal performed, the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal is recommended (Grade 1B). In the acute phase of thrombosis, irrespective of the technique and whether or not stenting is applied, immediate anticoagulation following the procedure is pertinent to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis and thrombus propagation. The long-term treatment duration after venous interventions therefore may be tailored based on common risk factors for recurrent thrombosis and the individual risk for bleeding. Selected thrombophilia factors, d-dimer assessment and residual venous thrombosis provide markers for recurrent DVT. Currently, vitamin K antagonists) provide the main anticoagulants for (prolonged) anticoagulation, while the new oral anticoagulants emerge as promising alternatives. In case prolonged anticoagulation after unprovoked DVT is not indicated, cardiovascular risk management is warranted because of an increased rate of arterial thrombotic events after DVT; aspirin may be indicated as secondary prevention against recurrent thrombosis (while providing primary prevention against arterial thrombosis). PMID:23482544

Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Prins, M H; Wittens, C H A; ten Cate, H

2013-03-01

265

Treatment of chronic venous insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux.\\u000a Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous valvular reflux, thereby inhibiting the ensuing pathologic inflammatory\\u000a process. Compression therapy using pumps, bandaging, and\\/or graded compression stockings is the mainstay of treatment for\\u000a CVI. Compression therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing venous

Suman W. Rathbun; Angelia C. Kirkpatrick

2007-01-01

266

Symptomatic Central Venous Stenosis in a Hemodialysis Patient Leading to Loss of Arteriovenous Access: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Central venous stenosis is a well-described sequel to the placement of hemodialysis catheters in the central venous system. The presence of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula or graft often leads to severe venous dilatation, arm edema and recurrent infections. Vascular access thrombosis, compromised blood flow and inadequate dialysis delivery are dreaded complications that eventually render the access unusable. We report the case of a 58-year-old male hemodialysis patient who developed symptomatic central venous stenosis to illustrate the problem and review the pertinent literature. This patient developed severe enlargement of upper extremity veins due to central venous stenosis. The symptoms were refractory to multiple endovascular interventions and eventually necessitated ligation of his arteriovenous fistula. Central venous stenosis remains a pervasive problem despite advances in our understanding of its etiology and recognition of the enormity of its consequences. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, prevention is better than cure.

Tatapudi, Vasishta S.; Spinowitz, Noam; Goldfarb, David S.

2014-01-01

267

Deep Venous Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Deep venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly ... things you can do to prevent deep vein thrombosis include: Wear the pressure stockings your doctor prescribed. ...

268

Doppler evaluation of central venous lines in the superior vena cava.  

PubMed

Thrombus formation in the superior vena cava (SVC) complicates the use of central venous catheters. Visualizing the thrombus by two-dimensional echo-cardiography is often difficult. Flow in the SVC can be recorded by using color flow Doppler examinations. Hence SVC flow was evaluated by color flow Doppler in 12 patients before and within 48 hours of central venous catheters. Five patients with catheters in their SVCs, with suspected thrombus or obstruction to the SVC, were also studied. The SVC flow in the subjects before catheter placement was characterized by two distinct peaks, respiratory variability, and maximal velocities between 0.5 and 1.5 m/sec; these were unchanged by the catheters. The five patients with thrombus or obstruction had turbulent flow, loss of a distinct biphasic profile, and increased velocity downstream to the thrombus and decreased velocity upstream. It appears that Doppler study is a worthwhile adjunct to two-dimensional echocardiography in the evaluation of catheter-related thrombus, and that an altered SVC flow profile with increased velocity suggests thrombus formation or obstruction or both. PMID:8501547

Hammerli, M; Meyer, R A

1993-06-01

269

Ventricular Anatomy and Shunt Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functioning shunt must have a patent proximal catheter within the cerebrospinal fluid space. Occlusion with choroid plexus or ependymal tissue might be expected if these tissues are in contact with the proximal inlets. This study was undertaken to define the intraventricular distances available for a standard-placement shunt cather and to compare the available distances with actual ventricular catheter inlets.

Bruce A. Kaufman; T. S. Park

1999-01-01

270

Venous ulcer review  

PubMed Central

Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation.

Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

2011-01-01

271

Catheter-Malposition-Induced Cardiac Tamponade via Contrast Media Leakage During Computed Tomography Study  

SciTech Connect

We present a rare case of a central venous catheter-malposition-induced life-threatening cardiac tamponade as a result of computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement in an infant with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiographs and CT study with catheter perforation through the right atrial wall and extravasation of the contrast medium into the pericardium, leading to cardiac tamponade and subsequent circulatory collapse. Two hours after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient gradually resumed normal hemodynamic status.

Liang, C.-D. [Chang Gung University (China)], E-mail: cdliang@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Ko, S.-F.; Huang, C.-F.; Chien, S.J.; Tiao, M.M. [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Radiology (China)

2005-12-15

272

Stepwise Angioplasty and Catheter Directed Thrombolysis for Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicated with Floating Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava  

PubMed Central

Recently, we experienced a rare case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome. The case was a 57-year-old female patient. Venous return had been severely disturbed by the membranous occlusion of the IVC and a giant floating thrombus. After catheter directed thrombolysis combined with stepwise percutaneous angioplasty, the IVC was recanalized sufficiently and the thrombus was completely resolved.

2014-01-01

273

Stepwise angioplasty and catheter directed thrombolysis for budd-Chiari syndrome complicated with floating thrombus in inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

Recently, we experienced a rare case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome. The case was a 57-year-old female patient. Venous return had been severely disturbed by the membranous occlusion of the IVC and a giant floating thrombus. After catheter directed thrombolysis combined with stepwise percutaneous angioplasty, the IVC was recanalized sufficiently and the thrombus was completely resolved. PMID:24995066

Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Higashi, Shigeki

2014-01-01

274

Advanced management of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis: emergency department and beyond.  

PubMed

Recent attention to the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolism has included a call to action from the surgeon general and new guidelines from various specialty organizations. The standard of care for treatment of deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department (ED), supported by the 2008 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines, involves initiation of anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin, pentasaccharide, or unfractionated heparin. For selected appropriate patients with extensive acute proximal deep venous thrombosis, the ACCP guidelines now recommend thrombolysis in addition to anticoagulation to reduce not only the risk of pulmonary embolism but also the risk of subsequent postthrombotic syndrome and recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Postthrombotic syndrome is a potentially debilitating chronic cluster of lower-extremity symptoms occurring in 20% to 50% of deep venous thrombosis patients subsequent to the acute insult, sometimes not until years later. A strategy of early thrombus burden reduction or frank removal might reduce the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome, as per natural history studies, venous thrombectomy data, observations after systemic and catheter-directed thrombolysis, and the still-limited number of randomized trials of catheter-directed thrombolysis (with anticoagulation) versus anticoagulation alone. Contemporary invasive (endovascular) treatments mitigate the drawbacks historically associated with thrombolytic approaches by means of intrathrombus delivery of drugs with greater fibrin specificity and lower allergenicity, followed by mechanical dispersion to accelerate lysis and then aspiration of remaining drug and clot debris. With a 2016 target completion date, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute--sponsored Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis trial is comparing the safety and efficacy, in terms of both deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome parameters, of the most evolved pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis devices versus standard anticoagulation therapy alone. This article reviews the grounds for use of adjunctive thrombolysis in patients with acute proximal deep venous thrombosis and begins to identify types of deep venous thrombosis patients encountered in the ED who might benefit most from multidisciplinary consideration of early referral for possible endovascular therapy. PMID:21306786

Pollack, Charles V

2011-06-01

275

Accidental superior vena cava access to central venous system lately disclosed by thoracotomy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who underwent hemicolectomy for colon cancer and subsequent hepatic metastasectomy for liver metastases. Right percutaneous infraclavicular subclavian venous port catheterization was performed during the initial operation for chemotherapy. She received chemotherapy after each operation with no reported complications. During a right thoracotomy for lung metastases 2 years after the catheter placement, we noticed the catheter perforating the right subclavian vein and directly entering the superior vena cava. To prevent hemorrhaging during catheter removal, we initially performed the lung metastasectomy, after which we decided to intrathoracically remove the catheter. No complication was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first of its kind to be reported in the published literature. PMID:24368184

Issaka, Adamu; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yuksel, Mustafa

2014-05-01

276

Catheter ablation in supraventricular tachycardia.  

PubMed

The evolution of catheter ablation for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardias represents a major advance in the management of cardiac arrhythmias. Excellent results in the majority of patients undergoing the procedure, together with a low rate of early complications and a brief hospitalization, make catheter ablation a highly cost-effective permanent cure. At present, however, its place in relation to alternate therapies in the management of supraventricular tachycardias has not been clearly established owing to unresolved risk-benefit issues. Continuing technical advances will likely enable catheter ablation to be successfully applied to a broader range of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:7598475

Deshpande, S; Jazayeri, M; Dhala, A; Blanck, Z; Sra, J; Bremner, S; Akhtar, M

1995-01-01

277

Interventional treatment of venous thromboembolism: a review.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the third most common cardiovascular disease after coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the general population. Full dose anticoagulation is the standard therapy for VTE, both for the acute and the long-term phase. The latest guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians recommend treatment with a full-dose of unfractioned heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or thrombolysis for most patients with objectively confirmed VTE. Catheter-guided thrombolysis and trombosuction are interventional approaches that should be used only in selected populations; interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with a filter can be performed to prevent life-threatening PE in patients with VTE and contraindications to anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications during antithrombotic treatment, or VTE recurrences despite optimal anticoagulation. In this review we summarize the currently available literature regarding interventional approaches for VTE treatment (vena cava filters, catheter-guided thrombolysis, thrombosuction) and we discuss current evidences on their efficacy and safety. Moreover, the appropriate indications for their use in daily clinical practice are reviewed. PMID:22119500

Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio; Salmi, Raffaella; Duce, Rita; Gallerani, Massimo

2012-04-01

278

Infection-Resistant Continuous Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of bonding of anionic antibiotics by treatment with cationic surfactants were applied to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) catheters. The elution of 14C-penicillin from tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) treated silicone elastomer catheters in dialysis solution was biphasic, with 95% dissociated from the catheter by 48 h. Forty percent of the TDMAC left the catheter surface during the initial 2

Anthony P. Donetz; Janet Baxter; Richard A. Harvey; Ralph S. Greco

1987-01-01

279

Cost effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in the intensive care unit: addressing uncertainty in the decision  

PubMed Central

Introduction Some types of antimicrobial-coated central venous catheters (A-CVC) have been shown to be cost effective in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, not all types have been evaluated, and there are concerns over the quality and usefulness of these earlier studies. There is uncertainty amongst clinicians over which, if any, A-CVCs to use. We re-evaluated the cost effectiveness of all commercially available A-CVCs for prevention of CR-BSI in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods We used a Markov decision model to compare the cost effectiveness of A-CVCs relative to uncoated catheters. Four catheter types were evaluated: minocycline and rifampicin (MR)-coated catheters, silver, platinum and carbon (SPC)-impregnated catheters, and two chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-coated catheters; one coated on the external surface (CH/SSD (ext)) and the other coated on both surfaces (CH/SSD (int/ext)). The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained and the expected net monetary benefits were estimated for each. Uncertainty arising from data estimates, data quality and heterogeneity was explored in sensitivity analyses. Results The baseline analysis, with no consideration of uncertainty, indicated all four types of A-CVC were cost-saving relative to uncoated catheters. MR-coated catheters prevented 15 infections per 1,000 catheters and generated the greatest health benefits, 1.6 quality-adjusted life years, and cost savings (AUD $130,289). After considering uncertainty in the current evidence, the MR-coated catheters returned the highest incremental monetary net benefits of AUD $948 per catheter; however there was a 62% probability of error in this conclusion. Although the MR-coated catheters had the highest monetary net benefits across multiple scenarios, the decision was always associated with high uncertainty. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that the cost effectiveness of using A-CVCs within the ICU is highly uncertain. Policies to prevent CR-BSI amongst ICU patients should consider the cost effectiveness of competing interventions in the light of this uncertainty. Decision makers would do well to consider the current gaps in knowledge and the complexity of producing good quality evidence in this area.

Halton, Kate A; Cook, David A; Whitby, Michael; Paterson, David L; Graves, Nicholas

2009-01-01

280

Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin\\/Hemagglutinin in the Pathogenesis of Intravascular Catheter-Associated Infection in a Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm production is thought to be a crucial factor in the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a bio- material-based infection. A rat central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was used to assess the im- portance of biofilm production, mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin\\/hemagglutinin (PIA\\/HA), in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection. PIA\\/HA-positive S. epidermidis 1457 was signifi- cantly more

MARK E. RUPP; JOSEPH S. ULPHANI; PAUL D. FEY; DIETRICH MACK

1999-01-01

281

Measuring the efficacy of antimicrobial catheters.  

PubMed

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are a major cause of morbidity in hospitals worldwide. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances such as silver alloy and nitrofurazone were introduced to reduce CAUTI. A previous Cochrane review reported that antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters may reduce the number of asymptomatic bacteriuria present but it was uncertain whether they reduced CAUTI. The Catheter Trial compared these and standard catheters for short-term use in NHS hospitals. Results showed silver alloy-coated catheters did not reduce symptomatic CAUTI compared with standard catheters; nitrofurazone-impregnated catheters had borderline clinical benefit in reducing symptomatic CAUTI. The findings do not support the routine use of antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters for patients in hospital who need short-term catheters. Instead, health professionals should focus on simple preventive strategies and reducing the need for catheterisation. PMID:24371878

Makuta, Gladys; Chrysafis, Manolis; Lam, Thomas

282

Aortic and venous valve for percutaneous insertion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present in vitro and in vivo experimental evaluation of a new, artificial, bicuspid, aortic and venous valve. Valves were constructed from square stents with barbs covered by porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS). A valve 15 mm in diameter was tested in a flow model (2.5 l/min) with pressure measurement. A 100-ml rubber bag attached to a side arm of the flow model simulated heart ejection fraction. In acute (n=6) and short-term (n=3) experiments conducted in four swine and four dogs, valves ranging from 16-28 mm in diameter were placed into the ascending aorta through 10 F sheaths; three were placed subcoronary and six in a supracoronary position. Function and stability of the valves were studied with pressure measurements and aortograms. Three short-term animals were sacrificed for gross and histologic evaluation at one, two and four weeks respectively. In an acute experiment, venous valves with four barbs were placed into the IVC through an 8 F guiding catheter in three dogs. For longer-term testing, valves were placed into the IVCs and iliac veins of three young swine. The animals were followed up after two weeks with venograms, then were sacrificed for gross and histologic evaluation. PMID:20156026

Pavcnik, D; Uchida, B T; Timmermans, H; Corless, C L; Keller, F S; Rösch, J

2000-01-01

283

The venous anatomy of the abdominal wall for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Despite improving outcomes, venous problems in the harvest of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps remain the more common vascular complications. However, it is apparent that the venous anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall has not been described to the same extent as the arterial anatomy. Cadaveric dissection studies of venous anatomy frequently lack the detail of their arterial counterparts. Venous valves complicate retrograde injection, resulting in poor quality studies with limited anatomical information. Methods The current manuscript comprises a review of the literature, highlighting key features of the anatomy of the venous drainage of the abdominal wall integument, with particular pertinence to DIEP flaps. Both cadaveric and clinical studies are included in this review. Our own cadaveric and in-vivo studies were undertaken and included in detail in this manuscript, with the cadaveric component utilizing direct catheter venography and the in-vivo studies were undertaken using preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA), mapping in-vivo venous flow. Results Several key features of the venous anatomy of the abdominal wall render it different to other regions, and are of particular importance to DIEP flap transfer. Conclusions The cause of venous compromise is multi-factorial, with perforator diameter, midline crossover, and deep-superficial venous communications all important. Venous cadaveric studies as well as clinical CTA preoperatively can identify these anomalies.

Ashton, Mark W

2012-01-01

284

Developmental venous anomalies--two cases with venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are generally considered the most common vascular anomalies. They are usually asymptomatic and display a benign clinical course. We report two cases of thrombosed developmental venous anomalies. Both patients developed venous infarcts with haemorrhagic transformation from the thrombosed DVA, and 1 patient needed decompressive craniectomy. PMID:22639869

Teo, Mario; St George, Jerome; Jenkins, Sarah; Littlechild, Patricia

2012-12-01

285

Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist, part II: cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, coronary venous system.  

PubMed

Cardiac Ganglia, Phrenic Nerve, Coronary Venous System.?There is an increasing need for invasive electrophysiologists to appreciate the exact anatomy of the epicardial space and the coronary veins. The location of the epicardial fat, the complementary relationship with the main cardiac veins, and the location of sensitive structures (arteries, phrenic nerve, esophagus) have become required knowledge for electrophysiologists, and accessing the epicardial space with this thorough knowledge of the pericardial sinuses and recesses is essential to allow radiographic correlation during catheter manipulation. In this review, we briefly describe the anatomy of the pericardial space and then discuss the specific correlation for the invasive electrophysiologist, highlighting epicardial access, catheter navigation, and avoidance of collateral injury, with specific attention to the important recesses of the pericardial space, their regional anatomy, and radiographic correlation when navigating catheters to these locations. We also discuss the anatomy of the main cardiac veins in the context of catheter mapping and ablation of the epicardial substrate through the venous system and without subxiphoid pericardial access. In part II of this series we discuss the detailed regional anatomy of the cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, and coronary venous system. PMID:20807274

Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Habib, Ammar; Kapa, Suraj; Bisco, Susan E; Venkatachalam, K L; Asirvatham, Samuel J

2011-01-01

286

Chylopericardium and chylothorax, resulting from a catheter to the left subclavian vein: An autopsy report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 47-year-old woman with long-standing myelofibrosis and thrombocytosis whose spleen was removed 9 days prior to death, died of a heart tamponade. Subsequent autopsy revealed the development of chylothorax and chylopericardium due to the existence of a thrombus obstructing the ostium of the left thoracic duct, as a consequence of the particular location of a central venous catheter in

F. Smedts; K. Kubat; H. Chande

1989-01-01

287

Large eccentric laser angioplasty catheter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to recent demand for increased debulking of large diameter coronary vascular segments, a large eccentric catheter for excimer laser coronary angioplasty has been developed. The outer tip diameter is 2.0 mm and incorporates approximately 300 fibers of 50 micron diameter in a monorail- type percutaneous catheter. The basic function of the device is to ablate a coronary atherosclerotic lesion with 308 nm excimer laser pulses, while passing the tip of the catheter through the lesion. By employing multiple passes through the lesion, rotating the catheter 90 degrees after each pass, we expect to create luminal diameters close to 3 mm with this device. Design characteristics, in-vitro testing, and initial clinical experience is presented.

Taylor, Kevin D.; Reiser, Christopher

1997-05-01

288

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

289

Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing  

MedlinePLUS

To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... and under your nails. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

290

[Superficial venous malformations].  

PubMed

Superficial venous malformations are part of a larger group now called superficial vascular anomalies and previously known as angiomas. These include vascular tumors or infantile hemangioma, low-flow vascular malformations (capillary, lymphatic, and superficial venous malformations) and high-flow vascular malformations (arteriovenous malformations). Some of these lesions are complex. This classification facilitates their multidisciplinary therapeutic management. Embolization is an effective curative treatment for malformations of small and intermediate size. The objective for large or complex malformations is to restore anatomic function and improve cosmetic results. PMID:20304597

Barbier, Charlotte; Martin, Arnaud; Papagiannaki, Chrisanti; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Lorette, Gérard; Herbreteau, Denis

2010-04-01

291

Comparison of Tesio and LifeCath twin permanent hemodialysis catheters: the VyTes randomized trial.  

PubMed

Purpose: Central venous catheters for maintenance hemodialysis (HD) are designed to attain the required dialysis dose through sustained high blood flow rates (BFR). The authors studied the immediate and long-term performance and complications of two twin-catheter systems, the Tesio catheter (TC) and the LifeCath Twin (LC), to inform clinical practice.Methods: This single-center randomized controlled parallel-group trial allocated 80 incident patients (1:1) to receive either a TC (MedComp) or LC (Vygon). Patients were dialyzed to target BFR 450 mL/min and followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was achievement of target BFR during the first HD session. Secondary outcomes included thrombotic dysfunction, displacement and catheter-related infection. Catheter dysfunction was defined by a BFR ? 250 mL/min.Results: More LCs reached the primary endpoint (44% vs. 10%, p=0.001) delivering a higher BFR (mean 383±82 vs. 277±79 mL/min, p<0.001). Significant differences in BFR persisted until the fourth dialysis session. Rates of catheter-related bacteremia (0.40 vs. 0.51/1,000 catheter days, p=0.7) and exit site infection were similar between groups (0.24 vs. 0.09/1,000 catheter days, p=0.4). Overall rates of catheter dysfunction were 2.8/1,000 catheter days (95% CI 2.1-3.5), with no differences in thrombolytic lock use although the LC group required more thrombolytic infusions (6 vs. 0, p=0.01).Conclusions: The LC can deliver greater BFRs in the first three HD sessions following insertion although this did not translate into differences in performance, dialysis adequacy or complication rates with long-term use. Both catheter types can consistently deliver high BFRs over an extended period of time. PMID:24500851

Power, Albert; Hill, Peter; Singh, Seema K; Ashby, Damien; Taube, David; Duncan, Neill

2014-05-01

292

Evaluation of prosthetic venous valves, fabricated by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) remains a major health problem worldwide. Direct venous valve surgical repair and venous segment transplantation are clinical options; however, they are highly invasive procedures. The objectives of this study were to fabricate prosthetic venous valves (PVVs) by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of CVI, and evaluate their hydrodynamic characteristics in vitro at the same locations and under the same flow conditions. The PVVs consisted of polyurethane fiber scaffolds attached to a cobalt-chromium stent. PVVs with two different valve-leaflet configurations were compared: biomimetic PVV (bPVV) and open PVV (oPVV). A balloon catheter was used to implant the devices in a poly(vinyl chloride) tube and the column outlet was set at a height of 100 cm above the test valve to simulate the elevation of the heart above a distal vein valve while standing; 50 wt% glycerin solution was used as the test fluid. The devices were evaluated for antegrade flow, effect of ankle flexion, and stagnation zones around the valve leaflets. During sudden hydrostatic backpressure, little leakage and constant peripheral pressure were observed for the devices; under forward pulsatile pressure of 0-4 mmHg, to simulate the effect of breathing, the oPVV had a higher flow rate than the bPVV. With regard to the effect of ankle flexion, the oPVV was functionless. Moreover, the stagnation zone around the oPVV valve leaflets was larger than that around the bPVV valve leaflets. These results suggest that the bPVV would be clinically suitable for percutaneous treatment of CVI. PMID:21789716

Moriyama, Masaki; Kubota, Shinichiro; Tashiro, Hideo; Tonami, Hiroyuki

2011-12-01

293

Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections: an appraisal of developments in designing an infection-resistant 'dream dialysis-catheter'.  

PubMed

With the increasing number of elderly, diabetics and debilitated patients being accepted for haemodialysis (HD), the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) as vascular access has become more widespread, with an inevitable inherent risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and ensuing mortality. No reliable plans for the effective management of CRBSI without actually sacrificing vascular access sites are presently available. Therefore, the onus really falls on renal physicians to make effective use of the established supportive guiding principles, practices, policies and programs to prevent CRBSI among HD patients. A huge body of research in polymer industry has aimed at alterations of physical, chemical, biological and immunological properties of CVCs to prevent the bacterial colonization of catheters. Developing an infection-resistant dialysis catheter has been an elusive dream. This article analyses the current state-of-the-art strategies aimed at preventing CRBSI and also reviews the progress made to date, in the direction of development of a 'bioactive' thrombosis and infection-resistant dialysis catheter. PMID:15958036

Saxena, Anil K; Panhotra, Bodh R

2005-06-01

294

Impact of catheter antimicrobial coating on species-specific risk of catheter colonization: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial catheters have been utilized to reduce risk of catheter colonization and infection. We aimed to determine if there is a greater than expected risk of microorganism-specific colonization associated with the use of antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVCs). Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 21 randomized, controlled trials comparing the incidence of specific bacterial and fungal species colonizing antimicrobial CVCs and standard CVCs in hospitalized patients. Results The proportion of all colonized minocycline-rifampin CVCs found to harbor Candida species was greater than the proportion of all colonized standard CVCs found to have Candida. In comparison, the proportion of colonized chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine CVCs specifically colonized with Acinetobacter species or diphtheroids was less than the proportion of similarly colonized standard CVCs. No such differences were found with CVCs colonized with staphylococci. Conclusion Commercially-available antimicrobial CVCs in clinical use may become colonized with distinct microbial flora probably related to their antimicrobial spectrum of activity. Some of these antimicrobial CVCs may therefore have limited additional benefit or more obvious advantages compared to standard CVCs for specific microbial pathogens. The choice of an antimicrobial CVC may be influenced by a number of clinical factors, including a previous history of colonization or infection with Acinetobacter, diphtheroids, or Candida species.

2012-01-01

295

Supraventricular tachycardia precipitated by a peripherally inserted central catheter in an infant with gastroschisis.  

PubMed

Gastroschisis is a common congenital abdominal wall defect requiring surgical correction in early neonatal life. The time to full enteral feeds among infants with gastroschisis is variable. Gastroschisis remains a common surgical cause of intestinal failure in neonates. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are commonly used to provide long-term venous access for parenteral nutrition during the time enteral feeds are being slowly established. The PICC is placed under fluoroscopic guidance with the distal end of the catheter usually placed at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. In rare circumstances, the catheter tip may advance into intracardiac chambers, precipitating supraventricular re-entrant tachycardia. We report a case of an infant who was antenatally diagnosed with uncomplicated gastroschisis in whom a supraventricular tachycardia was precipitated by the PICC in the right atrium. PMID:24569259

Thyoka, Mandela; Haq, Iram; Hosie, Gareth

2014-01-01

296

The First Case of Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection Caused by Nocardia farcinica  

PubMed Central

Nocardia farcinica is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. Even though several species of Nocardia have been reported as causative pathogens of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI), CRBSI caused by N. farcinica has not been reported. A 70-yr-old man with a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) for home parenteral nutrition was admitted with fever for two days. Norcardia species was isolated from the blood through CVC and peripheral bloods and identified to N. farcinica by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses. This report emphasizes the rapid and correct identification of causative agents in infectious diseases in the selection of antimicrobial agents and the consideration of catheter removal.

Heo, Sang Taek; Ko, Kwan Soo; Kwon, Ki Tae; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Bae, In Gyu; Oh, Won Sup; Song, Jae-Hoon; Peck, Kyong Ran

2010-01-01

297

Interventional radiology with venous port (chemotherapy and infusional support).  

PubMed

A completely portable permanent central venous access, consisting of a steel capsule sealed with a silicone membrane and connected to a silicone catheter (Port-a-Cath), was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 36 patients, most of whom no longer had accessible peripheral veins and needed to continue chemotherapy or undergo total parenteral nutrition. The access vessel was mostly the subclavian vein and the capsule was sutured to the pectoral fascia. Total subcutaneous implantation seems to afford optimum safety from infection and freedom for personal hygiene, produced no noteworthy complications and proved relatively simple to maintain. PMID:3095116

Damascelli, B; Bonalumi, M G; Terno, G; Pupa, A; Preda, F; Spreafico, C; Tagliabue, L

1986-08-01

298

Ionic implantation of silicone chronic venous access devices does not alter thrombotic complications: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Ion implantation of silicone vascular catheters has been shown in preclinical and pilot studies to alter the thrombogenicity of silicone surfaces through the reduced adherence of thrombin. This prospective, randomized double-blinded study was designed to detect differences in function related to thrombotic events between ion-implanted and standard silicone chronic venous access devices (CVAD) placed in patients with cancer who

James L. Frank; Jane L. Garb; Beth Halla; William P. Reed

2001-01-01

299

Endovascular management of porto-mesenteric venous thrombosis developing after trans-arterial occlusion of a superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

Porto-mesenteric venous thrombosis following a trans-arterial occlusion of a superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula is a rare occurrence. We present a case of endovascular management of one such case treated pharmacomechanically with catheter-directed mesenteric thrombolysis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation without long-term successful outcome. PMID:23475546

Garg, Deepak; Lopera, Jorge Enrique; Goei, Anthony D

2013-09-01

300

The venous circle of Trolard.  

PubMed

A venous anastomotic network is occasionally found at the base of the brain, which closely resembles the vicinal arterial circle of Willis. When present, this venous polygon is composed of the anterior cerebral and communicating veins, the basal vein of Rosenthal and the posterior communicating and lateral mesencephalic veins. We propose that this anastomotic ring be termed the venous circle of Trolard. This venous circle might cause bleeding with such procedures as an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. We believe that information regarding this venous circle may be useful to neuroradiologists or neurosurgeons operating at the base of the brain (Fig. 1, Ref. 10). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814436

Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, M; Shoja, M M; Salter, E G; Oakes, W J

2008-01-01

301

Extra-abdominal venous thromboses at unusual sites.  

PubMed

Venous thrombosis typically involves the lower extremities. Rarely, it can occur in cerebral, splanchnic, or renal veins, with a frightening clinical impact. Other rare manifestations are upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis, that can complicate with pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, and retinal vein occlusion, significantly affecting the quality of life. This review is focused on venous thromboses at unusual extra-abdominal sites. Local infections or cancer are frequent in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis is mostly due to catheters or effort-related factors. Common risk factors are inherited thrombophilia and oral contraceptive use. Acute treatment is based on heparin; in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis, local or systemic fibrinolysis should be considered in case of clinical deterioration. Vitamin-K antagonists are recommended for 3-6 months; indefinite anticoagulation is suggested for recurrent thrombosis or unprovoked thrombosis and permanent risk factors. However, such recommendations mainly derive from observational studies; there are no data about long-term treatment of retinal vein occlusion. PMID:22959543

Martinelli, Ida; De Stefano, Valerio

2012-09-01

302

What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency  

PubMed Central

In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (‘CCSVI'). The diagnosis of ‘CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of ‘CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the ‘CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the ‘CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat ‘CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research.

Valdueza, Jose M; Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J; van Oosten, Bob W; Schmierer, Klaus; Paul, Friedemann; Wattjes, Mike P

2013-01-01

303

What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency ('CCSVI'). The diagnosis of 'CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of 'CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the 'CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the 'CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat 'CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research. PMID:23443168

Valdueza, José M; Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J; van Oosten, Bob W; Schmierer, Klaus; Paul, Friedemann; Wattjes, Mike P

2013-05-01

304

Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved radionuclides (uranium, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, gross alpha, and gross beta) and any key indicators of water chemistry, except in water from the Highland Rim system, in which radon-222 was moderately related to pH and weakly related to dissolved magnesium. The only relation among radiochemical constituents indicated by the data was between radium-226 and gross alpha activity; this relation was indicated for water from both aquifer systems.

Hileman, G. E.; Lee, R. W.

1993-01-01

305

Efficacy of tigecycline and vancomycin in experimental catheter-related Staphylococcus epidermidis infection: microbiological and electron microscopic analysis of biofilm.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters are frequently used. The commonest cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) is coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) associated with adherent biofilm. Tigecycline, a derivative of tetracycline, acts against strains producing biofilm. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tigecycline in a CRBSI model. A single dose of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis was given through polyethylene catheters inserted into 24 rabbits. After 72 h, groups of eight rabbits were treated with heparin, vancomycin/heparin or tigecycline/heparin. Blood obtained from peripheral veins and the catheter lumen as well as catheter tips were cultured, and three catheters from each group were studied using electron microscopy. Surfaces were randomly subdivided and areas with ?50 bacteria were compared. Blood cultures were positive from all heparin-treated rabbits but were negative from those receiving either antibiotic (P<0.001). Catheter tip cultures revealed growth from six, two and one rabbit(s) given heparin, vancomycin and tigecycline, respectively. Electron microscopy showed that catheters from heparin-treated rabbits were most heavily colonised (more areas with ?50 CFU) compared with catheters from animals treated with vancomycin or tigecycline (P<0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that tigecycline and vancomycin are both effective for treating CRBSI due to CoNS. Electron microscopy of catheters themselves suggests that tigecycline is superior to vancomycin (P<0.001). Tigecycline may be useful for the treatment of CRBSI. PMID:22364717

Aybar, Yesim; Ozaras, Resat; Besirli, Kazim; Engin, Ersoy; Karabulut, Ebru; Salihoglu, Tamer; Mete, Bilgul; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Tahan, Gulgun; Yilmaz, M Halit; Ozturk, Recep

2012-04-01

306

Rupture of totally implantable central venous access devices (Intraports) in patients with cancer: report of four cases  

PubMed Central

Background Totally implantable central venous access devices (intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. Rupture of intraport is a rare complication. Patients and methods During 3 years period, a total of 245 intraports were placed in cancer patients for chemotherapy. Four of these cases (two colon cancer and one each of pancreas and breast cancer) had rupture of the intraport catheter, these forms the basis of present report. Results Mean time insitu for intraports was 164?35 days. Median follow-up time was 290 days and total port time in situ was 40180 days. The incidence of port rupture was 1 per 10,000 port days. Three of the 4 cases were managed by successful removal of catheters. In two of these the catheter was removed under fluoroscopic control using femoral route, while in the third patient the catheter (partial rupture) was removed surgically. One of the catheters could not be removed and migrated to right ventricle on manipulations. Conclusion Port catheter rupture is a rare but dreaded complication associated with subcutaneous port catheter device placement for chemotherapy. In case of such an event the patient should be managed by an experienced vascular surgeon and interventional radiologist, as in most cases the ruptured catheter can be retrieved by non operative interventional measures.

Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsikkinis, Christoforos; Filippou, Georgios K; Nissiotis, Athanasios; Rizos, Spiros

2004-01-01

307

Anomalous pulmonary venous connections.  

PubMed

Developmental lung anomalies are classified into 3 main categories: bronchopulmonary (lung bud) anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined lung and vascular anomalies. These anomalies are uncommon, and patients are at times asymptomatic; hence, identifying a developmental lung anomaly in the adult can be a challenge. Pulmonary vascular anomalies include interruption or absence of the main pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial or complete), and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Systemic vascular anomalies comprise persistent left superior vena cava, anomalies of azygos and hemiazygos systems, and anomalies of the thoracic aorta and its major branches. In this article, we present embryology, classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging features of anomalous pulmonary venous connections, with special emphasis on multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These state-of-art imaging techniques have facilitated accurate and prompt diagnosis of these anomalies. PMID:23168060

Katre, Rashmi; Burns, Stephanie K; Murillo, Horacio; Lane, Michael J; Restrepo, Carlos S

2012-12-01

308

Measurement of body venous tone.  

PubMed

The venous system contains about 70% of the blood volume, and approximately 75% of the venous volume is in the small veins and venules. Veins play an active role in the control of cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure. Drugs that interfere with venous tone have profound effects on CO and blood pressure due to the large venous capacity. Information on body venous tone cannot be obtained from studies using isolated venous preparations and perfused venous beds, which lack modulating cardiovascular reflex mechanisms. In vivo methods used for the assessment of venous function in experimental animals and humans are as follows: the mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) method for the determination of body venous tone, constant CO reservoir technique for measuring vascular compliance and unstressed volume, plethysmography or blood-pool scintigraphy along with venous occlusion for measuring the volume and compliance of an organ, linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) technique for estimating the diameter of a human dorsal hand vein, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging technique to monitor the cross-sectional area of a large vein, and ultrasonic crystals to estimate the dimension of an organ. These methods are described and critically evaluated to disclose their validity, merits and limitations. PMID:11325578

Pang, C C

2000-01-01

309

A Modified Metallic Coil Embolization Technique for Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Using Coil Anchors and Occlusion Balloon Catheters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a modified metallic coil embolization technique for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters. Methods. Five consecutive female patients with 6 PAVMs were included in the present study. One of the 6 PAVMs was of the complex type with four feeding arteries. An occlusion balloon catheter was inserted into the feeding artery as close to the venous sac as possible. The coil anchor, which was a simple W-shaped bent stainless steel wire with two markers at each end, was deployed prior to embolization to prevent the systemic migration of embolic materials. Then, metallic coils were deployed around the coil anchors under inflow stoppage using the inflated occlusion balloon catheter. In the complex-type PAVM, the main feeder was occluded by this technique and the other three small feeders were embolized with metallic coils only. Results. In all 5 cases, occlusion balloon catheters could be inserted into the feeding arteries just proximal to the venous sacs, coil anchors were easily deployed, and complete occlusion was achieved without any migration of metallic coils or paradoxical embolism during the procedure. Conclusions. The modified metallic coil embolization technique with coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters was feasible and considered to be useful in preventing procedure-related complications.

Mori, Kensaku [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shiigai, Masanari [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Saida, Tsukasa; Anno, Izumi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Wada, Mitsuyoshi [Seinan Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Minami, Manabu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

2008-05-15

310

Endovascular treatment of postpartum deep venous thrombosis: report of three cases.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and the postpartum period are generally considered as contraindications for thrombolysis. We evaluate in this report the safety and effectiveness of using ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (UACDT) in treating three symptomatic postpartum deep vein thrombosis (DVT). UACDT was performed using a recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) which was delivered using the EKOS EkoSonic® system. Postprocedure venography was repeated after treatment which include stenting if stenosis was present. The treatment was successful in all three cases of iliofemoral DVT and symptom relief was achieved in all cases. Minor bleeding at the catheter insertion site in one patient was observed but none of the patients suffered from major bleeding or symptomatic pulmonary embolism. UACDT is a safe and effective treatment for restoration of the venous flow in patients with postpartum iliofemoral DVT. Residual venous obstruction should be treated by angioplasty and stent insertion to avoid early re-thrombosis. PMID:23434721

Dumantepe, Mert; Arif, Tarhan Ibrahim; Ilhan, Yurdakul; Ozdemir, Arzu; Azmi, Ozler

2013-04-29

311

Comprehensive update on the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Patients with cancer are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Prolonged medical hospitalization, extensive surgeries, central venous catheters (CVCs), and prothrombotic chemotherapeutic agents are important risk factors in cancer patients. Recent efforts to improve VTE management in cancer patients are directed toward optimizing prevention during high-risk periods. Prophylaxis with anticoagulants during hospitalizations and the immediate postoperative period is well established, and although extended postoperative prophylaxis for up to 4 weeks is safe, questions remain regarding benefit. Thromboprophylaxis for preventing CVC-related thrombosis is no longer recommended. Research is focusing on using validated risk-assessment models to identify high-risk ambulatory patients who might benefit from thromboprophylaxis during chemotherapy. Although the treatment of cancer-associated VTE is firmly based on the use of low-molecular-weight heparin, questions remain regarding duration of therapy, management of catheter-related thrombosis, use of inferior vena cava filters, and potential therapeutic roles of the newer oral anticoagulants. PMID:23386467

Tagalakis, Vicky; Wharin, Caitlin; Kahn, Susan R

2013-03-01

312

Venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The association of malignancies and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a long held axiom in medicine. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the risk of VTE associated with the hematological malignancies acute leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma is considerable. In fact, the incidence associated with these malignancies exceeds that for many solid tumors. Contributing factors include malignancy associated hypercoagulable factors; antineoplastic therapies such as high dose corticosteroids, L-asparaginase, and new immunomodulatory agents; central venous catheters; and hematopoietic growth factors. Primary and secondary pharmacological prophylaxis can be problematic in these patients who are often thrombocytopenic. Strategies to prevent VTE, especially upper extremity catheter-associated thrombosis need to be developed. PMID:20434017

Wun, Ted; White, Richard H

2010-04-01

313

Paediatric cerebral venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in children is a multifactorial serious disease. It is being increasingly diagnosed, mainly because of more sensitive diagnostic procedures and increasing clinical awareness. The clinical manifestations can be life-threatening and cause long-term neurological deficits. Thromboembolism in children is a multifactorial disorder in which both genetic and acquired risk factors play a role. CVT occurs in various clinical settings, including infection, dehydration, renal failure, trauma, cancer and haematological disorder with multiple risk factors. Clinical manifestations of CSVT are nonspecific and may be subtle. Most of the clinical scenarios occur at all ages and the clinician should consider this diagnosis in a wide range of acute neurological presentations in childhood. CVT can have an extremely variable clinical presentation, mode of onset, imaging appearance and outcome. Its prognosis remains largely unpredictable. Diffusion and perfusion MRI may play a role in detecting venous congestion and CT or MR venography are now the methods of choice for investigation of cerebral venous thrombosis. The options for treatment of infants and children include standard or low molecular weight heparin for 7-10 days followed by oral anticoagulants for 3-6 months. Specific treatment with anticoagulation is controversial in children, but has been established as appropriate therapy in adults. Anticoagulant treatment with heparin is probably safe and beneficial for children with sinus thrombosis, even those with intracranial haemorrhages. PMID:17183984

Dai, Alper I

2006-11-01

314

Catheter-Related Microbacterium Bacteremia Identified by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing  

PubMed Central

We describe the application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in defining two cases of catheter-related Microbacterium bacteremia. In the first case, a gram-positive bacillus was isolated from both the blood culture and central catheter tip of a 39-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia. The API Coryne system identified the isolate as 98.9% Aureobacterium or Corynebacterium aquaticum. In the second case, a gram-positive bacillus was recovered from five sets of blood cultures from both central catheter and percutaneous venipuncture of a 5-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukemia. The isolate was identified by the API Coryne system as 99.7% Cellulomonas or Microbacterium species. Further phenotypic tests failed to identify the two isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed 99.4% similarity between the first isolate and Microbacterium oxydans and 98.7% similarity between the second isolate and Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, indicating that both isolates were Microbacterium species. Microbacterium infections are rarely reported in the literature. Although the central venous catheter was previously proposed to be a source of bacteremia, the first case in this report represents the first culture-documented case of catheter-related Microbacterium bacteremia.

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Woo, Gibson K. S.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2002-01-01

315

A comparison and cost-effectiveness analysis of peripheral catheter dressings.  

PubMed

Peripheral catheter dressing use is common but information about cost-effectiveness remains limited. A prospective, descriptive 3-month study was conducted to 1) assess the cost-effectiveness of two dressings used for peripheral venous catheters and 2) identify statistical associations between the effectiveness variables and the patient's gender and age, category of the professional involved in care, and length of time the dressing was in place. The study was conducted among a homogenous sample of 120 adult patients; the majority (71/59.2%) were women, mean age 54.5 (+/- 18.8) years. All catheters were inserted in the surgical unit of the University of São Paulo Hospital: 54 traditional (microporous tape) and 66 transparent film dressings were applied. Clinical effectiveness was defined as dressing adherence and the absence of complications. Cost effectiveness was assessed using incremental analysis and potential statistical associations. The measured outcomes are expressed in terms of the cost per unit/patient of success or effect. Traditional dressings were found to have a lower total cost ($12.53) but were less adherent (P <0.001) compared to film dressings. The rate of complications in each group was similar. Results confirm that traditional dressings may be used for short-term use catheter care (approximately 3 days); whereas, film dressings may be more cost-effective for longer-term use. Larger studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of various dressings to secure longer-term use catheters are needed. PMID:17893427

Salles, Fernanda Torquato; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Secoli, Silvia Regina; Aron, Suzana; Debbio, Carolina Beltrame Del; Baptista, Cleide C M; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet

2007-09-01

316

Venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, self-help (advice to elevate leg, to keep leg active, to modify diet, to stop smoking, to reduce weight), short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative pressure, recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).

2011-01-01

317

The value of dynamic venous pressure measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the technique of measuring ambulatory venous pressures and their value in the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of venous hypertension as well as their contribution toward our understanding of venous hemodynamics and the pathophysiology of venous disorders. It demonstrates that ambulatory venous pressures are not only of diagnostic significance, but also of prognostic significance. Competent popliteal

Andrew N. Nicolaides; Andrew J. Zukowski

1986-01-01

318

The Incidence of Complications After the Double-Catheter Technique for Cannulation of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a University Teaching Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

atients at risk for major intraoperative blood loss and hemodynamic instability often require two central venous catheters. There are no studies that compare the complication rate of single cannula- tion of a central vein with the rate associated with double cannulation of the same vein with two cathe- ters in close proximity to each other. We have used the double

Scott T. Reeves; Raymond C. Roy; B. Hugh Dorman; Richard L. Fishman; Mark L. Pinosky

1997-01-01

319

Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.

Jun, Kang Woong; Kim, Mi Hyeong; Park, Keun Myoung; Chun, Ho Jong; Hong, Kee Chun; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu

2014-01-01

320

A new femoral bypass graft catheter.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional left coronary bypass graft catheter with a sidewinder configuration is described. It is best suited for superior origins of left coronary bypass grafts. This graft catheter has been used successfully from the femoral route in more than 620 patients without serious complications. The method for using this catheter from the femoral route is described. PMID:3879196

Simmons, C R; Willis, W H

1985-01-01

321

Leg ulceration in venous disease.  

PubMed Central

We have given a brief summary of the scale of the problem caused by venous ulceration in the UK, and have then reviewed the various theories of causation, including a historical survey, and presented the evidence for and against the two main current theories of fibrin cuffs and white cell trapping. We also outline previous hypotheses of the aetiology of venous ulceration, including arteriovenous microanastomoses, stasis and oedema. The contribution of superficial venous incompetence in the pathogenesis of ulceration is also examined.

Shami, S. K.; Shields, D. A.; Scurr, J. H.; Smith, P. D.

1992-01-01

322

Treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous valvular reflux, thereby inhibiting the ensuing pathologic inflammatory process. Compression therapy using pumps, bandaging, and/or graded compression stockings is the mainstay of treatment for CVI. Compression therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing venous hypertension retarding the development of inflammation and pathologic skin changes. Pharmacologic agents such as diuretics and topical steroid creams reduce swelling and pain short term but offer no long-term treatment advantage. Herbal supplements may reduce the inflammatory response to venous hypertension, but are not licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, and vary in their efficacy, quality, and safety. However, several randomized controlled trials using the herbal horse chestnut seed extract containing aescin have shown short-term improvement in signs and symptoms of CVI. Endovascular and surgical techniques aimed at treatment of primary and secondary venous valvular reflux have been shown to improve venous hemodynamics promoting healing of venous ulcers and improving quality of life. The newer endovascular treatments of varicose veins using laser, radiofrequency ablation, and chemical foam sclerotherapy show some promise. PMID:17484814

Rathbun, Suman W; Kirkpatrick, Angelia C

2007-04-01

323

Endoluminal treatment for venous vascular complications of malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of interventional treatment for venous vascular complications of malignant tumors. Sixty-one patients with venous vascular complications of malignant tumors were treated from May 2002 to May 2009; 37 men and 24 women with mean age 57.8 years (33–82 years). Lesions included acute deep vein thrombosis (n=18); venous stenosis or occlusion (n=32); tumor embolus in vein (n=11). The interventional therapeutic operations included vena cava filter implantation, trans-catheter thrombolytic therapy, recanalization, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting. The success rate of thrombolysis and stent implantation, the clinical success rate, complications, recurrence rate of the treated region and survival duration were recorded. Eighteen patients accepted filter and thrombolytic therapy with a success rate of 100%; total urokinase dosage was 7.42±1.49 (4.5–10) million units. Symptoms disappeared (n=15), were palliated (n=3) and thrombi were completely dissolved (n=2), almost completely dissolved (n=8, >90%), partially dissolved (n=6, 50–90%) and not dissolved (n=2, <50%). No pulmonary embolism emerged after the operation. Forty-three patients accepted recanalization, PTA and stent therapy with a success rate of 95.3% (41/43). Symptoms disappeared (n=25), were palliated (n=16) and did not change (n=2) 3 days following the operation. There were no severe complications during the procedure. During follow-up, 12 patients again suffered symptoms of venous occlusion and 47 patients died of tumor aggravation without symptom recurrence. As a result, interventional therapy has advantages including smaller injuries, well tolerance, high success rate, quick palliation of symptoms and superior clinical efficacy in the treatment of venous vascular complications for malignant tumors.

XIAO, LIANG; TONG, JIA-JIE; SHEN, JING

2012-01-01

324

Advances in the diagnosis and management of central venous access device infections in children.  

PubMed

Infection is a well-known complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use, with an incidence of 3-6 bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter days in children. Prevention of CVAD infections has improved with new strategies including the use of chlorhexidine antisepsis, bundles, maximal sterile barriers for insertion, prophylactic locks, antibiotic impregnated catheters and tunnelling of long-term devices. Despite these strategies, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) continue to be an important health problem. New approaches to diagnosis include differential time to positivity and quantification of blood cultures and molecular diagnostics. The management of CRBSIs includes techniques for line salvage including ethanol, antibiotic, hydrochloric acid, taurolidine and urokinase locks. When these fail, line removal and antimicrobial therapy are recommended. PMID:21120722

Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

2011-01-01

325

Risk factors for venous port migration in a single institute in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background An implantable port device provides an easily accessible central route for long-term chemotherapy. Venous catheter migration is one of the rare complications of venous port implantation. It can lead to side effects such as pain in the neck, shoulder, or ear, venous thrombosis, and even life-threatening neurologic problems. To date, there are few published studies that discuss such complications. Methods This retrospective study of venous port implantation in a single center, a Taiwan hospital, was conducted from January 2011 to March 2013. Venous port migration was recorded along with demographic and characteristics of the patients. Results Of 298 patients with an implantable import device, venous port migration had occurred in seven, an incidence rate of 2.3%. All seven were male and had received the Bard port Fr 6.6 which had smaller size than TYCO port Fr 7.5 and is made of silicon. Significantly, migration occurred in male patients (P?=?0.0006) and in those with lung cancer (P?=?0.004). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that lung cancer was a significant risk factor for port migration (odds ratio: 11.59; P?=?0.0059). The migration rate of the Bard port Fr 6.6 was 6.7%. The median time between initial venous port implantation and port migration was 35.4 days (range, 7 to 135 days) and 71.4% (5/7) of patients had port migration within 30 days after initial port implantation. Conclusions Male sex and lung cancer are risk factors for venous port migration. The type of venous port is also an important risk factor.

2014-01-01

326

Venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, self-help (advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, advice to modify diet, advice to stop smoking, advice to reduce weight), and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative-pressure recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).

2008-01-01

327

[Deep venous thrombosis complications during infections in pediatric patients: Analysis of a series of 24 cases].  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism disease (VTE) is rare in children (5.3 of 10,000 hospitalized children). However, morbidity and mortality are high, especially when the child is already suffering from severe sepsis. We report an analytical study of 24 cases of deep venous thrombosis occurring in children during infection, recorded at the Montpellier University Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Many parameters were studied in each population (age, sex, familial and personal history of thrombosis, history of thrombophilia, the presence of a venous catheter, a causative organism, time to onset of thrombus, topography of lesions, acquired abnormalities of hemostasis, and thrombosis prophylaxis). The children were aged from 1day of life to 16years. Thromboses occurred in two clinical contexts: "contact" thrombosis (which appeared near the infection) and disseminated thrombosis. This is an early complication because in most of the cases, it appeared in the first 10days of sepsis. Infection and coagulation appear to be closely related and the states of latent or decompensated disseminated intravascular coagulation are common. Nevertheless, it is not possible to predict the occurence of a thrombotic event. The presence of risk factors (venous catheters, acquired thrombophilia, or constitutional thrombophilia) may increase the thrombogenic potential of the infection. VTE should always be suspected and sought in case of an unfavorable clinical course, and routine prophylaxis of thrombosis during sepsis should be discussed. PMID:24938919

Nou, M; Rodière, M; Schved, J-F; Laroche, J-P; Quéré, I; Dauzat, M; Jeziorski, E

2014-07-01

328

Molecular investigation of bacterial communities on intravascular catheters: no longer just Staphylococcus.  

PubMed

Intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (IVC-BSIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Culture-independent molecular approaches can reveal and capture the composition of complex microbial communities, and are now being used to reveal "new" pathogens as well as the polymicrobial nature of some infections. Patients with concurrently sited arterial and central venous catheters who had clinically suspected IVC-BSIs, were examined by the high-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA. An average of 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, phylotypes) was observed on each IVC, indicating that IVCs were colonised by complex and diverse bacterial communities. Ralstonia (53 % of 16S rRNA sequences), Escherichia group (16 %), Propionibacterium (5 %), Staphylococcus (5 %), and Streptococcus (2 %) were the most abundant genera. There was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial communities examined from arterial and central venous catheters; from those with and without systemic antibiotic treatment; or from conventionally colonised and uncolonised IVCs. The genome of the predominant bacteria, R. pickettii AU12-08, was found to encode resistance to antimicrobial drugs of different classes. In addition, many encoded gene products are involved in quorum sensing and biofilm formation that would further contribute to increased antimicrobial drug resistance. Our results highlight the complex diversity of microbial ecosystems on vascular devices. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA offers an insight into the pathogenesis of IVC-related infections, and opens up the scope for improving diagnosis and patient management. PMID:24500600

Zhang, L; Gowardman, J; Morrison, M; Krause, L; Playford, E G; Rickard, C M

2014-07-01

329

Clinical utility of the Covidien Closure Fast(TM) Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter  

PubMed Central

The Closure Fast™ Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter is the latest version of a minimally invasive system for the treatment of patients with superficial venous disease. The Closure Fast™ catheter heats the vein wall to 120°C, causing denaturation of the collagen of the vein wall and contraction of the vessel such that no blood can flow through it. Nearly one million systems have been sold since the product was launched. Many, if not all, patients can be treated under local anesthesia with the Closure Fast™ catheter. Duplex ultrasound reports occlusion rates for the treated vein of 94%–98% at 1 year and 85%–93% at 3 years. The system produces average postoperative pain scores of less than 2 out of 10 on a visual analog score. In the first postoperative week, 76% of patients do not require analgesia. Some 45% of patients return to normal activity on the first postoperative day. Serious complications appear to be rare following the Closure Fast™ procedure. Transient paresthesia occurs in 0.2% of cases, thrombophlebitis in 1%–10%, and thromboembolic events in up to 1.4%, mainly heat-induced thrombosis. Closure Fast™ adds significant costs to treating superficial venous disease but studies have shown it to be cost-effective when used in an office setting.

Braithwaite, Simon A; Braithwaite, Bruce D

2014-01-01

330

Cervicofacial Venous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary We retrospectively evaluated 53 consecutive patients with cervicofacial venous malformation who had sclerotherapy. This review included a demographic analysis, MRI reexamination and tabulation of interventional therapeutic strategies. All patients whose MRI studies were included in this review demonstrated characteristic findings: space occupying lesion with hyperintense T2 signal abnormality, patchy contrast enhancement, and no flow signal on the gradient echo images. We concluded that a complete MRI work-up of these patients requires post-contrast scanning and gradient-echo imaging in addition to the standard T1 and T2 weighted spin echo imaging. The majority of patients had sporadic (non-familial) venous anomalies. Sinus pericranii (SP) was identified in six patients (11%) and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRB-NS) was found in two patients (4%). MRI findings of sinus pericranii are discussed in detail. Although sodium tetradecyl and/or absolute ethanol are the most commonly used sclerosants, a wide variety of therapeutic strategies (depending on the nature of the abnormality) are also needed for these patients.

Konez, O.; Burrows, P. E.; Mulliken, J.B.

2002-01-01

331

Assessment of temporary dialysis catheter performance on the basis of flow and pressure measurements in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

The efficiency of hemodialysis treatments depends on catheter performance and, consequently, on effective blood flow that can be achieved at maximum extracorporeal pressures. Differences in effective and displayed flow were determined with ultrasound dilution technology, and a mathematical correction function for the MultiFiltrate hemodialysis machine was developed. This algorithm was used to calculate effective blood flow during treatment from displayed flow and arterial pressure. To assess catheter performance over time, we measured effective blood flow as function of extracorporeal pressure in 11 uncuffed, tunneled hemodialysis catheters with shotgun design. Pressure and flow profiles of the catheters were determined, and pressure symmetry was measured. To assess flow resistance over time, pressure trends of the catheters at different blood flow rates were measured for each patient over a mean period of 6.1 +/- 3.0 days. Increases in flow resistance during the study period were found to be small. Mean arterial pressure decreased from -185 mm Hg to -200 mm Hg, and mean venous pressure increased from 197 mm Hg to 215 mm Hg. Effective flow did not change significantly during the study. In conclusion, all catheters investigated easily provided effective flows above 450 mL/min over the study period at maximum extracorporeal pressures below +/-300 mm Hg. PMID:17515728

Kindgen-Milles, Detlef; Kram, Rainer; Kleinekofort, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

332

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of catheter-associated bloodstream bacterial infection in preterm neonates: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing infection associated with central venous catheters in preterm neonates.Study Design:The search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. The following databases were searched: Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and EMBASE. In addition, we hand-searched abstracts of Pediatric Academic Societies annual meetings published in Pediatric Research (1990

A Lodha; A D Furlan; H Whyte; A M Moore

2008-01-01

333

Catheter lubrication and fixation: interventions.  

PubMed

This article looks at the indications for catheterisation, the anatomy of the urethra, the importance of asepsis and the rationale for the use of urethral lubrication for catheter insertion. The variations of lubrication available are discussed, including the use of products containing lidocaine and chlorhexidine. It then considers the problems caused by traction to the catheter and discusses the securement devices available for preventing tissue damage at the bladder neck, within the urethra and also at the meatus. The variation of devices is examined along with the potential problems associated with their use. Finally, it discusses the importance of clinicians being knowledgeable about the problems looked at and how to resolve them. PMID:23752454

Wilson, Mary

334

Oral Clonidine Pretreatment Prior to Venous Cannulation  

PubMed Central

Clonidine is a preferential alpha-2 agonist drug that has been used for over 35 years to treat hypertension. Recently, it has also been used as a preoperative medication and as a sedative/anxiolytic drug. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial characterized the effects of oral clonidine pretreatment on intravenous catheter placement in 13 patients. Parameters measured included the bispectral index (BIS), Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), frontal temporal electromyogram (EMG), 30-Second Blink Count (Blink), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), fingertip versus forearm skin temperatures, and multiple questionnaires. Oral clonidine significantly decreased SAI scores, OAA/S, EMG, and Blink, but did not cause statistically significant BIS or DSST reductions. Subjects preferred oral clonidine pretreatment prior to venipuncture compared to placebo. Questionnaires also indicated that clonidine provided minimal sedation, considerable anxiolysis, and some analgesia. Fingertip versus forearm skin temperature differentials were decreased. Reduced fingertip versus forearm temperature differentials suggest increased peripheral cutaneous blood flow prior to venous cannulation. Oral clonidine pretreatment not only helped control patient anxiety and pain but also provided cardiovascular stability.

Hall, David L; Rezvan, Ehsan; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Walters, John D

2006-01-01

335

Displacement of the inferior vena cava as a factor limiting catheter performance in long-term hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

We report a case of a lady affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who had been on hemodialyis for 24 years. She has exhausted all options for arterious-venous fistula. The presence of an acquired anatomical abnormality was an obstacle in order to get appropriate blood flow from standard tunnelled femoral catheters. The enlarged right kidney was pushing the inferior vena cava to the left side of the abdomen, and the abnormality was demonstrated by phlebography. Only after placing a cuffed catheter 53 cm long in her left femoral vein we could dialyze efficiently. Venography is mandatory before placing a cuffed catheter especially in uremic patients with long history of access failure, because it saves costs. PMID:17534802

Fabbian, F; Malacarne, F; Russo, G; Galeotti, R; Gresta, E; Cantelli, S; Catizone, L

2007-01-01

336

Heparin compared with normal saline to maintain patency of permanent double lumen hemodialysis catheters: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Heparin has long been used to prevent thrombosis in the permanent central venous hemodialysis catheters (PermCath). Other alternatives for heparin with fewer side-effects have recently been considered. We compared normal saline (0.9%) with heparin for flushing PermCath with regards to catheter patency and prevention of heparin complications. Materials and Methods: Chronic kidney disease patients who were candidate of PermCath placement were randomly assigned into two groups of heparin and saline. In the heparin group, the PermCath was flushed with heparin (1000 IU), and in the saline group, it was flushed with saline 0.9%. Patients were followed for 24 hours, and outcomes included catheter thrombosis, maneuver needed to maintain catheter patency, and bleeding from catheter site. Results: Ninety six patients were included (age = 63.1 ± 11.2 years, 54.2% male). No one experienced catheter thrombosis. Two patient (4.2%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group required catheter manipulation (P = 0.520). Four patients (8.5%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group experienced bleeding (P = 0.476); differences between heparin and saline groups in the amount of bleeding (225.0 ± 62.4 vs. 200.0 ± 113.5 cc, P = 0.721) and bleeding time (6.5 ± 1.2 vs. 5.3 ± 1.5 min, P = 0.322) were not significant. In the heparin group, no significant increase was observed in PTT over time; baseline 30.9 ± 3.4, 12 h 31.8 ± 3.4, 24 h 31.2 ± 6.6 (P = 0.628). Conclusions: Flushing PermCath with normal saline 0.9% is as effective as heparin in maintaining patency of the catheter, while it may reduce the risks associated with heparin.

Beigi, Ali Akbar; HadiZadeh, Mirhadi Seyed; Salimi, Fereshteh; Ghaheri, Hafez

2014-01-01

337

Smart central venous port for early detection of bacterial biofilm related infections.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of bloodstream infections must be performed promptly so that adequate antimicrobial therapy can be started and patient outcome improved. An ideal diagnostic technology would identify the infecting organism(s) in a timely manner, so that appropriate pathogen-driven therapy could begin promptly. Unfortunately, despite the essential information it provides, blood culture, the gold standard, largely fails in this purpose because time is lost waiting for bacterial or fungal growth. This work presents a new design of a venous access port that allows the monitoring of the inner reservoir surface by means of an impedimetric biosensor. An ad-hoc electronic system was designed to manage the sensor and to allow communication with the external receiver. Historic data recorded and stored in the device was used as the reference value for the detection of bacterial biofilm. The RF communication system sends an alarm signal to the external receiver when a microbial colonization of the port occurs. The successful in vitro analysis of the biosensor, the electronics and the antenna of the new indwelling device prototype are shown. The experimental conditions were selected in each case as the closest to the clinical working conditions for the smart central venous catheter (SCVC) testing. The results of this work allow a new generation of this kind of device that could potentially provide more efficient treatments for catheter-related infections. PMID:24515846

Paredes, J; Alonso-Arce, M; Schmidt, C; Valderas, D; Sedano, B; Legarda, J; Arizti, F; Gómez, E; Aguinaga, A; Del Pozo, J L; Arana, S

2014-06-01

338

Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients  

PubMed Central

Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

2012-01-01

339

Catheter-related Mycobacterium fortuitum bloodstream infection: rapid identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with stage III mediastinal Non Hodgkin Lymphoblastic T cell Lymphoma who suffered from catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBI) due to Mycobacterium fortuitum whilst receiving chemotherapy. Isolation of this rare pathogen was done directly from blood culture and identification was made rapidly within 48?h using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectro-metry as well as specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse hybridization method. This allowed prompt directed antibiotic therapy apart from central venous catheter removal and resulted in an excellent clinical response. This case highlights the potential benefit of using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, a fast, cost-effective and precise methodology, in the diagnosis and subsequent management of invasive bacterial infection. PMID:24554588

Artacho-Reinoso, M J; Olbrich, P; Solano-Paéz, P; Ybot-Gonzalez, P; Lepe, J A; Neth, O; Aznar, J

2014-04-01

340

Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy with Stent Placement: Rapid and Effective Treatment for Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene  

SciTech Connect

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of acute deep vein thrombosis. It is an emergency and delay in treatment may cause death or loss of the patient's limb. Surgical thrombectomy is the recommended treatment in venous gangrene. Catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis has been reported as successful, but it may require a lengthy infusion. Manual aspiration thrombectomy may clear the entire thrombus with no need for thrombolytic administration and provide rapid and effective treatment for patients with phlegmasia cerulea dolens with impending venous gangrene.

Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Tercan, Fahri; Ozkan, Ugur [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-01-15

341

Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.  

PubMed

The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

Gulati, Om P

2014-03-01

342

Arterial emboli of venous origin.  

PubMed

In a small but significant group of patients with documented systemic emboli, a source is never determined. It is in this group of patients that an arterial embolus of venous origin should be considered. During the past 20 years, we identified four patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for an arterial embolus of venous origin. In each, the diagnosis was made during life. In addition, we reviewed the 40 additional patient reports in the literature that appeared to meet the criteria for the diagnosis of venous origin arterial emboli. Noninvasive methods were useful in determining the presence of thrombus in the venous system, and right to left shunting across an intracardiac defect. We conclude that treatment with heparin is the mainstay of therapy, and that caval interruption should be used only on a selective basis. PMID:1729744

Katz, S; Andros, G; Kohl, R; Harris, R; Dulawa, L; Oblath, R

1992-01-01

343

Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... venous system. Varicose Vein Treatments Minimally Invasive Vein Ablation Treatment Endovenous (or vein) ablation is a minimally ... leg, re-establishing normal flow. Benefits of Vein Ablation Treatment The treatment takes less than an hour ...

344

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.  

PubMed

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality that occurs in 0.4 to 0.7% of postmortem examinations. Ninety percent of these anomalies are associated with an atrial septal defect. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return occurs more commonly on the right than the left and is manifested by abnormal return of the pulmonary veins to the central venous circulation. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they are due to shunting of oxygenated blood to the venous circulation. We submit the case of a recently activated solider who presented with dyspnea on exertion refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and an 8.5-mm solitary pulmonary nodule. Further diagnostic imaging revealed PAPVR. Our case appears to be the first report of a solitary pulmonary nodule as the initial presentation of a right upper lobe PAPVR with return to the superior vena cava in the absence of associated atrial septal defect. PMID:18595412

Broy, Charles; Bennett, Steven

2008-06-01

345

Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull , PhD ; Julia A. Harris , ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

346

Scheme for Creating a Subcutaneous Tunnel to Place an Indwelling Implantable Central Venous Access System in the Forearm  

SciTech Connect

We report a method that we have devised in which a secure subcutaneous tunnel is prepared during the placement of an indwelling central venous reservoir in the forearm. Subjects included 69 cases in which a procedure for implanting an indwelling reservoir in the forearm was performed between June 2006 and May 2007. For the subcutaneous tunnel, a 22-G Cathelin needle was advanced from the puncture site, turning toward the subcutaneous pocket side to the deep subcutaneous area. A 14-G Surflo IV catheter was then advanced along the 22-G Cathelin needle from the subcutaneous pocket. With the tip of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter emerging above the skin at the puncture site, the inner needle of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter and the 22-G Cathelin needle were removed. The catheter was passed through the outer 14-G Surflo IV catheter to emerge on the subcutaneous pocket site, then the outer needle of the Surflo catheter was also removed, and a connection to the port was made to create the subcutaneous tunnel. In all 69 cases, the subcutaneous tunnel in the forearm of the nondominant arm was successfully created within a short period of time (100% success rate). No problems were observed due to slack in the catheter until removal of the sutures 1 week later and for 3 months after treatment. With this method, we believe that a subcutaneous tunnel can be prepared in which the contained catheter has minimal freedom of movement, and which minimizes any damage induced by slack in the catheter within the subcutaneous tunnel.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: rad043@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Tanikake, Masato; Arimoto, Hiroshi; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15

347

Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and varices of the legs were selected and double-blindly randomly assigned to a treatment with Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract), 100 mg×3\\/day or a placebo for 2 months, according to a double-blind experimental design. The effects of the treatment were evaluated by scoring the symptomatology with a semi-quantitative scale, and the venous

Paolo Arcangeli

2000-01-01

348

Continuing controversy of midclavicular catheters.  

PubMed

A review of 50 years of research on catheter tip placement indicates an overwhelming preference for the lower third of the superior vena cava as the appropriate tip location. Despite this evidence, there are still practitioners, physicians, and nurses who advocate tip placement within the axillo-subclavian-innominate vein (also referred to as the midclavicular). This article looks at the arguments presented by practitioners who support midclavicular tip placement. It also reviews some of the research from which the recommendations for superior vena cava placement are derived. PMID:17895805

Cook, Lynda S

2007-01-01

349

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2009-04-01

351

Thrombosis of a developmental venous anomaly causing venous infarction and pontine hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Developmental venous anomalies are often incidental findings on brain imaging. We report a case of a thrombosed developmental venous anomaly with venous congestion and pontine hemorrhage that improved after anticoagulation therapy. PMID:23791470

Griffiths, Dayna; Newey, Allison; Faulder, Kenneth; Steinfort, Brendan; Krause, Martin

2013-11-01

352

Hepatic venous outflow obstruction.  

PubMed

Hepatic venous outflow obstruction also called the Budd-Chiari syndrome is increasingly being recognized as a cause of portal hypertension. In western countries the obstruction is usually in the hepatic veins while in reports from South Africa, Japan and India the predominant cause is a block in the IVC at the level of the diaphragm above the entry of the hepatic veins. A hypercoagulable state caused by myeloproliferative haematological disorders, clonal defects in haemopoietic stem cells, lupus anticoagulant, contraceptive pills and postpartum state are some of the aetiological conditions described. However in 25% to 75% cases no cause can be identified. The predominant presenting features in patients with hepatic vein obstruction are hepatomegaly and ascites while those with IVC obstruction show prominent veins on the trunk and back. Ultrasound examination should be the first investigative step. However a liver biopsy is the gold standard of diagnosis. To confirm the site of obstruction inferior vena cavography or functional hepatography may be required. In the acute phase thrombolytic therapy may be useful but for established cases either surgical intervention in the form of shunts or recently balloon angioplasty may be helpful. For patients with established cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure the only alternative is liver transplantation. All these patients however should be put on long term anticoagulants to prevent rethrombosis. Some series have reported that upto 45% of patients may develop hepatocellular carcinoma on long term followup. With proper management a larger proportion of patients can be returned to a useful productive life. PMID:9828703

Pande, G K; Srinath, C; Pal, S; Reddy, K S

1998-01-01

353

Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

1991-01-01

354

Complications Associated with Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The goal of this work was to determine the complication rate and any predisposing risk factors associated with subcutaneous intraperitoneal (ip) catheters used in the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 301 patients who had a subcutaneous Bardport catheter placed for administration of ip chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from

S. Makhija; M. Leitao; P. Sabbatini; N. Bellin; L. Almadrones; L. Leon; D. R. Spriggs; R. Barakat

2001-01-01

355

Urinary catheter sterilization with microwave oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted utilizing a home microwave oven to sterilize catheters commonly used for intermittent self-catherization. Red rubber urinary catheters were inoculated with common clinical uropathogens and were placed in sealed brown paper bags or Ziploc plastic freezer bags and microwaved at full power for various timed intervals. Differences were noted in killing time for some strains or species of

C. J. Lian; R. B. Bracken

1991-01-01

356

Automated Pointing of Cardiac Imaging Catheters  

PubMed Central

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheters enable high-quality ultrasound imaging within the heart, but their use in guiding procedures is limited due to the difficulty of manually pointing them at structures of interest. This paper presents the design and testing of a catheter steering model for robotic control of commercial ICE catheters. The four actuated degrees of freedom (4-DOF) are two catheter handle knobs to produce bi-directional bending in combination with rotation and translation of the handle. An extra degree of freedom in the system allows the imaging plane (dependent on orientation) to be directed at an object of interest. A closed form solution for forward and inverse kinematics enables control of the catheter tip position and the imaging plane orientation. The proposed algorithms were validated with a robotic test bed using electromagnetic sensor tracking of the catheter tip. The ability to automatically acquire imaging targets in the heart may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of intracardiac catheter interventions by allowing visualization of soft tissue structures that are not visible using standard fluoroscopic guidance. Although the system has been developed and tested for manipulating ICE catheters, the methods described here are applicable to any long thin tendon-driven tool (with single or bi-directional bending) requiring accurate tip position and orientation control.

Loschak, Paul M.; Brattain, Laura J.; Howe, Robert D.

2013-01-01

357

Tubes, lines, catheters, and other interesting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical devices (tubes, catheters, lines, prostheses, etc.) are a common finding on radiologic studies. Sometimes they may be misdiagnosed as a pathologic process, or an important observation concerning a medical device may be overlooked because of lack of familiarity with a particular device. This review discusses a variety of tubes, lines, catheters, and other interesting and important medical devices found

Tim B. Hunter

1995-01-01

358

Basics of Catheterization and Catheter Care  

PubMed Central

There are scant audiovisual materials and few monographs relating to equipment, description, and usage in catheter technique and catheter care. Often residents, interns, nurses, and paraprofessionals have sketchy information about the practical aspects of the subject. This paper is intended to give such practical information.

Becker, Leslie E.

1980-01-01

359

Bacteremia associated with tunneled, cuffed hemodialysis catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteremia is a frequent complication associated with tunneled, cuffed, permanent catheters (PCs). The incidence, spectrum of infecting organisms, and optimal treatment for catheter–associated bacteremia (CAB) have not been clearly established. In this study, 101 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients with PCs for blood access were prospectively monitored for infection during a 24-month period. Data recorded for each patient included the number

Theodore F. Saad

1999-01-01

360

In vivo quantitative assessment of catheter patency in rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Formation of fibrin sleeves around catheter tips is a central factor in catheter failure during chronic implantation, and such tissue growth can occur despite administration of anticoagulants. We developed a novel method for monitoring catheter patency. This method recognizes the progressive nature of catheter occlusion, and tracks this process over time through measurement of changes in catheter resistance to a standardized 1 mL bolus infusion from a pressurized reservoir. Two indirect measures of catheter patency were used: (a) reservoir residual pressure and (b) reservoir discharge time. This method was applied to the study of catheter patency in rats comparing the effect of catheter material (silastic, polyurethane, Microrenathane™), lock solution (heparin, heparin/dexamethasone) and two different cannulation sites (superior vena cava via the external jugular vein, inferior vena cava via the femoral vein). Our findings reveal that application of flexible smaller-size silastic catheters and a dexamethasone lock solution resulted in prolonged catheter patency. Patency could be maintained over nine weeks with the femoral vein catheters, compared with five weeks with the external jugular vein catheters. The current method for measuring catheter patency provides a useful index for the assessment of tissue growth around the catheter tip. The method also provides an objective and quantitative way of comparing changes in catheter patency for different surgical methods and catheter types. Our method improves on the conventional method of assessing catheter occlusion by judging the ability to aspirate from the catheter.

Yang, Jun; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Holschneider, Daniel P

2014-01-01

361

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

...reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or remove...

2014-04-01

362

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or remove...

2011-04-01

363

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or remove...

2012-04-01

364

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or remove...

2010-04-01

365

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or remove...

2009-04-01

366

Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

367

Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the feasibility of a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intraluminal investigation of arterial vessel composition under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. A prototype 1.8-mm (5.4 Fr) catheter combining a side-viewing optical fiber (SVOF) and an IVUS catheter was constructed and tested with in vitro vessel phantoms. The prototype catheter can locate a fluorophore in the phantom vessel wall, steer the SVOF in place, perform blood flushing under flow conditions, and acquire high-quality TRFS data using 337-nm wavelength excitation. The catheter steering capability used for the coregistration of the IVUS image plane and the SVOF beam produce a guiding precision to an arterial phantom wall site location of 0.53±0.16 mm. This new intravascular multimodal catheter enables the potential for in vivo arterial plaque composition identification using TRFS.

Stephens, Douglas N.; Park, Jesung; Sun, Yang; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Marcu, Laura

2014-01-01

368

Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the feasibility of a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intraluminal investigation of arterial vessel composition under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. A prototype 1.8-mm (5.4 Fr) catheter combining a side-viewing optical fiber (SVOF) and an IVUS catheter was constructed and tested with in vitro vessel phantoms. The prototype catheter can locate a fluorophore in the phantom vessel wall, steer the SVOF in place, perform blood flushing under flow conditions, and acquire high-quality TRFS data using 337-nm wavelength excitation. The catheter steering capability used for the coregistration of the IVUS image plane and the SVOF beam produce a guiding precision to an arterial phantom wall site location of 0.53+/-0.16 mm. This new intravascular multimodal catheter enables the potential for in vivo arterial plaque composition identification using TRFS.

Stephens, Douglas N.; Park, Jesung; Sun, Yang; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Marcu, Laura

2009-05-01

369

A Retrospective Comparative Study of Tunneled Haemodialysis Catheters Inserted Through Occluded or Collateral Veins Versus Conventional Methods  

SciTech Connect

Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan, E-mail: tze2000@hotmail.co [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Narlawar, Ranjeet S.; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

370

Incidence, risk factors and microbiology of central vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Although there are many studies about catheter related infection in industrialized countries, very few have analyzed it in emerging countries. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence, microbiological profile and risk factors for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in a Tunisian medical intensive care unit. Over eight months (1 January 2012-30 August 2012) a prospective, observational study was performed in an 18-bed medical surgical intensive care unit at Tunis military hospital. Patients who required central venous catheter (CVC) placement for a duration greater than 48 h were included in the study. Two hundred sixty patients, with a total of 482 CVCs were enrolled. The mean duration of catheterization was 9.6 ± 6.2 days. The incidence for CRBSI and catheter colonization (CC) was 2.4 and 9.3 per 1000 catheter days, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CRBSI were diabetes mellitus, long duration of catheterization, sepsis at insertion and administration of one or more antibiotics before insertion. The mortality rate among the CRBSI group was 21.8%. The predominant microorganisms isolated from CRBSI and CC episodes were Gram negative bacilli. All Gram negative organisms isolated among dead patients in CRBSI group were Extensive Drug Resistant (XDR). In our study the mortality rate among patients with CRBSI was high despite a low incidence of CRBSI. This high rate can be explained by the high-virulent status of Gram negative bacteria involved in CRBSI. PMID:24508422

Hajjej, Zied; Nasri, Mourad; Sellami, Walid; Gharsallah, Hedi; Labben, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

2014-03-01

371

Glyceryl Trinitrate Complements Citrate and Ethanol in a Novel Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution To Eradicate Biofilm Organisms  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization. GTN has a long history of intravenous use as a hypotensive agent. It is potentially attractive as a component of a catheter lock solution because its physiologic half-life is quite short and its metabolic pathways are known. A lock containing 7% citrate and 20% ethanol required 0.01% GTN to fully eradicate biofilms of all test organisms within 2 h in the model. This GTN concentration is below the levels where clinically significant hypotensive effects are expected.

Reitzel, Ruth; Dvorak, Tanya; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray Y.; Raad, Issam I.

2013-01-01

372

Traversing and dilating venous collaterals: a useful adjunct in left ventricular electrode placement.  

PubMed

In patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the left ventricular electrode cannot always be positioned in the preferred lateral or posterolateral locations due to technical factors and anatomic variations in the coronary sinus. Recent reports also suggest that CRT outcomes are improved by pacing the site of latest dyssynchrony and accessing these regions is not always possible. We report the utility of applying a technique described in the interventional literature over the past 3 years, effectively traversing and dilating collateral channels. Our patients demonstrated either no venous targets in the optimal location, or problems accessing this location using a antegrade approach. Subsequently, collaterals supplying this region were traversed with a guidewire using a retrograde approach and dilated with a balloon catheter. In the first case, the pacing electrode was then advanced in similar fashion and successfully positioned in an ideal lateral location. In the second case, the retrograde guidewire was captured with a vascular snare and pulled into a second guiding catheter, allowing appropriate dilatation and stenting of a problematic proximal venous stenosis with resultant facile placement of the pacing electrode. This technique offers a potential alternative to patients with challenging venous anatomy as a method to facilitate optimal CRT outcomes. PMID:20516518

Abben, Richard P; Chaisson, Gary; Nair, Vinod

2010-06-01

373

Comparison of subcutaneous central venous port via jugular and subclavian access in 347 patients at a single center.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether patency times, including complications of subcutaneous venous chest port insertion using ultrasonography (US) guidance, differ between jugular and subclavian venous access. Between December 2008 and July 2010, subcutaneous venous chest ports were placed in 347 patients by an experienced team. All single-lumen port catheters were placed into jugular and subclavian veins under US and fluoroscopy guidance. Patency times and complication rates of ports via these routes were compared and the variables were age, gender, access, site of malignancy and coagulation parameters. The success of the jugular and subclavian groups was compared by univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the multivariable Cox regression test. A total of 15 patients underwent port removal due to complications. As a rate per 100 catheter days, ports were explanted in 7 (0.0092) due to thrombosis, 4 (0.0053) for catheter malposition, one each (0.0013) of port reservoir flip-over, bleeding, port pocket infection, skin necrosis and incision dehiscence, for a total of 15 patients (0.0197). Patency times were not different in the jugular and subclavian veins. Factors were not significant, with the exception of platelet count. There was no significant difference in patency times, including complications, between jugular vein access and subclavian vein access using US. This should be considered when selecting the access method. PMID:23170125

Ariba?, Bilgin Kadri; Arda, Kemal; Ariba?, Ozge; Cileda?, Nazan; Yolo?lu, Zeynel; Akta?, Elif; Seber, Turgut; Kavak, Seyhmus; Co?ar, Yusuf; Kaygusuz, Hidir; Tekin, Ekrem

2012-10-01

374

Comparison of subcutaneous central venous port via jugular and subclavian access in 347 patients at a single center  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether patency times, including complications of subcutaneous venous chest port insertion using ultrasonography (US) guidance, differ between jugular and subclavian venous access. Between December 2008 and July 2010, subcutaneous venous chest ports were placed in 347 patients by an experienced team. All single-lumen port catheters were placed into jugular and subclavian veins under US and fluoroscopy guidance. Patency times and complication rates of ports via these routes were compared and the variables were age, gender, access, site of malignancy and coagulation parameters. The success of the jugular and subclavian groups was compared by univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the multivariable Cox regression test. A total of 15 patients underwent port removal due to complications. As a rate per 100 catheter days, ports were explanted in 7 (0.0092) due to thrombosis, 4 (0.0053) for catheter malposition, one each (0.0013) of port reservoir flip-over, bleeding, port pocket infection, skin necrosis and incision dehiscence, for a total of 15 patients (0.0197). Patency times were not different in the jugular and subclavian veins. Factors were not significant, with the exception of platelet count. There was no significant difference in patency times, including complications, between jugular vein access and subclavian vein access using US. This should be considered when selecting the access method.

ARIBAS, BILGIN KADRI; ARDA, KEMAL; ARIBAS, OZGE; CILEDAG, NAZAN; YOLOGLU, ZEYNEL; AKTAS, ELIF; SEBER, TURGUT; KAVAK, SEYHMUS; COSAR, YUSUF; KAYGUSUZ, HIDIR; TEKIN, EKREM

2012-01-01

375

A randomised controlled trial of Heparin versus EthAnol Lock THerapY for the prevention of Catheter Associated infecTion in Haemodialysis patients - the HEALTHY-CATH trial  

PubMed Central

Background Tunnelled central venous dialysis catheter use is significantly limited by the occurrence of catheter-related infections. This randomised controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a 48 hour 70% ethanol lock vs heparin locks in prolonging the time to the first episode of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI). Methods Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) via a tunnelled catheter were randomised 1:1 to once per week ethanol locks (with two heparin locks between other dialysis sessions) vs thrice per week heparin locks. Results Observed catheter days in the heparin (n=24) and ethanol (n=25) groups were 1814 and 3614 respectively. CRBSI occurred at a rate of 0.85 vs. 0.28 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin vs ethanol group by intention to treat analysis (incident rate ratio (IRR) for ethanol vs. heparin 0.17; 95%CI 0.02-1.63; p=0.12). Flow issues requiring catheter removal occurred at a rate of 1.6 vs 1.4 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin and ethanol groups respectively (IRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.20-3.5 p =0.82 (for ethanol vs heparin). Conclusions Catheter survival and catheter-related blood stream infection were not significantly different but there was a trend towards a reduced rate of infection in the ethanol group. This study establishes proof of concept and will inform an adequately powered multicentre trial to definitively examine the efficacy and safety of ethanol locks as an alternative to current therapies used in the prevention of catheter-associated blood stream infections in patients dialysing with tunnelled catheters. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000493246

2012-01-01

376

Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial/antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate/methylene blue/parabens)  

PubMed Central

Background. Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution containing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm. These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml. Methods. The tested solution (C/MB/P comprising 7% sodium citrate, 0.05% methylene blue and 0.165% parabens) and individual components were challenged against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi. Control solutions were heparin with preservatives. Studies included evaluation of eradication of planktonic bacteria and sessile organisms in a biofilm grown on polymeric and glass coupons. Biofilm samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vital stains. Results. The C/MB/P solution, contrary to heparin, kills most tested planktonic microorganisms within 1 h of incubation. All tested organisms have an MIC of 25% or less of the original concentration of a new catheter lock. Bacteria strains did not develop resistance over more than 40 passages of culture suspensions. The C/MB/P solution is able to kill nearly all sessile bacteria in biofilm growth on plastic or glass discs in 1 h. Microscopic methods demonstrated extensive physical elimination of biofilm deposits from treated coupons. In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms. Conclusions. The new multicomponent lock solution has strong antimicrobial properties against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms. By comparison, heparin with preservative has weak antibacterial properties against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia.

Steczko, Janusz; Ash, Stephen R.; Nivens, David E.; Brewer, Lloyd; Winger, Roland K.

2009-01-01

377

Low Infection Rates and Prolonged Survival Times of Hemodialysis Catheters in Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis (HD) catheter-related complications are regarded as the main cause of HD failure in infants and children with ESRD. In this study, we determined HD catheter infection rates and survival times in children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiologic data on all infants and children with ESRD who received HD therapy through a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) in our Pediatric Dialysis Unit between January 2001 and December 2009. Our strict care of HD-CVCs makes no use of any kind of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Results Twenty-nine children with ESRD (median age, 10 years) received HD through a CVC, for a total of 22,892 days during the study period. Eleven (38%) children were infants (<1 year of age) who received HD for a cumulative 3779 days (16% of total). Fifty-nine CVCs were inserted, of which 13 (22%) were in infants. There were 12 episodes of CVC infection—a rate of 0.52/1000 CVC days. Four (33%) episodes occurred in infants—a rate of 1.06/1000 CVC days. Only three (5%) of the CVCs were removed because of infection. Median catheter survival time for all children was 310 days and for infants was 211 days. Conclusions Very low CVC infection rates (one infection per 5 CVC years) and prolonged CVC survival times (around 1 year) are achievable in infants and children with ESRD receiving HD therapy by adhering to a strict catheter management protocol and without using prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

Eisenstein, Israel; Tarabeih, Mahdi; Magen, Daniella; Pollack, Shirley; Kassis, Imad; Ofer, Amos; Engel, Ahuva

2011-01-01

378

Use of the Tego needlefree connector is associated with reduced incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are common in hemodialysis patients using central venous catheters, and catheter occlusion also occurs frequently. The Tego needlefree connector was developed to reduce the incidence of these complications; however, existing studies of its effectiveness and safety are limited. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis compared outcomes among patients of a large dialysis organization receiving in-center hemodialysis using a central venous catheter with either the Tego connector or standard catheter caps between October 1 and June 30, 2013. Incidence rates for intravenous (IV) antibiotic starts, receipt of an IV antibiotic course, positive blood cultures, mortality, and missed dialysis treatments were calculated, and incidence-rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Utilization of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and thrombolytics was described for each patient-month and compared using mixed linear models. Models were run without adjustment, adjusted for covariates that were imbalanced between cohorts, or fully adjusted for all potential confounders. Results The analysis comprised 10,652 Tego patients and 6,493 controls. Tego use was independently associated with decreased risk of CRBSI, defined by initiation of IV antibiotics (adjusted IRR 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.97) or initiation of IV antibiotic course (adjusted IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.95). Tego use was independently associated with decreased rate of missed dialysis treatments (adjusted IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–1.00); no significant difference between Tego and control cohorts was observed with respect to mortality. Tego use was associated with decreased likelihood of thrombolytic use (adjusted per-month probability of 5.6% versus 6.2% for controls) and lower utilization of ESAs in study months 7–9. Conclusion Use of the Tego connector may reduce the risk of CRBSI and result in lower utilization of thrombolytics, antibiotics, and ESAs, as well as fewer missed dialysis treatments.

Brunelli, Steven M; Njord, Levi; Hunt, Abigail E; Sibbel, Scott P

2014-01-01

379

Sharp central venous recanalization by means of a TIPS needle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21 G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions. PMID:16091988

Honnef, Dagmar; Wingen, Markus; Günther, Rolf W; Haage, Patrick

2005-01-01

380

Characterization of the developed antimicrobial urological catheters.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial urological catheters were developed by the mixed, covalent and non-covalent binding of sparfloxacin (SPA) to heparin (HP) film which was first deposited on the latex surface of biomaterial. The SPA-HP modified surface was characterized by SEM analysis and ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. For the antimicrobial prevention, SPA as an antibiotic with a broad antimicrobial spectrum was chosen. Antimicrobial activity of antibiotic-modified catheter against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli strains was assessed using various procedures. On the basis of the inhibition zone and diffusion assays the efficacy around the modified catheters was demonstrated. The test samples clearly showed an antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial stains for a least one month. Inhibition of the bacterial colonization on the modified catheter surface was proved by the biofilm test. Antimicrobial activity of SPA-treated catheter surface was also quantitatively evaluated according to standard method of ISO based on JIS. The R-values were found to be higher than 3.8. The performed research indicated that the immobilization of SPA on the catheter surface by means of the mixed-type bonds resulted in stable antibacterial protection of the urological catheters for a long time. PMID:20951780

Kowalczuk, Dorota; Ginalska, Gra?yna; Golus, Joanna

2010-12-15

381

Perineural entrapment of an interscalene stimulating catheter.  

PubMed

A patient undergoing elective total shoulder arthroplasty had an Arrow Stimucath™ (Arrow International Reading, PA, USA) stimulating catheter inserted in the region of the interscalene brachial plexus using an ultrasound-guided in-plane approach. There was subsequent difficulty in removing the catheter and traction was associated with painful paraesthesia in the patient's thumb. Plain X-ray revealed a hook-shaped deformity of the tip and surgical exploration was required to remove the catheter, the tip of which appeared to be trapped within the sheath of the brachial plexus. We speculate that the mechanism for entrapment in this case was deformation of the catheter tip into a hook-like shape. The subsequent catheter-neural interaction prevented asymptomatic removal. We recommend that removal of peripheral nerve catheters be attempted only after resolution of sensory block so as to enable patients to report pain or paraesthesia. Imaging with ultrasound or X-rays may help ascertain catheter tip location and confirm whether deformity is present. We also recommend a low threshold for proceeding to surgical extraction, particularly if neurological symptoms are present. PMID:22577921

Adhikary, S D; Armstrong, K; Chin, K J

2012-05-01

382

Iliofemoral venous obstruction without thrombosis.  

PubMed

Nonthrombotic iliofemoral venous obstruction, masquerading as deep vein thrombosis, was diagnosed in four patients. In each instance the patient was hospitalized and intravenous heparin therapy was started. Phlebography demonstrated venous outflow obstruction without thrombosis; subsequent CT scanning revealed an obstructing lesion in each case. At surgical exploration, (1) endoaneurysmorrhaphy of a hypogastric artery aneurysm decompressed an obstructed right iliac vein; (2) a primary iliac vein leiomyosarcoma was extirpated; (3) a synovial cyst arising from the right hip joint, which obstructed the femoral vein, was excised; and, (4) a postherniorrhaphy inflammatory mass obstructing the left iliofemoral vein junction was confirmed with biopsy results. Improved diagnostic accuracy with its attendant specific therapy is achieved in suspected cases of iliofemoral vein thrombosis if, in addition to noninvasive venous studies or phlebography, CT scanning of the abdomen and pelvis is performed. PMID:3694758

Harris, R W; Andros, G; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W; Horowitz, R

1987-12-01

383

Venous air embolism: a warning not to be complacent--we should listen to the drumbeat of history.  

PubMed

Clinical Considerations Concerning Detection of Venous Air Embolism. By Maurice S. Albin, Robert G. Carroll, Joseph C. Maroon. Neurosurgery 1978; 3:380-84. Abstract used with permission from the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, copyright 1978. Venous air embolism during neurosurgical procedures (detected by Doppler ultrasound and aspiration via a right atrial catheter) was noted in 100 of 400 patients in the sitting position, 5 of 60 patients in the lateral position, 7 of 48 patients in the supine position, and 1 of 10 patients in the monitored prone position. We confirmed venous air embolism in many of these patients by using serial technetium-microaggregated albumin lung scans. Gravitational gradients from the venous portal of entrance to the right side of the heart were as small as 5.0 cm, with aspiration of 200 ml of air occurring. Doppler ultrasonic air bubble detection and aspiration through a previously inserted right atrial catheter are critical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:21799396

Albin, Maurice S

2011-09-01

384

Surgical treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with venous thrombotic disease and in whom anticoagulation or thrombolytic therapy is inappropriate, ineffective, or even contraindicated, insertion of vena caval filters or venous thrombectomy must be considered.

Reginald S. A. Lord; Frank C. Chen; Terence J. Devine; Ian V. Benn

1990-01-01

385

Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vein isolation with catheter ablation is an effective treatment in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to antiarrhythmic medications. The cryoballoon catheter was recently approved for this procedure. In this paper, the basics of cryothermal energy ablation are reviewed including its ability of creating homogenous lesion formation, minimal destruction to surrounding vasculature, preserved tissue integrity, and lower risk of thrombus formation. Also summarized here are the publications describing the clinical experience with the cryoballoon catheter ablation in both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation, its safety and efficacy, and discussions on the technical aspect of the cryoballoon ablation procedure.

Ozcan, Cevher; Ruskin, Jeremy; Mansour, Moussa

2011-01-01

386

Adherence of bacteria to urinary catheters.  

PubMed

The adherence of 3H-labelled gram-negative bacilli to different urinary catheter materials was studied using an in vitro method. Adherence was found to be significantly less to siliconized rubber than to pure latex or teflon coated rubber. Adherence was altered by variations in incubation pH, time, and bacterial concentration; however, incubation temperature did not affect results. Adherence of bacteria to urinary tract catheters may be part of the pathogenesis of certain catheter-related infections. However, in the absence of controlled clinical studies the significance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:7041394

Sugarman, B

1982-02-01

387

Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma  

PubMed Central

Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging modalities may reveal either direct sign (visualization of intraluminal clot) and indirect signs (paranchymatous change, intracranial hemorrhage). By using of effective treatment will improve the prognosis of the patient. This review summarizes insights into etiology, incidence, imaging modalities and current of the treatment.

Chiewvit, Pipat; Piyapittayanan, Siriwan; Poungvarin, Niphon

2011-01-01

388

Arterial versus venous endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) form the inner lining of all blood vessels from the largest artery and veins, viz., the aorta and venae cavae, respectively, to the capillaries that connect the arterial and venous systems. Because these two major conducting systems of the cardiovasculature differ functionally, it is not surprising that the physical makeup of arteries and veins, including the ECs that line their lumina, are also distinct. Although few would argue that the local environment contributes to the differences between arteries and veins, recent evidence has shown that the specification of arterial and venous identity is largely genetically determined.

D'Amore, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

389

Microbiological pattern of arterial catheters in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intravascular catheter related infection (CRI) is one of the most serious nosocomial infections. Diagnostic criteria include a positive culture from the catheter tip along with blood, yet in many patients with signs of infection, current culture techniques fail to identify pathogens on catheter segments. We hypothesised that a molecular examination of the bacterial community on short term arterial catheters

Li Zhang; Kadaba S Sriprakash; David McMillan; John R Gowardman; Bharat Patel; Claire M Rickard

2010-01-01

390

Diagnosis of venous access port colonization requires cultures from multiple sites: should guidelines be amended?  

PubMed

Data on microbiological management of withdrawn venous access ports (VAPs) are scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the validity of Gram stain and culture performed on VAPs to detect colonization and VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). We prospectively performed cultures of the following: catheter tip (roll-plate and sonication), port content aspirate before and after sonication, port sonication fluid (PSF), and port internal surface biofilm (ISB). The gold standard of VAP colonization was positivity of at least 1 of the cultures mentioned above. We collected 223 VAPs in which no single culture had validity values reliable enough to predict colonization and VAP-RBSI. The best validity values were those obtained when cultures of catheter tip (roll-plate), PSF, and port ISB were combined. Cultures from several areas on the VAP are necessary to ensure suitable assessment of colonization and VAP-RBSI. PMID:24316016

Bouza, Emilio; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Echenagusia, Antonio; Camúñez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Rosales, Gracia; Simó, Gonzalo; Echenagusia, Miguel; Guembe, María

2014-02-01

391

Septic and technical complications of central venous catheterization. A prospective study of 200 consecutive patients.  

PubMed Central

The results of central venous catheterization for total parenteral nutrition were prospectively evaluated in 200 consecutive patients. All catheters were fabricated of polyurethane tubing inserted by the Seldinger technique. Two hundred sixty-three lines were inserted in 200 patients for a total of 4103 days. Major complications occurred in 2.3% patients. Twenty-four per cent of catheters were associated with suspected sepsis; of these, 52% were removed directly and 48% were changed over a guidewire. The total catheter sepsis rate was 5.7%. The incidence of sepsis correlated with the number of attempts to insert the line and with positive skin cultures. These data indicate that: use of the Seldinger technique to insert nonthrombogenic flexible catheters results in lower technical morbidity; the incidence of established infection is much lower than the incidence of suspected sepsis; guidewire change may be performed without risk to the patient or interruption of therapy; sepsis rates can be decreased by reducing the number of attempts to catheterize the subclavian vein; and sepsis rates correlate with positive skin cultures at the insertion site.

Sitzmann, J V; Townsend, T R; Siler, M C; Bartlett, J G

1985-01-01

392

Catheter dislodgement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: identification of role of puncture sites and catheter sheath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To identify the appropriate puncture points in the bile duct to avoid catheter dislodgement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters (n = 300) were placed in 242 patients. The frequency of dislodgement (complete dislodgement or bending of the catheter) was prospectively\\u000a investigated. The puncture site of the bile duct was classified on the ultrasonographic findings as follows: Main-B3, main

K. Tamada; T. Tomiyama; S. Wada; A. Ohashi; Y. Satoh; T. Higashizawa; T. Miyata; K. Ido; K. Sugano

2000-01-01

393

Capillary versus venous bedside blood glucose estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the mean difference and correlation between capillary and venous bedside glucose estimation in comparison to laboratory blood glucose analysis in emergency department (ED) patients.Methods: Blood glucose levels were synchronously analysed using a bedside blood glucometer on capillary and venous derived samples from consenting ED patients aged >12 years. The venous sample was sent for comparative testing using

R Boyd; B Leigh; P Stuart

2005-01-01

394

Use of articulated catheters in the treatment of biliary strictures  

SciTech Connect

We have used a single articulated catheter to obviate the need for multiple catheters in patients with complex biliary strictures or strictures associated with small or immature tracts. Two- and three-arm articulated drains (8-14 Fr) made from segments of biliary catheters were placed in 16 patients. Nine were placed transhepatically, 6 transperitoneally through existing T-tube tracts, and 1 through a cystic duct fistula. Six malignant and 10 benign strictures were stented with various catheter configurations through a single tract. Fifteen patients had two catheter components with one articulation and 1 patient had three catheter components with two articulations. The average duration of catheter drainage was 7.0 {+-} 4.2 months. Routine catheter exchanges were performed; two spontaneous occlusions occurred. In patients where internal stenting may be difficult or undesirable, articulated catheters allow satisfactory external and internal drainage of complex benign and malignant strictures through a single tract, avoiding the need for multiple transhepatic catheters.

Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Soulen, Michael C.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology (United States)

1997-05-15

395

Incidents and Complications of Permanent Venous Central Access Systems: A Series of 1,460 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Implanted venous access devices or permanent central venous access systems (PCVASs) are routinely used in oncologic patients. Complications can occur during the implantation or use of such devices. We describe such complications of the PCVAS and their management. Methods Our retrospective study included 1,460 cases in which PCVAS was implanted in the 11 years between January 2002 and January 2013, including 810 women and 650 men with an average age of 45.2 years. We used polyurethane or silicone catheters. The site of insertion and the surgical or percutaneous procedure were selected on the basis of clinical data and disease information. The subclavian and cephalic veins were our most common sites of insertion. Results About 1,100 cases (75%) underwent surgery by training surgeons and 360 patients by expert surgeons. Perioperative incidents occurred in 33% and 12% of these patients, respectively. Incidents (28%) included technical difficulties (n=64), a subcutaneous hematoma (n=37), pneumothoraces (n=15), and an intrapleural catheter (n=1). Complications in the short and medium term were present in 14.2% of the cases. Distortion and rupture of the catheter (n=5) were noted in the costoclavicular area (pinch-off syndrome). There were 5 cases of catheter migration into the jugular vein (n=1), superior vena cava (n=1), and heart cavities (n=3). No patient died of PCVAS insertion or complication. Conclusion PCVAS complications should be diagnosed early and treated with probable removal of this material for preventing any life-threatening outcome associated with complicated PVCAS.

El Ouazni, Mohammed; Arsalane, Adil; El Oueriachi, Faycal; Mansouri, Hamid; Kabiri, El Hassane

2014-01-01

396

Subcutaneous tunneling of caudal catheters redcues the rate of bacterial colonization to that of lumbar epidural catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colonization is regarded as a causative factor for septic complications of caudal catheters in children. To determine whether tunneling caudal catheters re- duces the bacterial colonization rate effectively, we evaluated 506 children being treated with tunneled or untunneled caudal or untunneled lumbar epidural catheters. Four-hundred-nine children completed the study. After aseptic removal, the catheters were cul- tured and sent

Karin Boos; Helmut Krause; Karl-Christian Thies

2004-01-01

397

Self-administration of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy and risk of catheter-related adverse events: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Despite increasing use, limited data has been published comparing safety of different outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) models. Potential risks of self-administration at home include venous access device infection and other line complications. This study aims to investigate rates and predictors of intravenous access device complications in a large OPAT cohort. This is a retrospective cohort study of all uses of midlines, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs) with univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis of factors associated with line infections (LIs) and with other line events (OLEs). On univariate analysis, line infections were associated with length of line use, female sex and TCVC lines (compared to midlines). Patients self-administering OPAT in the home had a non-significantly lower rate of LIs. On multivariate analysis only duration of line use was a significant predictor of LIs-OR 1.012 (95%CI 1.001-1.023). For OLEs, multivariate analysis suggested that only line type and use of flucloxacillin were significant explanatory variables. In this cohort, there is no evidence that self-administration of OPAT is associated with higher rates of venous access device complications after controlling for confounding variables. PMID:22526869

Barr, D A; Semple, L; Seaton, R A

2012-10-01

398

Venous and arterial thrombotic risks with thalidomide: evidence and practical guidance  

PubMed Central

Oral immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), namely thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, interfere with several pathways important for disease progression. Today they play a crucial role in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients, and have considerably improved myeloma outcomes. These agents, and thalidomide in particular, are associated with higher rates of thromboembolic events, both venous and arterial. Individual risk factors for thromboembolic events include advanced age, previous history of thromboembolism, an indwelling central venous catheter, comorbid conditions (e.g. infections, diabetes, cardiac disease, obesity), current or recent immobilization, recent surgery and inherited thrombophilic abnormalities. Cancer therapy and cancer itself also increase the risk of thromboembolic events. The aim of this review is to help clinicians to define the risk of thrombotic events in patients treated with thalidomide and thus to provide practical recommendations to manage thromboprophylaxis in these patients.

Palladino, Carmela

2012-01-01

399

Sickle cell disease and venous thromboembolism: what the anticoagulation expert needs to know.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The etiology of increased risk of VTE in SCD patients is multifactorial and is related to both traditional factors and SCD-specific factors. Traditional risk factors such as central venous catheters, frequent hospitalization, orthopedic surgeries for avascular necrosis, and pregnancy may lead to increased incidence of VTE in the SCD population. In addition, SCD itself appears to be a hypercoagulable state, and many SCD-specific factors such as thrombophilic defects, genotype and splenectomy may modify the risk of VTE. SCD complications such as acute chest syndrome and pulmonary hypertension may also be related to VTE. Anticoagulation experts should be aware of these factors to help inform prophylaxis and treatment decisions. PMID:23435703

Naik, Rakhi P; Streiff, Michael B; Lanzkron, Sophie

2013-04-01

400

Transvenous removal of an entangled central venous line following complex cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Unintended internal suturing of central venous lines or pulmonary artery catheters in the superior caval vein or the right atrium following cardiac surgery remains a rare but troublesome complication. The line is normally entangled in safety or hemostasis sutures after the removal of the superior caval cannulation. If mild tension is unsuccessful, the patient normally undergoes resternotomy. The objective of this brief communication is to describe of a simple and safe removal method using a transvenous rotational cutting device to divide the hemostasis suture. In order to avoid complicating bleeding, a time delay between initial placement and removal is highly recommended. For extraction, a fully equipped cardiovascular operating room with central venous and arterial lines, attached defibrillator pads, transesophageal echo monitoring, fluoroscopy, and a surgical team, including a heart and lung machine and a perfusionist standby, is mandatory. PMID:19659633

Sun, Ke; Aebert, Hermann; Stock, Ulrich A; Lisy, Milan; Ziemer, Gerhard; Doernberger, Volker

2009-08-01

401

Adult Catheter Care and Infection Prevention Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... chlorhexidine solution in 70% alcohol, 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 5. Properly clean/disinfect the exit site ... g. sensitivity or allergy), use 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 6. Cover the catheter exit site with ...

402

Jet-directed catheter for interventional radiology.  

PubMed

A new catheter of dual lumen construction, suitable for clinical use, is capable of navigating acute vessel branches by selective retrojet fluid thrusts issuing from cowlings built into its distal sidewalls. Conventional radiopaque liquids can be used both to drive the system and to fluoroscopically locate its position relative to the vascular network. In vitro studies have shown the catheter to traverse straight vessels and negotiate difficult lateral turns over short radii in the process of entering progressively smaller branches. In vivo studies have verified these capabilities and suggest a means for embolizing tumors and arteriovenous malformations located at otherwise inaccessible regions. For arterial infusion of drugs to treat tumors, the turbulent jet action is utilized to enhance mixing within the blood stream to overcome the streaming phenomenon common to other catheters. The result is better distribution of the agent and increased opportunity for the drug to reach more of the tumor. The catheter system is undergoing clinical trials. PMID:3752638

Boretos, J W; Sullivan, J V; Fitze, P E; Girton, M E; Doppman, J L

1986-01-01

403

Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technical success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.

Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fan, Stanley [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Blakeney, Charles; Fotheringham, Tim [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Sobeh, Mohammed [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Matson, Matthew [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

404

Diagnosis and treatment of catheter-related infections in paediatric oncology: an update.  

PubMed

Otherwise unexplained clinical signs of infection in patients with long-term tunnelled or totally implanted central venous access devices (CVADs) are suspected to be CVAD-associated. Diagnostic methods include catheter swabs, blood cultures and cultures of the catheter tip or port reservoir. In the case of a suspected CVAD-related bloodstream infection in paediatric oncology patients, in-situ treatment without prompt removal of the device can be attempted. Removal of the CVAD should be considered if bacteraemia persists or relapses > or = 72 h after the initiation of (in-vitro effective) antibacterial therapy administered through the line. Timely removal of the device is also recommended if the patient suffers from a complicated infection, or if Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii or Candida spp. are isolated from blood cultures. Duration of therapy depends on the immunological recovery of the patient, the pathogen isolated and the presence of related complications, such as thrombosis, pneumonia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Antibiotic lock techniques in addition to systemic treatment are beneficial for Gram-positive infections. Although prospectively controlled studies are lacking, the concomitant use of urokinase locks and taurolidine secondary prophylaxis seem to favour catheter salvage. PMID:16774556

Simon, A; Bode, U; Beutel, K

2006-07-01

405

Care of urinary catheters and drainage systems.  

PubMed

A question about the reuse of drainable urinary catheter night drainage bags in a patient's home promoted the South East Thames continence advisory group to examine the evidence for the management of urinary catheter drainage systems. The objective of this review was to establish if there is evidence available to support clinical practice and provide recommendations to staff and patients to ensure best practice. PMID:17985750

Jones, Sarah; Brooks, Anthony; Foxley, Sue; Dunkin, Judith

406

Pressure microsensing catheters for neonatal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure microsensing catheter for neonatal care has been developed to measure intravascular blood pressure. The design uses polymer flip-chip bonding on a flexible Kapton film for mounting silicon pressure microsensors into the 5 French dual lumen neonatal catheters (1.67 mm o.d.). While other groups have mounted MEMS sensors on guide wires, our dual-lumen approach permits one lumen of the

Frank E. Sauser; Chunyan Li; Richard G. Azizkhan; Chong H. Ahn; Ian Papautsky

2004-01-01

407

Contamination of Catheter-Drawn Blood Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the risk of contamination, we reviewed retrospectively 1,408 matched pairs of simultaneous catheter-drawn and venipuncture blood cultures. Catheter-drawn cultures were equally likely to be truly positive (14.4 versus 13.7%) but more likely to be contaminated (3.8 versus 1.8% (P 0.001)). Direct venipuncture cultures are preferred. Contamination of blood cultures causes diagnostic confu- sion and sometimes leads to unnecessary

RICHARD J. EVERTS; EMILY N. VINSON; PAUL O. ADHOLLA; L. BARTH RELLER

2001-01-01

408

Tamm-Horsfall protein facilitates catheter associated urinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary catheters are associated, commonly with bacteriuria and frequently with urinary tract infection. Tamm-Horsfall Protein (THP) is urine's most abundant protein and is known to bind to uropathogenic bacteria. The role of THP in the pathogenesis of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is not clear. We examined the role of THP in facilitating bacterial binding to urinary catheters in vivo and in vitro. Findings Twenty one urinary catheters were obtained from 20 hospitalized patients. THP was eluted from the catheter surface and catheter segments were cultured. Additional studies were performed in vitro on unused silicone and latex catheters to determine the binding of THP, and the effect of THP on the binding of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), to the catheter surface. On catheters obtained from patients, the THP deposition was significantly more on culture positive catheters than on culture negative catheters. In the in vitro studies, THP bound to both silicone and latex catheters, and THP enhanced the adherence of E. coli and P. aeruginosa to both types of catheters. Conclusion THP binds to urinary catheters and facilitates the binding of uropathogenic bacteria to catheters.

2012-01-01

409

Determination of urethral catheter surface lubricity.  

PubMed

Device for in-vitro measurement of static and kinetic friction coefficient of catheter surface was developed. Tribometer was designed and constructed to work with exchangeable counter-faces (polymers, tissue) and various types of tubes, in wet conditions in order to mimic in-vivo process. Thus seven commercially available urethral catheters, made from vinyl polymers, natural latex with silicone coating, all-silicone or hydrogel coated, and one made from polyvinylchloride with polyurethane/polyvinylpyrrolidone hydrogel coating obtained in our laboratory, were tested against three various counter faces: polymethacrylate (organic glass), inner part of porcine aorta and porcine bladder mucosa. Additionally, the hydrophility/hydrophobity of tested catheters was stated via water wetting contact angle measurement. Super-hydrophilic biomaterials revealed low friction on tissue and hydrophobic counter-face; slightly hydrophobic showed higher friction in both cases, while more hydrophobic manifested low friction on tissue but high on hydrophobic polymer. The smoothest friction characteristic was achieved in all cases on tissue counter-faces. The measured values of the static coefficient of friction of catheters on bladder mucosa counter-face were as follows: the highest (0.15) for vinyl and siliconised latex catheters and 3 folds lower (0.05) for all-silicone ones. Hydrogel coated catheters exhibited the lowest static and kinetic friction factors. PMID:18071872

Kazmierska, Katarzyna; Szwast, Maciej; Ciach, Tomasz

2008-06-01

410

Quality Determining Parameters of Balloon Angioplasty Catheters.  

PubMed

The investigations carried out on balloon angioplasty catheters using a parameter test unit allow an objective comparison and a qualitative assessment of catheter brands with respect to their stenosis passability. The design of the test unit allows the measure of other parameters important for clinical practice, such as pushability and trackability. Altogether 8 over-the-wire and 10 monorail-catheters from 7 different manufacturers were investigated by our study. Between modern over-the-wire and monorail systems there exists no fundamental difference in passage capability. In some brands of catheter the stenosis model shows no increase in the amount of thrust required, even after repeated inflation; this is accountable to the good folding properties of the balloon. Angioplasty balloons made of less overstretchable or thinner material yielded the best results. The fact that changes in balloon quality may result from pre-inflation should carry weight in discussions concerning the reuse of catheters. The measurement results are useful for the correct selection of a catheter appropriate to the therapy task at hand. PMID:10785694

Schmitz; Behrens; Schmidt; Behrend; Urbaszek

1996-04-01

411

Comparison of brain tissue and local cerebral venous gas tensions and pH.  

PubMed

Neurosurgical monitoring devices have recently become available which are capable of measuring cerebral tissue gas tensions and pH. Brain tissue sensors have not been conclusively demonstrated to correlate with other measurements of regional cerebral gas tensions or pH. The present study was undertaken to correlate sensor values for pO2, pCO2 and pH with blood samples taken concurrently from local cerebral veins. Adult mongrel dogs were anesthetized and a craniotomy was performed. A small gyral vein was isolated and cannulated. Adjacent to the venous catheter tip, a Neurotrend brain tissue probe was inserted in an intracortical location. Each subject received a sequence of manipulations in inspired oxygen and end tidal carbon dioxide conditions. Under each experimental condition, samples of arterial and gyral venous blood were obtained and blood gas analysis performed. Concurrent brain probe measurements of tissue pO2, pCO2 and pH were recorded. Statistical analysis determined that local tissue and cerebral venous blood values for pO2, pCO2 and pH were highly correlated (R(s) = 0.62-0.82; p < 0.001). This indicates that there exists a confirmable monotonic relationship between tissue values and conditions in the post-capillary venous bed. Tissue sensors such as the Neurotrend probe can offer reliable trend indications in brain tissue gas tensions and pH. PMID:11045031

Edelman, G J; Hoffman, W E; Rico, C; Ripper, R

2000-09-01

412

Ultrasound-guided noninvasive measurement of a patient's central venous pressure.  

PubMed

Central venous pressure (CVP) is an important physiological parameter, the correct measure of which is a clinically relevant diagnostic tool for heart failure patients. A current challenge for physicians, however, is to obtain a quick and accurate measure of a patient's CVP in a manner that poses minimum discomfort. Current approaches for measuring CVP involve invasive methods such as threading a central venous catheter along a major vein, or tedious physical exams that require physicians to grossly estimate the measurement. Our solution proposes a novel noninvasive method to estimate central venous pressure using ultrasound-guided surface pressure measurement. Specifically, our device works in conjunction with an ultrasound machine and probe that is used to visualize the interior jugular (IJ) vein below the surface of the skin on a patient's neck. Once the interior jugular vein is located, our device detects the pressure on the skin required to collapse the IJ and correlates this value to a central venous pressure reading reported to the operator. This quick and noninvasive measurement is suitable for emergency situations or primary care settings where rapid diagnosis of a patient's CVP is required, and prevents the need for further invasive and costly procedures. The measurement procedure is also simple enough to be performed by operators without extensive medical training. PMID:17946583

Aggarwal, Vikram; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Cho, Yoonju; Cheung, Dickson

2006-01-01

413

Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established.

Simka, Marian; Latacz, Pawel; Ludyga, Tomasz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Swierad, Marcin; Janas, Piotr; Piegza, Jacek