Sample records for venous hickman catheter

  1. Percutaneous infraclavicular insertion of long-term central venous Hickman catheters.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C J; Ramsey-Stewart, G; Storey, D W

    1989-11-01

    Percutaneous infraclavicular subclavian vein insertions of single lumen Hickman right atrial catheters (n = 342) were performed on 308 patients at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. The indications for insertion were administration of total parenteral nutrition (44.8%), intravenous chemotherapy (40.9%), intravenous therapy in patients with inaccessible peripheral veins (11.7%), and intravenous antibiotic administration (2.6%). Three percutaneous catheter insertions were complicated by pneumothorax (0.88%). There were no other complications of insertion. Catheters remained in situ for a median period of 30 days (range: 2-853 days). The majority of catheters (69.6%) remained functioning and complication-free until the completion of therapy or until the patient died of their original disease. Some catheters became infected (9.9%) and there was a 0.6% incidence of septicaemia due to infected catheters; 8.5% of catheters were removed because of a suspicion of infection that was not subsequently proven. The incidence of infection was highest within the first month after catheter insertion, and decreased thereafter. Percutaneous subclavian insertion of Hickman right atrial catheters appears to be the insertion method of choice in patients requiring long-term central venous access. PMID:2818350

  2. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePLUS

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  3. Ethanol versus heparin locks for the prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: a randomized trial in adult haematology patients with Hickman devices.

    PubMed

    Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Heath, S; Szer, J; Grigg, A P

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of ethanol locks for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in adult haematology patients has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to compare prospectively heparinized saline with 70% ethanol locks using 2 h dwell time in patients with tunnelled CVCs. In saline (N = 43) and ethanol (N = 42) groups, CLABSI rates were 6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-9.8] and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.9-7.7) per 1000 CVC days, respectively (P = 0.42). In the ethanol group, two exit-site infections and one tunnel/pocket infection were observed. Reduction in device-associated infection was not achieved with prophylactic 70% ethanol locks in patients with haematological malignancy and tunnelled CVCs. PMID:25063013

  4. Results of antibiotic treatment of Hickman-catheter-related infections in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Suttorp, M

    1994-01-01

    A group of 330 oncological patients were supported throughout a 7-year period with central venous catheters (Broviac/Hickman catheters) and underwent standard oncological chemotherapy, because of hematological malignancies or solid tumors (156 children), or a myeloablative conditioning regimen followed by bone marrow transplantation because of leukemia or lymphoma (174 patients: 110 adults, 64 children). Of these, 17 patients (8 after bone marrow transplantation) developed a catheter-related bacteremia and were treated by at least two antibiotics according to the sensitivity of the bacteria. In 1 patient the catheter (infected by Bacillus cereus) was removed on day 25 of antibiotic treatment because of persistent high fever and further positive blood cultures. After bone marrow transplantation, 2 other patients, with a Pseudomonas or a Staphylococcus infection respectively, did not respond to the combined antibiotic treatment and died 1 week and 7 weeks later, respectively, from transplant-related severe graft-versus-host disease. In the other 14 patients antibiotic treatment was successful and removal of the central-vein catheter could be avoided. PMID:8156260

  5. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  6. Central venous catheter - flushing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... your fingers before washing. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

  7. Aromatherapy treatment for patients with Hickman line infection following high-dose chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Gravett

    2001-01-01

    Eighty patients with breast cancer were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue. This required that every patient had central venous access established using a Hickman catheter. N total of 16 patients suffered infection at the Hickman Line exit site, six of which were treated with an aromatherapy preparation and 10 with conventional topical antiseptic. No differences were demonstrated

  8. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex M. Barnacle; Tricia M. Kleidon

    2005-01-01

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  9. Repositioning and Leaving In Situ the Central Venous Catheter During Percutaneous Treatment of Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A Report of Eight Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Stockx, Luc; Raat, Henricus [Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Donck, Jan [Department of Nephrology, Catholic University of Leuven, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Wilms, Guy; Marchal, Guy [Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To describe a combined procedure of repositioning and leaving in situ a central venous catheter followed by immediate percutaneous treatment of associated superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Methods: Eight patients are presented who have central venous catheter-associated SVCS (n = 6 Hickman catheters, n = 2 Port-a-cath) caused by central vein stenosis (n = 4) or concomitant thrombosis (n = 4). With the use of a vascular snare introduced via the transcubital or transjugular approach, the tip of the central venous catheter could be engaged, and repositioned after deployment of a stent in the innominate or superior vena cava. Results: In all patients it was technically feasible to reposition the central venous catheter and treat the SVCS at the same time. In one patient flipping of the Hickman catheter in its original position provoked dislocation of the released Palmaz stent, which could be positioned in the right common iliac vein. Conclusion: Repositioning of a central venous catheter just before and after stent deployment in SVCS is technically feasible and a better alternative than preprocedural removal of the vascular access.

  10. Recurrent bacteraemia by 2 different Bacillus cereus strains related to 2 distinct central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Koch, Andrea; Arvand, Mardjan

    2005-01-01

    A 14-y-old girl with osteosarcoma developed 3 episodes of catheter-related bacteraemia by Bacillus cereus. After removal of the first and insertion of a second Hickman catheter, further episodes of B. cereus bacteraemia occurred. PFGE analysis revealed that bacteraemic episodes related to each catheter were caused by a distinct B. cereus strain. PMID:16191899

  11. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery: a rare complication of Hickman line insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glykeria Petrocheilou; Constantinos Kokkinis; Sotiria Stathopoulou; Loukia Fragopoulou; Petros Mihos; Paraskevi J. Papadaki; Marianna Vlychou

    2008-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is widely used for hemodialysis for patients with renal failure. A number of short and long-term\\u000a complications have been reported in literature. We describe a rare case of a lethal iatrogenic injury of the brachiocephalic\\u000a artery (BA) in a 65-year-old woman following subclavian venous catheterization with a Hickman catheter. Contrast-enhanced\\u000a CT-scan and reconstruction images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm

  12. Evaluation of central venous catheter sepsis by differential quantitative blood culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Fan; C. H. Teoh-Chan; K. F. Lau

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of differential quantitative blood culture in the diagnosis of central venous catheter sepsis was evaluated in 24 parenterally-fed patients in whom catheter sepsis was suspected. The pour-plate quantitative culture technique was performed immediately before removal of the catheter on blood drawn through the central venous catheter and a peripheral vein. If bacterial colonies in the catheter blood specimen

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of a Central Venous Catheter Care Bundle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate A. Halton; David Cook; David L. Paterson; Nasia Safdar; Nicholas Graves

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundA bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the

  14. How to use central venous catheter tip cultures.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Niamh; Crowley, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) tip cultures are useful in the assessment of a patient with a potential catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). However, these results can be misleading particularly in the absence of concomitant peripheral and central line blood cultures. Catheter tip cultures should not be submitted to the laboratory unless CRBSI is suspected as the predictive value of culture results depends on the pretest probability of CRBSI. A positive CVC tip culture does not usually warrant further investigation or therapy (except in the case of Staphylococcus aureus and possibly Candida sp) while a negative catheter tip culture in isolation does not definitively exclude CRBSI. Clinicians can use alternative criteria for the diagnosis of CRBSI that do not require catheter tip cultures if necessary. Further research into the significance of CVC tip cultures in the absence of concomitant bacteraemia is required. PMID:24711374

  15. Supraventricular tachycardia following insertion of a central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Yavascan, Onder; Mir, Sevgi; Tekguc, Hakan

    2009-11-01

    Placement of central venous catheters (CVCs) in patients is associated with several risks including endocardial injury and dysrhythmias. In addition, CVC extending into intracardiac chambers can provoke premature atrial and ventricular complexes, which have been reported to initiate supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). A 15-year-old boy with end-stage renal failure developed SVT after insertion of a CVC. PMID:19861871

  16. Multielectrode Venous Catheter Mapping as a High Quality Constraint for

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Multielectrode Venous Catheter Mapping as a High Quality Constraint for Electrocardiographic--and the estimated maps from them--also have the potential to provide high quality constraints Lake City, UT. This work was supported by Richard A. and Nora Eccles Harrison Treadwell Fund

  17. Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter. PMID:25278411

  18. Tunneled central venous catheters: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, K.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Sah, A. K.; Sooraj, Y.; Mahaldhar, A.; Ajeshkumar, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the past vascular surgeons were called in to place tunneled central venous catheter (TVC) for hemodialysis patients. Advent of percutaneous technique has resulted in an increasing number of interventional nephrologists inserting it. A single centre three year audit of 100 TVCs with a cumulative follow up of 492 patient months is presented here. From 2007 to 2010, 100 TVCs were placed by nephrologists in a percutaneous fashion in the operative room or the interventional nephrology suite. Those who completed minimum of three months on the catheter were included in analysis. There were 69 males and 31 females with a mean age of 52.3±13.6 years.(range: 25-76). Chronic glomerulonephritis was the commonest cause of CKD (45%) followed by diabetes (39%).Right internal jugular vein was the preferred site (94%). TVC was utilized as the primary access to initiate dialysis in 25% of patients in whom a live donor was available for renal transplant. The blood flow was 250-270 ml/min. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 3 months and 6 months catheter survival rates were 80% and 55%, respectively. The main complications were exit site blood ooze, catheter block and kink. Catheter related bacteremia rate was low at 0.4/1000 patient days. Primary cause of drop out was patient death unrelated to the TVCs. Those under the age of 40 years showed better survival, but there was no bearing of gender, catheter site, and etiology of CKD on survival. Tunneled central venous catheters could find a niche as the primary access of choice for pretransplant live donor renal transplants in view of its immediate usage, high blood flows, low infection rates and adequate patency rates for 3-6 months. PMID:21769173

  19. The Ultrasound-Only Central Venous Catheter Placement and Confirmation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Saul, Turandot; Doctor, Michael; Kaban, Nicole L; Avitabile, Nicholas C; Siadecki, Sebastian D; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-07-01

    The placement of a central venous catheter remains an important intervention in the care of critically ill patients in the emergency department. We propose an ultrasound-first protocol for 3 aspects of central venous catheter placement above the diaphragm: dynamic procedural guidance, evaluation for pneumothorax, and confirmation of the catheter tip location. PMID:26112635

  20. Elective removal of cuffed central venous catheters in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anselm C. W. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Background  Subcutaneously tunneled, cuffed central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy\\u000a or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. When their use is no longer indicated or precluded by mechanical or infectious\\u000a complications, CVCs have to be removed. General instructions on how cuffed CVC should be removed are available in the medical\\u000a texts but none is adapted for use in

  1. Unanticipated complication of a malpositioned central venous catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Kundra; Bathala V. Sai Chandran; Kasturi S. V. K. Subbarao

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual complication that occurred late in the postoperative period, due to a damaged and malpositioned peripherally\\u000a inserted central catheter (PICC) used for central venous pressure monitoring during esophagocoloplasty and for postoperative\\u000a parenteral nutrition. On the seventh postoperative day, the development of a leak from the neck wound coincided with the administration\\u000a of intravenous fluids via the PICC.

  2. Systematic review of emergency department central venous and arterial catheter infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H. LeMaster; Ashish T. Agrawal; Peter Hou; Jeremiah D. Schuur

    2010-01-01

    Background  There is an extensive critical care literature for central venous catheter and arterial line infection, duration of catheterization,\\u000a and compliance with infection control procedures. The emergency medicine literature, however, contains very little data on\\u000a central venous catheters and arterial lines. As emergency medicine practice continues to incorporate greater numbers of critical\\u000a care procedures such as central venous catheter placement, infection

  3. Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use? Modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin D. Marciante; David L. Veenstra; Benjamin A. Lipsky; Sanjay Saint

    2003-01-01

    Background: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are costly and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Trials suggest that central venous catheters impregnated with minocycline\\/rifampin, although more expensive, are clinically superior to chlorhexidine\\/silver sulfadiazine impregnated catheters. It remains unclear whether minocycline\\/rifampin catheters are cost-effective for all high-risk patients or only those requiring longer-term catheterization. Methods: We developed a series of decision models with

  4. [Percutaneous central venous catheters in neonatal intensive care. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Melki, I; Faraj, G; Khoury, P

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe their own experience about using a siliconed percutaneous central venous catheter in the newborn, experience performed in their neonatal intensive care unit in Beirut. The technique consists in introducing this sort of device centrally by using a peripheral vein. The authors performed a prospective study on thirty-two newborns: Their results seem to indicate, in accordance to the literature review, that this technique offers many advantages such as sparing the newborn veins, prolonged hyperalimentation and treatment, and less incidents than the other perfusion techniques (peripheral and central). Few inconveniences are encountered: limitation of the amount of daily perfusion, impossibility of transfusing blood or derivatives across the silicone catheter. PMID:7629820

  5. Thrombogenicity testing of central venous catheters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Böswald, M; Lugauer, S; Bechert, T; Greil, J; Regenfus, A; Guggenbichler, J P

    1999-01-01

    To date there have been no standard methods for assessing the thrombogenicity of central venous catheters. A procedure for testing the thrombogenicity of intravenous lines such as the silver-impregnated catheter by continuous blood flow in vitro was therefore developed. For this test, fresh blood was drawn from healthy human donors and anti-coagulated with sodium citrate (1:9). All material tested (catheter tubes with and without silver manufactured in the same way, polyethylene tubes and tubes with potentially thrombogenic material) were perfused through their lumen with anticoagulated blood for up to 31 hours. Blood samples were collected at different times from the test system at sites before and after the perfusion of the test catheters. The hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte, leukocyte and thrombocyte counts and markers for thrombin activation (thrombin-antithrombin III-complex, F1 + 2)-prothrombin fragments) and for hyperfibrinolysis (d-dimers) were determined. No thrombin activation or signs of hyperfibrinolysis were detected in any material tested. Polyethylene tubes were found to cause hemolysis, as shown by a decrease in hemoglobin content from 15 g% to 4.5 g%. Tecothane tubes with and without silver did not induce hemolysis. PMID:10379440

  6. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ?1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ?2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

  7. Mini-review: Antimicrobial central venous catheters – recent advances and strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Sousa; Mariana Henriques; Rosário Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) nowadays constitute critical devices used in medical care, namely in intensive care units. However, CVCs also represent one of the indwelling medical devices with enhanced risk of nosocomial device-related infection. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, often justifying premature catheter removal and an increase in costs and use of resources.

  8. Transmedullary Venous Anastomoses: Anatomy and Angiographic Visualization Using Flat Panel Catheter Angiotomography.

    PubMed

    Gregg, L; Gailloud, P

    2015-07-01

    Flat panel catheter angiotomography, a recently developed angiographic technique, offers a spinal equivalent to the venous phase obtained during cerebral angiography. This report of 8 clinical cases discusses the flat panel catheter angiotomography appearance of a type of spinal venous structure until now principally known through the analysis of postmortem material, transmedullary venous anastomosis. The illustrated configurations include centrodorsolateral, median anteroposterior, median anteroposterior with duplicated origin, and combined centrodorsolateral/median anteroposterior transmedullary venous anastomoses, while a pathologic example documents the potential role of transmedullary venous anastomoses as collateral venous pathways. Two of the reported configurations have not been previously documented. Transmedullary venous anastomoses are normal venous structures that need to be differentiated from spinal cord anomalies, such as intramedullary vascular malformations. PMID:25953764

  9. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training. PMID:25548874

  10. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James [SDI Radiology, Department of Radiology, Saint Joseph's Hospital, 3001 Dr. Martin Luther King Blvd., Tampa, FL 33607 (United States)

    2001-03-15

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  11. Antimicrobial central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna L Casey; Leonard A Mermel; Peter Nightingale; Tom SJ Elliott

    2008-01-01

    Several antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVCs) are available. We did a meta-analysis to assess their effi cacy in reducing microbial colonisation and preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). An extensive literature search of articles in any language was undertaken. We assessed randomised clinical trials in which available antimicrobial CVCs were compared with either a standard CVC or another antimicrobial CVC. Outcomes

  12. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Central Venous Catheter Sutured to the Wall of the Right Atrium

    SciTech Connect

    Neuerburg, Joerg-M.; Guenther, Rolf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Chalabi, Khaled [Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Hunter, David [Department of Radiology, Fairview-University Medical Center, 420 Delaware Street S.E., Box 292, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    1999-01-15

    A transjugular central venous catheter was inadvertently sutured to the wall of the right atrium in a 63-year-old female during coronary bypass surgery. Using two nitinol Goose Neck snares via a transfemoral and a transjugular approach the catheter was severed into two pieces and retrieved percutaneously.

  13. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients: epidemiology and evidence-based management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratnaja Katneni; S Susan Hedayati

    2007-01-01

    Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease treated with chronic hemodialysis. Risk factors include Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, longer duration of catheter use, previous bacteremia, older age, higher total intravenous iron dose, lower hemoglobin and serum albumin levels, diabetes mellitus and recent hospitalization. Symptoms that raise

  14. Central venous catheter infections in pediatric patients — in a community hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kumar; S. S. Brar; D. L. Murray; Renuka Gera; Roshni Kulkarni; Isabel Leader

    1988-01-01

    Summary We reviewed the records of 23 pediatric patients who had received at least one central venous catheter during a two-year period. Nine patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), nine had other hematologic\\/oncologic diagnoses, and five had cystic fibrosis. Twenty-nine of 65 febrile episodes in 16 patients were associated with a catheter-related infection. Twenty of 40 catheters were associated with

  15. ARTICLE ORIGINAL\\/ORIGINAL ARTICLE PERIPHERAL VENOUS CATHETER-RELATED INFLAMMATION A Randomized Prospective Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fady G. HADDAD; Chady H. WAKED; Emile F. ZEIN

    A B S T R A C TBA C K G R O U N D : Peripheral venous cath- eter-related inflammation (PVCRI) is a serious health and economic issue. It is mainly linked to peripheral venous catheter (PVC) duration and other risk factors. ME T H O D S : PVCRI was prospectively evaluated in a 3 month-study according

  16. An effective and biocompatible antibiofilm coating for central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Silva Paes Leme, Annelisa Farah; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Alves, Fernanda Aparecida Oliveira; de Azevedo, Bruna Martinho; de Bretas, Liza Porcaro; Farias, Rogerio Estevam; Oliveira, Murilo Gomes; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy and the tissue reaction of an antibiofilm coating composed of xylitol, triclosan, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by a turbidimetric method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the antiadherent property of central venous catheter (CVC) fragments impregnated with an antibiofilm coating (I-CVC) in comparison with noncoated CVC (NC-CVC) fragments. Two in vivo assays using subcutaneous implantation of NC-CVC and I-CVC fragments in the dorsal area of rats were performed. The first assay comprised hematological and microbiological analysis. The second assay evaluated tissue response by examining the inflammatory reactions after 7 and 21 days. The formulation displayed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. A biofilm disaggregation with significant reduction of microorganism's adherence in I-CVC fragments was observed. In vivo antiadherence results demonstrated a reduction of early biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, mainly in an external surface of the I-CVC, in comparison with the NC-CVC. All animals displayed negative hemoculture. No significant tissue reaction was observed, indicating that the antibiofilm formulation could be considered biocompatible. The use of I-CVC could decrease the probability of development of localized or systemic infections. PMID:25826042

  17. [Procedure adverse events: nursing care in central venous catheter fracture].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juan, Eva; Maqueda-Palau, Mňnica; Romero-Grilo, Cristina; Muńoz-Moles, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    In a intensive care unit (ICU) there are many factors that can lead to the occurrence of adverse events. A high percentage of these events are associated with the administration of drugs. Diagnostic tests, such as computed tomography, is common in critically ill patients and technique can be performed with injection of contrast agent to enhance the visualization of soft tissue. The contrast is a medication and the nurse is responsible for its proper administration. The management of the critically ill patient is complex. ICU team and radiology shares responsibility for the care and safety of the patient safety during the transfer and performing tests with contrast. The World Health Organisation patient safety strategies, recommends analysing errors and learning from them. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the causes of the category E severity adverse events that occurred in a patient who was admitted to the ICU for septic shock of abdominal origin. An abdominal computed tomography was performed with contrast which was injected through a central venous catheter. The contrast did not appear in the image. What happened? Causal analysis helped to understand what triggered the event. A care plan and an algorithm were drafted to prevent it from happening again, with the following objectives: improving knowledge, skills and promoting positive attitudes towards patient safety, working at primary, secondary and tertiary care levels. PMID:24439203

  18. The incidence of complications of central venous catheters at an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, A. H.; Hasan, M.; Mariam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common practice and is being increasingly used also in general wards. Its use is associated with both mechanical and infectious complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the infectious and mechanical complication rate of central venous catheterization in an ICU. DESIGN: A retrospective study about complications of 1319 central venous catheter placements. SETTING: An 11-bed adult medical, surgical, neuro-trauma ICU at salmaniya medical complex, Bahrain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all central venous catheter inserted over 4 year's period from October 2002 to December 2006. RESULTS: There were 12 mechanical complications and 128 infectious complications total of 1319 CVCs placed. CONCLUSIONS: The CVC can be performed safely in an ICU if done by a competent physician with all aseptic precautions. PMID:19727348

  19. Central venous catheter related infections: Risk factors and the effect of glycopeptide antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Öncü, Serkan; Özsüt, Halit; Yildirim, Ay?e; Ay, Pinar; Çakar, Nahit; Eraksoy, Haluk; Çalangu, Semra

    2003-01-01

    Backround We undertook a prospective study of all new central venous catheters inserted into patients in the intensive care units, in order to identify the risk factors and to determine the effect of glycopeptide antibiotics on catheter – related infections. Methods During the study period 300 patients with central venous catheters were prospectively studied. The catheters used were nontunneled, noncuffed, triple lumen and made of polyurethane material. Catheters were cultured by semiquantitative method and blood cultures done when indicated. Data were obtained on patient age, gender, unit, primary diagnosis on admission, catheter insertion site, duration of catheterization, whether it was the first or a subsequent catheter and glycopeptide antibiotic usage. Results Ninety-one (30.3%) of the catheters were colonized and infection was found with 50 (16.7%) catheters. Infection was diagnosed with higher rate in catheters inserted via jugular vein in comparison with subclavian vein (95% CI: 1.32–4.81, p = 0.005). The incidence of infection was higher in catheters which were kept in place for more than seven days (95% CI 1.05–3.87, p = 0.03). The incidence of infection was lower in patients who were using glycopeptide antibiotic during catheterization (95% CI: 1.49–5.51, p = 0.005). The rate of infection with Gram positive cocci was significantly lower in glycopeptide antibiotic using patients (p = 0.01). The most commonly isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 52, 37.1%). Conclusion Duration of catheterization and catheter insertion site were independent risk factors for catheter related infection. Use of glycopeptide antibiotic during catheterization seems to have protective effect against catheter related infection. PMID:12643811

  20. Implementation of a children’s hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

  1. A case report of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by malposition of a femoral venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Pafitanis, Georgios; Spyridon, Koulas; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Mason, Katrina; Ygropoulou, Olga; Mousafiri, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous catheter malposition is a rare event with potential catastrophic consequences. To our knowledge we describe one of the first case reports of an adult presenting with a rare late complication of femoral venous catheter malposition: abdominal compartment syndrome. Presentation of case A 39 year-old female sustained severe cerebral injury in a road traffic accident. During initial resuscitation a femoral venous catheter was inserted without ultrasound guidance with no immediate concerns. After 48 h whilst in intensive care unit the patient developed progressive abdominal distension. Bedside investigations revealed raised intra-abdominal pressures associated with new organ failure. Subsequent an emergency laparotomy and on-table intravenous contrast radiographs revealed extravasation of contrast into the peritoneal space from the malposition of the catheter into the abdominal cavity. Discussion Complications of central venous catheterization are associated with adverse events with significant morbidity to the patient as well as having cost implications. Mechanical complications are underreported but are potentially preventable through ultrasound-guided insertion, in accordance with international guidelines. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance of safe methods of catheter insertion, the need for increased awareness of late femoral catheter malposition and its potential catastrophic consequences. PMID:26036458

  2. Flushing and Locking of Venous Catheters: Available Evidence and Evidence Deficit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flushing and locking of intravenous catheters are thought to be essential in the prevention of occlusion. The clinical sign of an occlusion is catheter malfunction and flushing is strongly recommended to ensure a well-functioning catheter. Therefore fluid dynamics, flushing techniques, and sufficient flushing volumes are important matters in adequate flushing in all catheter types. If a catheter is not in use, it is locked. For years, it has been thought that the catheter has to be filled with an anticoagulant to prevent catheter occlusion. Heparin has played a key role in locking venous catheters. However, the high number of risks associated with heparin forces us to look for alternatives. A long time ago, 0.9% sodium chloride was already introduced as locking solution in peripheral cannulas. More recently, a 0.9% sodium chloride lock has also been investigated in other types of catheters. Thrombolytic agents have also been studied as a locking solution because their antithrombotic effect was suggested as superior to heparin. Other catheter lock solutions focus on the anti-infective properties of the locks such as antibiotics and chelating agents. Still, the most effective locking solution will depend on the catheter type and the patient's condition. PMID:26075094

  3. Bacteriophage K for reduction of Staphylococcus aureusbiofilm on central venous catheter material

    PubMed Central

    Lungren, Matthew P; Christensen, Diana; Kankotia, Ravi; Falk, Irene; Paxton, Ben E; Kim, Charles Y

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine whether bacteriophage can reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on central venous catheter material. Twenty silicone discs were inoculated for 24 h with broth culture of Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (0.5 McFarland standard). The inoculate was aspirated and discs placed into two equal groups for 24 h: (1) untreated controls; (2) bacteriophage treatment (staphylococcal bacteriophage K, propagated titer > 108). At the completion of the experiment discs were processed for quantitative culture. Statistical testing was performed using the rank sum test. Mean colony forming units (CFU) were significantly decreased in experimental compared with controls (control 6.3 × 105 CFU, experimental 6.7 × 101, P ? 0.0001). Application of bacteriophage to biofilm infected central venous catheter material significantly reduced bacterial colonization and biofilm presence. Our data suggests that bacteriophage treatment may be a feasible strategy for addressing central venous catheter staph aureus biofilm infections. PMID:24265979

  4. Reduction of catheter-related infections in neutropenic patients: a prospective controlled randomized trial using a chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaeger; S. Zenz; B. Jüttner; H. Ruschulte; E. Kuse; J. Heine; S. Piepenbrock; A. Ganser; M. Karthaus

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic coating of intravascular catheters may be an effective means of decreasing catheter-related colonization and subsequent infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine (CH-SS)-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) to prevent catheter-related colonization and infection in patients with hematological malignancies who were subjected to intensive chemotherapy and suffered from severe and sustained

  5. Evaluation of a triple-lumen central venous heparin-coated catheter versus a catheter coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Carrasco; A. Bueno; C. de las Cuevas; S. Jimenez; I. Salinas; A. Sartorius; T. Recio; M. Generelo; F. Ruiz-Ocańa

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infections between heparin-coated catheters and those coated with a synergistic combination of chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine. Design Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Setting A 20-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Patients A total of 180 patients requiring the insertion of a trilumen central venous catheter. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive

  6. Rhodococcus equi venous catheter infection: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that was initially isolated from horses and is being increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans with impaired cellular immunity. However, this pathogen is underestimated as a challenging antagonist and is frequently considered to be a mere contaminant despite the potential for life-threatening infections. Most case reports have occurred in immunocompromised patients who have received organ transplants (for example kidney, heart, bone marrow) or those with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Infections often manifest as pulmonary involvement or soft tissue abscesses. Bacteremia related to R. equi infections of tunneled central venous catheters has rarely been described. Case presentation We report the case of a 63-year-old non-transplant recipient, non-HIV infected Caucasian woman with endometrial carcinoma who developed recurrent bloodstream infections and septic shock due to R. equi and ultimately required the removal of her port catheter, a subcutaneous implantable central venous catheter. We also review the medical literature related to human infections with R. equi. Conclusion R. equi should be considered a serious pathogen, not a contaminant, particularly in an immunocompromised patient who presents with a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. Counseling patients with central venous catheters who participate in activities involving exposure to domesticated animals is recommended. PMID:21827681

  7. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies. PMID:25230748

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a new antiseptic central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, X; Whitbourne, R

    1999-01-01

    A central venous catheter coated with a new antiseptic combination, silver chloride (AgCl) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in a polymer matrix, was developed. The antimicrobial efficacy and the ability to prevent surface colonization, after elution in both serum and saline, were evaluated and compared to catheters coated with silver sulfadiazine/chlorhexidine. The results of in vitro assays demonstrated that the AgCl-BKC coated catheters had a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria and C. albicans and prolonged antimicrobial activity for extraction periods of up to 30 days. These data suggest that AgCl-BKC coated catheters may provide another solution for reduction of catheter-related infections. PMID:9934626

  9. The Vanishing Veins: Difficult Venous Access in a Patient Requiring Translumbar, Transhepatic, and Transcollateral Central Catheter Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Yazmin; Zakaria, Rozman; Mohammad, Zahiah; Ralib, Ahmad Razali MD; Muda, Ahmad Sobri

    2011-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in patients requiring long-term therapy. With repeated venous catheterisations, conventional venous access sites can be exhausted. This case illustrates the expanding role of radiology in managing difficult venous access. We present a case of translumbar, transhepatic, and transcollateral placement of central catheter in a woman with a difficult venous access problem who required lifelong parenteral nutrition secondary to short bowel syndrome. This case highlights the technical aspects of interventional radiology in vascular access management. PMID:22589680

  10. Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter (SIRspecialists) YouTube RSS Feeds Radiation Safety ... Talking People Are Talking: Know Your Treatment Options! Social Media Connect With SIR Vision to Heal: SIR Blog ...

  11. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections in neutropenic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Fätkenheuer; Dieter Buchheidt; Oliver A. Cornely; Hans-Georg Fuhr; Meinolf Karthaus; Jens Kisro; Malte Leithäuser; Hans Salwender; Thomas Südhoff; Hubert Szelényi; Florian Weissinger

    2003-01-01

    Catheter-related infections cause considerable morbidity in hospitalised patients. The incidence does not seem to be higher in neutropenic patients than in non- neutropenic patients. Gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus) are the most frequently cultured pathogens, followed by Candida species. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria play only a minor role in catheter-related infections. Positive blood cultures are the cornerstone in the

  12. Protocol for Detection of Biofilms on Needleless Connectors Attached to Central Venous Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, R. M.; Murga, R.; Bell, M.; Toscano, C. M.; Carr, J. H.; Novicki, T. J.; Zuckerman, C.; Corey, L. C.; Miller, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Central venous catheter needleless connectors (NCs) have been shown to develop microbial contamination. A protocol was developed for the collection, processing, and examination of NCs to detect and measure biofilms on these devices. Sixty-three percent of 24 NCs collected from a bone marrow transplant center contained biofilms comprised primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:11158143

  13. Comparative In Vitro Efficacies and Antimicrobial Durabilities of Novel Antimicrobial Central Venous Catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hend Hanna; Paul Bahna; Ruth Reitzel; Tanya Dvorak; Gassan Chaiban; Ray Hachem; Issam Raad

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the efficacies and durability of novel antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVCs) in preventing the adherence of microbial organisms to the surfaces of the CVCs. Novel antimicrobial CVCs investigated in this in vitro study were impregnated with antibiotics (minocycline and rifampin), with Oligon agent (silver, platinum, and carbon black), with approved antiseptics (chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine), or with a

  14. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: a complication of an indwelling peripherally inserted central venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Peter J; Rippey, James C R

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a case of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Ultrasound images and video of subclavian thrombus are presented. PICC line-associated DVT, particularly in cancer patients is not uncommon. Point-of-care Emergency Department ultrasound can readily diagnose this complication and device removal is not always necessary. PMID:25838907

  15. The central venous catheter as a source of medical chaos in Munchausen syndrome by proxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W Feldman; Robert O Hickman

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of childhood central venous catheters (CVC) are placed in victims of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) and to evaluate the clinical indications and complications of CVCs in MSBP.Methods: Study design was by retrospective chart review. Data were obtained from the regional children's hospital and regional child abuse consultation network.

  16. Protocol for Detection of Biofilms on Needleless Connectors Attached to Central Venous Catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Donlan; R. Murga; M. Bell; C. M. Toscano; J. H. Carr; T. J. Novicki; C. Zuckerman; L. C. Corey; J. M. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Central venous catheter needleless connectors (NCs) have been shown to develop microbial contamination. A protocol was developed for the collection, processing, and examination of NCs to detect and measure biofilms on these devices. Sixty-three percent of 24 NCs collected from a bone marrow transplant center contained biofilms comprised primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

  17. Catheter-direct thrombolysis versus pharmacomechanical thrombectomy for treatment of symptomatic lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Lin; Wei Zhou; Alan Dardik; Firas Mussa; Panos Kougias; Nasim Hedayati; Joseph J. Naoum; Hosam El Sayed; Eric K. Peden; Tam T. Huynh

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundRheolytic mechanical thrombectomy using the AngioJet catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis, MN) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Additional infusion of thrombolytic agents via the device creates a novel treatment strategy of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PMT), which further enhances thrombectomy efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to compare the treatment outcome in

  18. Successful treatment of central venous catheter induced superior vena cava syndrome with ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Dumantepe, Mert; Tarhan, Arif; Ozler, Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome results from obstruction of flow through the vessel either by external compression or thrombosis. External compression by intrathoracic neoplasms is the most common etiology, especially lung cancer and lymphoma. Thrombosis is becoming increasingly common due to the use of indwelling catheters and implantable central venous access devices. Most patients are unresponsive to anticoagulation alone which appears to be effective only in the mildest cases. However, recent advances in catheter-based interventions have led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive endovascular strategies to remove venous thrombus and accepted as an important first-line treatment given its high overall success rate and low morbidity as compared with medical and surgical treatments. Ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (UACDT) has been developed to rapidly and completely resolve the existing thrombus. This technique integrates high frequency, low intensity ultrasound (US) with standard CDT in order to accelerate clot dissolution, reducing treatment time and the incidence of thrombolysis-related complications. An US wave enhances drug permeation through thrombus by disaggregating the fibrin matrix, exposing additional plasminogen receptor sites to the thrombolytic agent. The US energy affects thrombus in the entire venous segment, increasing the probability of complete thrombus clearing. We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with a 5 days history of SVC syndrome symptoms who had been receiving chemotherapy for colon cancer through a right subclavian vein port catheter. The patient successfully treated with UACDT with EkoSonic(®) Mach4e Endovascular device with an overnight infusion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23404752

  19. Transbrachial Access for Radiologic Manipulation of Problematic Central Venous Catheters in a Pediatric Population

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep.rao@osumc.edu; Hogan, Mark J. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A transfemoral venous approach is the current standard for accessing malpositioned and fractured central venous catheters (CVCs). The purpose of this study was (1) to describe a transbrachial approach for correction and (2) to assess the success and failure of this method in a pediatric population. A 12-year retrospective review of all patients referred for correction of malpositioned, retained, and fractured CVCs was conducted. Based on the performing interventionalist's preference, transbrachial or transfemoral venous sheaths where placed under ultrasonographic guidance. Diagnostic angiographic catheters and snares were used to manipulate the catheters. Patients who underwent the transfemoral approach received postprocedural monitoring for 4 hours, whereas patients who underwent the transbrachial approach were allowed unrestricted activity immediately after hemostasis was obtained. Technical success of malpositioned lines was defined (1) by final position in the superior vena cava or at the cavoatrial junction on postprocedural imaging or (2) by successful removal of retained catheter fragments, if present. Transbrachial approach was used for access in 11 patients. Problematic lines included malpositioned (n = 10) and retained (n = 1) lines. The ipsilateral arm was used for transbrachial entry in 7 patients. Initial use of angiographic catheters was attempted in 7 cases, of which 4 were successful. All 3 unsuccessful cases had tips positioned in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein, and these were successfully repositioned using snares. A combination of snares and angiographic catheters was used in 2 cases. Snares were used for all other cases. Technical success by way of the transbrachial approach was observed in all cases. Periprocedural follow-up demonstrated no immediate complications. We conclude that the transbrachial approach is a suitable alternative to the transfemoral approach for catheter tip position correction. Tip malposition in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein suggests higher rate of conversion to use of snare devices.

  20. Performance of venous port catheter insertion by a general surgeon: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Aziret, Mehmet; ?rkörücü, Oktay; Gökler, Cihan; Reyhan, Enver; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Çil, Timuçin; Akp?nar, Edip; Erdem, Hasan; De?er, Kamuran Cumhur

    2015-05-01

    As part of the vascular access procedures, venous ports, commonly referred to as catheters, are placed under the skin to enable safe and easy vascular access for administration of repeated drug treatments. 122 patients who had received a venous port catheter insertion procedure in the general surgery department between January 1012 and January 2014 were involved in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had undergone a fluoroscopy (group 1) and those who had not undergone a fluoroscopy (group 2). Complications that emerged during and after the port catheter insertion procedure and successful insertion rates were recorded in the database. Data of these patients were presented in a prospective manner. There were 92 to 30 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. In group 1, the mean age was approximately 56.8, total catheter stay time was 20,631 days, and mean time of port use was 224.2 days. In group 2, the mean age was approximately 61.2, total catheter stay time was 13,575 days, and mean time of port use was 452.5 days. Successful insertion rate was 100% and 90% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.05). The proper insertion of the port catheter accompanied by monitoring methods can decrease procedure-related complications. Statistical comparisons between the two groups in terms of malposition and successful insertion rates also support this view (P < 0.05). The findings support the view that in cancer patients, a venous port catheter insertion accompanied by a fluoroscopy can be safely performed by general surgeons. PMID:26011202

  1. Cultures of Needleless Connectors Are Useful for Ruling Out Central Venous Catheter Colonization.

    PubMed

    Guembe, María; Pérez-Granda, María Jesús; Cruces, Raquel; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Semiquantitative cultures of skin surrounding intravascular catheter entry sites and catheter hubs have high negative predictive values for catheter tip colonization. However, culturing samples from the inner side of the hub requires the catheter to be manipulated, thus increasing the risk of migration of microorganisms into the bloodstream. Today, hubs are closed using needleless connectors (NCs). Cultures of NCs could predict catheter colonization. Our objective was to compare the yield of NC sonicate cultures for prediction of catheter colonization with that of hub cultures. For 6 months, we prospectively collected all short-term central lines and systems removed from patients admitted to the cardiac surgery postoperative care unit, irrespective of the reason for withdrawal. Hub cultures were obtained immediately before withdrawal and were cultured using a semiquantitative method. Catheter tips were cultured using the roll-plate technique and sonication, and NCs were cultured using a semiquantitative technique after sonication. We considered NCs to be colonized when ?1 culture was positive. We collected a total of 75 central systems. The catheter colonization rate was 10.7%. The rates for hub and NC colonization were 6.7% and 12.0%, respectively. The validity values for hubs and NCs for prediction of catheter colonization were as follows: sensitivity, 25.0% and 87.5%; specificity, 95.5% and 97.0%; positive predictive value, 40.0% and 77.8%; negative predictive value, 91.4% and 98.5%; validity index, 88.0% and 96.0%, respectively. Cultures of closed NCs can be used to rule out catheter tip colonization and are superior to hub cultures in ruling out short-term central venous catheter colonization. PMID:25878353

  2. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications).

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek

    2009-08-01

    When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion and maintenance. These too depend on appropriate choice of device, skilled implantation and correct positioning of the catheter, adequate stabilization of the device (preferably avoiding stitches), and the use of infusion pumps, as well as adequate policies for flushing and locking lines which are not in use. PMID:19464090

  3. Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Larsson, N; Claesson Lingehall, H; Al Zaidi, N; Claesson, J; Jensen-Waern, M; Lehtipalo, S

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30?kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50?kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable. PMID:25732575

  4. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:26072087

  5. Extent of Agreement in Gentamicin Concentration Between Serum That Is Drawn Peripherally and From Central Venous Catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Boodhan; Anne Marie Maloney; L. Lee Dupuis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.At our institution, patients who receive once-daily dosing of gentamicin have serum concentrations determined 3 and 6 hours after dose administration. Patients with single-lumen central venous catheters have the 3-hour samples drawn peripherally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of agreement between peripheral and central venous catheter serum gentamicin concentrations drawn 3 hours after dose administration.

  6. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Vik; Pĺl Andre Holme; Kulbir Singh; Eric Dorenberg; Kĺre Christian Nordhus; Satish Kumar; John-Bjarne Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a\\u000a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient\\u000a thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term\\u000a results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002–2007) of patients (n = 30) with

  7. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Vik; Pal Andre Holme; Kulbir Singh; Eric Dorenberg; Kare Christian Nordhus; Satish Kumar; John-Bjarne Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002-2007) of patients (n =

  8. Chlorhexidine and gauze and tape dressings for central venous catheters: a randomized clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Pedrolo, Edivane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of the chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing in comparison to the gauze and tape dressing in the use of central venous catheters. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial was conducted in the intensive care and adult semi intensive care units of a university hospital in the south of Brazil. The subjects were patients using short-term central venous catheters, randomly assigned to the intervention (chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing) or control (gauze and micro porous tape) groups. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were included: 43 in the intervention group and 42 in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found between dressings in regard to the occurrence of: primary bloodstream infections (p-value = 0.5170); local reactions to the dressing (p-value = 0.3774); and dressing fixation (p-value = 0.2739). CONCLUSION: both technologies are effective in covering central venous catheters in regard to the investigated variables and can be used for this purpose. Registry ECR: RBR-7b5ycz. PMID:25493671

  9. Factors Influencing Intracavitary Electrocardiographic P-Wave Changes during Central Venous Catheter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guorong; Guo, Ling; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude changes in the P-wave of intracavitary electrocardiography have been used to assess the tip placement of central venous catheters. The research assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this sign in comparison with standard radiographic techniques for tip location, focusing on factors influencing its clinical utility. Both intracavitary electrocardiography guided tip location and X-ray positioning were used to verify catheter tip locations in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion. Intracavitary electrocardiograms from 1119 patients (of a total 1160 subjects) showed specific amplitude changes in the P-wave. As the results show, compared with X-ray positioning, the sensitivity of electrocardiography-guided tip location was 97.3%, with false negative rate of 2.7%; the specificity was 1, with false positive rate of zero. Univariate analyses indicated that features including age, gender, height, body weight, and heart rate have no statistically significant influence on P-wave amplitude changes (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that catheter insertion routes (OR = 2.280, P = 0.003) and basal P-wave amplitude (OR = 0.553, P = 0.003) have statistically significant impacts on P-wave amplitude changes. As a reliable indicator of tip location, amplitude change in the P-wave has proved of good sensitivity and excellent specificity, and the minor, zero, false positive rate supports the clinical utility of this technique in early recognition of malpositioned tips. A better sensitivity was achieved in placement of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) than that of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). In clinical practice, a combination of intracavitary electrocardiography, ultrasonic inspection and the anthropometric measurement method would further improve the accuracy. PMID:25915758

  10. Complications of central venous catheters in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Medine C; Aksoylar, Serap; Erdogan, Durdane; Demirag, Bengu

    2012-01-01

    Although central venous catheters (CVCs) have become an integral element of the care of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the associated complications can lead to treatment delays and negatively affect the child and family's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the types, rate of, and risk factors for the complications relating to CVCs used in children undergoing HSCT in Turkey. One hundred children were followed prospectively to track catheter-related complications in the transplantation unit. Overall, 186 complications were documented. The most frequent complications were catheter-related infections and malfunctions. Children who had nonhematological disease had a higher rate of complications than those with hematological disease. HSCT nurses should follow and apply evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to support the management of catheters. Nurse staffing ratios and workload may be an issue in developing countries. The authors believe that proper maintenance of CVCs contributes to the reduction of catheter-related complications despite these issues and that problems can be overcome by hiring experienced staff, appropriate nursing education, and by organizing and improving home care programs for HSCT patients. PMID:22797681

  11. Evaluation of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters for the prevention of bloodstream infection in leukaemic patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Logghe; Ch. Van Ossel; W. D'Hoore; H. Ezzedine; G. Wauters; J. J. Haxhe

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that central venous catheters impregnated with antiseptics such as chlohexidine and silver-sulfadiazine reduce the risk of catheter-related bacteraemia in intensive care patients. Patients suffering from haematologic malignancy treated by chemotherapy through a central venous catheter are at even greater sisk of catheter-related bacteraemia. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in order to investigate the

  12. Air embolism after central venous catheter removal: fibrin sheath as the portal of persistent air entry.

    PubMed

    Marco, Meggiolaro; Roman-Pognuz, Erik; Anna, Baritussio; Alessio, Scatto

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is of common practice in intensive care units; despite representing an essential device in various clinical circumstances, it represents a source of complications, sometimes even fatal, related to its management. We report the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) that had been wrongly positioned through left internal jugular vein. The vein presented complete thrombosis at vascular ultrasonography. An echocardiogram performed 24 hours after CVC removal showed the presence, apparently unjustified, of microbubbles in right chambers of the heart. A neck-thorax CT scan showed the presence of air bubbles within the left internal jugular vein, left innominate vein, and left subclavian vein. A vascular ultrasonography, focused on venous catheter insertion site, disclosed the presence of a vein-to-dermis fistula, as portal of air entry. Only after air occlusive dressing, we documented echographic disappearance of air bubbles within the right cardiac cavity. This report emphasizes possible air entry even many hours after CVC removal, making it mandatory to perform 24-72-hour air occlusive dressing or, when inadequate, to perform a purse string. PMID:24829822

  13. Breckinridge Hickman Clinton

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Livingston Boyd McLean Johnson Garrard Hickman Clinton Rockcastle Edmonson Pendleton Powell Simpson Owsley in County Below National Rate Comparable to National Rate Above National Rate Rev: October 2012 National: http://www.qualityindicators.ahrq.gov, Version 4.4 (August, 2012) *Population age 18 years or older

  14. Central Venous Catheter-Associated Pericardial Tamponade in a 6-Day Old: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Swati O.; Hiremath, Gurumurthy M.; Okonkwo, Kingsley C.; Pettersen, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Pericardial effusion (PCE) and tamponade can cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. Such cases have been reported in the literature in various contexts. Case Presentation. A 6-day old neonate with meconium aspiration syndrome and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn on high frequency oscillator ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide was referred to our hospital with a large pericardial effusion causing hemodynamic compromise. Prompt pericardiocentesis led to significant improvement in the cardio-respiratory status and removal of the central line prevented the fluid from reaccumulating. Cellular and biochemical analysis aided in the diagnosis of catheter related etiology with possibility of infusate diffusion into the pericardial space. Conclusion. We present this paper to emphasize the importance of recognizing this uncommon but serious complication of central venous catheters in intensive care units. We also discuss the proposed hypothesis for the mechanism of production of PCE. PMID:20169087

  15. Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Murga; J. M. Miller; R. M. Donlan

    2001-01-01

    Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these

  16. Standardizing central venous catheter care by using observations from patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Saul N; Hsieh, Candace; Lane, Sharon; Cleary, Angela M

    2014-06-01

    To understand the vulnerability of patients with cancer to central line-associated bloodstream infections related to tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), patients were asked to describe their line care at home and in clinic and to characterize their knowledge and experience managing CVCs. Forty-five adult patients with cancer were recruited to participate. Patients were interviewed about the type of line, duration of use, and observations of variations in line care. They also were asked about differences between line care at home and in the clinic, precautions taken when bathing, and their education regarding line care. Demographic information and primary cancer diagnosis were taken from the patients' medical records. Patients with hematologic and gastrointestinal malignancies were heavily represented. The majority had tunneled catheters with subcutaneous implanted ports. Participants identified variations in practice among nurses who cared for them. Although many participants expressed confidence in their knowledge of line care, some were uncertain about what to do if the dressing became loose or wet, or how to recognize an infection. Patients seemed to be astute observers of their own care and offered insights into practice variation. Their observations show that CVC care practices should be standardized, and educational interventions should be created to address patients' knowledge deficits. PMID:24867112

  17. An unusual route taken by a central venous catheter resulting in inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Angela Yun June; Chan, Diana Xin Hui; Soh, Chai Rick

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a central venous catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJV) was performed in the intensive care unit for a critically ill patient. The catheter was inserted into the subclavian artery distally, despite prior ultrasound confirmation of the guidewire position using both the in-plane and out-of-plane views. The catheter was removed successfully by the interventional radiologist with a closure device. To our knowledge, there have been previous case reports of subclavian artery injury during IJV cannulation with ultrasound guidance, but rarely in the setting whereby the guidewire was visualized before dilatation and railroading of the catheter. This case demonstrates that the confirmation of the guidewire in the proximal segment of the vein is insufficient to exclude arterial cannulation.

  18. Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation. PMID:24347530

  19. Comparison of hospital length of stay, costs, and readmissions of alteplase versus catheter replacement among patients with occluded central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Frank R; Chen, Er; Lipkin, Craig; Tayama, Darren; Amin, Alpesh N

    2014-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter (CVC) occlusion is common, affecting 30% of all CVCs. Objective To compare length of stay (LOS), costs, and readmissions associated with the use of alteplase to clear catheter blockage to outcomes associated with catheter replacement. Design Retrospective observational study utilizing a large hospital database. Participants Hospitalized patients treated for catheter occlusion from January 2006 to December 2011. Main Measures Univariate analyses of patient characteristics and treatment patterns and multivariable regression analyses of postocclusion hospital costs, LOS, and 30- and 90-day readmissions were conducted. Key Results We included 34,579 patients treated for a CVC occlusion by replacement (N?=?1028) or by alteplase (2 mg) administration (N?=?33,551). Patients receiving alteplase were somewhat younger than those having catheter replacement (60?±?19 vs 62?±?20 years old, P?=?0.0002). After adjusting for patient and hospital factors via regression modeling, average daily postocclusion costs were $317 lower for alteplase recipients than for catheter replacement patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 238.22–392.24; P?catheter replacement (95% CI: 307.27–2458.12; P?=?0.0121). Postocclusion operating room/surgery, radiology, and supply costs were significantly lower for alteplase recipients (P??0.05). Odds of readmission were not significantly different at 30 or 90 days. Conclusions Among patients treated for an occluded CVC, alteplase-treated patients had lower daily and total postocclusion costs than patients receiving catheter replacement. Cost differences were mainly driven by lower operating room/surgery, radiology, and supplier costs. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014;9:490–496. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Hospital Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Hospital Medicine PMID:24825837

  20. Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. Methods/Design The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. Discussion The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094 PMID:24885789

  1. Impact of Chlorhexidine-Silver Sulfadiazine-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters on In Vitro Quantitation of Catheter-Associated Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN K. SCHMITT; CYNTHIA KNAPP; GERALDINE S. HALL; DAVID L. LONGWORTH; JAMES T. MCMAHON

    1996-01-01

    tion of 10 3 CFU ofStaphylococcus epidermidisper ml, aliquots of catheter-exposed broth were subcultured onto blood agar at 15-min intervals. Decreased mean colony counts were noted at 45 min for broth exposed to antiseptic-impregnated catheters compared with the colony counts for broth exposed to non-antiseptic-im- pregnated catheters (170 versus 540 CFU\\/ml). These effects, which were also demonstrated by the roll-plate

  2. Use of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter as a Conduit for Central Venous Access Across Thrombosed Great Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Guntur Ramkumar, Prasad, E-mail: prasad.guntur@nhs.net; Chakraverty, Sam, E-mail: schakraverty@nhs.net; Zealley, Ian, E-mail: ian.zealley@nhs.ne [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, NHS Tayside (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

  3. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ?60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion. PMID:25407386

  4. Candida parapsilosis Fungemia Associated with Implantable and Semi-Implantable Central Venous Catheters and the Hands of Healthcare Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S Levin; S. F Costa; N. S Mussi; M Basso; S. I Sinto; C Machado; D. C Geiger; M. C. B Villares; A. Z Schreiber; A. A Barone; M. L. M Branchini

    1998-01-01

    A cluster of six cases of fungemia among hematology, bone marrow transplant, and oncology patients was investigated in a case-control study (18 controls). The use of implantable and semi-implantable central venous catheters was significantly associated with cases (p = 0.016). The hands of three healthcare workers (HCWs) were positive for Candida parapsilosis. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed two profiles among patients and

  5. Antibiotics Before Removal of Percutaneously Inserted Central Venous Catheters Reduces Clinical Sepsis in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gail E.; Tierney, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the incidence of postcatheter removal clinical sepsis when antibiotics were infused prior to the removal of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICCs). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of premature neonates (n = 196) weighing ?1250 g at birth with 218 PICC line removals in the presence or absence of antibiotics at a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2012. Charts were reviewed looking for the presence of clinical sepsis defined as a sepsis workup including white blood cell count, differential, C-reactive protein, blood and/or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and urine cultures along with at least 48 hours of antibiotic therapy given within 72 hours after removal of a PICC line. Antibiotics were considered present at line removal if given within 12 hours before catheter removal either electively or at completion of a planned course. RESULTS: When antibiotics were given within 12 hours before PICC line removal, only 2% of the line removal episodes (1/48) resulted in a neonate developing clinical sepsis versus 13% (21/165) when no antibiotics were given prior to removal (p = 0.03, Fisher's exact test). Despite the increased use of elective antibiotics with line removal, there was no increase in total antibiotic usage due to the overall decrease in episodes of clinical sepsis or changes in antibiogram susceptibility patterns. CONCLUSIONS: There was an 11% absolute decrease and a 6-fold relative decrease in postcatheter removal clinical sepsis events in premature neonates who received antibiotics prior to PICC line removal.

  6. Sonothrombolysis of Intra-Catheter Aged Venous Thrombi Using Microbubble Enhancement and Guided Three Dimensional Ultrasound Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Shelby; Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Drvol, Lucas K; Lof, John; Fletcher, Scott E; Radio, Stanley J; Danford, David A; Hammel, James M; Porter, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous and arterial catheters are a major source of thrombo-embolic disease in children. We hypothesized that guided high mechanical index (MI) impulses from diagnostic three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound during an intravenous microbubble infusion could dissolve these thrombi. An in vitro system simulating intra-catheter thrombi was created and then treated with guided high MI impulses from 3D ultrasound, utilizing low MI microbubble sensitive imaging pulse sequence schemes to detect the microbubbles (Perflutren Lipid Microsphere, Definity®, Lantheus). Ten aged thrombi over 24 hours old were tested using 3D ultrasound coupled with a continuous diluted microbubble infusion (Group A), and ten with 3D ultrasound alone (Group B). Mean thrombus age was 28.6 hours (range 26.6–30.3). Groups A exhibited a 55 ± 19 % reduction in venous thrombus size, compared to 31±10 % for Group B (p=0.008). Feasibility testing was performed in 4 pigs, establishing a model to further investigate the efficacy. Sonothrombolysis of aged intra-catheter venous thrombi can be achieved with commercially available microbubbles and guided high MI ultrasound from a diagnostic 3D transducer. PMID:20696549

  7. Effects of dexmedetomidine on procedural pain and discomfort associated with central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Aloka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion induces pain and discomfort to a conscious patient despite application of a local anaesthetic (LA) field block and this pain can be greatly lessened by using additional analgesics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine along with LA field infiltration in controlling pain and discomfort associated with CVC insertion. Methods: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 54 patients scheduled for planned CVC insertion was undertaken. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups of 27 each, to receive either dexmedetomidine (1 ?g/kg) or 0.9% normal saline, along with LA field infiltration. Pain and discomfort score was measured at 5 time points. Results: The median pain score was worst for placebo group at local anaesthetic injection (6 [4-7]) and at the end of procedure (5 [4-5]), which was significantly attenuated in the dexmedetomidine group (4 [4-5] and 4 [3-5]; P = 0.007 and 0.040 respectively). The lower procedure related discomfort score in the immediate post-procedural period was statistically significant in dexmedetomidine group compared to placebo (4 [4-5] vs. 5 [4-6]; P = 0.008). Conclusions: Pre-procedural bolus dexmedetomidine infusion provides adequate analgesia and patient comfort for CVC insertion along LA field block. However, the tendency for excessive sedation and bradycardia associated with dexmedetomidine render it less desirable for this purpose. PMID:25024470

  8. Prophylactic Administration of Doxycycline Reduces Central Venous Catheter Infections in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Baydoun, Mohamed; Otrock, Zaher K.; Okaily, Samar; Nehme, Rita; Abu-Chahine, Racha; Hamdan, Ali; Noureddine, Samar; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are generally transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC), which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed a high rate of CVC infections at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) unit. Accordingly, we evaluated the impact of administration of doxycycline as a prophylactic strategy to reduce CVC infection rates. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 who received doxycycline (doxycycline group), and we compared their outcomes to a previous cohort of 28 subjects who did not receive doxycycline (comparison group). The groups were comparable in regards to age, gender, transplant type, and CD34 cell dose. No (0%) CVC infection was observed in the doxycycline group, while 5 infection episodes (18%) occurred in 4 patients in the comparison group (p<0.001). Isolated organisms included: Escherichia-coli (EC)=1, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus-spp (CNSS)=2, both EC & CNSS=1. Notwithstanding the non-randomized comparative nature of our study, results suggest that CVC infection rate was reduced significantly after adding doxycycline for prophylaxis. A randomized controlled study is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23505603

  9. A Rare Case of Jejunal Arterio-Venous Fistula: Treatment with Superselective Catheter Embolization with a Tracker-18 Catheter and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Martin J., E-mail: martin.sonnenschein@insel.ch; Anderson, Suzanne E.; Lourens, Steven; Triller, Juergen [University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-11-15

    Arterio-venous fistulas may develop spontaneously, following trauma or infection, or be iatrogenic in nature. We present a rare case of a jejunal arterio- venous fistula in a 35-year-old man with a history of pancreatic head resection that had been performed two years previously because of chronic pancreatitis. The patient was admitted with acute upper abdominal pain, vomiting and an abdominal machinery-type bruit. The diagnosis of a jejunal arterio-venous fistula was established by MR imaging. Transfemoral angiography was performed to assess the possibility of catheter embolization. The angiographic study revealed a small aneurysm of the third jejunal artery, abnormal early filling of dilated jejunal veins and marked filling of the slightly dilated portal vein (13-14 mm). We considered the presence of segmental portal hypertension. The patient was treated with coil embolization in the same angiographic session. This case report demonstrates the importance of auscultation of the abdomen in the initial clinical examination. MR imaging and color Doppler ultrasound are excellent noninvasive tools in establishing the diagnosis. The role of interventional radiological techniques in the treatment of early portal hypertension secondary to jejunal arterio-venous fistula is discussed at a time when this condition is still asymptomatic. A review of the current literature is included.

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions in Maintenance of Patency of Central Venous Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Jafari, Hedayat; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background Occlusion of central venous catheters is one of the limiting factors in using them. Heparinized saline solution is the standard solution used for keeping the catheters open. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of heparin saline solution and normal saline in maintenance of patency of central venous catheters. Patients and Methods This double-blind study was performed on 84 patients of intensive care unit who had central venous catheters. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of heparin saline receivers and normal saline receivers. In the heparin group after each drug injection into the lumen, 3 mL of heparin saline solution was injected in the catheter as well. The other group only received 10 mL of normal saline instead. The catheters were examined for blood return and flushing every eight hours for 21 days. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and descriptive and analytic statistics were studied. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of flushing (P = 0.872) and possibility of taking blood samples from catheters (P = 0.745) in the two groups of heparin and normal saline receivers. Furthermore, using heparin had no effect on prolonging the survival of catheters. Conclusions Considering possible side effects of heparin and the increase in treatment charges and the fact that using heparin did not have a significant effect on patency and survival of catheters in the studied patients, it is recommended to use normal saline solution to maintain the patency of central venous catheters. PMID:25866710

  11. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

  12. Comparison of two methods of documenting urinary and central venous catheters at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Quijano Rondan, Bladimir R; Stachel, Anna; Phillips, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Accurate documentation of the use of invasive devices, such as urinary and central line catheters, is important to track potential catheter-associated infections. Real-time identification of device infections allows practitioners to initiate timely apparent-cause analyses, therefore allowing rapid improvement of practice. For this reason, it was crucial to ensure our institution's mechanism to capture possible catheter-associated infections is validated after the adoption of a new electronic medical record system. PMID:25687357

  13. Prevention of infections caused by central venous catheters-established and novel measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bach

    1999-01-01

    Summary  Intravascular catheters play an important role in infections in intensive care and hemodialysis patients. This becomes evident\\u000a only if full microbiological diagnoses are made. Difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of microbially colonized catheters\\u000a make the prevention of infection particularly important. The most important preventive measures are a strict evaluation of\\u000a the indications for the use of the catheter and

  14. A prospective observational study of the outcome of central venous catheterization in 100 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun H. D.; Srinivasan, Nataraj M.; Thakkar, Jayashree M.; Mathew, Shaji

    2013-01-01

    Context: To Study the outcome following central vein catheterization in patients receiving chemotherapy. Aims: To Study the outcome of central venous catheterization in terms of difficulty during insertion, duration, incidence of infections and other complications and reasons for removal. Settings and Designs: Prospective observational study conducted in 100 patients attending to Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute. Materials and Methods: Both onco-medical and onco-surgical patients who required insertion of central venous catheters were enrolled after ethical approval from June 2008 to November 2010. The study comprised 100 patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and percentage. Results: Mean duration of the indwelling catheter was 109 days for Hickman catheter, 39 days for cavafix and 59 days for certofix. Difficulty in insertion and arrhythmias were common complications. There were no incidences of major life threatening complications. Catheter related infection was 30%. The commonest reason for catheter removal was treatment completion 72%. The next frequent cause was catheter infection 14% and patient death 6%. Conclusions: Even though central venous catheterization is associated with acceptable complications, they serve a useful aid in management of patients on chemotherapy. PMID:25885724

  15. Double-blind prospective randomized study comparing topical mupirocin and placebo for the prevention of infection associated with central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Conly, John M; Rennie, Robert; Tan, Leonard; Bagg, Colin; Stein, Karen; Peters, Barb

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of exit site colonization, local catheter-related infection and catheter-related bacteremia in patients randomized to receive either topical 2% mupirocin or placebo at the catheter exit site. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients requiring central venous catheters for more than three days were randomized to receive in a double-blind fashion either topical mupirocin or an identical placebo at the exit site three times weekly at the time of dressing change. Insertion, site care and removal of catheters were standardized. Serial semiquantitataive cultures of the skin at the catheter insertion site were performed using a sterile 25 cm2 template. The distal and proximal catheter segments were cultured using a standardized semiquantitative technique, and any suspect catheter-related bacteremia was investigated with two sets of peripheral blood cultures, a 10 mL sample of infusate and clinical assessment. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on individual risk factors to determine factors that might influence the outcomes of local or systemic catheter-related infection. RESULTS: Local catheter-related infection (defined as more than 15 colony forming units [cfu] on culture of the proximal or distal catheter segment) occurred in six of 57 (10.5%) in the mupirocin group versus 18 of 69 (26%) in the placebo group (P<0.05) for the distal catheter segments and in one of 40 (2.5%) versus 13 of 47 (27.6%) for the proximal segments in the mupirocin and placebo groups (P<0.006), respectively. Catheter-related bacteremia occurred in one of 57 (1.8%) of the mupirocin group but in five of 69 (7.2%) of the placebo group (P=0.15). Stepwise logistic regression revealed that cutaneous colonization at the insertion site of at least 103 cfu/mL/25 cm2 (OR 2.6; CI 1.0 to 6.9) and the use of placebo (OR 3.3; CI 1.2 to 9.0) were significant factors predicting local catheter-related infection; whereas mupirocin was associated with reciprocal protective effect (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patients receiving topical mupirocin at the exit site for long term central venous catheters have significantly less local catheter-related infection, and there is a trend towards less catheter-related bacteremia. PMID:22346518

  16. Late onset of clinically apparent central vein stenosis due to previous central venous catheter in a patient with inherited thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Pissas, Georgios; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    We describe a case of a patient with a functional kidney transplant who was admitted to our department with clinically evident central vein stenosis (CVS) 7 years after the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein. The catheter was used as a hemodialysis access for a 2-month period. In the interval before his last admission, the patient suffered two episodes of deep vein thrombosis. Investigation revealed heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, the most common inherited thrombophilia encountered in 5% of Caucasians, and anticoagulation treatment was started. Magnetic resonance angiography showed stenosis just after the convergence of the right subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein to the innominate vein. Transluminal angioplasty restored venous patency and right upper arm edema resolved. Coexistence of CVS, accompanied by hemodynamic changes and endothelial dysfunction, with thrombophilia fulfill all the elements of the Virchow's triad. Therefore, the patient was at great risk for central vein thrombosis, from which he was possibly protected by the early administration of anticoagulant treatment. This case indicates that CVS can be asymptomatic for several years after CVC removal and also raises the question if thrombophilia workup and investigation for CVS may be beneficial in every patient with CVC placement in order to avoid any harmful outcomes. PMID:24350639

  17. Prospective pilot study on the incidence of infections caused by peripheral venous catheters at a general surgical ward

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Ines; Geßner, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Kramer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Device-associated infections comprise a significant proportion of all nosocomial infections. In this prospective, observational pilot study the incidence of infections in 89 peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) was documented on a general surgical ward employing an infection data sheet developed by the Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Greifswald in adherence to CDC standards for infections. 16 of 20 infections were documented during a four-week time period when medical students in the first four months of their practical year performed their compulsory rotation on the general surgical ward. Insufficient knowledge of adequate hygienic measures as well as non-compliance to aseptical procedural measures prior to and following insertion of a peripheral venous catheter are the assumed instigators of these infections. In order to ensure a uniform hygienic standard in the performance of applied procedures, it is essential that medical students during this practical year receive not only theoretical, but also hands-on schooling prior to initiation of their subsequent official residency. PMID:23967392

  18. Estimation of heparin leak into the systemic circulation after central venous catheter heparin lock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Agharazii; Isabelle Plamondon; Marcel Lebel; Pierre Douville; Simon Desmeules

    Background. Although most catheter problems in haemodialysis are related to infection or clotting, bleeding associated with the heparin lock is of clinical importance especially during peri-operative conditions. The objective of this in vitro study is to estimate the volume of heparin that may leak into the circulation immediately after performing a catheter lock. Methods. Different volumes (ml) of a dextrose

  19. The relationship between methodological trial quality and the effects of impregnated central venous catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Geffers; Irina Zuschneid; Tim Eckmanns; Henning Rüden; Petra Gastmeier

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the methodological trial quality of individual randomized controlled studies on chlorhexidine silver sulfadiazine impregnated catheters and the effect on catheter-related infection (CRI). Design. Only the studies identified in the Medline database from 1966 to December 2001 were considered, abstracts being excluded. The outcome of this investigation centered on bloodstream CRI. The trial quality of the 11 studies

  20. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Venous and Synthetic Bypass-Graft Occlusions With a Mechanical Rotational Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Wissgott, Christian, E-mail: cwissgott@wkk-hei.de; Kamusella, Peter; Andresen, Reimer [Westkuestenklinikum Heide-Academic Teaching Hospital of the Universities of Kiel, Luebeck and Hamburg, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposePercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) is now established as an alternative treatment of acute arterial occlusions in addition to fibrinolysis and surgical thrombectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was the investigation of a rotational atherothrombectomy catheter in terms of safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions.Materials and MethodsForty-two patients (average age 65.8 {+-} 9.1 years) with acute (<14 days [n = 31]) and subacute (14-42 days [n = 11]) femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated consecutively with a rotational debulking and removal catheter (Straub Rotarex). The average occlusion length was 28.4 {+-} 2.9 (24-34) cm. Thirty-four (81 %) patients underwent venous bypass, and 8 (19 %) patients underwent polytetrafluoroethylene bypass.ResultsThe technical success rate was 97.6 % (41 of 42). In 1 patient, blood flow could not be restored despite the use of the atherothrombectomy system. The average catheter intervention time was 6.9 {+-} 2.1 (4-9) min. Ankle-brachial index increased from 0.39 {+-} 0.13 to 0.83 {+-} 0.11 at discharge and to 0.82 {+-} 0.17 after 1 month (p < 0.05). There were a total of 2 (4.8 %) peri-interventional complications: One patient developed a distal embolism, which was successfully treated with local lysis, and another patient had a small perforation at the distal anastomosis, which was successfully treated with a stent.ConclusionPMT with the Rotarex atherothrombectomy catheter represents a safe and effective option in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions because it can quickly restore blood flow.

  1. Parental narratives of quality of life in children with leukemia as associated with the placement of a central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Marta; Axia, Vanna; Pillon, Marta; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia; Zanesco, Luigi

    2005-12-01

    Thirty mothers of children with leukemia were interviewed about the child's and family's daily routines using a version of the Ecocultural Family Interview. Parental narratives were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Four broad dimensions, encompassing 23 subthemes, were identified: child coping (alpha=0.88), child quality of life (alpha=0.72), parental coping (alpha=0.72), and parental trust in the medical care (alpha=0.73). Two objective variables were drawn from the medical charts (time from the diagnosis, time from central venous catheter [CVC] placement). Regression analyses showed that the number of days from the CVC placement (beta=0.46) and child coping (beta=0.44) significantly predicted children's quality of life, which in turn predicted parental trust in the medical care (beta=0.31). The methodological implications of our narrative approach are discussed. PMID:16376741

  2. A time and motion study of peripheral venous catheter flushing practice using manually prepared and prefilled flush syringes.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Samantha; Marsh, Nicole; Higgins, Niall; Davies, Karen; Rickard, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the simplest and most frequently used method for drug, fluid, and blood product administration in the hospital setting. It is estimated that up to 90% of patients in acute care hospitals require a PVC; however, PVCs are associated with inherent complications, which can be mechanical or infectious. There have been a range of strategies to prevent or reduce PVC-related complications that include optimizing patency through the use of flushing. Little is known about the current status of flushing practice. This observational study quantified preparation and administration time and identified adherence to principles of Aseptic Non-Touch Technique and organizational protocol on PVC flushing by using both manually prepared and prefilled syringes. PMID:24583939

  3. A new injection portal for brachially inserted central venous catheter. A multicenter study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Starkhammar; Mats Bengtsson; Thomas B. Gain; William Galen; Leif HĹKansson; John Hirsch; Brian Loggie; Earl S. Schuman; J. Michael Sterchi

    1990-01-01

    Totally implantable portal systems are widely used for long-term central venous access. A new venous portal system inserted\\u000a via the brachial veins (P.A.S. Port™ system, Pharmacia Deltec Inc, U.S.A.) was studied in five centres.\\u000a \\u000a From January 1988 through May 1989 61 systems were implanted. Fifty-two patients had malignant diseases. Nine cases had non-malignant\\u000a disorders. The portals were implanted subcutaneously in

  4. Primary thromboprophylaxis for cancer patients with central venous catheters – a reappraisal of the evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Cunningham; B White; D Hollywood; J O'Donnell

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is responsible for an estimated 25 000 deaths per annum in UK hospital practice. It is well established that many of these deaths could be prevented through the use of appropriate thromboprophylaxis. This issue is of particular relevance in oncology practice, where the risks of VTE and bleeding are both significantly higher than those observed in general

  5. Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Chronic Central Venous Catheter Patency in Mice Using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Giovanna; Fiebig, Teresa; Kirschner, Stefanie; Nikoubashman, Omid; Kabelitz, Lisa; Othman, Ahmed; Nonn, Andrea; Kramer, Martin; Brockmann, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Repetitive administration of medication or contrast agents is frequently performed in mice. The introduction of vascular access mini-ports (VAMP) for mice allows long-term vascular catheterization, hereby eliminating the need for repeated vessel puncture. With catheter occlusion being the most commonly reported complication of chronic jugular vein catheterization, we tested whether digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be utilized to evaluate VAMP patency in mice. Methods Twenty-three mice underwent catheterization of the jugular vein and subcutaneous implantation of a VAMP. The VAMP was flushed every second day with 50 ?L of heparinized saline solution (25 IU/ml). DSA was performed during injection of 100 ?L of an iodine based contrast agent using an industrial X-ray inspection system intraoperatively, as well as 7±2 and 14±2 days post implantation. Results DSA allowed localization of catheter tip position, to rule out dislocation, kinking or occlusion of a microcatheter, and to evaluate parent vessel patency. In addition, we observed different ante- and retrograde collateral flow patterns in case of jugular vein occlusion. More exactly, 30% of animals showed parent vessel occlusion after 7±2 days in our setting. At this time point, nevertheless, all VAMPs verified intravascular contrast administration. After 14±2 days, intravascular contrast injection was verified in 70% of the implanted VAMPs, whereas at this point of time 5 animals had died or were sacrificed and in 2 mice parent vessel occlusion hampered intravascular contrast injection. Notably, no occlusion of the catheter itself was observed. Conclusion From our observations we conclude DSA to be a fast and valuable minimally invasive tool for investigation of catheter and parent vessel patency and for anatomical studies of collateral blood flow in animals as small as mice. PMID:26098622

  6. Microbial Biofilms on Needleless Connectors for Central Venous Catheters: Comparison of Standard and Silver-Coated Devices Collected from Patients in an Acute Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T.; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P.; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P = 0.11). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P = 0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P = 0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

  7. Falsely elevated cyclosporin and tacrolimus concentrations over prolonged periods of time due to reversible adsorption to central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Charlotte; Verbeek, Mareike; Schneider, Heike; Steimer, Werner

    2014-06-10

    Falsely elevated concentrations of immunosuppressants can be caused by reversible adsorption to central venous catheter (CVC) systems. If undetected, this may lead to dose reduction resulting in underdosage which may even entail graft-versus-host disease or organ rejection. We analyzed the adsorption and release for cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) in vitro and in vivo. Four types of CVCs were examined in vitro: two made from polyurethane (PU), one from silicone and one from PU with an incorporated silver ion-based antimicrobial agent. All 26 CVCs analyzed in vitro showed significant reversible adsorption of CsA (n=13; p=0.001) and Tac (n=13; p=0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Immediately after infusing the drugs, the mean concentrations of 6420ng/mL of CsA and 250ng/mL of Tac were measured. Flushing with NaCl lowered the drug release. Besides, blood samples of fifteen patients were taken simultaneously from all lumina of the CVC and via venipuncture. The samples from contaminated lumina showed the mean elevations by a factor of 11 for CsA (n=12) and 89 for Tac (n=3). Blood sampling for immunosuppressant monitoring should thus never be performed from lumina previously used for infusing the drug even after prolonged periods of time and extensive rinsing. PMID:24631133

  8. Early and Late Complications Related to Central Venous Catheters in Hematological Malignancies: a Retrospective Analysis of 1102 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Coppola, Lorenzo; Latagliata, Roberto; Berneschi, Paola; Chistolini, Antonio; Micozzi, Alessandra; Girmenia, Corrado; Breccia, Massimo; Brunetti, Gregorio; Massaro, Fulvio; Rosa, Giovanni; Guerrisi, Pietro; Mandelli, Franco; Foŕ, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Several severe complications may be associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVC). We retrospectively evaluated on a large cohort of patients the incidence of CVC-related early and late complications. From 7/99 to 12/2005, 1102 CVC have been implanted at our Institution in 881 patients with hematological malignancies (142,202 total day number of implanted CVC). Early mechanic complications were 79 (7.2% - 0.55/1,000 days/CVC). Thirty-nine episodes of early infective complications (<1 week from CVC implant) occurred (3.5% - 0.3/1000 days/CVC): furthermore, 187 episodes of CVC-related sepsis (17% - 1.3/1000 days/CVC) were recorded. There were 29 episodes (2.6%) of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications, with a median interval from CVC implant of 60 days (range 7 – 395). The rate of CVC withdrawal due to CVC-related complications was 26%. The incidence of CVC-related complications in our series is in the range reported in the literature notwithstanding cytopenia often coexisting in hematological patients. PMID:24678388

  9. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients: factors associated with catheter removal and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Yaniv, Isaac; Solter, Ester; Freud, Enrique; Samra, Zmira; Stein, Jerry; Fisher, Salvador; Levy, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the factors associated with antibiotic failure leading to tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) removal during catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) and with recurrence and reinfection in children with cancer. All cases of CABSI in patients attending the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between November 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed. A total of 207 episodes of CABSI, including multiple episodes involving the same catheter, were identified in 146 of 410 tunneled CVCs (167 Hickman, 243 implantable ports). The most common organism isolated was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS). The CVC was removed in 96 (46%) episodes. Hypotension, persistent bacteremia, previous stem cell transplantation, multiple CABSIs in the same CVC, exit-site infection, inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, and Candida infection were all significantly associated with increased risk of catheter removal (P < 0.05, odds ratios 7.81, 1.14, 2.22, 1.93, 3.04, 2.04 and 24.53, respectively). There were 12 episodes of recurrent infection, all except 1 caused by CONS (odds ratio 20.5, P = 0.006). Inappropriate empiric therapy, especially in implantable ports, was the only mutable risk factor for antibiotic failure. Because CONS was the predominant isolate in these devices, adding glycopeptides to the empiric therapy for suspected implantable-port CABSI might decrease the removal rate. This issue should be explored in future controlled trials. PMID:16394888

  10. Strict infection control measures do not prevent clonal spread of coagulase negative staphylococci colonizing central venous catheters in neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Cindy; Nouwen, Jan; Lugtenburg, Elly; van der Schee, Cindy; de Marie, Simon; Schuijff, Paula; Verbrugh, Henri; Löwenberg, Bob; van Belkum, Alex; Vos, Margreet

    2003-09-22

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a main cause of catheter related infections (CRI). Earlier studies (1994-1996) revealed a high incidence of CRI (6 per 1000 catheter days) among neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients in the Erasmus MC Hematology Department (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). This was mainly explained by expansion of two methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) clones (Nouwen et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 36 (1998) 2696-2702). In a new, 16-bed unit in the same institution, we investigated the effect of strict clinical isolation measures on the incidence of CRI. During two 6-month screening periods (period I: April 1998-December 1998 and period II: April 1999-October 1999) all patients receiving a central venous catheter were prospectively monitored for the development of CRI. During period I every visitor of the cubicles had to wear hair caps, masks, gowns and gloves. During period II these procedures were abolished, but hands were cleansed using alcohol and masks were worn during both periods in case of coughing and sneezing. All CoNS strains isolated from blood cultures were genetically classifies by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The incidence of CRI during period I was 13.0 per 1000 catheter days, in comparison to 9.6 in period II (P=0.84). During this latter period, 19 CRI were diagnosed, 14 catheter related bacteremia episodes (CRB) and five local infections. Seventy-two percent (n=9) of CRB were due to a CoNS. The mean catheter survival until appearance of a CRI increased from 43 days during period I to 78 days in period II (P=0.39). The mean catheter survival until infection related removal was increased from 43 days to 133 days (P=0.12). During period I less experienced intervention radiologists introduced the catheters, which may have limited the efficacy of the strict hygiene measures. Thus, abolishing strict isolation precautions had no negative effect on the incidence of CRI. After genotyping of 38 MRSE strains isolated from blood and central venous catheter cultures of 12 patients in period II, eight PFGE types were found. Three types were found in more than one patient, but based on epidemiological data patient-to-patient spread could not be proven. No genotypic identity between patient and personnel CoNS isolates was shown and the two major clonal types that were present between 1994 and 1996 were not encountered. However, from December 1998 onwards new MRSE clones could be identified (types E and J). In conclusion, despite a constant rate of CRI and implementation of optimal patient care, clonal spread of MRSE strains was not prevented by strict hygiene measures. PMID:13129649

  11. The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The management of suspected central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis by guide wire exchange (GWX) is not recommended. However, GWX for new antimicrobial surface treated (AST) triple lumen CVCs has never been studied. We aimed to compare the microbiological outcome of triple lumen AST CVCs inserted by GWX (GWX-CVCs) with newly inserted triple lumen AST CVCs (NI-CVCs). Methods We studied a cohort of 145 consecutive patients with GWX-CVCs and contemporaneous site-matched control cohort of 163 patients with NI-CVCs in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Results GWX-CVC and NI-CVC patients were similar for mean age (58.7 vs. 62.2 years), gender (88 (60.7%) vs. 98 (60.5%) male) and illness severity on admission (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III: 71.3 vs. 72.2). However, GWX patients had longer median ICU lengths of stay (12.2 vs. 4.4 days; P < 0.001) and median hospital lengths of stay (30.7 vs. 18.0 days; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the number of CVC tips with bacterial or fungal pathogen colonization among GWX-CVCs vs. NI-CVCs (5 (2.5%) vs. 6 (7.4%); P = 0.90). Catheter-associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) occurred in 2 (1.4%) GWX patients compared with 3 (1.8%) NI-CVC patients (P = 0.75). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (35 (24.1%) vs. 48 (29.4%); P = 0.29). Conclusions GWX-CVCs and NI-CVCs had similar rates of tip colonization at removal, CA-BSI and mortality. If the CVC removed by GWX is colonized, a new CVC must then be inserted at another site. In selected ICU patients at higher central vein puncture risk receiving AST CVCs GWX may be an acceptable initial approach to line insertion. PMID:24004883

  12. Comparison of microbial adherence to antiseptic and antibiotic central venous catheters using a novel agar subcutaneous infection model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trupti A. Gaonkar; Shanta M. Modak

    An agar subcutaneous infection model (agar model), which simulates the rat subcutaneous infection model (rat model), was developed to assess the ability of antimicrobial catheters to resist microbial colonization. The catheters were implanted in the agar and rat models and the insertion sites were infected immediately or on day 7, 14 or 21 post-implantation. The catheters implanted in the agar

  13. Impact of Postplacement Adjustment of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters on the Risk of Bloodstream Infection and Venous Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Sanjiv M.; Shuman, Emily K.; Scipione, Christy A.; Chen, Benrong; Sharma, Aditi; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.; Chenoweth, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital. PATIENTS Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007. METHODS The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records. RESULTS There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P < .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT. PMID:23838218

  14. [A retrospective study of the relationship between bacterial numbers from central venous catheter tip cultures and blood cultures for evaluating central line-associated bloodstream infections].

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Nakayama, Asami; Yonetamari, Jun; Ando, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takashi; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamayo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an infectious disease requiring special attention. It is a common cause of nosocomial infections; catheter insertion into the central veins particularly increases the risk of infection (CLA-BSI: central line-associated bloodstream infection). We examined the relationship between the number of bacterial colonies cultured from shredded central venous catheter (CVC) tips and from blood cultures in our hospital from 2011 to 2012. Coagulase-negative staphylococci topped the list of microbe isolated from the CVC tip culture, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. S. aureus and Candida spp., with growth of over 15 colony-forming units in the CVC tip culture, were also detected at high rates in the blood culture. However, gramnegative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa) did not show a similar increase in colony number in the CVC tip culture. Because microbes adhering to shredded catheter tips are readily detected by culture, this method is useful as a routine diagnostic test. In addition, prompt clinical reporting of the bacterial number of serious CLA-BSI-causing S. aureus and Candida spp. isolated from CVC tips could contribute to earlier CLA-BSI diagnosis. PMID:24694240

  15. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2?weeks. PMID:23887994

  16. Use of semi-quantitative and quantitative culture methods and typing for studying the epidemiology of central venous catheter-related infections in neonates on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Premru, M; Gubina, M; Kaufmann, M E; Primozic, J; Cookson, B D

    1999-05-01

    To study the epidemiology - especially the impact of contaminated stopcocks - on central venous catheter (CVC) infection and catheter-related sepsis (CRS), semi-quantitative (SQ) and quantitative (Q) culture methods and typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were employed in 49 neonates with clinical signs of sepsis while receiving parenteral nutrition in the paediatric intensive care unit. The patients were divided into two groups according to stopcock contamination: group A consisted of 18 patients (36%) with contaminated stopcocks and group B consisted of 31 patients (64%) with sterile stopcocks. Five specimens were obtained from each patient, in addition to that from the stopcock: a swab taken from the skin surrounding the catheter puncture site; the CVC tip; the intradermal segment (IDC); and samples of parenteral fluid and blood. A total of 294 specimens (392 sites) was cultured and micro-organisms were identified. All CNS isolated were typed by biotyping, antibiogram, plasmid analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the discriminatory power of the typing methods was compared. The CVC tips were infected in 25 patients (51%); 15 (83%) in group A and 10 (32%) in group B. Sepsis was detected in 24 neonates (49%), 13 in group A and 11 in group B. This was catheter-related in 15 patients (63%), 12 in group A and 3 in group B. CNS were recovered from 13 (52%) of 25 infected CVCs, nine in group A and four in group B. Sixty-five CNS isolates were recovered from these patients and belonged to 14 biotypes, 22 antibiograms, 22 plasmid profiles and 26 PFGE types. Typing showed that in six of nine patients in group A, CNS of the same type were recovered from the catheter tip and the stopcock, in one patient the catheter tip and skin isolates were the same and in two others the catheter tip isolates were different from stopcock and skin isolates. In all four patients in group B, different CNS types were recovered from CVC tips and skin. Bacteraemia was caused by CNS in 14 patients (58%), six in group A and eight in group B. Typing confirmed that nine cases (six in group A and three in group B) were catheter-related but five were not. SQ and Q culture methods and typing, especially by PFGE, allowed the study to determine that bacteria from contaminated stopcocks were frequently the source of CVC infection and CRS. PMID:10229542

  17. Taurolidine is effective in the treatment of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Koldehoffa

    2004-01-01

    Taurolidine is an antimicrobial agent that was originally used in the local treatment of peritonitis and was shown to be effective in the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI). In this pilot study, we used taurolidine solution as an intravenous (i.v.) lock into the totally implantable intravascular devices of 11 consecutive oncological patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections not responding to

  18. Hemorrhagic shock occurring due to a concealed hematoma after insertion of a subclavian venous catheter in a patient undergoing anticoagulation therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Boo-Young; Kim, Won-Sung; Cho, Ah-Reum; Cho, Mi-Jung; Lee, Chung-Won

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man who had been receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation, underwent emergency thrombectomy. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted via the left subclavian vein, and heparin was administered to prevent preoperative and postoperative thrombotic events. After an uneventful thrombectomy, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). On the second postoperative day, the patient developed syncope and his blood pressure and oxygen saturation decreased. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a huge hematoma under the pectoralis major muscle. The patient was then treated with continuous renal replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation for multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, which developed due to hemorrhagic shock in the ICU. These findings suggest that when a CVC is inserted in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy, the possible risk of excessive bleeding must be carefully considered. Further, choosing a proper insertion site and performing an ultrasound-guided aspiration may be helpful in preventing these complications. PMID:25473468

  19. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and catheter-directed thrombolysis of acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 9-year-old boy with inferior vena cava atresia.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Coulter, Amy H; Bass, Patrick; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2015-04-01

    Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is uncommon in the pediatric population, but it can be associated with severe symptoms and potential long-term morbidity secondary to post-thrombotic syndrome. Inferior vena cava (IVC) atresia can predispose a patient to the development of extremity DVT. There is no clear consensus on optimal management of extensive extremity DVT in pediatric patients, especially in patients with IVC anomalies. We report a case of iliofemoral DVT in a 9-year-old boy with IVC atresia and presumed protein S deficiency that was treated successfully using pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and catheter-directed thrombolysis. He was maintained on long-term anticoagulation and remained symptom free at 6 months' follow-up. PMID:25480759

  20. Central Venous Catheter Repair is Associated with an Increased Risk of Bacteremia and Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    LUNDGREN, INGRID S.; ZHOU, CHUAN; MALONE, FRANCES R.; MCAFEE, NANCY G.; GANTT, SOREN; ZERR, DANIELLE M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Repair of broken central venous catheters (CVCs) is common in pediatric patients. We hypothesized that this practice predisposes to bacteremia and CVC-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Methods We conducted a retrospective case-crossover study of pediatric patients aged 1 month to 21 years with CVC breakages who underwent a first-time repair at our institution, using repair kits provided by CVC manufacturers. We compared rates of bacteremia and CLABSI (defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) in the 30 days pre-repair (control period) and the 30 days post-repair (exposure period), with adjustment for within-patient correlation using conditional Poisson regression. Results The mean pre-repair rate of bacteremia was 9.9 per 1000 catheter days, which increased to 24.5 post-repair, resulting in an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.87 (95% CI 1.05 – 3.33, p = 0.034). Risk of CLABSI demonstrated a greater than two-fold increase (IRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.02 – 4.53, p = 0.045) when all catheter days were included, and a four-fold increase when days on antibiotics were excluded (IRR 4.07, 95% CI 1.43 – 11.57, p = 0.008). Conclusions We found that repair of a broken CVC was associated with a two to four-fold higher risk of developing CLABSI within 30 days of repair in pediatric patients. Further studies are needed to determine interventions to reduce this risk and to better define the relative merits of CVC repair compared with replacement in selected patient populations. PMID:22146741

  1. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ryan; Bares, Sara; David, Michael Z

    2011-01-01

    Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided. PMID:21864336

  2. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided. PMID:21864336

  3. Validation of a noninvasive neonatal optical cerebral oximeter in veno-venous ECMO patients with a cephalad catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Rais-Bahrami; O Rivera; B L Short

    2006-01-01

    Introduction:Cerebral Oximetry is an optical technique that allows for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of brain oxygenation by determining tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2). In conjunction with pulse oximetry, cerebral oximetry offers a promising method to estimate cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO2).Objective:The aim of this study was to validate the cerebral oximetry measurements with the cerebral oxygen saturation measured from blood drawn

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Transparent Antimicrobial Dressing for Managing Central Venous and Arterial Catheters in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, Stéphanie F.; Ruckly, Stéphane; Timsit, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objective To model the cost-effectiveness impact of routine use of an antimicrobial chlorhexidine gluconate-containing securement dressing compared to non-antimicrobial transparent dressings for the protection of central vascular lines in intensive care unit patients. Design This study uses a novel health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using the chlorhexidine gluconate dressing versus transparent dressings in a French intensive care unit scenario. The 30-day time non-homogeneous markovian model comprises eight health states. The probabilities of events derive from a multicentre (12 French intensive care units) randomized controlled trial. 1,000 Monte Carlo simulations of 1,000 patients per dressing strategy are used for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and 95% confidence intervals calculations. The outcome is the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections avoided. Costs of intensive care unit stay are based on a recent French multicentre study and the cost-effectiveness criterion is the cost per catheter-related bloodstream infections avoided. The incremental net monetary benefit per patient is also estimated. Patients 1000 patients per group simulated based on the source randomized controlled trial involving 1,879 adults expected to require intravascular catheterization for 48 hours. Intervention Chlorhexidine Gluconate-containing securement dressing compared to non-antimicrobial transparent dressings. Results The chlorhexidine gluconate dressing prevents 11.8 infections /1,000 patients (95% confidence interval: [3.85; 19.64]) with a number needed to treat of 85 patients. The mean cost difference per patient of €141 is not statistically significant (95% confidence interval: [€-975; €1,258]). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is of €12,046 per catheter-related bloodstream infection prevented, and the incremental net monetary benefit per patient is of €344.88. Conclusions According to the base case scenario, the chlorhexidine gluconate dressing is more cost-effective than the reference dressing. Trial Registration This model is based on the data from the RCT registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01189682). PMID:26086783

  5. Effects of fentanyl on procedural pain and discomfort associated with central venous catheter insertion: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Aloka; Rao, Mangu Hanumantha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion induces pain and discomfort to a conscious patient despite application of a local anesthetic (LA) field block and this pain can be greatly lessened by using additional analgesics. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of fentanyl along with LA field infiltration in controlling pain and discomfort associated with CVC insertion. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients scheduled for planned CVC were randomly assigned to receive either fentanyl (2 ?g/kg) or 0.9% normal saline. Pain and discomfort using a verbal numeric rating pain scale at 5 times points during CVC insertion were assessed and analyzed. Results: The median interquartile range pain score is worst for placebo group after LAI (5 [3-6]) and in the immediate postprocedure period (5 [4-5]) which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl (3.5 [2-5] and 3 [2-4]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001 respectively). Overall, fentanyl and placebo group were not statistically different with median discomfort score except at T10 (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Preprocedural bolus fentanyl infusion provides adequate analgesia and can be safely used for alleviating pain during CVC insertion in conscious patients. PMID:25097353

  6. Feasibility of prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction regimens in haemophilic children using fully implantable central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Sartori, Angelo; Agliardi, Andrea; Santagostino, Elena

    2008-05-01

    Venous access represents the major barrier to the feasibility of prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction (ITI) in haemophilic children. Ports improve treatment feasibility, but their duration is limited by infectious complications. This study aimed at evaluating whether or not ports allow haemophilic children to maintain the treatment regimen in the long term. Children were prospectively followed-up and underwent port removal either for complications or transition to peripheral veins. Of 27 ports (17 used for prophylaxis and 10 for ITI), 25 were removed after a median of 3.3 years. Inhibitor children showed a younger age at port insertion (P = 0.02), an earlier occurrence of infections (P = 0.006) at a higher rate (P = 0.00001) and an earlier removal for infection (P = 0.05) than non-inhibitor patients. Daily port use was associated with earlier infections at a higher rate compared to less frequent use (P = 0.02). Port removal after a median of 0.8 years prevented ITI completion in 50% of children, while it hampered the maintenance of prophylaxis in 27% of patients. This study showed that ports improved the feasibility of prophylaxis in the majority of non-inhibitor children, while they were not suitable for inhibitor children who require a prolonged ITI regimen with daily infusions. PMID:18410458

  7. Impact of bypass flow rate and catheter position in veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on gas exchange in vivo.

    PubMed

    Togo, Konomi; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Fujii, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Satoru; Date, Kazuma; Miyamoto, Yuji; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    The clinical use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VVECMO) in adult patients with respiratory failure is rapidly increasing. However, recirculation of blood oxygenated by ECMO back into the circuit may occur in VVECMO, resulting in insufficient oxygenation. The cannula position and bypass flow rate are two major factors influencing recirculation, but the relationship and ideal configuration of these factors are not fully understood. In the present study, we attempted to clarify these parameters for effective gas exchange. VVECMO was performed in eight adult goats under general anesthesia. The position of the drainage cannula was fixed in the inferior vena cava (IVC), but the return cannula position was varied between the IVC, right atrium (RA), and superior vena cava (SVC). At each position, the recirculation rates calculated, and the adequacy of oxygen delivery by ECMO in supplying systemic oxygen demand was assessed by measuring the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and pressure (PaO2). Although the recirculation rates increased as the bypass flow rates increased, SaO2 and PaO2 also increased in any position of return cannula. The recirculation rates and PaO2 were 27 ± 2 % and 162 ± 16 mmHg, 36 ± 6 % and 139 ± 11 mmHg, and 63 ± 6 % and 77 ± 9 mmHg in the SVC, RA and IVC position at 4 L/min respectively. In conclusion, the best return cannula position was the SVC, and a high bypass flow rate was advantageous for effective oxygenation. Both the bypass flow rates and cannula position must be considered to achieve effective oxygenation. PMID:25477271

  8. Sinus thrombectomy for purulent cerebral venous sinus thrombosis utilizing a novel combination of the Trevo stent retriever and the Penumbra ACE aspiration catheter: the stent anchor with mobile aspiration technique.

    PubMed

    Mascitelli, Justin R; Pain, Margaret; Zarzour, Hekmat K; Baxter, Peter; Ghatan, Saadi; Mocco, J

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial complications of sinusitis are rare but life threatening. We present a case of a 17-year-old woman with sinusitis who deteriorated over the course of 12?days from subdural empyema and global purulent cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The patient was managed with surgery and mechanical thrombectomy utilizing a novel 'stent anchor with mobile aspiration technique', in which a Trevo stent retriever (Stryker) was anchored in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) while a 5 MAX ACE reperfusion catheter (Penumbra) was passed back and forth from the SSS to the sigmoid sinus with resultant dramatic improvement in venous outflow. The patient was extubated on postoperative day 3 and was discharged with minimal lower extremity weakness on postoperative day 11. This is the first report using the Trevo stent retriever for sinus thrombosis. It is important to keep these rare complications in mind when evaluating patients with oral and facial infections. PMID:26002667

  9. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections in neutropenic patients--guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Buchheidt, Dieter; Cornely, Oliver A; Fuhr, Hans-Georg; Karthaus, Meinolf; Kisro, Jens; Leithäuser, Malte; Salwender, Hans; Südhoff, Thomas; Szelényi, Hubert; Weissinger, Florian

    2003-10-01

    Catheter-related infections cause considerable morbidity in hospitalised patients. The incidence does not seem to be higher in neutropenic patients than in non- neutropenic patients. Gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus) are the most frequently cultured pathogens, followed by Candida species. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria play only a minor role in catheter-related infections. Positive blood cultures are the cornerstone in the diagnosis of catheter-related infections, while local signs of infection are only rarely present. However, a definite diagnosis generally requires the removal of the catheter and its microbiological examination. The role plate method with semiquantitative cultures (Maki) has been established as standard in most laboratories. Other standard procedures use quantitative techniques (Sherertz, Brun-Buisson) and are more sensitive. For therapy of catheter-related infections, antibiotics are administered according to the susceptibility of the cultured organism. Routine administration of gylcopepticed antibiotics is not indicated. Removal of the catheter has to be considered in any case of suspected catheter-related infection and is obligatory in Staphylococcus aureus and Candida infections. Tunnel or pocket infection of long-term catheters is always an indication for removal. In the future, the rate of catheter-related infections in neutropenic patients may be reduced by the use of catheters coated with antimicrobial agents. PMID:13680168

  10. Long-term, totally implantable central venous access ports connected to a Groshong catheter for chemotherapy of solid tumours: experience from 178 cases using a single type of device.

    PubMed

    Biffi, R; Corrado, F; de Braud, F; de Lucia, F; Scarpa, D; Testori, A; Orsi, F; Bellomi, M; Mauri, S; Aapro, M; Andreoni, B

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the early and late complications rate of central venous access ports connected to the Groshong catheter for long-term chemotherapy delivering. All patients suffering from a neoplastic disease, who required long-term chemotherapy and underwent insertion of implantable ports during a 21-month period (1 October 1994-30 June 1996) were prospectively studied. A single type of port was used, constructed of titanium and silicone rubber (Dome Port, Bard Inc., Salt Lake City, U.S.A), connected to an 8 F silastic Groshong catheter tubing (Bard Inc.). A team of different operators (two general surgeons, one interventional radiologist and four anaesthesiologists) was involved in inserting the port. All devices were placed in the operating room under fluoroscopic control. A central venous access form was filled in by the operator after the procedure and all ports were followed prospectively for device-related and overall complications. Data from the follow-up of these patients were entered in the form and collected in a database. Follow-up continued until the device was removed, the patient died or the study was closed. 178 devices, comprising a total of 32,089 days in situ, were placed in 175 patients. Three patients received a second device after removal of the first. Adequate follow-up was obtained in all cases (median 180 days, range 4-559). 138 devices (77.5%) were still in situ when the study was closed. Early complications included six pneumothoraxes, three arterial punctures and two revisions for port and/or catheter malfunction (overall early complications in 8 patients). Late complications included 3 cases (1.68% of devices) of catheter rupture and embolisation (0.093 episodes/1000 days of use), 2 cases (1.12% of devices) of venous thrombosis (0.062 episodes/1000 days of use), 1 case (0.56% of devices) of pocket infection (0.031 episodes/1000 days of use), and 4 cases (2.24% of devices) of port-related bacteraemias (0.124 episodes/1000 days of use). Infections were caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (4 cases) and Bacillus subtilis (1 case); they required port removal in 3 out of 5 cases. This study represents the largest published series of patients with totally implantable access ports connected to Groshong catheters; this device is a good option for long-term access to central veins and delivery of chemotherapeutic regimens, including continuous intravenous infusions. The low incidence of major complications related to implantation and management of these devices support increased use in oncology patients. PMID:9301441

  11. Candida utilis catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Donato, Concetta; De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; La Greca, Antonio; Fantoni, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    Central venous catheter-related fungemia are increasing in the last years, also due to rare fungi. We report the case of a Candida utilis catheter-related bloodstream infection in a patient with metastatic carcinoma of the bladder and a long term totally implanted venous catheter. The diagnosis was done by paired blood cultures and differential time to positivity. The Candida species was rapidly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The patient was successfully treated with anidulafungine. PMID:25473600

  12. ‘Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England

    PubMed Central

    Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438?887 (404?252 adult and 34?635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20?months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20?months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (? 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

  13. Linezolid Compared with Eperezolid, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin in an In Vitro Model of Antimicrobial Lock Therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis Central Venous Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, John; Cormican, Martin; Fleming, Gerard; Keelehan, John; Colleran, Emer

    2003-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified by determination of viable counts. Mueller-Hinton broth was replaced with sterile physiological saline (control) or a solution of vancomycin (10 mg/ml), gentamicin (10 mg/ml), linezolid (2 mg/ml), or eperezolid (4 mg/ml). Viable counts were performed with the coupons after exposure to antimicrobials for periods of 24, 72, 168, and 240 h. The mean viable count per coupon following establishment of the biofilm was 4.6 × 108 CFU/coupon, and that after 14 days of exposure to physiological saline was 2.5 × 107 CFU/coupon. On exposure to vancomycin (10 mg/ml), the mean counts were 2.5 × 107 CFU/coupon at 24 h, 4.3 × 106 CFU/coupon at 72 h, 1.4 × 105 CFU/coupon at 168 h, and undetectable at 240 h. With gentamicin (10 mg/ml) the mean counts were 2.7 × 107 CFU/coupon at 24 h, 3.7 × 106 CFU/coupon at 72 h, 8.4 × 106 CFU/coupon at 168 h, and 6.5 × 106 CFU/coupon at 240 h. With linezolid at 2 mg/ml the mean counts were 7.1 × 105 CFU/coupon at 24 h and not detectable at 72, 168, and 240 h. With eperezolid (4 mg/ml) no viable cells were recovered after 168 h. These data suggest that linezolid (2 mg/ml) and eperezolid (4 mg/ml) achieve eradication of S. epidermidis biofilms more rapidly than vancomycin (10 mg/ml) and gentamicin (10 mg/ml). PMID:14506022

  14. Linezolid compared with eperezolid, vancomycin, and gentamicin in an in vitro model of antimicrobial lock therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis central venous catheter-related biofilm infections.

    PubMed

    Curtin, John; Cormican, Martin; Fleming, Gerard; Keelehan, John; Colleran, Emer

    2003-10-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified by determination of viable counts. Mueller-Hinton broth was replaced with sterile physiological saline (control) or a solution of vancomycin (10 mg/ml), gentamicin (10 mg/ml), linezolid (2 mg/ml), or eperezolid (4 mg/ml). Viable counts were performed with the coupons after exposure to antimicrobials for periods of 24, 72, 168, and 240 h. The mean viable count per coupon following establishment of the biofilm was 4.6 x 10(8) CFU/coupon, and that after 14 days of exposure to physiological saline was 2.5 x 10(7) CFU/coupon. On exposure to vancomycin (10 mg/ml), the mean counts were 2.5 x 10(7) CFU/coupon at 24 h, 4.3 x 10(6) CFU/coupon at 72 h, 1.4 x 10(5) CFU/coupon at 168 h, and undetectable at 240 h. With gentamicin (10 mg/ml) the mean counts were 2.7 x 10(7) CFU/coupon at 24 h, 3.7 x 10(6) CFU/coupon at 72 h, 8.4 x 10(6) CFU/coupon at 168 h, and 6.5 x 10(6) CFU/coupon at 240 h. With linezolid at 2 mg/ml the mean counts were 7.1 x 10(5) CFU/coupon at 24 h and not detectable at 72, 168, and 240 h. With eperezolid (4 mg/ml) no viable cells were recovered after 168 h. These data suggest that linezolid (2 mg/ml) and eperezolid (4 mg/ml) achieve eradication of S. epidermidis biofilms more rapidly than vancomycin (10 mg/ml) and gentamicin (10 mg/ml). PMID:14506022

  15. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Put on a pair of clean gloves. Gently peel off the old dressing and Biopatch. Throw away ... grid side up and the split ends touching. Peel the backing from the clear plastic bandage (Tegaderm ...

  16. Strict infection control measures do not prevent clonal spread of coagulase negative staphylococci colonizing central venous catheters in neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy van Pelt; Jan Nouwen; Elly Lugtenburg; Cindy van der Schee; Simon de Marie; Paula Schuijff; Henri Verbrugh; Bob Löwenberg; Alex van Belkum; Margreet Vos

    2003-01-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a main cause of catheter related infections (CRI). Earlier studies (1994–1996) revealed a high incidence of CRI (6 per 1000 catheter days) among neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients in the Erasmus MC Hematology Department (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). This was mainly explained by expansion of two methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) clones (Nouwen et al., J. Clin. Microbiol.

  17. Identification of pathogenic races of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Scheewe

    1994-01-01

    Summary  The fungusPhytophthora fragariae Hickman is the causal agent of red stele disease in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), this being a major disease in many areas with cool and moist conditions. Success of resistance breeding can be nullified\\u000a by the appearence of specific races of the fungus capable of overcoming the introduced resistance. In some countries (USA,\\u000a UK, Japan and Canada)

  18. Umbilical catheters

    MedlinePLUS

    A catheter is a long, soft, hollow tube. An umbilical artery catheter (UAC) allows blood to be taken from an ... monitor a baby’s blood pressure. An umbilical artery catheter is most often used if: The baby needs ...

  19. Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation

    E-print Network

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

  20. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with an intrathecal catheter.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, W Caleb; Miller, Brandon A; Dannenbaum, Mark J; Gross, Robert E; Barrow, Daniel L

    2012-12-01

    Although 15 to 20 percent of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) do not have a vascular lesion on four-vessel cerebral angiography, venous injury is a potential cause. This case describes an intracranial catheter associated with nonaneurysmal SAH. It suggests that intrathecal catheters can cause vascular injury, and that nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH may be due to injury of small blood vessels. PMID:22747249

  1. Catheter-related bloodstream infections

    PubMed Central

    Gahlot, Rupam; Nigam, Chaitanya; Kumar, Vikas; Yadav, Ghanshyam; Anupurba, Shampa

    2014-01-01

    Central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Consequences depend on associated organisms, underlying pre-morbid conditions, timeliness, and appropriateness of the treatment/interventions received. We have summarized risk factors, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and management of CRBSI in this review. PMID:25024944

  2. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or dementia Catheters come in many sizes, materials (latex, silicone, Teflon™), and types (Foley, straight, coude tip). ... of catheter use include: Allergy or sensitivity to latex Bladder stones Blood infections ( septicemia ) Blood in the ...

  3. Infection resistance of surface modified catheters with either short-lived or prolonged activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Sampath; N. Chowdhury; L. Caraos; S. M. Modak

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that the invasion of microbes into the catheter tract occurs mainly at the time of catheter insertion. To investigate whether the presence of an antimicrobial environment during the initial period after insertion is sufficient to reduce the risk of subsequent catheter colonization and infection, we evaluated the use of benzalkonium chloride-heparin bonded (BZK-hep) central venous catheters,

  4. Hemodialysis catheter survival and complications in children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart L. Goldstein; Catherine T. Macierowski; Kathy Jabs

    1997-01-01

    . Venous catheters have become an indispensable form of hemodialysis access. We evaluated catheter performance as temporary\\u000a and long-term access in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We assessed the survival rates and causes of catheter\\u000a failure in 78 catheters used for hemodialysis access in 23 pediatric patients (aged 10 months to 22 years) with ESRD over\\u000a a 5-year period.

  5. Critical appraisal of surgical venous access in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hollyoak; T. H. Ong; J. F. Leditschke

    1997-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) have become an important adjunct to the overall management of paediatric patients, but their use is associated with frequent complications resulting in premature removal. This report evaluates the insertion techniques and complications of 295 consecutive surgically inserted CVC from 1987 to 1991 in a paediatric hospital. Fully implanted catheters had significantly less incidence of catheter-related problems

  6. A Rat Model of Central Venous Catheter to Study Establishment of Long-Term Bacterial Biofilm and Related Acute and Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Lebeaux, David; Decante, Benoit; Kriegel, Irene; Escande, Marie-Christine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Formation of resilient biofilms on medical devices colonized by pathogenic microorganisms is a major cause of health-care associated infection. While in vitro biofilm analyses led to promising anti-biofilm approaches, little is known about their translation to in vivo situations and on host contribution to the in vivo dynamics of infections on medical devices. Here we have developed an in vivo model of long-term bacterial biofilm infections in a pediatric totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) surgically placed in adult rats. Using non-invasive and quantitative bioluminescence, we studied TIVAP contamination by clinically relevant pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and we demonstrated that TIVAP bacterial populations display typical biofilm phenotypes. In our study, we showed that immunocompetent rats were able to control the colonization and clear the bloodstream infection except for up to 30% that suffered systemic infection and death whereas none of the immunosuppressed rats survived the infection. Besides, we mimicked some clinically relevant TIVAP associated complications such as port-pocket infection and hematogenous route of colonization. Finally, by assessing an optimized antibiotic lock therapy, we established that our in vivo model enables to assess innovative therapeutic strategies against bacterial biofilm infections. PMID:22615964

  7. Right atrial indwelling catheter for patients requiring long-term intravenous therapy.

    PubMed

    Ivey, M F; Adam, S M; Hickman, R O; Gibson, D L

    1978-12-01

    The use of a central venous catheter for long-term intravenous therapy is described. The catheter's history, physical description, and uses are discussed. Also reviewed are complications from use of the catheter, the pharmacist's role in patient teaching, and the procedure for administering medications through the catheter. A listing of drugs administered through the catheter, incompatibility data and patient teaching instructions are also included. PMID:717409

  8. Brachial plexus compression due to subclavian pseudoaneurysm from cannulation of jugular vein hemodialysis catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DC Tarng; TP Huang; KP Lin

    1998-01-01

    Jugular venous cannulation is generally safer than subclavian cannulation. The traumatic complications associated with jugular vein hemodialysis catheters are rare. A jugular vein, therefore, has become the preferred site for hemodialysis catheter insertion. We describe the first case of brachial plexus compression attributable to delayed recognition of a right subclavian pseudoaneurysm as a complication of jugular venous cannulation of hemodialysis

  9. Central vascular catheters and infections.

    PubMed

    Dioni, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Renata; Marzollo, Roberto; Oprandi, Daniela; Chirico, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Newborn infants in critical conditions require a permanent intra-venous line to allow for the administration of fluids, parenteral nutrition and drugs. The use of central venous catheters, however, is associated with an increased risk of infections, leading to prolongation of length of stay and higher hospitalization costs, particularly in extremely preterm infants. Dwell time is a significant factor for complications, with a predicted risk of catheter related infections of about 4 per 1000 catheter-days. To reduce the incidence of complications, several requirements must be met, including adequate staff and resources to provide education, training, and quality improvement programs, within a culture of communication and teamwork. Rigorous reporting schedule on line care and the implementation of unique bundle elements, the use of health care failure mode and effect analysis, the judicious use of antibiotics through an antimicrobial stewardship strategy, the application of specific antifungal prophylaxis are among the most effective interventions, while the addition of heparin to parenteral solution, or the use of antibiotic plus heparin lock therapy are under evaluation. Nursing assistance plays a fundamental role in managing central venous lines and in reducing or preventing the incidence of infection, by the application of several complex professional strategies. PMID:24709460

  10. Antimicrobial catheters in the ICU: is the juice worth the squeeze?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasia Safdar

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Catheter-related bloodstream infection is one of the most serious complications of central venous access devices. Antimicrobial-coated catheters represent one novel strategy to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection. A comprehensive economic evaluation is essential to guide informed decision-making regarding the adoption of this technology and its expected benefits in healthcare institutions.

  11. [Venous thromboembolism and cancer].

    PubMed

    Descourt, R; Jezequel, P; Couturaud, F; Leroyer, C; Girard, P

    2008-12-01

    Cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), VTE and cancer: there is a close bond between these two diseases. On the one hand, a cancer patient runs a high risk of developing VTE. Certain cancer-specific factors, such as its metastatic nature increase this risk. The means involved in the care of cancer (insertion of a venous catheter, chemotherapy, etc.) also increase the probability of a thromboembolism. On the other hand, VTE, especially if it is idiopathic, may be the harbinger of a neoplasm. The present paper involves the dual nature of this relationship, first dealing with several points specific to the occurrence of VTE in a cancer patient, before dealing with the specific care in a curative and prophylactic situation. VTE is then considered as a clinical manifestation prior to a cancer. Several characteristics evoking an underlying neoplasm are known. However, the benefits of the screening for cancer when confronted with an episode of VTE remains to be debated. PMID:19084207

  12. Interventional radiology in the provision and maintenance of long-term central venous access.

    PubMed

    Lyon, S M; Given, M; Marshall, N L

    2008-02-01

    Establishing and maintaining venous access forms an increasing proportion of the workload in interventional radiology. Several patient groups require medium-term to long-term venous catheters for a variety of purposes, including chemotherapy, long-term antimicrobials, parenteral nutrition, short-term access for haemodialysis or exhausted haemodialysis. Often, these catheters are required for treatment and frequent blood testing, which can quickly exhaust the peripheral veins. Long-term venous access devices minimize the discomfort of frequent cannulation while preserving the peripheral veins. Venous access devices include implantable catheters (ports), tunnelled catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters, which have different functions, advantages and limitations. Imaging-guided placement is the preferred method of insertion in many institutions because of higher success rates and radiologists are well suited to address catheter complications. PMID:18373820

  13. Detection and identification of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman by the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bonants; Marjanne Hagenaar-de Weerdt; Marga van Gent-Pelzer; Isabelle Lacourt; David Cooke; Jim Duncan

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae Hickman, which causes strawberry red stele and raspberry root rot, is a quarantine organism for which specific and sensitive detection methods are required to test the health of planting material. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene repeat (rDNA) were used to develop primers for P. fragariae in a nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

  14. [Cardiac tamponade after withdrawal of a peripheral access central catheter].

    PubMed

    García-Galiana, E; Sanchis-Gil, V; Martínez-Navarrete, M Á

    2015-03-01

    Central venous catheterization is a very common technique, although its complications can be multiple and sometimes fatal. A case is presented of cardiac tamponade by parenteral nutrition a few hours after moving a central venous catheter peripherally inserted a few days before. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography, and an emergency pericardiocentesis was performed, achieving complete recovery of the patient. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are more likely to change their position secondary to the movements of the patient's arm, thus it is important to use soft catheters, make sure the tip lies above the carina to avoid perforation of the pericardial reflexion, and fix it well to the skin. Diagnosis must be made as soon as possible, given the high mortality rate of this complication, and the essential diagnostic tool is echocardiography. Elective treatment consists of early catheter withdrawal and emergency pericardiocentesis. PMID:24929256

  15. Central Venous Catheterization: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervyn Mer; Adriano Gianmaria Duse; Jacqueline Suzanne Galpin; Guy Antony Richards

    2009-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are extensively used worldwide. Mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are well described with their use and may be associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased medical costs and mortality. CVCs account for an estimated 90% of all catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and a host of risk factors for CVC-related infections have been documented. The duration of use of

  16. Transcutaneous intravascular transposition of a permanent dialysis catheter.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, Jerzy; Wiewióra, Maciej; Jache?, Wojciech; Szrot, Monika; Krzak, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Permanent catheters are used to provide long-lasting access for long-term dialysis therapy in certain patients when creating an arteriovenous fistula between their own vessels is not possible, when there are contraindications for fistula creation or when the expected lifetime of the patient is short. We present the case of a patient with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis for 5 years. Due to post-thrombotic changes and venous stenosis resulting from long-term cannulation with dialysis catheters, the replacement catheter was inserted through the previously used canal and transcutaneous intravascular catheter transposition was performed. PMID:25337180

  17. Transcutaneous intravascular transposition of a permanent dialysis catheter

    PubMed Central

    Piecuch, Jerzy; Jache?, Wojciech; Szrot, Monika; Krzak, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Permanent catheters are used to provide long-lasting access for long-term dialysis therapy in certain patients when creating an arteriovenous fistula between their own vessels is not possible, when there are contraindications for fistula creation or when the expected lifetime of the patient is short. We present the case of a patient with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis for 5 years. Due to post-thrombotic changes and venous stenosis resulting from long-term cannulation with dialysis catheters, the replacement catheter was inserted through the previously used canal and transcutaneous intravascular catheter transposition was performed. PMID:25337180

  18. Endoluminal dilation technique to remove "stuck" tunneled hemodialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Aquino, Jose; Cunningham, Ian; O'Kelly, Kevin; Rasuli, Pasteur

    2012-08-01

    Most tunneled catheters can be easily removed after the retention cuff is dissected. Occasionally, these catheters can become resistant to removal even after application of potentially hazardous forceful traction. In addition, an infected catheter may cause life-threatening septicemia. Several methods have been described for their extraction, some of which may be available only in tertiary-care facilities. The present report describes the successful extraction of five such "stuck" catheters by using a recently described technique of endoluminal dilation. The technique appears safe and straightforward and can be performed in any interventional suite while allowing preservation of venous access. PMID:22840807

  19. Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial\\/ antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate\\/methylene blue\\/parabens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz Steczko; Stephen R. Ash; D avid E. Nivens; L loyd Brewer; Roland K. Winger

    Background. Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution contain- ing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm.

  20. Shifting Identities in South Kansas City: Hickman Mills's Transformation from a Suburban to Urban School District

    E-print Network

    Rife, Aaron Tyler

    2014-08-31

    Mills in the Wake of the 1957 Tornado and a School Board Scandal, 1957-1960………………………...……………..………57 Chapter Three - Mixed Feelings: Urbanization, Modernization, and the Fight to Stay Independent and Self-Sufficient, 1959... conducted interviews with former students, teachers, administrators and parents from Hickman Mills, which provided important information about major events, including the 1957 tornado and the 1961 annexation. Interviews with current and former residents...

  1. [Management of catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Linnemann, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2013-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important tools in the care of patients with acute or chronic diseases, but catheter-related thrombosis and thrombotic occlusions are frequent complications, especially if CVCs are implanted for long-term use. In this review we focus on the management of these complications. Risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis include dislocation of the catheter tip, the presence of malignant disease and hypercoagulability. Catheter-related thrombosis is associated with catheter infection, pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome. Catheter-related thromboses which most frequently involve the subclavian vein are usually diagnosed by duplex ultrasound examination and treated with anticoagulation therapy for a minimum of three months or longer if the catheter is left in place. Prevention of catheter-related thrombotic complications includes proper positioning of the CVC with the catheter tip lying in the proximal superior vena cava and regular flushing of the catheter with saline solution or unfractionated heparin. The use of anticoagulants for primary prevention is currently not recommended. PMID:23575524

  2. Venous insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stay filled with blood , especially when you are standing. Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. ... thrombosis in the legs Obesity Pregnancy Sitting or standing for a long periods Tall height

  3. Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

  4. Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical devices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosocomially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The cornerstone to any preventive strategy of intravascular catheter infections is strict attention to infection control practices. Antimicrobial-impregnated intravascular catheters are a useful adjunction to infection control measures. Prevention of urinary catheter–associated infection is hindered by the numbers and types of organisms present in the periurethral area as well as by the typically longer duration of catheter placement. Antimicrobial agents in general have not been effective in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in persons with long-term, indwelling urethral catheters. Preventive strategies that avoid the use of antimicrobial agents may be necessary in this population. PMID:15111369

  5. Inadvertent Port: Catheter Placement in Azygos Vein

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K.; Madhu, Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Totally implantable ports are safe and effective means of venous access for administration of chemotherapy. One of the usual vessels accessed, through which the port is placed, is the subclavian. Herein, we report a case where the central access was obtained through the left subclavian vein. But the catheter when it was placed was found to be in the azygos vein. This was confirmed with dye study. This is the first report of such an occurrence with subclavian access. The catheter was later withdrawn and repositioned in the superior vena cava. We recommend that the entire procedure of catheter placement must be done under fluoroscopy guidance to ensure safe and error-free positioning. PMID:23730139

  6. Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients on hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel G. H. Betjes

    2011-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are frequently used as vascular access for patients who require hemodialysis, but infectious complications remain a major clinical problem. Specifically, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) have an adverse effect on survival, hospitalization, mortality, and the overall cost of care in this setting. The growing number of patients who require hemodialysis, combined with an increasing number of patients

  7. Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Astorga, R. P.; West, S.; Putnis, S.; Hebden, J. C.; Desjardins, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space. We present a novel optical epidural catheter with integrated polymer light guides that allows for optical spectra to be acquired from tissues at the distal tip. To obtain an initial indication of the information that could be obtained, reflectance values and photon penetration depth were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and optical reflectance spectra were acquired during a laminectomy of a swine ex vivo. Large differences between the spectra acquired from epidural adipose tissue and from venous blood were observed. The optical catheter has the potential to provide real-time detection of intravascular catheter placement that could reduce the risk of complications. PMID:24298420

  8. Venous Port Salvage Utilizing Low Dose tPA

    SciTech Connect

    Whigham, Cliff J.; Lindsey, Jason I.; Goodman, Chad J.; Fisher, Richard G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department ofRadiology, One Baylor Plaza-MS 360, Houston, Texas77030-3487 (United States)

    2002-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low dose tPA for catheter salvage in cases of fibrin sheath formation in patients with venous access ports. Prospective evaluation was accomplished in patients who had venous ports with catheter malfunction. There were a total of 50 patients and 56 occlusive events.Each patient had a catheter injection documenting a fibrin sheath.Patient population included 45 for chemotherapy and 5 for antibiotics.A low dose tPA regimen was instilled into the port and upon successful return of function, a completion venogram was accomplished. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study with the average time between placement and dysfunction of 99 days. Five patients had a second occlusive event (38.5 days) and one had a third event (27 days). All patients had a venogram confirming a fibrin sheath as the cause of catheter malfunction. The average dose of tPA was 2.29 mg (range 1 mg-4 mg). Success was achieved in 52 of the 56 occlusive events(92.9%). There were no bleeding complications. Catheter occlusion is a common complication of long-term venous access ports. Aggressive therapy with low-dose tPA can salvage function. It provides safe and effective therapy for venous port malfunction secondary to fibrin sheath.

  9. Biopsy catheter (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examination, a heart biopsy can be performed. A catheter is carefully threaded into an artery or vein to gain access into the heart. A bioptome (catheter with jaws in its tip) is then introduced. ...

  10. Suprapubic catheter care

    MedlinePLUS

    A suprapubic catheter (tube) drains urine from your bladder. It is inserted into your bladder through a small hole in your belly. You may need a catheter because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention ( ...

  11. Indwelling catheter care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... call your doctor or nurse if: Your urine bag is filling up quickly, and you have an increase in urine. Urine is leaking around the catheter. You notice blood in your urine. Your catheter seems blocked. You ...

  12. Superficial venous disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kellie R; Rossi, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    Superficial venous disease is a common clinical problem. The concerning disease states of the superficial venous system are venous reflux, varicose veins, and superficial venous thrombosis. Superficial venous reflux can be a significant contributor to chronic venous stasis wounds of the lower extremity, the treatment of which can be costly both in terms of overall health care expenditure and lost working days for affected patients. Although commonly thought of as a benign process, superficial venous thrombosis is associated with several underlying pathologic processes, including malignancy and deep venous thrombosis. PMID:23885940

  13. Internal jugular versus subclavian vein catheterization for central venous catheterization in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Torgay, A; Pirat, A; Candan, S; Zeyneloglu, P; Arslan, G; Haberal, M

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications associated with central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the subclavian vein (SV) among 45 consecutive patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2000 and June 2004. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the site of central venous catheterization (IJV or SV). We recorded each patient's physical characteristics, international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time, platelet levels, number of puncture attempts, success/failure of central venous catheterization, duration of catheter placement, occurrence of catheter tip misplacement, arterial puncture, incidence of hematoma or pneumothorax, catheter-related infection, or bacterial colonization of the catheter. Senior staff anesthesiologists performed 22 SV and 23 IJV catheterizations for the 45 OLT procedures. The SV and IVJ groups both had minor coagulation abnormalities with slightly increased INR values at the time of catheterization. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to success of central venous catheterization (100% for both), numbers of attempted punctures, duration of catheter placement, and incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications. Both groups showed high frequencies of catheter tip misplacement, with right atrium as the site of misplacement in all cases. Two patients in the IJV group (8.7%) developed hematomas after accidental carotid artery puncture. The results suggest that, when performed by experienced anesthesiologists, central venous catheterization via the SV is an acceptable alternative to IJV catheterization for patients undergoing OLT. PMID:16213340

  14. Transluminal angioplasty of venous stenoses in polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve J Schwab; Mohsin Saeed; Steven K Sussman; Richard L McCann; Delford L Stickel

    1987-01-01

    Transluminal angioplasty of venous stenoses in polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access grafts. Since 1984, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) utilizing high pressure balloon catheters has been used as an initial approach to restore patency of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene, GORE-TEX) hemodialysis vascular access grafts. Seventeen stenotic lesions detected by fistulogram underwent elective PTA. Twelve of these lesions were detected after thrombectomy and five were detected

  15. Managing Inadvertent Arterial Catheterization During Central Venous Access Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Tony, E-mail: Tony.Nicholson@leedsth.nhs.uk; Ettles, Duncan; Robinson, Graham [Hull and EastYorkshire Hospitals Trust, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-15

    Purpose: Approximately 200,000 central venous catheterizations are carried out annually in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Inadvertent arterial puncture occurs in up to 3.7%. Significant morbidity and death has been reported. We report on our experience in the endovascular treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out of 9 cases referred for endovascular treatment of inadvertent arterial puncture during central venous catheterization over a 5 year period. Results: It was not possible to obtain accurate figures on the numbers of central venous catheterizations carried out during the time period. Five patients were referred with carotid or subclavian pseudoaneurysms and hemothorax following inadvertent arterial catheter insertion and subsequent removal. These patients all underwent percutaneous balloon tamponade and/or stent-graft insertion. More recently 4 patients were referred with the catheter still in situ and were successfully treated with a percutaneous closure device. Conclusion: If inadvertent arterial catheterization during central venous access procedures is recognized and catheters removed, sequelae can be treated percutaneously. However, once the complication is recognized it is better to leave the catheter in situ and seal the artery percutaneously with a closure device.

  16. Catheter-related sepsis due to Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2003-02-01

    We describe a central venous catheter-related (Port-A-Cath; Smiths Industries Medical Systems [SIMS] Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) infection caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 51-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was treated with fluconazole for 8 weeks and had the catheter removed. Two isolates of R. glutinis recovered from blood specimens (one obtained via peripheral veins and one via the catheter) before administration of fluconazole and one recovered from the removed catheter 17 days after initiation of fluconazole therapy exhibited high-level resistance to fluconazole (MICs, >256 microg/ml). These three isolates were found to belong to a single clone on the basis of identical antibiotypes determined by the E test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and biotypes determined by API ID32 C (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and their identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. PMID:12574300

  17. Sonographically guided placement of intravenous catheters in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Pinkernelle, Jens; Raschzok, Nathanael; Teichgräber, Ulf K M

    2009-07-01

    Many procedures in minipigs require establishment of reliable deep venous access with a large-bore catheter. In animal experiments, such catheters are typically implanted surgically. In clinical settings, however, ultrasound imaging is routinely used to facilitate safe, minimally invasive puncture of deep vessels. The authors describe a technique for using ultrasound guidance to puncture and cannulate the minipig femoral vein. They carried out the procedure in six minipigs for the purpose of injecting contrast agents for subsequent imaging scans. The procedure was ultimately successful in all pigs, took 10 min on average and resulted in no physiological complications. In one minipig, however, a 10-cm-long catheter became dislodged from the femoral vein; use of a longer (25-cm-long) catheter was optimal for establishing reliable intravenous access. PMID:19543262

  18. Primary axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis: is aggressive surgical intervention justified?

    PubMed

    Schmacht, D C; Back, M R; Novotney, M L; Johnson, B L; Bandyk, D F

    2001-01-01

    Multimodal (thrombolysis, surgical decompression, venous reconstruction, oral anticoagulation) treatment of primary axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis was reviewed to assess the impact of venous patency on functional outcome. Since 1996, 7 patients (6 men, 1 woman) of ages 16-53 years (mean 33 years) presented with symptomatic acute axillosubclavian venous thrombosis as a result of a recent athletic or strenuous arm activity. Five patients had undergone previous (>2 weeks) catheter-directed thrombolysis and venous angioplasty. Diagnostic contrast venography followed by repeat catheter-directed thrombolysis demonstrated abnormal (residual stenosis [n=6] or occlusion [n=1]) axillosubclavian venous segments in all patients. Surgical intervention was performed at a mean interval of 7 days (range 1-19 days) after thrombolysis and consisted of thoracic outlet decompression with scalenectomy and 1st rib resection via a paraclavicular (n=4) or supraclavicular (n=3) approach. Medial claviculectomy or cervical rib resection was performed in 2 patients. Concomitant venous surgery was performed in all patients to restore normal venous patency by circumferential venolysis (n=7) and balloon catheter thrombectomy (n=3), or vein-patch angioplasty (n=2), or endovenectomy (n=5), or internal jugular transposition (n=2). Postoperative venous duplex testing beyond 1 month identified recurrent thrombosis in 4 patients despite therapeutic oral anticoagulation. Subsequent venous recanalization was documented in 3 patients. Poor functional outcome was associated with an occluded venous repair and extensive venous thrombosis on initial presentation. A patent or recanalized venous repair present in 6 of 7 patients was associated with good functional outcome and may justify multimodal intervention in patients with primary axillosubclavian effort thrombosis presenting with recurrent thrombosis and significant residual disease after thrombolysis. PMID:11565039

  19. Venous flaps.

    PubMed

    Thatte, M R; Thatte, R L

    1993-04-01

    One of the earliest postulates concerning the physiological basis of flap survival is attributed to Sushruta, who, in his inimitable style, very succinctly noted in Sanskrit verse the following words: "through continuity survives." Sanskrit being a very telegraphic language, what derives from these words is as follows: Through (the flap's) continuity (with its original location) (it) survives. The principle of continuity has survived through the ages, though continuity has come to imply vascular continuity based on the Harvesian model of circulation. No matter how we classify flaps, i.e., random or axial, the Harvesian model of circulation is the key to the mechanism of survival. Lately, however, a new category of flaps, that is, "venous flaps," have been reported by a number of investigators where the classical Harvesian model is not in evidence, at least apparently. The following effort is directed toward presenting the existing data on this subject for future guidance in research and clinical applications. PMID:8446733

  20. Modification to single catheter exchange transfusion technique.

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, J H; Valaes, T

    1976-01-01

    A simple modification to the standard 'in-out' exchange transfusion technique is described which requires cannulation of the umbilical vein only, yet provides many of the theoretical and practical advantages of a 2-catheter arteriovenous technique. The advantages include a reduction of cardiovascular disturbance; a reduction of the inevitable pressure changes in the portal venous system (probably important in the pathogenesis of complicating necrotizing enterocolitis); administration of alkali or drugs diluted in donor blood; accurate assessment of balance; a more efficient exchange; and general ease of management allowing better clinical observation of the infant. PMID:1275542

  1. Chronic performance of polyurethane catheters covalently coated with ATH complex: a rabbit jugular vein model.

    PubMed

    Klement, Petr; Du, Ying Jun; Berry, Leslie R; Tressel, Paul; Chan, Anthony K C

    2006-10-01

    Covalent complexes of antithrombin (AT) and heparin (ATH) have superb anticoagulant activity towards thrombin and factor Xa. Stability of polyurethane central venous catheters covalently modified with radiolabeled ATH was studied using a roller pump with saline or protease P-5147. Saline wash removed loosely bound ATH molecules to decrease graft density from 26 to 12 pmol/cm2. However, only slightly more ATH was removed by strong protease (from 12 to 7 pmol/cm2). To evaluate ATH-coated, heparin-coated, and uncoated catheters, a chronic rabbit jugular vein model was developed with catheters maintained for up to 30-106 days. Lumen occlusion was tested by drawing blood twice daily. Although unmodified or heparin-coated catheters occluded within 5-7 days after insertion, all ATH catheters remained patent throughout the experiment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of heparin and uncoated catheters revealed extensive thrombosis (lumen+mural) while ATH catheters were unaffected. Visual observation showed significant deposition of protein and cells on control and heparin-modified catheters and, to a lesser degree, on ATH-coated surfaces. SEM showed no fibrin inside or outside of ATH catheters, which remained patent in extended studies out to 106 days. Although atomic force microscopy showed ATH coatings to be rough, 6-fold higher anti-factor Xa activity likely contributed to increased patency. Our data confirm that ATH-modified catheters are stable and have superior potency compared to heparin or control catheters. PMID:16781768

  2. Assessment of reused catheters.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, T; Duguay, D G; Valadares, M J; Rajagopalan, K; Mackenzie, A M; Blohon, R; Marquis, J F; Beanlands, D S; Keon, W J

    1995-01-01

    Demands for health care cost containment have prompted the assessment of recycling medical devices, including catheters. The investigation of catheter reuse for effectiveness and safety began at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute in early 1994. This report provides the preliminary results from this ongoing assessment on the feasibility of catheter reuse. Burst tests were conducted to detect changes in catheter mechanical integrity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess surface changes and protein deposition after use and the subsequent cleaning process. Results of burst testing showed no significant difference in burst patterns or burst pressures between single use and unused catheters. Surface differences were observed between used and unused catheters. SEM studies detected physical changes such as scratches, gouges, cuts, and deposits on the used catheters. Unused balloon surfaces appeared to be clean and uniform compared to used ones. Residue and cracking were identified on other used devices. In conclusion, the methods used can assess various effects of recycling. A blind study of large samples of used catheters is planned to establish statistically the level and variance of structural damage to catheters during typical use. PMID:8573878

  3. [Catheter rupture at the site of implantation: a rare accident? Apropos of 2 observations].

    PubMed

    Pecquenard, L; Le Priol, C; Combe, M; Vigue, J P; Almeras, M

    1991-11-01

    Seventy three venous access ports of the same type have been implanted recently in our hospital. We have observed two cases of catheter's rupture. Both accidents show a lot of similarities: material of the same trade mark; same way of implantation: right subclavian vein; rupture before one year; rupture at the point of entry of the subclavian vein; migration of the distal part of catheter; withdrawal of this part by right femoral vein's catheterism. Both broken catheters and another not broken (implanted during more than one year) were tested. It appears that those catheters were weakened, especially around the rupture. The reason is the long-standing compression of the catheter at the narrow space between clavicle and first rib. Then, the rupture of this weakened catheter could have been produced by the high pressure due to injection with small syringes. PMID:1369548

  4. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

  5. [Catheter-based treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Engelberger, Rolf P; Alatri, Adriano; Qanadli, Salah D; Calanca, Luca; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Nearly half of patients with acute lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) develop a post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). This risk is particularly high in case of proximal DVT of the common femoral and iliac vein, the major lower limbs venous outflow vessel. Several studies have demonstrated that PTS incidence can be reduced with early vein recanalisation. Currently, catheter-based recanalisation therapies can be offered to selected patients with acute ilio-femoral deep vein thrombosis. Aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge on these catheter-based recanalisation therapies. PMID:25854044

  6. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert [Department of Radiology, MEB 404, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, One Robert Wood Johnson Place, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0019 (United States)

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). Aspiration occlusion occurred in 13 patients (11.7%). Intracatheter urokinase was infused in eight of these patients and successfully restored catheter function in all but two instances. These complication rates are comparable to or better than those reported with chest ports.Conclusion: Peripheral ports for long-term central venous access placed by interventional radiologists in the interventional radiology suite are as safe and as effective as chest ports.

  7. Experience with an implantable venous access system for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pettengell, R; Davies, A J; Harvey, V J

    1991-07-10

    Seventy-one patients receiving prolonged outpatient chemotherapy for solid tumours had a totally implanted venous access system inserted (Port-A-Cath--Pharmacia). These remained in situ for a mean of 278 days. In 98.6% of patients the catheter functioned throughout treatment. This high reliability reflects low rates of sepsis (11%) and occlusion (1.4%). Six catheters were removed because of complications; for sepsis (2), catheter occlusion (1), erosion (2), and wound dehiscence (1). An implanted system may be more economical than external exiting systems for patients requiring a catheter for longer than two months despite a high capital cost, because of lower costs during use. The Port-A-Cath is safe, reliable and acceptable to patients. PMID:1852329

  8. Atrial fibrillation: Catheter ablation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aman Chugh; Fred Morady

    2006-01-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved dramatically over the last several years. The initial efforts in the catheter-based management of AF targeted the atrial substrate in an effort to mimic the maze procedure. After the pulmonary veins (PV) were shown to be critical in the initiation and perpetuation of AF, the focus then shifted to a trigger approach

  9. Persistent Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria rhizophila Related to a Damaged Central Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Karsten; Mérens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnčs; Dubern, Béatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2012-01-01

    A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair. PMID:22259211

  10. Cost effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in the intensive care unit: addressing uncertainty in the decision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate A Halton; David A Cook; Michael Whitby; David L Paterson; Nicholas Graves

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Some types of antimicrobial-coated central venous catheters (A-CVC) have been shown to be cost effective in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, not all types have been evaluated, and there are concerns over the quality and usefulness of these earlier studies. There is uncertainty amongst clinicians over which, if any, A-CVCs to use. We re-evaluated the cost effectiveness of

  11. Posterior triangle approach for lateral in-plane technique during hemodialysis catheter insertion via the internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dan; Cho, Sungwoo

    2015-01-01

    A recent widespread concept is that ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion is a mandatory method. Some techniques have been introduced for ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. Among them, short-axis lateral in-plane technique is considered to be the most useful technique for internal jugular vein access. Therefore, we used this technique for the insertion of a large-bore cuffed tunneled dual-lumen catheter for hemodialysis. Additionally, a lesser number of catheter angulations may lead to good flow rates and catheter function; we recommend that skin puncture site in the neck at the posterior triangle is better than the Sedillot's triangle. Using this approach, we can reduce the possible complications of pinching and kinking of the catheter. PMID:25692124

  12. Comparison of the palindrome vs. step-tip tunneled hemodialysis catheter: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Seok Hui; Choi, Sun Ryoung; Sun, In O; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-01-01

    Numerous designs for tunneled hemodialysis catheter have been developed in an effort to improve catheter function and survival. In this prospective randomized controlled study, 97 patients were randomized into the palindrome catheter group (PC, n = 47) and step-tip catheter group (SC, n = 50). Demographic characteristics were not different between the two groups. The effective blood flow rates at different pump speeds were comparable between the two groups. The recirculation was low within acceptable range in both types of catheter, and hemodialysis adequacy was not different between the two groups. However, when arterial and venous blood lines were reversed, while the recirculation was significantly increased in SC, it was not increased at all in PC. The catheter dysfunction-free survival rate was significantly higher in PC than in SC (78.9% vs. 54.4% at 2 months, p = 0.008). The overall catheter survival rate was also higher in PC than in SC (90.6% vs. 68.8% at 2 months, p = 0.015). We conclude that both catheters are equally effective on the adequate hemodialysis and low recirculation. However, the PCs have advantages over the SCs in terms of lower catheter dysfunction rate, lower recirculation with reversed blood lines, higher short-term catheter survival rate. PMID:22360500

  13. Use of a Trellis device for endovascular treatment of venous thrombosis involving a duplicated inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Saettele, Megan R; Morelli, John N; Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C

    2013-12-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC. PMID:23370490

  14. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R., E-mail: SaetteleM@umkc.edu [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital (United States); Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C. [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)] [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  15. Effect of heparin-bonded pulmonary artery catheters on the activated coagulation time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. McNulty; David P. Maguire; Ralph E. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of a heparinbonded pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) on the activated coagulation time (ACT).Design: A prospective, controlled comparison.Setting: A tertiary care university hospital.Participants: Adult cardiac surgery patients.Interventions: Celite ACTs were measured from arterial and central venous blood samples before and after the insertion of a heparin-bonded PAC. Thromboelastograms were also obtained from central venous blood

  16. Hemodialysis catheter insertion: is increased PO2 a sign of arterial cannulation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) for temporary vascular access, preferably using the right internal jugular vein, is widely accepted by nephrologists. However CVC is associated with numerous potential complications, including death. We describe the finding of a rare left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection during central venous catheterization for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Case presentation Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large bore temporary dual-lumen Quinton-Mahurkar catheter into the left internal jugular vein was performed for CRRT initiation in a 66 year old African-American with sepsis-related oliguric acute kidney injury. The post-procedure chest X-ray suggested inadvertent left carotid artery cannulation. Blood gases obtained from the catheter showed high partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of 140 mmHg and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) of 22 mmHg, suggestive of arterial cannulation. However, the pressure-transduced wave forms appeared venous and Computed Tomography Angiography located the catheter in the left internal jugular vein, but demonstrated that the tip of the catheter was lying over a left pulmonary vein which was abnormally draining into the left brachiocephalic (innominate) vein rather than into the left atrium. Conclusion Although several mechanical complications of dialysis catheters have been described, ours is one of the few cases of malposition into an anomalous pulmonary vein, and highlights a sequential approach to properly identify the catheter location in this uncommon clinical scenario. PMID:25073708

  17. Incidence of Catheter-Related Infections in Hospitalized Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Kambiz; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Khalaj, Hadi; Soudi, Hengameh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Catheter Related Blood stream Infections (CRBSI) are prevalent and a potentially fatal complication pertaining to cardiovascular implant devices. There have been no major studies on bacterial colonization of catheters in cardiovascular patients in Iran. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of catheter colonization of bacteria in the largest Iranian cardiovascular center. Patients and Methods: March 2011 to 2012, Cauterization procedures performed on 60 patients hospitalized in Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran, with arterial or venous catheterization, inserted 48 hours or more, catheter evaluations done by culture methods. Blood cultures were also obtained simultaneously. Results: Forty-four out of 60 catheters (73.3%) were positive with a significant colony count. Of 44 positive cases, 11 patients had positive blood culture. Three most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staph Albus [14 (32%)], Entrococcu [12 (27%)] and Acinetobacter [5 (11%)]. gram-positive cocci were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid and gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Imipenem. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that the catheter infection in our patients had sources other than normal skin flora. These results will assist in determining the possible source of the infections, furthermore, how they are transmitted, moreover aid in controlling and preventing these dangerous in- infections. PMID:25478502

  18. Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

  19. Association Between Disruption of Fibrin Sheaths Using Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Balloons and Late Onset of Central Venous Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Nina, E-mail: nina.ni@yale.edu; Mojibian, Hamid; Pollak, Jeffrey; Tal, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Tal@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2011-02-15

    To compare the rates of central venous stenosis in patients undergoing hemodialysis who underwent disruption of fibrin sheath with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloons and those who underwent over-the-wire catheter exchange. This study is a retrospective review of 209 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption and 1304 over-the-wire catheter exchange procedures performed in 753 patients. Approval from the Human Investigations Committee was obtained for this study. Up to 10-year follow-up was performed. A {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare the rates of central venous stenosis after balloon disruption versus catheter exchange. A t-test was used to compare time to central venous stenosis development. Of the 753 patients in the study, 127 patients underwent balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and 626 had catheter exchange. Within the balloon disruption group, 18 (14.2%) of 127 patients subsequently developed central venous stenosis, compared with 44 (7.0%) of 626 in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Time to central venous stenosis development was approximately 3 years in both groups and not significantly different (1371 and 1010 days, P = 0.20). A total of 25.2% of patients in the balloon disruption group had four or more subsequent catheter exchanges, versus 12.6% in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). In conclusions, there is a possible association between percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and late-onset central venous stenosis. Because venography was not routinely performed in catheter exchange patients, future randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  20. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Philip J., E-mail: philip.butler@yale.edu; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G. [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

  1. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; R?zicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  2. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed, E-mail: sarfraznazir@doctors.org.uk; Ganeshan, Arul [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Nazir, Sheraz [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  3. Percutaneous retrieval of an intracardiac central venous port fragment using snare with triple loops

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderian, Mehdi; Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted venous ports fracture with embolization in patients who received chemotherapy is a serious and rare complication, and few cases have been reported in children. We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare for retrieving broken peripherally inserted venous ports in a child for chemotherapy. Catheter fragments may cause complications such as cardiac perforation, arrhythmias, sepsis, and pulmonary embolism. A 12-year-old female received chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia through a central venous port implanted into her right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 6 months ago. Venous port was accidentally fractured during its removal. Chest radiographs of the patient revealed intracardiac catheter fragment extending from the right subclavian to the right atrium (RA) and looping in the RA. The procedure was performed under ketamine and midazolam anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance using a percutaneous femoral vein approach. A snare with triple loops (10 mm in diameter) was used to successfully retrieve the catheter fragments without any complication. Percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of catheter fragments is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters and can be chosen before resorting to surgery, which has potential risks related to thoracotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and general anesthesia. PMID:25767529

  4. Percutaneous retrieval of an intracardiac central venous port fragment using snare with triple loops.

    PubMed

    Ghaderian, Mehdi; Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted venous ports fracture with embolization in patients who received chemotherapy is a serious and rare complication, and few cases have been reported in children. We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare for retrieving broken peripherally inserted venous ports in a child for chemotherapy. Catheter fragments may cause complications such as cardiac perforation, arrhythmias, sepsis, and pulmonary embolism. A 12-year-old female received chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia through a central venous port implanted into her right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 6 months ago. Venous port was accidentally fractured during its removal. Chest radiographs of the patient revealed intracardiac catheter fragment extending from the right subclavian to the right atrium (RA) and looping in the RA. The procedure was performed under ketamine and midazolam anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance using a percutaneous femoral vein approach. A snare with triple loops (10 mm in diameter) was used to successfully retrieve the catheter fragments without any complication. Percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of catheter fragments is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters and can be chosen before resorting to surgery, which has potential risks related to thoracotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and general anesthesia. PMID:25767529

  5. Safety and Effectiveness of Central Venous Catheterization in Patients with Cancer: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jina; Kim, Han Jo; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Bae, Sang Byung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Nam Su; Lee, Kyu Taek; Park, Seong Kyu; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Hee Sook

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catherization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catherization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC. PMID:21165289

  6. Surgical hardware-related iatrogenic venous compression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Moses; Shafi, Irfan; Alkhouli, Mohamad; Bashir, Riyaz

    2015-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis related to immobilization is a common and extensively studied disorder, particularly in hospitalized patients. However, the phenomenon of iatrogenic venous compression (IAVC) and related deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is under-recognized and under-reported. In the absence of relieving the compressive pathology, the recanalization rates are expected to be very low - thereby putting patients at a significant risk for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). In this report, we describe two cases of DVT related to IAVC, and review similar cases that have been previously reported in the literature. With advancements in catheter-based technology, patients with IAVC (with or without DVT) may now be offered advanced endovascular treatment options such as catheter-directed pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) and percutaneous venoplasty and/or stenting. Hence, timely recognition and treatment is essential in the prevention of disabling PTS or life-threatening pulmonary embolism. PMID:25425626

  7. Prevention of transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms during catheter exchange using antimicrobial catheters.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray; Chaftari, Ann-Marie; Raad, Issam I

    2014-09-01

    Exchanging a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated CVC in the presence of bacteremia can result in cross-infection of the newly exchanged CVC. A recent retrospective clinical study showed that exchanging a catheter over a guide wire in the presence of bacteremia using an antimicrobial minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheter may improve outcomes. To expand on this, we developed an in vitro cross-contamination model of exchange to evaluate the efficacy of different antimicrobial CVCs in preventing cross-contamination of multidrug-resistant organisms during exchange. Uncoated CVCs were allowed to form biofilm by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 h, the biofilm-colonized CVCs were placed in a glass tube containing bovine calf serum plus Mueller-Hinton broth, and each catheter was exchanged over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated or an M/R-, chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS)-, or chlorhexidine-M/R (CHX-M/R)-coated CVC. Cross-contamination of exchanged catheters was enumerated by sonication and quantitative plating methods. The exchange of M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA biofilms compared to control exchanged CVCs (P<0.0001). Exchange with CHX/SS CVCs reduced but did not completely prevent cross-contamination by MRSA (P=0.005). Exchange with CHX-M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans biofilms (P<0.0001). Furthermore, CHX-M/R CVCs were superior to M/R CVCs against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (P=0.003) and were superior to CHX/SS CVCs against MRSA and P. aeruginosa (P=0.01). In conclusion, exchange with the novel CHX-M/R CVC was the only exchange effective in completely and concurrently preventing cross-contamination from bacteria and Candida. PMID:24957841

  8. Prevention of Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms during Catheter Exchange using Antimicrobial Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Joel; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray; Chaftari, Ann-Marie; Raad, Issam I.

    2014-01-01

    Exchanging a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated CVC in the presence of bacteremia can result in cross-infection of the newly exchanged CVC. A recent retrospective clinical study showed that exchanging a catheter over a guide wire in the presence of bacteremia using an antimicrobial minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheter may improve outcomes. To expand on this, we developed an in vitro cross-contamination model of exchange to evaluate the efficacy of different antimicrobial CVCs in preventing cross-contamination of multidrug-resistant organisms during exchange. Uncoated CVCs were allowed to form biofilm by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 h, the biofilm-colonized CVCs were placed in a glass tube containing bovine calf serum plus Mueller-Hinton broth, and each catheter was exchanged over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated or an M/R-, chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS)-, or chlorhexidine-M/R (CHX-M/R)-coated CVC. Cross-contamination of exchanged catheters was enumerated by sonication and quantitative plating methods. The exchange of M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA biofilms compared to control exchanged CVCs (P < 0.0001). Exchange with CHX/SS CVCs reduced but did not completely prevent cross-contamination by MRSA (P = 0.005). Exchange with CHX-M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans biofilms (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, CHX-M/R CVCs were superior to M/R CVCs against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (P = 0.003) and were superior to CHX/SS CVCs against MRSA and P. aeruginosa (P = 0.01). In conclusion, exchange with the novel CHX-M/R CVC was the only exchange effective in completely and concurrently preventing cross-contamination from bacteria and Candida. PMID:24957841

  9. 21 CFR 870.5175 - Septostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Septostomy catheter. 870.5175 Section 870.5175 Food...Therapeutic Devices § 870.5175 Septostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A septostomy catheter is a special balloon catheter that...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1280 - Steerable catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steerable catheter. 870.1280 Section 870.1280 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1280 Steerable catheter. (a) Identification. A steerable catheter is a catheter used for diagnostic...

  11. 21 CFR 870.5150 - Embolectomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Embolectomy catheter. 870.5150 Section 870.5150 Food...Therapeutic Devices § 870.5150 Embolectomy catheter. (a) Identification. An embolectomy catheter is a balloon-tipped catheter...

  12. How to deal with dialysis catheters in the ICU setting.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, Natacha; Lautrette, Alexandre; Timsit, Jean-François; Souweine, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation. PMID:23174157

  13. How to deal with dialysis catheters in the ICU setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation. PMID:23174157

  14. Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Central Venous Access Device Infections in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asha Bowen; Jonathan Carapetis

    \\u000a Infection is a well-known complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use, with an incidence of 3–6 bloodstream infections\\u000a per 1,000 catheter days in children. Prevention of CVAD infections has improved with new strategies including the use of chlorhexidine\\u000a antisepsis, bundles, maximal sterile barriers for insertion, prophylactic locks, antibiotic impregnated catheters and tunnelling\\u000a of long-term devices. Despite these strategies, catheter-related

  15. Venous insufficiency at work.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J

    1997-07-01

    Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is one of the most common conditions affecting humankind. It has been postulated that certain workplace conditions may be risk factors for venous insufficiency and varicose veins in particular. This paper examines the evidence for a link between occupation and the prevalence of venous disease. It also reviews recent French research carried out to estimate the prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency in a working population; work and nonwork risk factor and the cost to industry from this condition are also examined. PMID:9242155

  16. Comparative Study for the Efficacy of Small Bore Catheter in the Patients with Iatrogenic Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae Ook

    2011-01-01

    Background It has recently become most general to use the small bore catheter to perform closed thoracostomy in treating iatrogenic pneumothorax. This study was performed for analysis of the efficacy of treatment methods by using small bore catheter such as 7 F (French) central venous catheter, 10 F trocar catheter, 12 F pigtail catheter and for analysis of the appropriateness of each procedure. Materials and Methods From March 2007 to February 2010, Retrospective review of 105 patients with iatrogenic pneumothorax, who underwent closed thoracostomy by using small bore catheter, was performed. We analyzed the total success rate for all procedures as well as the individual success rate for each procedure, and analyzed the cause of failure, additional treatment method for failure, influential factors of treatment outcome, and complications. Results The most common causes of iatrogenic pneumothorax were presented as percutaneous needle aspiration(PCNA) in 48 cases (45.7%), and central venous catheterization in 26 cases (24.8%). The mean interval to thoracostomy after the procedure was measured as 5.2 hours (1~34 hours). Total success rate of thoracostomy was 78.1%. The success rate was not significantly difference by tube type, with 7 F central venous catheter as 80%, 10 F trocar catheter as 81.6%, and 12 F pigtail catheter as 71%. Twenty one out of 23 patients that had failed with small bore catheter treatment added large bore conventional thoracostomy, and another 2 patients received surgery. The causes for treatment failure were presented as continuous air leakage in 12 cases (52.2%) and tube malfunction in 7 cases (30%). The causes for failure did not present significant differences by tube type. Statistically significant factors affecting treatment performance were not discovered. Conclusion Closed thoracostomy with small bore catheter proved to be effective for iatrogenic pneumothorax. The success rate was not difference for each type. However, it is important to select the appropriate catheter by considering the patient status, pneumothorax aspect, and medical personnel in the cardiothoracic surgery department of the relevant hospital. PMID:22324027

  17. Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy-Guided Placement of Central Venous Ports via Internal Jugular Vein: Retrospective Analysis of 1254 Port Implantations at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Se Jin; Chung, Jin Wook; An, Sang Bu; Yin, Yong Hu; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the technical success and complication rates of the radiologic placement of central venous ports via the internal jugular vein. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1254 central venous ports implanted at our institution between August 2002 and October 2009. All procedures were guided by using ultrasound and fluoroscopy. Catheter maintenance days, technical success rates, peri-procedural, as well as early and late complication rates were evaluated based on the interventional radiologic reports and patient medical records. Results A total of 433386 catheter maintenance days (mean, 350 days; range 0-1165 days) were recorded. The technical success rate was 99.9% and a total of 61 complications occurred (5%), resulting in a post-procedural complication rate of 0.129 of 1000 catheter days. Among them, peri-procedural complications within 24 hours occurred in five patients (0.4%). There were 56 post-procedural complications including 24 (1.9%, 0.055 of 1000 catheter days) early and 32 (2.6%, 0.074 of 1000 catheter days) late complications including, infection (0.6%, 0.018 of 10000 catheter days), thrombotic malfunction (1.4%, 0.040 of 1000 catheter days), nonthrombotic malfunction (0.9%, 0.025 of 1000 catheter days), venous thrombosis (0.5%, 0.014 of 1000 catheter days), as well as wound problems (1.1%, 0.032 of 1000 catheter days). Thirty six CVPs (3%) were removed due to complications. Bloodstream infections and venous thrombosis were the two main adverse events prolonging hospitalization (mean 13 days and 5 days, respectively). Conclusion Radiologic placement of a central venous port via the internal jugular vein is safe and efficient as evidenced by its high technical success rate and a very low complication rate. PMID:22563269

  18. Intrajugular balloon catheter reduces air embolism in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eckle, V. S.; Neumann, B.; Greiner, T. O.; Wendel, H. P.; Grasshoff, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurosurgical procedures requiring a sitting position may put the patient at risk of a potentially life-threatening air embolism. Transient manual jugular venous compression limits further air entry in this situation. This study presents an alternative technique aimed at reducing the risk of air embolism. Methods In an in vitro model, an intrajugular balloon catheter was inserted to demonstrate that this device prevents air embolism. In an in vivo study, this device was bilaterally placed into jugular vessels in pigs. Using an ultrasound technique, blood flow was monitored and jugular venous pressure was recorded before and during cuff inflation. Air was applied proximally to the inflated cuffs to test the hypothesis that this novel device blocks air passage. Results In vitro, the intrajugular balloon catheter reliably prevented further air entry (n=10). Additionally, accumulated air could be aspirated from an orifice of the catheter (n=10). In vivo, inflation of the catheter balloon completely obstructed venous blood flow (n=8). Bilateral inflation of the cuff significantly increased the proximal jugular venous pressure from 9.8 (2.4) mm Hg to 14.5 (2.5) mm Hg (n=8, P<0.05). Under conditions mimicking an air embolism, air passage across the inflated cuffs was prevented and 78 (20%) (n=6) of the air dose could be aspirated by the proximal orifice of the catheter. Conclusions These findings may serve as a starting point for the development of intrajugular balloon catheters designed to reduce the risk of air embolism in patients undergoing neurosurgery in a sitting position. PMID:25835025

  19. Recanalization of Aged Venous Thrombotic Occlusions with the Aid of a Rheolytic System: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vicol, Calin; Dalichau, Harald [Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: The suitability of a rheolytic system for recanalization of aged venous thrombotic occlusions was tested in an animal experiment. Methods: The system consists of a flush-suction catheter and a high-pressure liquid pump. Thrombosis was experimentally induced in 13 venous segments of 10 adult goats. Results: After a mean period of 12 days, a complete thrombectomy using the flush-suction system was achieved in 12 cases. No complications such as perforation or dissection were observed. Conclusion: This system seems to be an appropriate device for percutaneous transluminal venous thrombectomy, even in older occlusions.

  20. Upper extremity venous aneurysm as a source of pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Justin R; Baril, Donald T; Chaer, Rabih A

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous venous aneurysms of the upper extremities and neck are rare and typically asymptomatic. We present the first reported case of a symptomatic, primary upper extremity venous aneurysm in a patient who initially presented with pulmonary emboli. A 22-year-old patient was admitted with chest pain, dyspnea, and a right axillary mass. Computed tomography revealed diffuse, bilateral pulmonary emboli in addition to a thrombosed axillary vein. Venography confirmed the diagnosis, and also revealed a subclavian vein stenosis at the crossing of the first rib. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and venoplasty were performed with adequate flow restoration, also revealing the presence of a previously thrombosed proximal brachial/distal axillary venous aneurysm. Hematologic testing showed a positive and persistent lupus anticoagulant. The patient declined surgical reconstruction and opted for long-term anticoagulation. At 24 months, the patient continued to remain symptom-free. PMID:23380560

  1. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... threatening consequences. In a catheter-directed thrombolysis procedure, x-ray imaging is used to help guide a special medication ... conditions. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as ...

  2. Compression and venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Stücker, M; Link, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Altmeyer, P; Doerler, M

    2013-03-01

    Compression therapy is considered to be the most important conservative treatment of venous leg ulcers. Until a few years ago, compression bandages were regarded as first-line therapy of venous leg ulcers. However, to date medical compression stockings are the first choice of treatment. With respect to compression therapy of venous leg ulcers the following statements are widely accepted: 1. Compression improves the healing of ulcers when compared with no compression; 2. Multicomponent compression systems are more effective than single-component compression systems; 3. High compression is more effective than lower compression; 4. Medical compression stockings are more effective than compression with short stretch bandages. Healed venous leg ulcers show a high relapse rate without ongoing treatment. The use of medical stockings significantly reduces the amount of recurrent ulcers. Furthermore, the relapse rate of venous leg ulcers can be significantly reduced by a combination of compression therapy and surgery of varicose veins compared with compression therapy alone. PMID:23482538

  3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): The so-called venous angioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Lasjaunias; Patricia Burrows; Chantal Planet

    1986-01-01

    Summary Following a review of the literature it is possible to demonstrate the “normality” of the so called venous angiomas. They should be named Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA). They illustrate in their two extreme types (superfical and deep) the hemodynamic equilibrium of the transcortical venous drainage in the periependymal zones. Venous ectasias and varices which can be encountered, associated with

  4. BLOOD GLUCOSE AS A MARKER OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN CRITICALLY ILL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Tala, J. A.; Silva, C. T.; Pemira, S.; Vidal, E.; Faustino, E. V. S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The ability to predict the development of venous thromboembolism is highly desirable. Objective We aim to determine the association between hyperglycemia and venous thromboembolism in non-diabetic critically ill children. Patients/Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included children in the pediatric intensive care unit on vasopressor or on mechanical ventilator and without history of diabetes mellitus or prior diagnosis of thrombosis. Based on maximum blood glucose >150 mg/dl while admitted to the unit, children were categorized as hyperglycemic or non-hyperglycemic. Primary outcome was development of venous thromboembolism while admitted to the unit. We determined the association between hyperglycemia and venous thromboembolism using logistic regression models adjusting for selected subject characteristics. Results Of the 789 subjects analyzed, 34 subjects developed venous thromboembolism (incidence: 4.3%; 95% confidence interval: 3.0%–6.0%). Venous thromboembolism was more likely to develop in hyperglycemic subjects compared with non-hyperglycemic subjects. A total of 31 subjects (6.2%; 95% confidence interval: 4.2%–8.7%) developed venous thromboembolism after becoming hyperglycemic compared with 3 non-hyperglycemic subjects with venous thromboembolism (1.0%, 95% confidence interval: 0.2%–3.0%). When adjusted for age, diagnosis, presence of central venous catheter, prophylactic antithrombotic use and severity of illness, the odds ratio of venous thromboembolism with hyperglycemia was 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.2–14.1). For every 10 mg/dl increase in maximum blood glucose, adjusted odds ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.06). Conclusion Hyperglycemia is associated with venous thromboembolism in critically ill non-diabetic children. Maximum blood glucose is a potential predictor of venous thromboembolism in this population. PMID:24708410

  5. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  6. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  7. Uncommon aetiological agents of catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Reigadas, E; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Sánchez-Carrillo, C; Martín-Rabadán, P; Bouza, E

    2015-03-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) due to uncommon microorganisms was assessed in a retrospective case-control study over a 9-year period in a tertiary teaching hospital. Uncommon microorganisms were defined as those representing <0·5% of all CR-BSI. Diagnosis of CR-BSI required that the same microorganism was grown from at least one peripheral venous blood culture and a catheter tip culture. Thirty-one episodes of CR-BSI were identified due to 13 different genera and these accounted for 2·3% of all CR-BSI in the hospital. Although these infections were not associated with increased mortality, they occurred in patients with more severe underlying conditions who were receiving prolonged antibiotic therapy. PMID:24887020

  8. Injection From Side Holes on a Generic Catheter Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Jason; Rockwell, Donald

    2006-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC), typically positioned within the superior vena cava (SVC), play an important role in the process of hemodialysis. Simultaneous extraction and injection of blood typically occur through one or more side holes at the catheter tip. High-image-density particle image velocimetry is employed, in conjunction with a scaled-up water facility, to characterize the structure of single and multiple jets. The injection jets that penetrate the steady crossflow generate complex, but deterministic, flow patterns. Significant interaction between multiple jets generates flow features that are more pronounced than those of a single jet, including increased jet penetration and elevated levels of turbulent shear stresses. In addition, the effects of a pulsatile throughflow on the structure of an isolated, single jet are determined as a function of phase of the systole-diastole cycle, corresponding to actual blood flow in a normal adult.

  9. Catheter-related bloodstream infections: catheter management according to pathogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonidia Leonidou; Charalambos A. Gogos

    2010-01-01

    Central-line access is an essential part of modern healthcare practice; however, catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major problem that causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and excess length of stay and cost. The risk of infection depends on the type of device, the site of insertion, the underlying conditions and the appropriate prevention measures taken during catheter insertion. Management of catheter-related

  10. Ultrasonic Imaging Catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Crowley, Robert J.; Eyllon, Martin M.

    1988-04-01

    We report on a new imaging catheter using high frequency ultrasound to produce short range (8 mm), high resolution rotary scan images from within blood vessels. The objective of the system is to aid the interventional physician in performing angioplasty on stenoses. This system provides an adjunct, and potentially an alternative, to fluoroscopy and optical angioscopy in the diagnosis and visualization of stenotic lesions. We have constructed prototypes of a 6 F (2 mm) system and begun clinical evaluation in human peripheral vessels.

  11. Relative incidence of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters in the lower versus upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Benaya, A; Schwartz, Y; Kory, R; Yinnon, A M; Ben-Chetrit, E

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral venous access in elderly, hospitalized patients is often challenging. The usual alternative is insertion of a central venous catheter, with associated risk for complications. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative incidence of phlebitis secondary to lower as compared to upper extremity intravenous catheters (IVCs) and associated risk factors. A non-randomized, observational, cohort-controlled study was carried out. Consecutive patients receiving a lower extremity IVC were enrolled and compared with patients receiving an upper extremity IVC. Patients were followed from insertion until removal of the IVC. The major endpoint was phlebitis. The incidence of phlebitis secondary to upper extremity IVCs was 3/50 (6 %) compared to 5/53 (9.4 %) in lower extremity IVCs (?(2) Yates?=?0.08, p?=?0.776). Age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, site (arm versus leg, left versus right), and size of needle were not found to be risk factors for phlebitis according to univariate analysis. None of the patients developed bloodstream infection. In elderly patients with poor venous access, lower extremity IVCs are a reasonable and low-risk alternative to central venous catheters. PMID:25563209

  12. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Haage, Patrick; Krings, Timo; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting.First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access.In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is preferred because it is noninvasive, does not require contrast agent, carries no exposure to ionizing radiation, and is highly accurate and reproducible. Apart from catheter-directed thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy has proven to be a quick and safe treatment modality by enabling the recanalization of thrombotic occlusions in conjunction with minimal invasiveness and a low bleeding risk. Mechanical thrombectomy devices should only be used in conjunction with a temporary cava filter.Contrast-enhanced CT is at present considered the examination of choice for acute mesenteric vein occlusion which has mortality rates as high as 80%. Patients with proven acute mesenteric venous occlusion and contraindications to surgical therapy and no identified bleeding disposition without looming bowel ischemia or infarction are possible contenders to the less invasive percutaneous approach either by (in)direct thrombolysis or mechanical means. Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of upper extremity thrombosis. Computed tomography and MRI are in addition helpful in diagnosing central chest vein occlusions. The interventionalist is rarely involved in the treatment of this entity. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is known to improve lysis rates. Together with balloon angioplasty good results have been obtained. If stenosis or thrombus remains after thrombolysis and angioplasty, stent placement should follow. Within the first two weeks, thrombosed dural sinus and cerebral venous vessels are typically hyperdense on CT compared with brain parenchyma; after the course of 2 weeks, the thrombus will become isodense. In MRI an axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence, an axial diffusion-weighted MRI, coronal T1-weighted spin-echo and T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequences, a coronal gradient-echo and a 3D phase-contrast venous angiogram should be performed. Local thrombolysis is needed only when patients have an exacerbation of clinical symptoms or imaging signs of worsening disease despite sufficient anticoagulation therapy. Acute occlusions of dia

  13. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  14. Safety aspects in patients on hemodialysis with catheters.

    PubMed

    Polakovi?, Vladimír; Lopot, František

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related problems, risks and safety hazards are partly caused by different characteristics of the CVC-based access and their performance features. This chapter covers those issues in a chronological order, from factors related to the choice of the CVC, insertion site and insertion procedure itself, over those associated with CVC use and their monitoring up to safety hazards of interventional procedures. Not discussed are CVC infections as they are covered in a separate chapter in this book. PMID:25676303

  15. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

  16. Comparison of arterial and venous whole blood clot initiation, formation, and strength by thromboelastography in anesthetized swine.

    PubMed

    Doering, Clinton J; Wagg, Catherine R; Caulkett, Nigel A; McAllister, Russell K; Brookfield, Caroline E; Paterson, Jessica M; Warren, Amy L; Smith, Barbara L; Boysen, Sřren R

    2014-01-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was used to determine if differences exist between venous and arterial samples in anesthetized swine, using identical sampling techniques for each of the samples. We hypothesized that TEG parameters would not differ between native whole blood venous and arterial samples. Thirty male Landrace swines were included in the study. Both the femoral artery and vein were catheterized using standard cut-down techniques and with identically sized catheters to rule out any catheter size effects on the results. Standard TEG parameters for native whole venous and arterial blood samples (r, K, ?, MA, G, and coagulation index) were measured or calculated, and t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test used for comparison when appropriate. Significant differences were detected for r (venous < arterial), K (venous < arterial), ? (venous > arterial), and coagulation index (venous > arterial) TEG parameters. No significant differences were measured for MA or G. These differences are important, especially when temporal changes in TEG are utilized to monitor patient stability and fluid therapy protocols using trends in coagulation properties. Taken together, these results suggest that clots are more likely to form at a faster rate in venous samples compared to arterial samples, but the overall clot strength does not differ. Therefore, if TEG analysis is being used to monitor coagulation profiles in a patient, care should be taken to use the same site and technique if results are to be used for comparative purposes. PMID:24126246

  17. Time to Blood Culture Positivity as a Marker for Catheter-Related Candidemia?

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Weinberger, Miriam; Orni-Wasserlauff, Ruth; Schwartz, David; Itzhaki, Avraham; Lazarovitch, Tzipora; Bash, Edna; Aharoni, Yuval; Moroz, Irina; Giladi, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Candida spp. are important causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Around 80% of patients with candidemia have an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). Determining whether the CVC is the source of candidemia has implications for patient management. We assessed whether the time to detection of Candida species in peripheral blood (time to positivity [TTP]) can serve as a marker for catheter-related candidemia. Prospective surveillance of Candida bloodstream infection was conducted in two medical centers. TTP was recorded by the BacT/Alert automated system. Sixty-four candidemia episodes were included. Fifty patients (78%) had an indwelling CVC. Thirteen patients (20.3%) had definite catheter-related candidemia. TTP was shorter for definite catheter-related candidemia (17.3 ± 2 h) than that for candidemia from other sources (38.2 ± 3 h; P < 0.001). A TTP cutoff of 30 h was 100% sensitive and 51.4% specific for catheter-related candidemia (area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.76). We conclude that TTP in peripheral blood is a sensitive but nonspecific marker for catheter-related candidemia and that a TTP of more than 30 h can help exclude an intravascular catheter as the possible source of candidemia. PMID:18480222

  18. Microbiological and clinical features of four cases of catheter-related infection by Methylobacterium radiotolerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y

    2015-04-01

    Four cases of central venous catheter-related Methylobacterium radiotolerans infection are presented here. The patients were all long-term catheter carriers with an underlying diagnosis of leukemia, and they mostly manifested fevers. The isolated bacterial strains all showed far better growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar during the initial isolation and/or subcultures than they did on sheep blood or chocolate agar. This microbiological feature may improve the culture recovery of this fastidious pink Gram-negative bacillus that has rarely been isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25631797

  19. Catheter-Malposition-Induced Cardiac Tamponade via Contrast Media Leakage During Computed Tomography Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.-D. [Chang Gung University (China)], E-mail: cdliang@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Ko, S.-F.; Huang, C.-F.; Chien, S.J.; Tiao, M.M. [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Radiology (China)

    2005-12-15

    We present a rare case of a central venous catheter-malposition-induced life-threatening cardiac tamponade as a result of computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement in an infant with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiographs and CT study with catheter perforation through the right atrial wall and extravasation of the contrast medium into the pericardium, leading to cardiac tamponade and subsequent circulatory collapse. Two hours after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient gradually resumed normal hemodynamic status.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1300 - Catheter cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter cannula. 870.1300 Section 870.1300...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1300 Catheter cannula. (a) Identification. A catheter cannula is a hollow tube which is...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1380 - Catheter stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter stylet. 870.1380 Section 870.1380...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1380 Catheter stylet. (a) Identification. A catheter stylet is a wire that is run through a...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5200 - Intravascular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Intravascular catheter. 880.5200 Section 880.5200 Food...Devices § 880.5200 Intravascular catheter. (a) Identification. An intravascular catheter is a device that consists of a...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  8. A numerical study of the effect of catheter angle on the blood flow characteristics in a graft during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Hong Sun; Kim, Soyoon; Ro, Kyoungchul

    2013-02-01

    For patients with renal failure, renal replacement therapies are needed. Hemodialysis is a widely used renal replacement method to remove waste products. It is important to improve the patency rate of the vascular access for efficient dialysis. Since some complications such as an intimal hyperplasia are associated with the flow pattern, the hemodynamics in the vascular access must be considered to achieve a high patency rate. In addition, the blood flow from an artificial kidney affects the flow in the vascular access. Generally, the clinical techniques of hemodialysis such as the catheter angle or dialysis dose have been set up empirically. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed on the effect of the catheter angle on the flow in the graft. Blood is assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid. According to the high average wall shear stress value, the leucocytes and platelets can be activated not only at the arterial anastomosis, but also at the bottom of the venous graft, when the catheter angle is not zero. For a catheter angle less than five degrees, there is a low shear and high oscillatory shear index region that appears at the venous graft and the venous anastomosis. Thus, a catheter angle less than five degrees should be avoided to prevent graft failure.

  9. Indwelling catheter care: dispelling the misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Evans, E

    1999-01-01

    Long-term indwelling catheters often are incorrectly used and managed. Nurses insert and manage catheters, yet studies have shown that most nurses have limited scientific knowledge in the area of catheters and their care. This article will review the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines for recommended catheter use and suggest troubleshooting tips for catheter-related problems. The problems of infection, catheter selection and size, urinary leakage, encrustation, catheter blockage, and inadvertent catheter removal will be addressed. Patient and caregiver education tips also will be listed. PMID:10382423

  10. Antigenicity of venous allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Axthelm, S C; Porter, J M; Strickland, S; Baur, G M

    1979-01-01

    With isolated exceptions, the clinical use of venous allografts has been disappointing. Considerable evidence indicates that allograft antigenicity plays a major role in the failure of venous allografts when used as arterial replacements. Recent reports suggest that DMSO-cryopreservation of venous allografts may reduce allograft antigenicity while preserving allograft viability. The present study examines the effect of modifications of vein allografts on subsequent allograft antigenicity. Skin grafts were transplanted from ACI to Lewis inbred strains of male rats. Primary skin graft rejection occurred in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days. Subcutaneous implantation of fresh inferior vena cava from ACI rate into Lewis rats resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days, confirming the antigenicity of venous tissue. Cryopreservation of ACI inferior vena cava for seven days prior to implantation, with or without 15% DMSO, resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days. Treatment of ACI inferior vena cava with 0.30% gluteraldehyde for 20 minutes prior to implantation in Lewis rats resulted in skin graft rejection in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days, the same time as a first set rejection. This study indicates that unmodified veins are normally antigenic and that this antigenicity is not eliminated by cryopreservation with or without DMSO. Gluteraldehyde treatment appears to reduce allograft antigenicity, but results in a nonviable graft. At the present time, there is no known way to reduce the antigenicity of viable venous allografts. PMID:106782

  11. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A. [Sheffield Vascular Institute, Firth 4, Northern General Hospital, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  12. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Boonyawat, Kochawan; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is recognized as a common complication in critically ill patients. Risk factors including critical illness, mechanical ventilation, sedative medications, and central venous catheter insertion are major contributing factors to the high risk of VTE. Because of their impaired cardiopulmonary reserve, PE arising from thrombosis in the deep veins of the calf that propagates proximally is poorly tolerated by critically ill patients. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to decrease the incidence of VTE in medical, surgical, and critically ill patients. As a result, over the past decades, VTE prophylaxis had become a standard of preventive measure in the intensive care unit (ICU). In clinical practice, the rate of VTE prophylaxis varies and may be inadequate in some centers. A perception of a high bleeding risk in critically ill patients is a major concern for most physicians that may lead to inadequate prophylaxis. PMID:25594495

  13. The prevention, diagnosis and management of central venous line infections in children.

    PubMed

    Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). PMID:25934326

  14. CHLORHEXIDINE-IMPREGNATED DRESSING FOR PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; O’Horo, John C.; Ghufran, Aiman; Bearden, Allison; Didier, Maria Eugenia; Chateau, Dan; Maki, Dennis G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed. Objective To assess the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter-related colonization and CRBSI using meta-analysis. Data Sources Multiple computerized database searches supplemented by manual searches including relevant conference proceedings. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing compared with conventional dressings for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI. Data Extraction Data were extracted on patient and catheter characteristics and outcomes. Data Synthesis Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and I2. Subgroup analyses were used to explore heterogeneity. Results Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing resulted in a reduced incidence of CRBSI (random effects RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42–0.79, P=0.002). The incidence of catheter colonization was also markedly reduced in the chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing group (random effects RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.39–0.67, P< 0.001). There was significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI, including arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. Other than in low birth weight infants, adverse effects were rare and minor. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing is beneficial in preventing catheter colonization and, more importantly, CRBSI and warrants routine use in patients at high risk of CRBSI and CVC or arterial catheter colonization in ICUs. PMID:24674924

  15. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  16. Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Myers, D D

    2015-03-01

    In this chapter, an overview of some of the prominent risk factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis will be discussed. In 1856, Dr Rudolf Virchow developed the concept outlining the genesis of intravascular thrombosis. Dr Virchow hypothesized that circulatory stasis due to interrupted blood flow, changes in the blood leading to blood coagulation, and irritation or damage to the vascular endothelium would initiate acute venous thrombus generation. Presently, it is known that these above-mentioned risk factors are influenced by increasing age, gender, and obesity. The current chapter will focus on recent preclinical and clinical investigations that will give the reader insight into the prothrombotic mechanisms that lead to acute venous thrombosis. PMID:25729062

  17. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Binnebösel, Marcel; Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  18. Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

    2015-01-01

    A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

  19. Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

    2015-02-01

    A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

  20. Prophylaxis of venous thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Z. Goldhaber

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  |\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Mechanical measures such as graduated compression stockings and intermittent compression boots are available for venous thrombosis\\u000a prophylaxis, but compliance may be limited. Plantar venous pneumatic compression devices have attained widespread acceptance\\u000a by both patients and nurses because of their comfort and compact size, but their track record for efficacy is poor. Inferior\\u000a vena cava filters prevent pulmonary

  1. Cerebral developmental venous anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego San Millán Ruíz; Philippe Gailloud

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformation. As such,\\u000a they are often observed incidentally during routine CT and MRI studies. Yet, what DVAs represent from a clinical perspective\\u000a is frequently not common knowledge and DVAs, therefore, still generate uncertainty and concern amongst physicians. This article\\u000a reviews our current understanding of developmental venous anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In

  2. Automated Grading of Venous Beading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Gregson; Z. Shen; R. C. Scott; V. Kozousek

    1995-01-01

    The degree of venous beading in ocular fundus images has been shown to be a more powerful predictor of conversion to proliferative diabetic retinopathy than any other type of retinal abnormality. Further, the degree of venous beading has been shown to be well correlated with disease progression. An algorithm for automated grading of venous beading in digitized ocular fundus images

  3. Compression and venous surgery for venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews published data on the effects of surgery and compression in the treatment of venous ulcers and the best options for compression therapy. Randomized controlled studies reveal that surgery and compression have similar effectiveness in healing ulcers but surgery is more effective in preventing recurrence. Most leg ulcers have a venous pathophysiology and occur because of venous ambulatory hypertension caused by venous reflux and impairment of the venous pumping function. Proposed surgical interventions range from crossectomy and stripping to perforator vein interruption and endovascular procedures (laser, radiofrequency). More conservative procedures (foam sclerotherapy, conservative hemodynamic treatment) have also been proposed. PMID:22732375

  4. Extra-abdominal venous thromboses at unusual sites.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; De Stefano, Valerio

    2012-09-01

    Venous thrombosis typically involves the lower extremities. Rarely, it can occur in cerebral, splanchnic, or renal veins, with a frightening clinical impact. Other rare manifestations are upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis, that can complicate with pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, and retinal vein occlusion, significantly affecting the quality of life. This review is focused on venous thromboses at unusual extra-abdominal sites. Local infections or cancer are frequent in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis is mostly due to catheters or effort-related factors. Common risk factors are inherited thrombophilia and oral contraceptive use. Acute treatment is based on heparin; in cerebral sinus-venous thrombosis, local or systemic fibrinolysis should be considered in case of clinical deterioration. Vitamin-K antagonists are recommended for 3-6 months; indefinite anticoagulation is suggested for recurrent thrombosis or unprovoked thrombosis and permanent risk factors. However, such recommendations mainly derive from observational studies; there are no data about long-term treatment of retinal vein occlusion. PMID:22959543

  5. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  6. Catheter-Associated Infections Pathogenesis Affects Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara W. Trautner; Rabih O. Darouiche

    2004-01-01

    ntravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical de- vices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosoco- mially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The corner- stone to any preventive strategy

  7. Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wee Shian

    2010-12-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism is increased during pregnancy. Although the absolute overall risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnancy is low, clinicians are highly vigilant to the development of this disease in pregnancy because of the severe consequences to both mother and child if this condition is not diagnosed, treated and prevented. Although prompt recognition and diagnosis of DVT or PE is critical to reduce maternal morbidity, diagnosis of both DVT and PE currently relies on data from studies in nonpregnant patients. However, there are some recent studies offering new insights in this area. The development of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy is influenced by inherent patient risk factors, pregnancy-associated risk factors, and the mode and type of delivery. The degree of risk increase from these factors individually and in combination, to warrant routine thromboprophylaxis, weighed against bleeding risks, is not yet defined. With increased use of assisted reproductive techniques to achieve pregnancy, clinicians must also be vigilant to the development of venous thrombosis in early pregnancy, occurring in unusual sites such as the upper extremities. PMID:21108555

  8. Venous insufficiency (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The valves in the veins usually channel the flow of blood toward the heart. When these valves are damaged, blood leaks and pools in the legs and feet. Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins fail to return blood ...

  9. Retrograde leptomeningeal venous approach for dural arteriovenous fistulas at foramen magnum.

    PubMed

    Mendes, George Ac; Caire, François; Saleme, Suzana; Ponomarjova, Sanita; Mounayer, Charbel

    2015-04-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with sudden right homonymous hemianopsia. Work-up imaging revealed a left occipital haematoma and an arteriovenous fistula supplied by the meningeal branches to the clivus from the left vertebral artery (VA) with a rostral venous reflux into cortical veins. A microcatheter was advanced through brainstem veins into the venous collector. A compliant balloon was placed in the left VA facing the origin of feeders. The balloon was inflated to protect the vertebrobasilar circulation from embolic migration. Onyx was injected by the transvenous catheter. Control angiogram revealed exclusion of the lesion. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. PMID:25964442

  10. Congenital Agenesis of Inferior Vena Cava: A Rare Cause of Unprovoked Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Pouria; Lane, John S; Barleben, Andrew R; Owens, Erik L; Bandyk, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC), although rare, are a risk factor for lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 19-year-old male presented with a left flank and groin pain caused by iliofemoral venous thrombosis. Vascular imaging by computed tomography (CT) scanning and venography demonstrated agenesis of the IVC. Catheter-directed thrombolysis via a popliteal vein was attempted but did not alter the patency of the common femoral vein outflow collaterals into the retroperitoneal azygous venous system. The patient was anticoagulated using systemic heparin infusion and clinical symptoms resolved within 5 days. He was transitioned to oral Coumadin anticoagulation, and follow-up venous duplex testing demonstrated no infrainguinal DVT and phasic venous flow with respiration in the femoral vein indicating patent collateral veins. Anomalies of the IVC are present in 0.3-0.5% of otherwise healthy individuals. Agenesis of the IVC has an incidence of 0.0005-1% in the general population but is found in almost 5% of patients <30 years of age with unprovoked lower limb DVT. In adults, IVC agenesis anomaly can cause diagnostic problems in the paravertebral area because of the tumor-like appearance of the azygous venous collaterals on noncontrast CT imaging. In young adults presenting with unprovoked lower limb DVT, the presence of an IVC anomaly should be considered and evaluated for by venous duplex testing and if necessary CT venography. PMID:25747887

  11. Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... your fingers before washing. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

  12. Avoiding trouble down the line: the management and prevention of hemodialysis catheter-related infections.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E

    2006-07-01

    Over the last 2 decades, hemodialysis catheter use has increased. Annually, approximately 30% of patients using a central venous catheter (CVC) experience a septic or bacteremic episode and are subsequently at risk of its associated long-term complications and mortality. Because of the serious clinical and financial impact of hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremias (HCRIs), standardized, validated definitions based on the hemodialysis patient population are necessary in order to better diagnose, monitor, and report HCRI for patient quality assurance and research purposes. The pathophysiology of HCRI involves a complex interaction between a triad that consists of the host patient, the infecting microorganism, and the vehicle catheter. Although the microorganism contribution in the pathogenesis of HCRI is likely most important, certain patient and catheter-related characteristics may be more amenable to manipulation. The key to managing HCRI is on prophylaxis against the initial microorganism catheter adherence and subsequent biofilm development. General and specific prophylactic maneuvers directed at both an intravascular and extraluminal route of microorganism entry are discussed including antibiotic- and silver-impregnated catheters and dressings, subcutaneous access devices, and topical prophylaxis at the exit site. In addition to systemic antibiotic use, the 3 methods of HRCI treatment using catheter salvage, guidewire exchange, and concurrent antibiotic lock are compared. The outcome and complications of HCRI may be serious and highlight the importance of careful, continual infection surveillance. Although the use of a multidisciplinary hemodialysis infection control team is desirable, staffing education and physician feedback have been shown to improve adherence to infection control guidelines and reduce HCRI. PMID:16815229

  13. Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Sitges-Serra; Meritxell Girvent

    1999-01-01

    .   Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CBIs) rank among the most frequent and potentially lethal nosocomial infections.\\u000a Intravascular devices become contaminated on the outer surface during nonaseptic insertion or maintenance of the catheter\\u000a exit site or endoluminally during hub manipulation. CBI is heralded by spiking fever, malaise and rigors and should be promptly\\u000a diagnosed to prevent endocarditis and septic metastasis. In about

  14. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Katre, Rashmi; Burns, Stephanie K; Murillo, Horacio; Lane, Michael J; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2012-12-01

    Developmental lung anomalies are classified into 3 main categories: bronchopulmonary (lung bud) anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined lung and vascular anomalies. These anomalies are uncommon, and patients are at times asymptomatic; hence, identifying a developmental lung anomaly in the adult can be a challenge. Pulmonary vascular anomalies include interruption or absence of the main pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial or complete), and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Systemic vascular anomalies comprise persistent left superior vena cava, anomalies of azygos and hemiazygos systems, and anomalies of the thoracic aorta and its major branches. In this article, we present embryology, classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging features of anomalous pulmonary venous connections, with special emphasis on multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These state-of-art imaging techniques have facilitated accurate and prompt diagnosis of these anomalies. PMID:23168060

  15. [Cerebral venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Vidarsdottir, G

    1999-05-24

    An 18-year-old woman with extensive cerebral venous thrombosis is described. The symptoms were fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and focal deficits. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT and MRI. Anticoagulation was given. Full restitution was achieved within three months. Possible predisposing factors were use of oral contraceptive, smoking and anticardiolipin antibodies. The causes, symptoms, investigations and possible modes of therapy are discussed. PMID:10377856

  16. Radiofrequency Guide Wire Recanalization of Venous Occlusions in Patients with Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert M.; David, Elizabeth; Pugash, Robyn A.; Annamalai, Ganesan, E-mail: ganesan.annamalai@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Interventional Radiology (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Fibrotic central venous occlusions in patients with thoracic malignancy and prior radiotherapy can be impassable with standard catheters and wires, including the trailing or stiff end of a hydrophilic wire. We report two patients with superior vena cava syndrome in whom we successfully utilized a radiofrequency guide wire (PowerWire, Baylis Medical, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) to perforate through the occlusion and recanalize the occluded segment to alleviate symptoms.

  17. Continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation measurement: A significant advance in hemodynamic monitoring?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Norfleet; Charles B. Watson

    1985-01-01

    Development of the flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter in combination with reflective fiberoptic oximetry techniques allows\\u000a the clinician to continuously measure mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). A briet review of the determinants of oxygen balance, the Fick principle, and the technology of continuous SvO2 monitoring is preliminary to a debate between two clinicians on the usefulness ot SvO2 monitoring.\\u000a \\u000a One clinician

  18. A Modified Metallic Coil Embolization Technique for Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Using Coil Anchors and Occlusion Balloon Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kensaku [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shiigai, Masanari [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Saida, Tsukasa; Anno, Izumi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Wada, Mitsuyoshi [Seinan Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Minami, Manabu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a modified metallic coil embolization technique for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters. Methods. Five consecutive female patients with 6 PAVMs were included in the present study. One of the 6 PAVMs was of the complex type with four feeding arteries. An occlusion balloon catheter was inserted into the feeding artery as close to the venous sac as possible. The coil anchor, which was a simple W-shaped bent stainless steel wire with two markers at each end, was deployed prior to embolization to prevent the systemic migration of embolic materials. Then, metallic coils were deployed around the coil anchors under inflow stoppage using the inflated occlusion balloon catheter. In the complex-type PAVM, the main feeder was occluded by this technique and the other three small feeders were embolized with metallic coils only. Results. In all 5 cases, occlusion balloon catheters could be inserted into the feeding arteries just proximal to the venous sacs, coil anchors were easily deployed, and complete occlusion was achieved without any migration of metallic coils or paradoxical embolism during the procedure. Conclusions. The modified metallic coil embolization technique with coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters was feasible and considered to be useful in preventing procedure-related complications.

  19. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Byard; John D. Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), where the pulmonary venous circulation drains into the systemic venous\\u000a circulation rather than into the left atrium, may present a number of problems at autopsy. A 5-week-old infant is reported\\u000a who died suddenly and unexpectedly who was found at autopsy to have infradiaphragmatic TAPVC into the portal vein. The only\\u000a associated anomalies were a

  20. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  1. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique’s benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument’s flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743

  2. Management of obstructed balloon catheters.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G G; Barr, L; Horsburgh, A G

    1984-01-01

    Failure of a balloon catheter to deflate is not uncommon and prevents its removal. Methods of overcoming the problem include traction, bursting the balloon by overinflation, dissolving it with solvents, puncturing it percutaneously with a needle, or puncturing it with a wire stylet passed through the catheter. All except the last technique have major disadvantages and are of questionable safety. Transcatheter puncture of the balloon was used in 16 patients to remove obstructed balloon catheters without any technical difficulty, distress to the patient, or complication. The procedure is safe, simple, and does not require an anaesthetic. If necessary it could be performed safely by nursing or paramedical staff without the patient having to be admitted to hospital. It is the method of choice for the management of this problem. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6428691

  3. Fossa Navicularis Strictures Due to 22F Catheters Used in Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahlering, Thomas E.; Gelman, Joel; Skarecky, Douglas W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fossa navicularis strictures following radical prostatectomy are reported infrequently. We recently experienced a series of fossa strictures following robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Fossa strictures are usually procedure-induced, arising from urethral trauma or infection; catheter size has not been reported as a factor. We describe herein our experience to determine and prevent fossa navicularis stricture development. Methods: From June 2002 until February 2005, 248 patients underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with the da Vinci surgical system at our institution. Fossa strictures were diagnosed based on acute onset of obstructive voiding symptoms, IPSS and flow pattern changes, and bougie calibration. During our series, we switched from an 18F to a 22F catheter to avoid inadvertent stapling of the urethra when dividing the dorsal venous complex. All patients had an 18F catheter placed after the anastomosis for 1 week. Parameters were evaluated using Fisher's exact test and the Student t test for means. Results: The 18F catheter group (n=117) developed 1 fossa stricture, whereas the 22F catheter group (n=131) developed 9 fossa strictures (P=0.02). The fossa stricture rate in the 18F group was 0.9% versus 6.9% in the 22F group. The 2 groups had no differences in age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, International Prostate Symptom Score, urinary bother score, SHIM score, preoperative PSA, operative time, estimated blood loss, cautery use, prostate size, or catheterization time. Conclusions: Using a larger urethral catheter size during intraoperative dissection appears to increase the risk 8-fold for fossa stricture as compared with the 18F catheter. The pneumoperitoneum and prolonged extreme Trendelenberg position could potentially contribute to local urethral ischemia. PMID:17931514

  4. Minimally Invasive Catheter Procedures to Assist Complicated Pacemaker Lead Extraction and Implantation in the Operating Room

    SciTech Connect

    Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S., E-mail: rotemshlomo@yahoo.de; Miese, Falk R.; Blondin, Dirk [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany); Winter, Joachim [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Scherer, Axel; Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We report on percutaneous catheter procedures in the operating room (OR) to assist complicated manual extraction or insertion of pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads. We retrospectively reviewed complicated PM revisions and implantations performed between 2004 and 2009 that required percutaneous catheter procedures performed in the OR. The type of interventional procedure, catheter and retrieval system used, venous access, success rates, and procedural complications were analyzed. In 41 (12 female and 29 male [mean age 62 {+-} 17 years]) of 3021 (1.4%) patients, standard manual retrieval of old leads or insertion of new leads was not achievable and thus required percutaneous catheter intervention for retrieval of misplaced leads and/or recanalisation of occluded central veins. Thirteen of 18 (72.2%) catheter-guided retrieval procedures for misplaced (right atrium [RA] or ventricle [RV; n = 3], superior vena cava [n = 2], brachiocephalic vein [n = 5], and subclavian vein [n = 3]) lead fragments in 16 patients were successful. Percutaneous catheter retrieval failed in five patients because there were extremely fixed or adhered lead fragments. Percutaneous transluminal angiography (PTA) of central veins for occlusion or high-grade stenosis was performed in 25 patients. In 22 of 25 patients (88%), recanalization of central veins was successful, thus enabling subsequent lead replacement. Major periprocedural complications were not observed. In the case of complicated manual PM lead implantation or revision, percutaneous catheter-guided extraction of misplaced lead fragments or recanalisation of central veins can be performed safely in the OR, thus enabling subsequent implantation or revision of PM systems in the majority of patients.

  5. 21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

  10. Radioisotopic control for baclofen pump catheter failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Le Breton; JC Daviet; J Monteil; J Vidal; M Munoz; P Dudognon; JY Salle

    2001-01-01

    Study design: Case report of Baclofen pump catheter failure investigated by radioisotope injection.Objectives: To report a safe and reliable method for evaluating catheter dysfunction.Setting: France.Methods: Single case report of failure of Baclofen pump investigated by radioisotope injection.Results: The injection demonstrated the block in the catheter. The catheter failure was not visualised by plain X-ray nor by filling the pump with

  11. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  12. A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes with Regular- and Low-Profile Totally Implanted Central Venous Port Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin, E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.de; Steitparth, Florian [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Radiology (Germany); Cho, Chie Hee [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Benter, Thomas [Elblandkliniken Riesa (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether low-profile totally implanted central venous port systems can reduce the late complication of skin perforation. Forty patients (age, 57 {+-} 13 years; 22 females, 18 males) were randomized for the implantation of a low-profile port system, and another 40 patients (age, 61 {+-} 14 years; 24 females, 16 males) received a regular port system as control group. Indications for port catheter implantation were malignant disease requiring chemotherapy. All port implantations were performed in the angiography suite using sonographically guided central venous puncture and fluoroscopic guidance of the catheter placement. Procedure time, number of complications (procedure-related immediate, early, and late complications), and number of explantations were assessed. Follow-up was performed for 6 months. All port implantations were successfully completed in both study groups. There were two incidents of skin perforation observed in the control group. One skin perforation occurred 13 weeks and the other 16 weeks after port implantation (incidence, 5%) in patients with regular-profile port systems. Two infections were observed, one port infection in each study group. Both infections were characterized as catheter-related infections (infection rate: 0.15 catheter-related infections per 1000 catheter days). In conclusion, low-profile port systems can be placed as safely as traditional chest ports and reduce the risk of developing skin perforations, which occurs when the port system is too tight within the port pocket.

  13. Peripheral intravenous catheters: the road to quality improvement and safer patient care.

    PubMed

    Boyd, S; Aggarwal, I; Davey, P; Logan, M; Nathwani, D

    2011-01-01

    Huge success has been noted internationally in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infection with 'care bundles' for central venous catheters in intensive care units. A multidisciplinary team from the Infectious Diseases Unit at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee designed a 'bundle' for peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) based on drafts developed by Health Protection Scotland (details available online). A senior medical student collected weekly data, carried out monthly 'plan, do, study, act' (PDSA) cycles and displayed the results on the ward in real time. Data consisted of measures to assess objectively clinical performance for insertion (recording date, indication and location) and maintenance (daily review of necessity, clinical appearance of site, duration less than 72 h and timely removal). Care bundle compliance was assessed for each patient and percentage compliance plotted weekly. The initial compliance of 54% improved by 1.11% per week to 82% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-1.6%; P=0.0001). This was attributed to multiple interventions including daily assessment of PVC necessity, weekly audit and feedback, monthly patient safety meetings to discuss issues with compliance, the introduction of new PVC dressings and the promotion of new PVC care plans. In conclusion, we demonstrated a significant improvement in PVC management on a single unit by using a care bundle approach. In order to improve compliance, further implementation of the PVC care bundle throughout the hospital has been necessary. PMID:21130520

  14. Cytometric Catheter for Neurosurgical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Fillmore, Helen [ORNL; Broaddus, William C [ORNL; Dyer, Rachel L [ORNL; Gillies, George [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Implantation of neural progenitor cells into the central nervous system has attracted strong interest for treatment of a variety of pathologies. For example, the replacement of dopamine-producing (DA) neural cells in the brain appears promising for the treatment of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Previous studies of cell-replacement strategies have shown that less than 90% of implanted cells survive longer than 24 - 48 hours following the implantation procedure. However, it is unknown if these cells were viable upon delivery, or if they were affected by other factors such as brain pathology or an immune response. An instrumented cell-delivery catheter has been developed to assist in answering these questions by facilitating quantification and monitoring of the viability of the cells delivered. The catheter uses a fiber optic probe to perform flourescence-based cytometric measurments on cells exiting the port at the catheter tip. The current implementation of this design is on a 3.2 mm diameter catheter with 245 micrometer diameter optical fibers. Results of fluorescence testing data are presented and show that the device can characterize the quantity of cell densities ranging from 60,000 cells/ml to 600,000 cells/ml with a coefficient of determination of 0.93.

  15. Local thrombolytic therapy in severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Jun; Chen, Tuan-Zhi; Jiang, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Lu-Su; Zhu, Mei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore and evaluate the efficacy and safety of local thrombolytic therapy in superior sagittal sinus in patients with severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis during puerperium, as well as the efficacy and safety of anti-platelet aggregation treatment for preventing recurrence. Twelve patients during postpartum period with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis were received local thrombolytic therapy by placing a micro-catheter at the distal end of superior sagittal sinus from January 2008 to December 2013. All the patients accepted mechanical thrombus maceration before local intrasinus thrombolytic therapy, and were treated with low molecular weight heparin in the acute phase. After local thrombolytic therapy, anti-platelet aggregation treatment was performed for 6 months. Follow-up data included lumber puncture, fundus examination and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) once per half year for 6-70 months. At discharge, the intracranial pressure of 12 patients reduced to below 200 mmH2O. DSA or MRV confirmed that superior sagittal sinus of 9 patients were smooth. The cortex venous and deep venous were recovered to normal. Superior sagittal sinus of 3 patients recanalized partly. Cortex venous and deep venous was compensated. The follow-up study indicated that no thrombosis and new neurological symptoms occurred among all patients. Local thrombolytic treatment is safe and effective in patients with severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis during puerperium. The collateral circulation compensation is the main recovery factor. And it is also safe and effective for anti-platelet aggregation treatment to prevent recurrence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. PMID:25932210

  16. Venous leg ulcers: Impact and dysfunction of the venous system.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Widener, Jeanne M; Heffline, Melody

    2015-06-01

    Management of chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) can be frustrating for both patient and practitioner. It is a significant source of disability and cost of care. Before the practitioner enters the management phase of VLU care, it is helpful to understand the impact of VLUs. Additionally, it is essential to understand the structure and function of the venous system and manifestations indicative of a dysfunction of the system. This article focuses on the epidemiology, structure, and function of the venous system as well as clinical manifestations and prevention. PMID:26025148

  17. Management of Bacillus bacteremia: the need for catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Rawan; Hachem, Ray; Jiang, Ying; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Raad, Issam

    2009-09-01

    Bacillus species are biofilm-forming organisms that are associated with Bacillus catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The optimal treatment of Bacillus CRBSIs is not known. Therefore, in the current study, we determined the role of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) removal and treatment with vancomycin compared with other agents in Bacillus CRBSIs by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of cancer patients with Bacillus bacteremia who had been treated at our institution from December 1990 to March 2008. True bacteremia was defined as a positive blood culture (>15 colony-forming units/mL) with signs and symptoms of infection (such as fever and chills). Bacillus CRBSI was defined in accordance with the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines as probable or definite. There were 94 Bacillus bacteremia episodes, 93 of which (99%) were Bacillus CRBSIs (28% definite and 71% probable). Neutropenia during bacteremia occurred in 29%. Almost all bacteremia patients (99%) had been treated with antibiotics; 63% had received vancomycin. Sepsis with hypotension occurred in 6%, and endocarditis in 1%. Bacillus isolates were susceptible to linezolid (100%), vancomycin (98%), tetracycline (77%), and rifampin (67%). All 4 recurrences occurred in patients in whom the CVC had not been removed (12%), whereas no recurrences occurred in patients whose CVC had been removed (p = 0.028). Patient outcome, in terms of fever and hospitalization duration after the infection, was similar in patients who had received < or =10 days of systemic antibiotics compared with patients who had received >10 days. In conclusion, catheter retention in patients with Bacillus CRBSIs is associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate. If the CVC is retained, treatment with non-vancomycin antibiotics is associated with significantly shorter hospitalization duration after the infection, which may be because glycopeptide antibiotics have poor activity against bacilli embedded in biofilm. PMID:19745686

  18. Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter (SIRspecialists) YouTube RSS Feeds Radiation Safety ... Talking People Are Talking: Know Your Treatment Options! Social Media Connect With SIR Vision to Heal: SIR Blog ...

  19. Inaccuracy of Venous Point-of-Care Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adriano José; Corręa, Thiago Domingos; de Almeida, Francisca Pereira; Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Lobato, Michelle dos Santos; Akamine, Nelson; Silva, Eliézer; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines and consensus recommend arterial and venous samples as equally acceptable for blood glucose assessment in point-of-care devices, but there is limited evidence to support this recommendation. We evaluated the accuracy of two devices for bedside point-of-care blood glucose measurements using arterial, fingerstick and catheter venous blood samples in ICU patients, and assessed which factors could impair their accuracy. Methods 145 patients from a 41-bed adult mixed-ICU, in a tertiary care hospital were prospectively enrolled. Fingerstick, central venous (catheter) and arterial blood (indwelling catheter) samples were simultaneously collected, once per patient. Arterial measurements obtained with Precision PCx, and arterial, fingerstick and venous measurements obtained with Accu-chek Advantage II were compared to arterial central lab measurements. Agreement between point-of-care and laboratory measurements were evaluated with Bland-Altman, and multiple linear regression models were used to investigate interference of associated factors. Results Mean difference between Accu-chek arterial samples versus central lab was 10.7 mg/dL (95% LA -21.3 to 42.7 mg/dL), and between Precision PCx versus central lab was 18.6 mg/dL (95% LA -12.6 to 49.5 mg/dL). Accu-chek fingerstick versus central lab arterial samples presented a similar bias (10.0 mg/dL) but a wider 95% LA (-31.8 to 51.8 mg/dL). Agreement between venous samples with arterial central lab was the poorest (mean bias 15.1 mg/dL; 95% LA -51.7 to 81.9). Hyperglycemia, low hematocrit, and acidosis were associated with larger differences between arterial and venous blood measurements with the two glucometers and central lab. Vasopressor administration was associated with increased error for fingerstick measurements. Conclusions Sampling from central venous catheters should not be used for glycemic control in ICU patients. In addition, reliability of the two evaluated glucometers was insufficient. Error with Accu-chek Advantage II increases mostly with central venous samples. Hyperglycemia, lower hematocrit, acidosis, and vasopressor administration increase measurement error. PMID:26067093

  20. Venous thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert; Wei Lum, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Venous thoracic outlet syndrome is a complex but rare disease that often can have excellent outcomes if quickly recognized and treated. The syndrome results from compression of the subclavian vein along its exit from the thoracic cavity and frequently affects young otherwise healthy patients. Modern diagnosis is made with a combination of clinical exam, appropriate non-invasive imaging, and, finally, contrast venography, which can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. Treatments have evolved over time to the point where patients can undergo less extensive procedures than previously performed and still maintain excellent outcomes. One of the most important predictors of outcome is the initiation of treatment within 14 days of symptoms. Hence, the importance of the accurate and prompt diagnosis of this syndrome in patients with an upper-extremity deep vein thrombotic episode cannot be further underscored. This review is a concise summary of the background and treatment algorithm for this patient population. PMID:25832605

  1. Deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Spandorfer, John; Galanis, Taki

    2015-05-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of deep venous thrombosis, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult http://smartmedicine.acponline.org, http://mksap.acponline.org, and other resources referenced in each issue of In the Clinic. PMID:25939012

  2. Venous Hypertension, Inflammation and Valve Remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Takase; L. Pascarella; L. Lerond; J. J. Bergan; G. W. Schmid-Schönbein

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To identify possible mechanisms for destruction of valves in chronic venous hypertension and the results of treatment with an anti-inflammatory micronized purified flavonoid fraction.Material and methods. The saphenous vein valves in a rat model of venous hypertension caused by a femoral arterial-venous fistula were studied. Studies included femoral venous pressure, valve morphology, femoral venous reflux and selected molecular inflammatory

  3. Efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated bladder catheters in reducing catheter-associated bacteriuria: a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rabih O Darouiche; Joseph A Smith; Hend Hanna; Chirpriya B Dhabuwala; Michelle S Steiner; Richard J Babaian; Timothy B Boone; Peter T Scardino; John I Thornby; Issam I Raad

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the efficacy of bladder catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampin in reducing catheter-associated bacteriuria.Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at five academic medical centers. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomized to receive intraoperatively either regular silicone bladder catheters (control catheters) or silicone bladder catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampin (antimicrobial-impregnated catheters). Catheters remained in place

  4. Can a New Antiseptic Agent Reduce the Bacterial Colonization Rate of Central Venous Lines in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Azimpour, Khashayar; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Najafi, Mahdi; Barkhordari, Khosro; Vaezi, Mitra; Rouhipour, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Central venous (CV) catheters play an essential role in the management of critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). CV lines are, however, allied to catheter-associated blood stream infections. Bacterial colonization of CV lines is deemed the main cause of catheter-associated infection. The purpose of our study was to compare bacterial colony counts in the catheter site before CV line insertion in two groups of post-cardiac surgery patients: a group receiving Sanosil (an antiseptic agent composed of H2O2 and silver) and a control group. Methods: This interventional prospective double-blinded clinical trial recruited the patients in three post-cardiac surgery ICUs of a heart center. The participants were divided into interventional (113 patients) and control (136 patients) groups. Sanosil was added to the routine preparation procedure (Chlorhexidine bath one day before and scrub with Povidone-Iodine just before the CV line insertion). After the removal of the CV lines, the catheters tips were sent for culture and evaluation of colony counts. Results: Catheter colonization occurred in 55 (22.1%) patients: 26 (23%) patients in the Sanosil group and 29 (21.3%) in the control group; there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups (p value = 0.75, RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.76–1.45). The most common organism having colonized in the cultures of the catheter tips was staphylococcus epidermis: 20 cases in the control group and 16 cases in the intervention group. Conclusion: Catheter colonization frequently occurs in post-cardiac surgery patients. However, our results did not indicate the effectiveness of adding Sanosil to the routine preparation procedure with respect to reducing catheter bacterial colonization. PMID:23967028

  5. Venous ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of venous insufficiency Obesity Pregnancy Smoking Sitting or standing for a long periods (usually for work) Long ... Wear compression socks every day. Avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time. Check your feet ...

  6. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.

    PubMed

    Broy, Charles; Bennett, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality that occurs in 0.4 to 0.7% of postmortem examinations. Ninety percent of these anomalies are associated with an atrial septal defect. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return occurs more commonly on the right than the left and is manifested by abnormal return of the pulmonary veins to the central venous circulation. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they are due to shunting of oxygenated blood to the venous circulation. We submit the case of a recently activated solider who presented with dyspnea on exertion refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and an 8.5-mm solitary pulmonary nodule. Further diagnostic imaging revealed PAPVR. Our case appears to be the first report of a solitary pulmonary nodule as the initial presentation of a right upper lobe PAPVR with return to the superior vena cava in the absence of associated atrial septal defect. PMID:18595412

  7. Heparin compared with normal saline to maintain patency of permanent double lumen hemodialysis catheters: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, Ali Akbar; HadiZadeh, Mirhadi Seyed; Salimi, Fereshteh; Ghaheri, Hafez

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heparin has long been used to prevent thrombosis in the permanent central venous hemodialysis catheters (PermCath). Other alternatives for heparin with fewer side-effects have recently been considered. We compared normal saline (0.9%) with heparin for flushing PermCath with regards to catheter patency and prevention of heparin complications. Materials and Methods: Chronic kidney disease patients who were candidate of PermCath placement were randomly assigned into two groups of heparin and saline. In the heparin group, the PermCath was flushed with heparin (1000 IU), and in the saline group, it was flushed with saline 0.9%. Patients were followed for 24 hours, and outcomes included catheter thrombosis, maneuver needed to maintain catheter patency, and bleeding from catheter site. Results: Ninety six patients were included (age = 63.1 ± 11.2 years, 54.2% male). No one experienced catheter thrombosis. Two patient (4.2%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group required catheter manipulation (P = 0.520). Four patients (8.5%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group experienced bleeding (P = 0.476); differences between heparin and saline groups in the amount of bleeding (225.0 ± 62.4 vs. 200.0 ± 113.5 cc, P = 0.721) and bleeding time (6.5 ± 1.2 vs. 5.3 ± 1.5 min, P = 0.322) were not significant. In the heparin group, no significant increase was observed in PTT over time; baseline 30.9 ± 3.4, 12 h 31.8 ± 3.4, 24 h 31.2 ± 6.6 (P = 0.628). Conclusions: Flushing PermCath with normal saline 0.9% is as effective as heparin in maintaining patency of the catheter, while it may reduce the risks associated with heparin. PMID:24949292

  8. Randomized clinical trial comparing ultrasound-guided procedure with the Seldinger's technique for placement of implantable venous ports.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianzhong; Ji, Lijun; Lu, Jianjun; Chen, Jianqing

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to compare ultrasound-guided procedure with the Seldinger's technique for placement of implantable venous ports. A total of 214 patients were randomized to receive TIAP placement by either ultrasound-guided procedure or the Seldinger's technique. Complications and pain perception were compared between these two groups. No severe perioperative or periinterventional complication occurred. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower pain perception was observed in the ultrasound-guided group. Seldinger's technique group showed higher rate in incidence of early and late complications including catheter dislocation, catheter occlusion, venous thrombosis, fever of unknown origin, skin necrosis, and sepsis. In conclusion, both techniques, the TIAP implantation via ultrasound-guided jugular vein puncture and via Seldinger's technique subclavian vein puncture, are feasible and safe. Regarding intrainterventional pain perception and implantation-related complications, the jugular vein puncture under ultrasound guidance seems to be advantageous. PMID:24748179

  9. Intravenous Catheter-Associated Candidemia due to Candida membranaefaciens: The First Iranian Case.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Seyed Reza; Shokohi, Tahereh; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi Fesharaki, Shirinsadat; Salmanian, Bahar

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of candidemia due to the uncommon non-albicans Candida species appears to be increasing, and certain species such as Candida (C.) membranaefaciens have been reported in some clinical researches. Vascular catheters are considered the likely culprit for the sudden emergence of hospital-acquired candidemia. The identification of C. membranaefaciens can be problematic in clinical practice owing to its phenotypic resemblance to C. guilliermondii. We report the first case of C. membranaefaciens in Iran, which occurred in a 70-year-old woman, who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We isolated germ-tube negative yeast from both blood culture and central venous catheter (CVC) tip culture on brain-heart infusion agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar plates, and biphasic brain-heart infusion media bottle; it developed smooth, pink colonies on CHROMagar Candida. By using the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of theinternal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, we identified C. membranaefaciens. After the removal of the CVC and initiation of Fluconazole treatment, the patient's condition gradually improved and she was discharged from the hospital. The early detection of organisms in the catheter, removal of the catheter, and treatment with anti-fungal antibiotics have an important role in controlling disease and preventing septicemia after CABG. As C. membranaefaciens is an opportunistic Candida species, both clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the factors that confer fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26110010

  10. An Organoselenium Compound Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms on Hemodialysis Catheters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phat L.; Lowry, Nathan; Campbell, Thomas; Reid, Ted W.; Webster, Daniel R.; Tobin, Eric; Aslani, Arash; Mosley, Thomas; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus. PMID:22123688

  11. Intravenous Catheter-Associated Candidemia due to Candida membranaefaciens: The First Iranian Case

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Seyed Reza; Shokohi, Tahereh; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi Fesharaki, Shirinsadat; Salmanian, Bahar

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of candidemia due to the uncommon non-albicans Candida species appears to be increasing, and certain species such as Candida (C.) membranaefaciens have been reported in some clinical researches. Vascular catheters are considered the likely culprit for the sudden emergence of hospital-acquired candidemia. The identification of C. membranaefaciens can be problematic in clinical practice owing to its phenotypic resemblance to C. guilliermondii. We report the first case of C. membranaefaciens in Iran, which occurred in a 70-year-old woman, who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We isolated germ-tube negative yeast from both blood culture and central venous catheter (CVC) tip culture on brain-heart infusion agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar plates, and biphasic brain-heart infusion media bottle; it developed smooth, pink colonies on CHROMagar Candida. By using the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of theinternal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, we identified C. membranaefaciens. After the removal of the CVC and initiation of Fluconazole treatment, the patient's condition gradually improved and she was discharged from the hospital. The early detection of organisms in the catheter, removal of the catheter, and treatment with anti-fungal antibiotics have an important role in controlling disease and preventing septicemia after CABG. As C. membranaefaciens is an opportunistic Candida species, both clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the factors that confer fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. A Modified Open Surgery Technique for Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Placement Decreases Catheter Malfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunming; Xu, Linfeng; Chen, Yun; Yan, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    ? Background: This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a new, modified open surgery technique on catheter-related malfunction. ? Methods: During the period from January 1997 to June 2009, 216 patients received initial peritoneal catheters. For the present study, patients were divided into four groups according to the catheter types and the surgery techniques: TO-S: traditional open surgery, straight Tenckhoff catheter TO-C: traditional open surgery, coiled Tenckhoff catheter TO-SN: traditional open surgery, swan-neck catheter MO-S: modified open surgery, straight Tenckhoff catheter The modified surgery was characterized by a low incision site, a short intra-abdominal catheter segment and an additional upward straight subcutaneous tunnel. All patients were followed up for 2 years or until death. Survival rates, complications caused by catheter placement, and the probability of malfunction-free catheter survival were compared between the groups. ? Results: Catheter malfunction was the most frequent mechanical complication, found in 31 patients (14.4%), who experienced 38 malfunctions. Only 2 episodes of catheter malfunction were found in the MO-S group, representing a rate significantly less than those in the TO-S and TO-C groups (both p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves for malfunction-free PD catheter survival showed a significantly different malfunction-free probability for the various groups (p = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, 136 patients (63.0%) survived with their initial PD catheter. The initial catheter survival rate was 76.8% in the MO-S group. Kaplan-Meier curves for initial catheter survival showed that the highest survival rate was found in the MO-S group (p = 0.001). ? Conclusions: The modified open surgery technique is a reliable method for catheter placement. PMID:24991051

  13. Per-Catheter ASD Closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Latson

    1998-01-01

    .   Per-catheter devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have been evolving since 1974. The four major devices available\\u000a for use on a limited basis in early 1997 are reviewed. These include (in alphabetical order) the Angel Wing device, the ASDOS\\u000a device, the Buttoned device, and the CardioSeal device (successor to the Clamshell). Sufficient data have been collected to\\u000a indicate

  14. Postoperative cerebral venous infarction

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak; Naik, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cerebral venous infarction (POCVI) is not an uncommon complication in cranial surgeries. However, literature is sparse on the epidemiology and management of postoperative venous infarcts. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to study the incidence and clinico-radiological course of POCVI in patients in a tertiary level neurosurgical unit and compare the outcome between pediatric and adult patients following POCVI. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study carried out over an 8 month period, consecutive patients undergoing elective major cranial surgeries were monitored neurologically and with serial computed tomography (CT) of the head for POCVI in the postoperative period. All patients had at least one CT head done within 24 hours of surgery. Diagnosis of hemorrhagic POCVI was based on the presence of subcortical, multifocal hyperdensities with irregular margins and or low density areas in the perioperative fields. Nonhemorrhagic POCVI was diagnosed if CT showed a localized hypodensity poorly demarcated in the subcortical white matter with/without mass effect, along with the presence of fresh neurological deficits. Observations and Results: A total of 376 patients were enrolled in the study period. Of these, 26 (7%) developed POCVI. The male: female ratio was 1.2:1 and age ranged from 6 to 68 years with 12 (46%) being under the age of 18 years. Sixteen (61%) patients developed hemorrhagic POCVI and 10 (39%) patients developed nonhemorrhagic POCVI. The mean time to POCVI detection was 72 hours (range 24–144 hours). Seventeen (66%) patients were managed conservatively, and nine (34%) patients underwent decompressive craniectomy as an additional procedure for management of POCVI. In five patients (all with hemorrhagic POCVI), the infarction was an incidental finding. Of the 21 patients with symptomatic POCVI, 13 (61.9%) patients improved neurologically and were discharged with residual deficits. Two (9.5%) showed no neurological improvement till discharge, and 6 (28.5%) died during the hospital stay following POCVI. Conclusions: Children constitute a significant population (46% in our study) of the patients who develop POCVI with poor outcome similar to that seen in adult patients. PMID:25878733

  15. Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

  16. Which is the easiest and safest technique for central venous access? A retrospective survey of more than 5,400 cases.

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, M; Malerba, M; Carriero, C; Tazza, L; Gui, D

    2000-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the technique for central venous catheterization associated with the lowest complication rate and the highest success rate. In an attempt to better define the easiest and safest venous approach, we have reviewed our 7-year experience with 5479 central venous percutaneous punctures (by Seldinger's technique) for the insertion of short-term (n=2109), medium/long-term (n=2627) catheters, as well as double-lumen, large-bore catheters for hemodialysis and/or hemapheresis (n=743). We have analyzed the incidence of the most frequent in-sertion-related complications by comparing seven different venous approaches: jugular vein, low lateral approach; jugular vein, high lateral approach; jugular vein, low axial approach; subclavian vein, infraclavicular approach; subclavian vein, supraclavicular approach; external jugular vein; femoral vein. The results of our retrospective study suggest that the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein, as described by Jernigan and modified according to our protocol, appears to be the easiest and safest technique for percutaneous insertion of central venous access, being characterized by the lowest incidence of accidental arte-rial puncture (1.2%) and malposition (0.8%), no pneumothorax, and an extremely low rate of repeated attempts (i.e. more than two punctures before successful cannulation) (3.3%). We advocate the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein as first-choice technique for venipuncture in both adults and children, for both short-term and long-term central venous percutaneous cannulation. PMID:17638235

  17. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Iain; Gilmore, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  18. 3D-ultrasound at the arterial and venous system.

    PubMed

    Van der Laan, E; Rudofsky, G

    1993-01-01

    We report upon a new method of vascular ultrasound which allows a three dimensional imaging. With serial sector images it is possible to get vertical pictures nearly parallel (max 60 in sequence). After transformation, a workstation calculates the third dimension parallel to the surface of the body in addition to the known 2 dimensions. The result is a sort of sculpture rotating around 360 degrees which allows to take a look at the region of interest from diverse angles. Up to now we got informations on the morphology of arterial plaques which can be divided into two main groups: a) prominent plaques like branches of a tree or like humps, b) plane excavated alterations of the vessel wall (exulcerations). At the venous system we did examinations on thrombosis. First acknowledges allow thrombi along a foreign body (catheter) increase in layers while thrombi caused by stagnation show a more heterogenous structure. PMID:8120470

  19. [Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Parent, Florence; Jovan, Roland; Colas des Francs, Veronique

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism is one of the most common cause of maternal death in developed countries. Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, increased especially in patients with thrombophilia. The post-partum period is the period carrying the highest risk of venous thromboembolism, especially after caesarean delivery. The diagnosis is essential, applying strategies validated in the non-pregnant population, as none of the diagnostic tests is contra-indicated during pregnancy. These strategies use a combination of empirical evaluation of clinical probability, D-Dimer measurement. In case of positive D-Dimer testing (or high clinical probability), ultrasonography of the legs should be performed first; if there is no proximal deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary CT scan or lung scan should be performed. Low molecular weight heparin is the treatment of choice until 6 weeks after the delivery, for a minimal total duration of 6 months. The prophylaxis must be individually decided according to histories and risk factors of the patient. PMID:25939219

  20. A broken catheter in the epidural space.

    PubMed

    Anwari, Jamil S; Al-Wahbi, Yahya; Al-Nahdi, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    The Arrow FlexTip epidural catheter has reinforced coiled stainless steel wire, which facilitates its insertion and is less likely to puncture the blood vessels. However, as compared with non-reinforced, reinforced epidural catheters are more vulnerable to break. We report a case from Saudi Arabia on a retained fragment of a broken epidural catheter. Measures to prevent this mishap and its management are discussed. PMID:24739413

  1. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lauren; Kranzburg, Adeline; Saumell, Amy; Gregory, Tanya; Reich, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are the first-line treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF); as a result, catheter ablation usually is not considered until a patient is experiencing symptomatic AF refractory to at least one antiarrhythmic medication or is intolerant to medical therapy. For these patients, catheter ablation is shown to be more effective than medical therapy for controlling AF. This article reviews catheter ablation and its indications. PMID:25909541

  2. Repairing and recovering broken peritoneal catheters.

    PubMed

    Moreiras-Plaza, Mercedes; Blanco-García, Raquel; Beato-Coo, Laura; Martín-Baez, Isabel; Fernández-Fleming, Francisco

    2014-11-17

    Breakage of peritoneal catheters is an emergency of the technique that is uncommon but which requires immediate action when there is leakage of the dialysate and risk of infection. Early and adequate intervention can save broken catheters without interrupting peritoneal dialysis. We report our experience repairing damaged catheters using the Quinton® Peri-Patch repair kit (Quinton Instrument Co., Tyco Healthcare Group LP. Mansfield, MA., U.S.A.). PMID:25415572

  3. Cerebral arterio-venous pCO2 difference, estimated respiratory quotient, and early posttraumatic outcome: comparison with arterio-venous lactate and oxygen differences.

    PubMed

    Chieregato, Arturo; Marchi, Maurizia; Fainardi, Enrico; Targa, Luigi

    2007-10-01

    Arterio-venous pCO2 difference (AVDpCO2) and estimated respiratory quotient, the ratio between AVDpCO2 and arterio-venous O2 difference, may be potentially useful estimators of irreversible posttraumatic global cerebral ischemia. Our aim was to evaluate their relevance, along with arterio-venous lactate difference (AVDL) and lactate oxygen index (LOI), in early outcome prediction. The retrospective study involved 55 patients with severe head injury, admitted consecutively in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a general hospital. A retrograde jugular catheter was placed as soon as possible, allowing for 324 simultaneous arterio-jugular samples to be taken throughout the first 48-hour postinjury. Early brain death (within 48 h) was assumed to be due to early global ischemia. A multivariate model including clinical and radiologic descriptors and jugular bulb variables showed that a widening of AVDL and LOI was associated with early brain death. Whereas in the patients who died, a progressive worsening of AVDpCO2 and estimated respiratory quotient, associated with corresponding changes in AVDL and LOI were observed, in patients who survived the widening of AVDpCO2 normalized along with that of arterio-venous O2 difference. These findings suggest that the isolated measurement of widening AVDpCO2 is not specific for global cerebral ischemia, but its observation over time could be potentially more useful. PMID:17893572

  4. Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration

    PubMed Central

    Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. Methods: This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. Conclusion: The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance. PMID:25097505

  5. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... called a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (or “CA-UTI”). What is a urinary catheter? A urinary ... I get a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI)? If germs enter the urinary tract, they ...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder. (a) Identification. A catheter tip occluder is a device that is...

  8. 21 CFR 868.6810 - Tracheobronchial suction catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Tracheobronchial suction catheter. 868.6810 Section 868.6810...868.6810 Tracheobronchial suction catheter. (a) Identification. A tracheobronchial suction catheter is a device used to aspirate...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5210 - Intravascular catheter securement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Intravascular catheter securement device. 880.5210 ...Devices § 880.5210 Intravascular catheter securement device. (a) Identification. An intravascular catheter securement device is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5120 - Anesthesia conduction catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction catheter. 868.5120 Section 868.5120... § 868.5120 Anesthesia conduction catheter. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction catheter is a flexible tubular device used...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1290 - Steerable catheter control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Steerable catheter control system. 870.1290 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1290 Steerable catheter control system. (a) Identification. A steerable catheter control system is a device that...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter tip pressure transducer. 870.2870...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2870 Catheter tip pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1290 - Steerable catheter control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Steerable catheter control system. 870.1290 ...MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices...Steerable catheter control system. (a) Identification...steerable catheter control system is a device...

  15. Glyceryl Trinitrate Complements Citrate and Ethanol in a Novel Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution To Eradicate Biofilm Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Ruth; Dvorak, Tanya; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray Y.; Raad, Issam I.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization. GTN has a long history of intravenous use as a hypotensive agent. It is potentially attractive as a component of a catheter lock solution because its physiologic half-life is quite short and its metabolic pathways are known. A lock containing 7% citrate and 20% ethanol required 0.01% GTN to fully eradicate biofilms of all test organisms within 2 h in the model. This GTN concentration is below the levels where clinically significant hypotensive effects are expected. PMID:23669393

  16. Epidemiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Evans, C; Fowkes, F G R

    2008-01-01

    Chronic venous disease of the legs occurs commonly in the general population in the Western world. Estimates of the prevalence of varicose veins vary widely from 2-56% in men and from 1-60% in women. These variations reflect differences in variability of study populations including age, race and gender, methods of measurement and disease definition. Definitions of chronic venous disease may rely on reports of varicose veins by study participants, based on self-diagnosis or recall of a diagnosis, or on a standardized physical examination. Venous ulceration is less common, affecting approximately 0.3% of the adult population. Age and pregnancy have been established as risk factors for developing varicose veins. Evidence on other risk factors for venous disease is inconclusive. Prolonged standing has been proposed, but results of studies should be interpreted with caution given the difficulty in measuring levels of posture. Obesity has been suggested as a risk factor in women, but appears to be an aggravating factor rather than a primary cause. Other postulated risk factors include dietary intake and smoking, but evidence is lacking. Longitudinal studies using standardized methods of evaluation are required before the true incidence of chronic venous disease and associated risk factors can be determined. PMID:18467617

  17. Intralesional radiofrequency in venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Kumar, S; Singh, Y B

    2015-03-01

    Venous malformations are usually asymptomatic and managed conservatively. Treatment, in the form of laser, sclerotherapy, or resection, is needed only if lesions present with symptoms or cosmetic deformity. The aim of this study was to find out how effective radiofrequency ablation was in patients with incomplete or unsatisfactory resolution of a venous malformation after an intralesional injection of bleomycin. During the 5 year period 2008-2012, we organised a prospective, clinical study at a tertiary care centre. Patients were selected from the outpatient department of the Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, India. Five patients with venous malformations were treated by intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5U/kg body weight, which was repeated every 2 weeks for a total of 8 injections. They then had multiple intralesional radiofrequency ablation every 2 months until a satisfactory outcome was achieved. After the initial 8 doses the reduction in the size of the lesions was minimal (less than 50%). After 2-4 applications of radiofrequency ablation there was appreciable reduction in the size of the lesions (about 80%) with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. Radiofrequency ablation is an effective adjunct for patients with venous malformations of the head and neck that have not responded satisfactorily to intralesional injection of bleomycin. To our knowledge radiofrequency ablation after intralesional injection of bleomycin has not previously been described as a treatment for venous malformations. PMID:25554592

  18. Risk factors for inpatient venous thromboembolism despite thromboprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu-Fei; Wong, Catherine A.; Milligan, Paul E.; Thoelke, Mark S.; Woeltje, Keith F.; Gage, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the hospital. Adequate thromboprophylaxis has reduced the rate of hospital-acquired VTE substantially; however, some inpatients still develop VTE even when they are prescribed thromboprophylaxis. Predictors associated with thromboprophylaxis failure are unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors for inpatient VTE despite thromboprophylaxis. Materials and methods We conducted a case-control study to identify independent predictors for inpatient VTE. Among patients discharged from the BJC HealthCare system between January 2010 and May 2011, we matched 94 cases who developed in-hospital VTE while taking thromboprophylaxis to 272 controls who did not develop VTE. Matching was done by hospital, patient age, month and year of discharge. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to develop a VTE prediction model. Results We identified five independent risk factors for in-hospital VTE despite thromboprophylaxis: hospitalization for cranial surgery, intensive care unit admission, admission leukocyte count >13,000/mm3, presence of an indwelling central venous catheter, and admission from a long-term care facility. Conclusions We identified five risk factors associated with the development of VTE despite thromboprophylaxis in the hospital setting. By recognizing these high-risk patients, clinicians can prescribe aggressive VTE prophylaxis judiciously and remain vigilant for signs or symptoms of VTE. PMID:24300584

  19. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar, E-mail: honnef@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  20. [Drug therapy of venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bartolo, M; Antignani, P L

    1985-01-01

    Venous pharmacotherapy is a subject which, up to now, has not been submitted to rigorous scientific investigation as we currently lack in vivo observation methods. We can oppose direct actions stemming from sympathic stimulation and tissular mediators to the indirect actions of the substances which affect the arteriolar circulation or arterio-venous anastomoses. Anthocyanosides are amongst the most important of all the drugs acting on the permeability of the membrane. Dihydroergotamine, which has revived old controversies about the vegetative innervation of vein walls, has proved to have an increasing effect on venous pressure in clinostatism. We have ourselves witnessed this venotonic action of subjects in the supine position. In an upright position there have not been any reactions of hypertension, perhaps because of the hypertonic effect obtained naturally from the bard receptors which prevail on the pharmacological effect. PMID:4023086

  1. Prolonged Antimicrobial Activity of a Catheter Containing Chlorhexidine-Silver Sulfadiazine Extends Protection against Catheter Infections In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFANO BASSETTI; JEAN HU; RALPH B. D'AGOSTINO; R. J. Sherertz

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluated in vitro and in vivo a new chlorhexidine (C)-silver sulfadiazine (S) vascular catheter (the CS2 catheter) characterized by a higher C content and by the extended release of the surface- bound antimicrobials. The CS2 catheter was compared with a first-generation, commercially available CS catheter (the CS1 catheter). The CS2 catheter produced slightly smaller zones of inhibition

  2. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-19

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates. PMID:24843102

  3. Epidural Venous Plexus Engorgement: What Lies Beneath?

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Fuldem Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Epidural venous plexus engorgement may occur due to several conditions that prevent the normal venous circulation. Inferior vena cava agenesis is a very rare cause of epidural venous enlargement. We present a case with a very thin inferior vena cava and left iliac vein agenesis who presented with back pain due to epidural vein engorgement and lacked other venous problems such as deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25722912

  4. Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

  5. Venous and arterial thrombotic risks with thalidomide: evidence and practical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Carmela

    2012-01-01

    Oral immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), namely thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, interfere with several pathways important for disease progression. Today they play a crucial role in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients, and have considerably improved myeloma outcomes. These agents, and thalidomide in particular, are associated with higher rates of thromboembolic events, both venous and arterial. Individual risk factors for thromboembolic events include advanced age, previous history of thromboembolism, an indwelling central venous catheter, comorbid conditions (e.g. infections, diabetes, cardiac disease, obesity), current or recent immobilization, recent surgery and inherited thrombophilic abnormalities. Cancer therapy and cancer itself also increase the risk of thromboembolic events. The aim of this review is to help clinicians to define the risk of thrombotic events in patients treated with thalidomide and thus to provide practical recommendations to manage thromboprophylaxis in these patients. PMID:25083240

  6. Emergency Central Venous Catheterization during Trauma Resuscitation: A Safety Analysis by Site.

    PubMed

    Choron, Rachel L; Wang, Andrew; Van Orden, Kathryn; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Seamon, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is often necessary during initial trauma resuscitations, but may cause complications including catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary emboli (PE), arterial injury, or pneumothoraces. Our primary objective compared subclavian versus femoral CVC complications during initial trauma resuscitations. A retrospective review (2010-2011) at an urban, Level-I Trauma Center reviewed CVCs during initial trauma resuscitations. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and complications including: CRBSIs, DVTs, arterial injuries, pneumothoraces, and PEs were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used; P ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 504 CVCs were placed (subclavian, n = 259; femoral, n = 245). No difference in age (47 ± 22 vs 45 ± 23 years) or body mass index (28 ± 6 vs 29 ± 16 kg/m(2)) was detected (P > 0.05) in subclavian vs femoral CVC, but subclavian CVCs had more blunt injuries (81% vs 69%), greater systolic blood pressure (95 ± 55 vs 83 ± 43 mmHg), greater Glasgow Coma Scale (10 ± 5 vs 9 ± 5), and less introducers (49% vs 73%) than femoral CVCs (all P < 0.05). Catheter related arterial injuries, PEs, and CRBSIs were similar in subclavian and femoral groups (3% vs 2%, 0% vs 1%, and 3% vs 3%; all P > 0.05). Catheter-related DVTs occurred in 2 per cent of subclavian and 9 per cent of femoral CVCs (P < 0.001). There was a 3 per cent occurrence of pneumothorax in the subclavian CVC population. In conclusion, both subclavian and femoral CVCs caused significant complications. Subclavian catheter-related pneumothoraces occurred more commonly and femoral CRBSIs less commonly than expected compared with prior literature in nonemergent scenarios. This suggests that femoral CVC may be safer than subclavian CVC during initial trauma resuscitations. PMID:25975341

  7. Incidents and Complications of Permanent Venous Central Access Systems: A Series of 1,460 Cases

    PubMed Central

    El Ouazni, Mohammed; Arsalane, Adil; El Oueriachi, Fayçal; Mansouri, Hamid; Kabiri, El Hassane

    2014-01-01

    Background Implanted venous access devices or permanent central venous access systems (PCVASs) are routinely used in oncologic patients. Complications can occur during the implantation or use of such devices. We describe such complications of the PCVAS and their management. Methods Our retrospective study included 1,460 cases in which PCVAS was implanted in the 11 years between January 2002 and January 2013, including 810 women and 650 men with an average age of 45.2 years. We used polyurethane or silicone catheters. The site of insertion and the surgical or percutaneous procedure were selected on the basis of clinical data and disease information. The subclavian and cephalic veins were our most common sites of insertion. Results About 1,100 cases (75%) underwent surgery by training surgeons and 360 patients by expert surgeons. Perioperative incidents occurred in 33% and 12% of these patients, respectively. Incidents (28%) included technical difficulties (n=64), a subcutaneous hematoma (n=37), pneumothoraces (n=15), and an intrapleural catheter (n=1). Complications in the short and medium term were present in 14.2% of the cases. Distortion and rupture of the catheter (n=5) were noted in the costoclavicular area (pinch-off syndrome). There were 5 cases of catheter migration into the jugular vein (n=1), superior vena cava (n=1), and heart cavities (n=3). No patient died of PCVAS insertion or complication. Conclusion PCVAS complications should be diagnosed early and treated with probable removal of this material for preventing any life-threatening outcome associated with complicated PVCAS. PMID:24782960

  8. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Willingham, Darrin L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Grewal, Hani P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); McKinney, J. Mark [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Hughes, Christopher B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Walser, Eric M., E-mail: Walser.eric@mayo.ed [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment to eliminate a large venous air embolism: a case study.

    PubMed

    Torres Martínez, Fernando J; Kuffler, Damien P

    2011-01-01

    Gas embolism, the entry of gas into vascular structures, can result in serious morbidity and death. It is an inadvertent clinical problem, but it also occurs in non-clinical environments. Gas embolisms result from procedures performed in almost all clinical specialties, thus making it a problem about which all clinicians should be aware. In most cases, gas embolism is air embolism, although it can result from the introduction of gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Gas embolism takes two forms, venous and arterial, distinguished by the mechanism of gas entry and the site where the emboli ultimately lodge. Techniques used to eliminate embolisms including administration of 100% oxygen, placing the patient in lateral decubitus, and Trendelenburg position for no longer than 10 minutes, removing the embolism with a catheter, surfactants and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T). For venous gas embolisms surgical removal is recommended, while for arterial embolisms, HBO2T is highly recommended. Here we report on a patient who inadvertently received a venous infusion of 150 ml air resulting in a major embolism, and who underwent HBO2T, recovered well, and suffered no adverse events. This result suggests that it is important to consider HBO2T as a recommended application for patients with venous embolisms. PMID:21877559

  10. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Simka, M; Latacz, P; Ludyga, T; Kazibudzki, M; Swierad, M; Janas, P; Piegza, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established. PMID:22364940

  11. Chronic Venous Disease and Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Matic, P; Jolic, S; Tanaskovic, S; Soldatovic, I; Katsiki, N; Isenovic, E; Radak, Dj

    2015-07-01

    We report the relations between comorbidities and chronic venous disease. In this cross-sectional study, information was gathered from 1679 Serbian patients. The majority (65.0%) of patients were women. Mild forms of chronic venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic [CEAP] classification; C0s-C1) were more frequent in women (11.6%), while severe forms (CEAP C4-C6) were more commonly encountered in men (42.1%). The most frequent comorbidity was emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in both groups (74.3% in males and 70.6% in females). For females, diabetes mellitus (P < .005), arterial hypertension (P < .000), and skeletal/joint diseases (P < .042) were more commonly found in the C4 to C6 category. Both males and females, with severe form of chronic venous disease, may benefit from additional screening for comorbidities. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of association among comorbidities and chronic venous disease. PMID:25005764

  12. Catheter-related blood stream infection caused by Dermacoccus barathri, representing the first case of Dermacoccus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Fujino, Akihiro; Sugita, Kayoko; Katohno, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kikuchi, Ken

    2015-08-01

    A 7-year-old boy undergoing home parenteral nutrition with totally implantable central venous access device for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction experienced repeated episodes of fever with a temperature above 39.0 °C despite the antibiotic treatment. The fever was considered to be catheter-related blood stream infections, as no other etiology could be justified. Repeated blood culture tests revealed negative after 1-week incubation, whereas some samples of blood collected from the central venous catheter yielded positive and gram-positive rods were detected. These bacteria were detected repeatedly, then the central venous access device was removed with consideration for the possibility of this bacteria being a pathogen. Thereafter, the fever did not recur and the blood culture tests were negative. The causative agent was identified as Dermacoccus barathri based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 6118-bp concatenated sequences of 4 housekeeping genes. Genus Dermacoccus are one form of Actinomycetes isolated from human skin and water, but human infection with Dermacoccus spp. has not been previously reported and the pathogenicity of the bacteria remains unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Dermacoccus infection in humans. PMID:26044303

  13. Catheter-related complications of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Greene, J N

    1996-06-01

    Although the management of CVC-related infection appears complex and at times the literature seems to be contradictory, simple guidelines can direct the clinician in a stepwise fashion. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of each organism and the immune status of the host is crucial to decide whether catheter removal or retention is indicated. For example, in general, GNB bacteremia does not immediately prompt catheter removal in a neutropenic patient but does in a nonneutropenic host because of the gastrointestinal source of the former and a primary catheter source in the latter. In summary, as more CVCs are inserted in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic, antimicrobial, transfusional, and nutritional supportive care, novel approaches to prevention and treatment of the associated infectious complications inherent with such devices are needed. A multifaceted approach from impregnated catheters to local catheter-site antisepsis was reviewed. We may find, however, that as simple handwashing between patients is crucial to infection control, so too is a trained catheter-care team using total barrier precautions and ensuring proper local catheter maintenance critical to preventing CVC-related infections. PMID:8803621

  14. [Medical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Mollard, J M; Boissier, C

    1994-03-15

    Several aspects comprise the medical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency: adoption of daily routines favouring mechanisms for return of venous blood; wearing of elastic stocking to reduce superficial venous hypertension, the basis of medical treatment; use of venotonic agents as adjuvant therapy; association of crenotherapy; and finally the possibility of sclerotherapy when such treatment can correct the dysfunction of the superficial venous network. Various therapeutic strategies should be considered to manage not only the functional and/or clinical signs of chronic venous insufficiency, but also the complications which may occur (varicose thrombosis and haemorrhage, or deep venous thrombosis). Lastly, prevention is based not only on respect of daily hygienic measures but above all on early treatment that is adapted to any deep venous thrombosis. PMID:8059214

  15. Venous tone regulatory mechanisms: what's new?

    PubMed

    Comerota, A J; Stewart, G J

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms regulating venous tone have an important effect on whether a patient develops the complication on post operative venous thrombosis. In animal studies, venous endothelial damage has been demonstrated in veins remote from the operative wound, and correlated with the amount of operative venodilation. In human studies, operative venodilation has been directly correlated with venographically proven postoperative deep venous thrombosis. Interestingly, operative venodilation and post operative deep venous thrombosis can be avoided with venotonic agents. The mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of venous tone are complex. The venous response is likely a result of a complex interaction of circulating biologically active substances, the endothelium-vascular smooth muscle interaction as well as humoral-endothelial-neurotransmitter balance. PMID:8919256

  16. Choosing the right intravenous catheter.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lynda S

    2007-09-01

    Infusion therapy in the home has been common for many years. The therapies appropriate for home infusion are numerous. The type of access device provided for the infusion is an important consideration for safe and effective care. That choice will take into consideration physician and patient preference and length of therapy. However, paramount to this decision are the characteristics of the infusate. It is essential to know the pH and osmolality of the drug as well as its potential vesicant properties. The nurse needs to act as the patient advocate to ensure that proper catheter selection is made. Patient teaching should be aimed at recognition of complications and immediate interventions to avoid problems. PMID:17828007

  17. Catheters for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Ullah, H.; Hamza, M. Y.; Ikram, M.

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this review article is to overview technology, clinical evidence, and future applications to date optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes to yield the diagnostic purpose. We have reviewed the designing, construction and working of different categories of OCT probes developed for optical diagnostics having a potential for non invasive and improved detection of different types of cancer as well as other neoplasm. Rotational and balloon catheters, imaging needles and hand-held, linear scanning, multichannel, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology based, dynamic focusing, forward view imaging, and common path interferometer based probes have been discussed in details. The fiber probes have shown excellent performance for two dimensional and three dimensional higher resolution, cross-sectional imaging of interior and exterior body tissues that can be compared with histopathology to provide the information about the angiogenesis and other lesions in the tissue. The MEMS-technology based probes are found to be more suitable for three dimensional morphological imaging.

  18. Prevention of catheter-related urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Ammar; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Thwaini, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomial infection, with hospitalized patients having a risk of 5% per day an indwelling catheter is in place. Use of catheters coated with silver alloy-hydrogel significantly reduces the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and the burden on the NHS. PMID:20220720

  19. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fan, Stanley [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Blakeney, Charles; Fotheringham, Tim [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Sobeh, Mohammed [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Matson, Matthew [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technical success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.

  20. Case of cerebral venous thrombosis with unusual venous infarcts.

    PubMed

    Narra, Ramakrishna; Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  1. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  2. [Vena cava superior syndrome: surgical treatment of the thrombosis of the superior vena cava after implantation of a hemodialysis catheter--a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lénárd, László; Szabados, Sándor; Imre, Jeno; Pintér, Ors; Fazekas, Attila; Tornai, Zoltán; Déczy, Katalin; Várady, Edit; Papp, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    One of the rare reasons of the non malignant superior vena cava syndrome is the thrombosis of superior vena cava. Obstruction or occlusion of central veins is one of the many complications of the more and more frequently used central venous catheters and pacemaker electrodes. The authors report a case of superior vena cava thrombosis resulting in dialysis catheter insufficiency in case of a young, uraemic, female patient wit Tesio catheter and the surgical treatment of it with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass during the operation. Apropos of this case, the authors outline the causes of malignant, non-malignant and iatrogenic superior vena cava syndrome, furthermore the conservative, surgical and catheter therapy of the syndrome. PMID:18089480

  3. Dialysis catheter-related bacteremia: Treatment and prophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Allon

    2004-01-01

    ? Catheter-related bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity among hemodialysis patients. This article reviews the medical literature regarding the treatment and prophylaxis of catheter-related bacteremia. Bacterial biofilm that forms in the catheter lumen is the source of catheter-related bacteremia. Treatment with systemic antibiotics alone fails to definitively eradicate the infection in most patients. Catheter-related bacteremia can be managed by

  4. A Case-Control Study to Identify Risk Factors for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port-Related Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Guk Jin; Hong, Sook Hee; Roh, Sang Young; Park, Sa Rah; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Hong, Young Seon; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 1,642 patients with solid cancer received an implantable central venous port for delivery of chemotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011 in a single center. CVP-BSI was diagnosed in 66 patients (4%). We selected a control group of 130 patients, who were individually matched with respect to age, sex, and catheter insertion time. Results CVP-BSI occurred most frequently between September and November (37.9%). The most common pathogen was gram-positive cocci (n=35, 53.0%), followed by fungus (n=14, 21.2%). Multivariate analysis identified monthly catheter-stay as a risk factor for CVP-BSI (p=0.000), however, its risk was lower in primary gastrointestinal cancer than in other cancer (p=0.002). Initial metastatic disease and long catheter-stay were statistically significant factors affecting catheter life span (p=0.005 and p=0.000). Results of multivariate analysis showed that recent transfusion was a risk factor for mortality in patients with CVP-BSI (p=0.047). Conclusion In analysis of the results with respect to risk factors, prolonged catheter-stay should be avoided as much as possible. It is necessary to be cautious of CVP-BSI in metastatic solid cancer, especially non-gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, avoidance of unnecessary transfusion is essential in order to reduce the mortality of CVP-BSI. Finally, considering the fact that confounding factors may have affected the results, conduct of a well-designed prospective controlled study is warranted. PMID:25038760

  5. Task-Space Motion Planning of MRI-Actuated Catheters for Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Greigarn, Tipakorn; Cavu?o?lu, M Cenk

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a motion planning algorithm for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) actuated catheters for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The MRI-actuated catheters is a new robotic catheter concept which utilizes MRI for remote steering and guidance. Magnetic moments generated by a set of coils wound near the tip are used to steer the catheter under MRI scanner magnetic field. The catheter during an ablation procedure is modeled as a constrained robotic manipulator with flexible joints, and the proposed motion-planning algorithm calculates a sequence of magnetic moments based on the manipulator model to move the tip of the catheter along a predefined trajectory on the surface of the left atrium. The difficulties in motion planning of the catheter are due to kinematic redundancy and underactuation. The proposed motion planning algorithm overcomes the challenges by operating in the task space instead of the configuration space. The catheter is then regulated around this nominal trajectory using feedback control to reduce the effect of uncertainties. PMID:25485168

  6. Catheter systems for intrathecal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Penn, R D; York, M M; Paice, J A

    1995-08-01

    A prospective study of intrathecal catheter reliability was performed at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. All 102 patients who had baclofen administered chronically for spasticity via an implanted drug pump were included. Sixty percent of the patients had no catheter complications; the remaining patients had one to five complications over their course of treatment. Survival analysis demonstrated a steady rate of malfunction up to 80 months, with the mean time to first failure recorded at 20 months. Kinks, holes, breaks, dislodgments, and disconnections were the most common complications. On the basis of their research the authors conclude that the thin-walled silastic catheter does not perform well and that larger, thick-walled catheters should be used. PMID:7616263

  7. Intravascular Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Harshal; Bosch, Wendelyn; Thompson, Kristine M.; Hellinger, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular catheters required for the care of many hospitalized patients can give rise to bloodstream infection, a complication of care that has occurred most frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) has guided development of effective diagnostic, management, and prevention strategies. When CRBSIs occur in the ICU, physicians must be prepared to recognize and treat them. Prevention of these infections requires careful attention to optimal catheter selection, insertion and maintenance, and to removal of catheters when they are no longer needed. This review provides a succinct summary of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of CRBSIs and a review of current guidance for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these infections. PMID:24167648

  8. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  11. Stuck suction catheter in endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Raut, Monish S; Joshi, Sandeep; Maheshwari, Arun

    2015-02-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) suction is essential to clear secretions so that airway patency can be maintained. Stuck suction catheter in ETT is an uncommon event, and it can be dangerous in patients with difficult airway cases. PMID:25722554

  12. Infected pancreatic fluid collections: percutaneous catheter drainage.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C; Lewis, G P; Traverso, L W; Ryan, J A

    1988-05-01

    Thirty-eight infected pancreatic fluid collections in 23 patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis were drained percutaneously following initial diagnosis with computed tomography and fine-needle aspiration. Fifteen (65.2%) patients were cured completely without surgery. Eight (34.8%) patients required some type of surgery despite successful treatment of the fluid collection, and in two (6.5%) the collection recurred after catheter removal. Complications occurred in three (13%) patients, but only one complication (4%), empyema, was a direct result of catheter drainage. Catheter drainage time averaged 29 days for 16 patients with isolated collections and 96 days and 104 days for patients with collections with pancreatic duct fistulas (nine patients) or gastrointestinal fistulas (14 patients), respectively. This study confirms that infected pancreatic fluid collections can be safely and effectively treated with percutaneous catheter techniques in most patients. PMID:3357952

  13. Adult Catheter Care and Infection Prevention Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chlorhexidine solution in 70% alcohol, 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 5. Properly clean/disinfect the exit site during ... g. sensitivity or allergy), use 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 6. Cover the catheter exit site with a ...

  14. Imaging of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, F

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially life-threatening emergency. The wide ranging of clinical symptoms makes the use of imaging in "slices" even more important for diagnosis. Both CT and MRI are used to diagnose the occlusion of a venous sinus, but MRI is superior to CT for detecting a clot in the cortical or deep veins. CT can show the hyperintense clot spontaneously and CT angiography the intraluminal defect. MRI also detects this thrombus, whose signal varies over time: in the acute phase, it is hypointense in T2*, whilst T1 and T2 can appear falsely reassuring; in the subacute phase, it is hyperintense on all sequences (T1, T2, FLAIR, T2*, diffusion). MRI easily shows the ischemic damage, even hemorrhagic, in the cerebral parenchyma in cases of CVT. Finally, imaging may reveal pathology at the origin of the CVT, such as a fracture of the skull, infection, tumor, dural fistula, or intracranial hypotension. PMID:25465119

  15. Management of pulmonary thrombo-embolism using catheter manipulation: a report of four cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wong, P.; Singh, S.; Watson, R.; Lip, G.

    1999-01-01

    To date the management of pulmonary thrombo-embolism is still largely limited to anticoagulation. Heparin and oral anticoagulation have been shown to be effective in reducing recurrence and death in venous thrombo-embolism. During the acute stage, systemic thrombolytic therapy has also been advocated for the rapid dissolution of the thrombus in patients with haemodynamic instability. We describe four patients with acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism who were managed with catheter-based thrombus manipulation with intrapulmonary thrombolysis. This management strategy should be considered in patients with pulmonary thrombo-embolism who continue to deteriorate despite conventional management with anticoagulation or systemic thrombolysis.???Keywords: pulmonary thrombo-embolism; catheter manipulation; thrombus; thrombolytic therapy PMID:10567603

  16. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Izaki, Kenta, E-mail: izaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  17. Bench-to-bedside review: Challenges of diagnosis, care and prevention of central catheter-related bloodstream infections in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may be difficult. Technology such as CVC impregnation or catheter locking with antimicrobial substances has been shown less effective than anticipated. Despite encouraging results in CRBSI prevention among adults, the goal of zero infection in children is still not in range. More high-quality research is needed in the field of prevention, accurate and reliable diagnostic measures and effective treatment of CRBSI in children. PMID:24041298

  18. Study of patients with indwelling catheters.

    PubMed

    Roe, B H; Brocklehurst, J C

    1987-11-01

    Indwelling urethral catheters are used for the long-term management of intractable urinary incontinence or bladder outlet obstruction with resultant retention of urine. There are well-described problems associated with their use including urinary tract infections and mechanical problems. Urinary tract infections have been well researched, however mechanical problems associated with blockage of the catheter lumen due to encrustation, leakage of urine and general discomfort, have been the least investigated. To date, there has been no research of patients' views, understanding or feelings in relation to their catheters. This paper comprises a preliminary investigation of patients' understanding and knowledge of their catheter's location and function, its acceptance, problems associated with its use, social implications and its subsequent management. Thirty-six patients from the community of one health district were surveyed. It was concluded that an indwelling catheter is a prosthesis which, to be successful, requires adequate patient education and management. Education of the patient and carers is particularly important since an understanding of the catheter and its function will lead to better acceptance of the device and will enable better management of the urine drainage system. PMID:3693729

  19. carried out in the left catheter and the venous blood samples were taken in the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    splanchnic utilization of amino acids in elderly men. Y Boirie,Y Boirie, P Gachon, E Verdier, L Morin, B to stresses or trauma. It could result from changes in amino acid disposal between the muscle and splanchnic tissues during feeding, since a higher amino acid gut/Iíver uptake would limit amino acid availability

  20. Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2010 (Springer Verlag) and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/yearbook. Further information about the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/2855. PMID:20236456

  1. Supraclavicular approach of central venous catheter insertion in critical patients in emergency settings: Re-visited

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Gaurav Singh; Chawla, Sonali; Ganguly, Suprio; Cherian, Grace; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    The supraclavicular approach was first put into clinical practice in 1965 by Yoffa and is an underused method for gaining central access. It offers several advantages over the conventional infraclavicular approach to the subclavian vein. At the insertion site, the subclavian vein is closer to the skin, and the right-sided approach offers a straighter path into the subclavian vein. Also, this site is often more accessible during CPR and surgical procedures. In patients who are obese, this anatomic area is less distorted and in patient with congestive heart failure and cervical spine instability repositioning is not required. PMID:23833470

  2. Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

  3. Catheter Duration & Risk of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection in Neonates with PICCs

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Arnab; Lehmann, Christoph; Diener-West, Marie; Perl, Trish M.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSI) remained constant over the duration of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) in high risk neonates. Patient and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of NICU patients who had a PICC inserted between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008. A Poisson regression model with linear spline terms to model time since PICC insertion was used to evaluate potential changes in the risk of CLA-BSI while adjusting for other variables. Results 683 neonates were eligible for analysis. There were 21 CLA-BSIs within a follow-up time of 10,470 catheter days. The incidence of PICC-associated CLA-BSI was 2.01 per thousand catheter days (95% CI=1.24, 3.06). The incidence rate of CLA-BSI increased by 14% per day during the first 18 days following PICC insertion (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.14; CI 1.04, 1.25). From days 19 through 35 after PICC insertion, the trend reversed (IRR 0.8; 95% CI 0.66, 0.96). From days 36 through 60 after PICC insertion, the incidence rate of CLA-BSI once again increased by 33% per day (IRR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12, 1.57). There was no statistically significant association between gestational age groups, birth weight groups, and chronological age groups with the risk of CLA-BSI. Conclusion Our data suggest that catheter duration is an important risk factor for PICC associated CLA-BSI in the NICU. A significant daily increase in the risk of CLA-BSI after 35 days may warrant PICC replacement if intravascular access is necessary beyond that period. PMID:20231192

  4. Successful Left-Heart Decompression during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in an Adult Patient by Percutaneous Transaortic Catheter Venting

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae Hee; Byun, Joung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ha; Hwang, Sang Won; Kim, Han Yong; Park, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is widely used in patients with cardiogenic shock. Insufficient decompression of the left ventricle (LV) is considered a major factor preventing adequate LV recovery. A 40-year-old male was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, and revascularization was performed using percutaneous stenting. However, cardiogenic shock occurred, and VA ECMO was initiated. Severe LV failure developed, and percutaneous transaortic catheter venting (TACV) was incorporated into the venous circuit of VA ECMO under transthoracic echocardiography guidance. The patient was successfully weaned from VA ECMO. Percutaneous TACV is an effective, relatively noninvasive, and rapid method of LV decompression in patients undergoing VA ECMO. PMID:26078930

  5. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a 13-Day-Old Neonate and Review of Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Jawad U. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Takemoto, Clifford M.; Casella, James F. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (United States); Streiff, Michael B. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (United States); Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.ed [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Complete inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVC) in neonates is uncommon, but may cause significant morbidity. A 13-day-old neonate suffered IVC thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III deficiency, possibly contributed to by a mutation in the methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, Alteplase) was used successfully to treat extensive venous thrombosis in this neonate without complications. We also review the literature on CDT for treatment of IVC thrombosis in critically ill neonates and infants.

  6. Clinical guidelines on central venous catheterisation. Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, P; Pikwer, A; Hammarskjöld, F; Larsson, A T; Lindgren, S; Lindwall, R; Taxbro, K; Oberg, F; Acosta, S; Akeson, J

    2014-05-01

    Safe and reliable venous access is mandatory in modern health care, but central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, This paper describes current Swedish guidelines for clinical management of CVCs The guidelines supply updated recommendations that may be useful in other countries as well. Literature retrieval in the Cochrane and Pubmed databases, of papers written in English or Swedish and pertaining to CVC management, was done by members of a task force of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. Consensus meetings were held throughout the review process to allow all parts of the guidelines to be embraced by all contributors. All of the content was carefully scored according to criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We aimed at producing useful and reliable guidelines on bleeding diathesis, vascular approach, ultrasonic guidance, catheter tip positioning, prevention and management of associated trauma and infection, and specific training and follow-up. A structured patient history focused on bleeding should be taken prior to insertion of a CVCs. The right internal jugular vein should primarily be chosen for insertion of a wide-bore CVC. Catheter tip positioning in the right atrium or lower third of the superior caval vein should be verified for long-term use. Ultrasonic guidance should be used for catheterisation by the internal jugular or femoral veins and may also be used for insertion via the subclavian veins or the veins of the upper limb. The operator inserting a CVC should wear cap, mask, and sterile gown and gloves. For long-term intravenous access, tunnelled CVC or subcutaneous venous ports are preferred. Intravenous position of the catheter tip should be verified by clinical or radiological methods after insertion and before each use. Simulator-assisted training of CVC insertion should precede bedside training in patients. Units inserting and managing CVC should have quality assertion programmes for implementation and follow-up of routines, teaching, training and clinical outcome. Clinical guidelines on a wide range of relevant topics have been introduced, based on extensive literature retrieval, to facilitate effective and safe management of CVCs. PMID:24593804

  7. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring during hyperventilation in healthy volunteers with a novel optoacoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Deyo, Donald J.; Henkel, Sheryl N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation is useful to facilitate management of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prompt recognition of low cerebral venous oxygenation is a key to avoiding secondary brain injury associated with brain hypoxia. In specialized clinical research centers, jugular venous bulb catheters have been used for cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring and have demonstrated that oxygen saturation < 50% (normal range is 55-75%) correlates with poor clinical outcome. We developed an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation. Recently, we designed and built a novel, medical grade optoacoustic system operating in the near-infrared spectral range for continuous, real-time oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. In this work, we designed and built a novel SSS optoacoustic probe and developed a new algorithm for SSS oxygenation measurement. The SSS signals were measured in healthy volunteers during voluntary hyperventilation, which induced changes in SSS oxygenation. Simultaneously, we measured exhaled carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO2) using capnography. Good temporal correlation between decreases in optoacoustically measured SSS oxygenation and decreases in EtCO2 was obtained. Decreases in EtCO2 from normal values (35-45 mmHg) to 20-25 mmHg resulted in SSS oxygenation decreases by 3-10%. Intersubject variability of the responses may relate to nonspecific brain activation associated with voluntary hyperventilation. The obtained data demonstrate the capability of the optoacoustic system to detect in real time minor changes in the SSS blood oxygenation.

  8. Use of Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solutions to Prevent Catheter-Related Bacteremia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Bleyer; Winston Salem

    2007-01-01

    linical nephrologists are well aware of the high prev- alence and serious morbidity associated with catheter- related bacteremia (CRB) in hemodialysis (HD) pa- tients. Fortunately, this problem is often preventable. Proper sterile technique, topical antimicrobial solutions (1), and anti- microbial catheter lock (ACL) solutions all have been shown to prevent CRB. The purpose of this article is to address issues

  9. Saphenous Venous Ablation with Hot Contrast in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Amit [University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)], E-mail: aprasa02@stanfordalumni.org; Qian Zhong; Kirsch, David; Eissa, Marna; Narra, Pavan; Lopera, Jorge [Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Espinoza, Carmen G. [Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Pathology (United States); Castaneda, Wifrido [Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To determine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of thermal ablation of the saphenous vein with hot contrast medium. Methods. Twelve saphenous veins of 6 dogs were percutaneously ablated with hot contrast medium. In all animals, ablation was performed in the vein of one leg, followed by ablation in the contralateral side 1 month later. An occlusion balloon catheter was placed in the infragenicular segment of the saphenous vein via a jugular access to prevent unwanted thermal effects on the non-target segment of the saphenous vein. After inflation of the balloon, 10 ml of hot contrast medium was injected under fluoroscopic control through a sheath placed in the saphenous vein above the ankle. A second 10 ml injection of hot contrast medium was made after 5 min in each vessel. Venographic follow-up of the ablated veins was performed at 1 month (n = 12) and 2 months (n = 6). Results. Follow-up venograms showed that all ablated venous segments were occluded at 1 month. In 6 veins which were followed up to 2 months, 4 (66%) remained occluded, 1 (16%) was partially patent, and the remaining vein (16%) was completely patent. In these latter 2 cases, an inadequate amount of hot contrast was delivered to the lumen due to a closed balloon catheter downstream which did not allow contrast to displace blood within the vessel. Discussion. Hot contrast medium thermal ablation of the saphenous vein appears feasible, safe, and effective in the canine model, provided an adequate amount of embolization agent is used.

  10. Plasma metanephrine for assessing the selectivity of adrenal venous sampling.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Tanja; Deinum, Jaap; Schultzekool, Leo J; Blondin, Dirk; Vonend, Oliver; Hermus, Ad R R M; Peitzsch, Mirko; Rump, Lars C; Antoch, Gerald; Sweep, Fred C G J; Bornstein, Stefan R; Lenders, Jacques W M; Willenberg, Holger S; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2013-12-01

    Adrenal vein sampling is used to establish the origins of excess production of adrenal hormones in primary aldosteronism. Correct catheter positioning is confirmed using adrenal vein measurements of cortisol, but this parameter is not always reliable. Plasma metanephrine represents an alternative parameter. The objective of our study was to determine the use of plasma metanephrine concentrations to establish correct catheter positioning during adrenal vein sampling with and without cosyntropin stimulation. We included 52 cosyntropin-stimulated and 34 nonstimulated sequential procedures. Plasma cortisol and metanephrine concentrations were measured in adrenal and peripheral venous samples. Success rates of sampling, using an adrenal to peripheral cortisol selectivity index of 3.0, were compared with success rates of metanephrine using a selectivity index determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Among procedures assessed as selective using cortisol, the adrenal to peripheral vein ratio of metanephrine was 6-fold higher than that of cortisol (94.0 versus 15.5; P<0.0001). There were significant positive relationships between adrenal to peripheral vein ratios of cortisol and metanephrine for cosyntropin-stimulated samplings but not for nonstimulated samplings. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated a plasma metanephrine selectivity index cutoff of 12. Using this cutoff, concordance in sampling success rates determined by cortisol and metanephrine was substantially higher in cosyntropin-stimulated than in nonstimulated samplings (98% versus 59%). For the latter procedures, sampling success rates determined by metanephrine were higher (P<0.01) than those determined by cortisol (91% versus 56%). In conclusion, metanephrine provides a superior analyte compared with cortisol in assessing the selectivity of adrenal vein sampling during procedures without cosyntropin stimulation. PMID:24082051

  11. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  16. [Experimental model of venous hemorrhagic infarction by cerebral sinus occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Kojima, N; Matsumoto, S

    1984-08-01

    A new experimental model of the hemorrhagic infarction was devised to study the pathophysiology of the hemorrhagic infarction of the venous origin. To make a model of the hemorrhagic infarction by sinus occlusion, mixture of alpha-cyanoacrylate monomer and pantopaque was injected through a catheter introduced into the superior sagittal sinus in 15 dogs, using embolization technique. These dogs were divided into three groups according to the volume of the mixture injected into the sinus. In control groups (3 dogs), no mixture was injected. For partial sinus occlusion (5 dogs), 0.5-1.0 ml of mixture was injected into the sinus and 1.0-1.5 ml of mixture, for complete sinus occlusion (7 dogs). Changes of intracranial pressure (ICP), superior sagittal sinus pressure (SSSP), tissue pressure (TP) rCBF and histological changes were evaluated before and after sinus occlusion. The following results were obtained. (1) In control groups, ICP, SSSP and TP were 9 +/- 2.2 mmHg, 4 +/- 2.5 mmHg and 4-5 mmHg respectively, but in partial and complete sinus occlusion, SSSP and TP were higher than ICP. ICP, SSSP & TP were 32 +/- 5.4 mmHg, 35 +/- 6.5 mmHg and 37-42 mg, in partial sinus occlusion and 62 +/- 5.9 mmHg, 65 +/- 6.0 mmHg, 65-72 mmHg in complete sinus occlusion. (2) R-CBF in partial sinus occlusion showed no change even after sinus occlusion, but in complete sinus occlusion, decreased to 20% of that of the control group due to marked venous congestion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6504262

  17. Are chest X-rays mandatory following central venous recatheterization over a wire?

    PubMed

    Amshel, C E; Palesty, J A; Dudrick, S J

    1998-06-01

    Exchange of a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guidewire is a frequent clinical procedure, especially in surgical intensive care units. At most hospitals, a chest X-ray (CXR) is obtained routinely after recatheterization to confirm accurate catheter placement and to rule out complications such as pneumothorax. We hypothesized that the incidence of complications after central venous recatheterization over a guidewire is too low to justify automatic performance and the associated expense of a routine postprocedure CXR. Initially we undertook a retrospective study of a total of 295 patients with a Swan-Ganz catheter (SGC), of which 92 SGCs were exchanged over a guidewire for a CVC between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1996, at a university-affiliated community hospital. Age, gender, duration of SGC placement, type of central catheter used for exchange with the SGC, and CXRs and their reports were noted. From July 1, 1996, to October 1, 1997, the study has been continued prospectively. Thus far, in this ongoing investigation, we have identified 505 patients (201 prospective) who had a SGC placed, 210 (116 prospective) of whom had their SGC removed electively, leaving the SGC introducer in place for advancement of a guidewire, and subsequent replacement by a CVC. Of all the patients with a SGC, 40 per cent had the SGC replaced with a CVC over a guidewire, and follow-up CXRs and their reports confirmed that all exchanged triple lumen catheter tips were appropriately positioned in the superior vena cava with zero complications. With the advent of managed care, a savings of $115/CXR (one view X-ray and reading cost at our hospital) would be gained without the added risk of radiation exposure to the patient if a CXR were not mandatory after an uncomplicated guidewire replacement of a central line. It appears from these data that a CXR is not justified as a routine study after replacement of all CVCs over a wire from the standpoints of both patient risk and expense. Conscientious physical examination together with good clinical acumen and judgement in evaluating patients after replacement of a CVC over a guidewire are likely to obviate the currently mandated postprocedure CXR, reserving its use for selected patients. PMID:9619168

  18. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular central venous catheterization in patients with malignant hematologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Sasaki, Hideaki; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Niiya, Tomohisa; Mizuno, Eri; Narimatsu, Eichi; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2012-10-01

    We present two cases of central venous catheterization (CVC) in which an ultrasound-guided in-plane approach was used. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia in whom a right supraclavicular CVC was performed. He had pancytopenia (leukocytes 2,000/?L; erythrocytes 350 × 10(4)/?L; platelets 5.6 × 10(4)/?L), and abnormal coagulability (prothrombin time-international normalized ratio 1.35). A linear array transducer was positioned cephalad to the right clavicle and rotated 30° clockwise. The 21-gauge needle was manipulated from outside of the transducer. A CV catheter (CV legaforce EX(®); Terumo Co., Japan) was placed and stitched near the right clavicle. The patient felt no discomfort caused by the catheter. Case 2 was a 64-year-old women with malignant lymphoma whose right internal jugular vein was surrounded by abnormally enlarged lymph nodes. CVC was performed by the in-plane supraclavicular approach, avoiding puncture of the lymph node. This novel CVC technique is useful to minimize the risk of complications and patient discomfort by indwelling catheter. PMID:22547165

  19. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  20. Swan-Ganz catheter induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, R V; Marcelli, G; Di Marco, R F; Bekoe, S; Grant, K; Marrangoni, A G

    1987-01-01

    In over 3500 consecutive open heart procedures using Swan-Ganz catheterization at our institution, we have experienced three major pulmonary artery injuries secondary to this procedure. Pulmonary artery hemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication and a mortality rate as high as fifty percent has been reported. In two of these cases, major retraction of the heart was needed for adequate exposure of the cardiac pathology. The Swan-Ganz catheter inadvertently was advanced into the wedge position for prolonged intervals of time, and periodic overdistention of the balloon occurred. The third case occurred in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The need for aggressive surgical approach has been demonstrated. The authors have recommended steps to be taken when massive hemoptysis occurs and Swan-Ganz catheter perforation of the pulmonary artery is suspected. Re-evaluation of the "routine" use of the Swan-Ganz catheter may be necessary and overutilization may be a distinct possibility. When the use of this catheter is deemed appropriate, a more exact positioning of the distal portion of the catheter is mandatory if pulmonary artery perforation is to be avoided. PMID:3667678

  1. [Indications for catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Deneke, T; Israel, C W; Krug, J; Nentwich, K; Müller, P; Mügge, A; Schade, A

    2013-09-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) can cause sudden cardiac death. This can be prevented by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) but approximately 25% of patients with an ICD develop electrical storm (? 3 VTs within 24 hours) during the course of 4-5 years. This is a life-threatening event even in the presence of an ICD, particularly if incessant VT is present, and may significantly deteriorate the patient's psychological state if multiple shocks are discharged. Catheter ablation of VT has developed into a standard procedure in many specialized electrophysiology centers. Patients with hemodynamically stable and unstable VT are amendable to substrate-based ablation strategies. Catheter ablation can be performed as emergency procedure in patients with electrical storm as well as electively in patients with monomorphic VT stored in ICD memory. In patients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, VT ablation is complementary to ICD implantation and can reduce the number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and shocks and should be performed early. In patients with electrical storm, catheter ablation can acutely achieve rhythm stabilization and may improve prognosis in the long term. Further indications for catheter ablation exist in patients with idiopathic VT where catheter ablation represents a curative therapy, and in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic frequent premature ventricular beats which may improve prognosis in patients with heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:24046136

  2. Antipsychotic drugs and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Cécile; Couturaud, Francis

    2012-10-01

    Since preliminary case reports suggesting a possible association between first generation of antipsychotics and venous thromboembolism (VTE), consistent epidemiological data is now available suggesting a moderate association between antipsychotics and VTE. However, despite several hypotheses, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown or uncertain. In addition, if the association between antipsychotics and VTE is plausible, the intensity of this risk and the dose effect relationship do not have yet been determined. Prospective data is therefore needed in order to confirm and to quantify this association. Because of the level of uncertainty, the clinical impact on the prevention and the treatment of VTE in patients with a psychiatric illness appears to be low. PMID:23026655

  3. The effect of the use of ultrasound in the success of peripheral venous catheterisation.

    PubMed

    ?smailo?lu, Elif Günay; Zaybak, Ayten; Akarca, Funda Karbek; K?yan, Selahattin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterisation in patients where difficulty was experienced in peripheral venous catheterisation. The study was conducted in the emergency department at a university hospital in ?zmir Turkey. After obtaining institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 60 patients with a history or suspicion of difficult cannulation were enrolled with 30 patients in traditional and 30 in ultrasound group. In the ultrasound group, peripheral intravenous catheterisation was performed using a portable ultrasound device with 13.5?MHz ultrasound probe and 20 gauge intravenous catheter. The success rate of peripheral venous catheterisation was 30% in the control group and 70% in the treatment group. The success rate was significantly higher among the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was 6.00?±?1.98 in the control group and 4.77?±?1.74 in the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was significantly lower in the treatment group. The state of chronic disease affected the success rate in patients in the treatment group. PMID:25175514

  4. A Retrospective Clinical Study: Complications of Totally Implanted Central Venous Access Ports

    PubMed Central

    Seok, June Pill; Cho, Hyun Min; Ryu, Han Young; Hwang, Wan Jin; Sung, Tae Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background When managing patients who require repeated venous access, gaining a viable intravenous route has been problematic. To improve the situation, various studies on techniques for venous access have been conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of complications following totally implanted central venous access port (TICVAP) insertion. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 163 patients, from December 2008 to March 2013. The occurrence of complications was studied in three separate periods of catheter use: the intraoperative period, postoperative period, and period during the treatment. Results A total of 165 cases of TICVAP insertions involving 156 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 35 complications (21%) overall. Among these, 31 cases of complications (19%) occurred during the treatment period and the other 4 cases were intraoperative and postoperative complications (2%). There were no statistically significant differences in age and gender of the patients between the two groups to be risk factors (p=0.147, p=0.08). Past history of chemotherapy, initial laboratory findings, and the locations of TICVAP insertion also showed no statistical significance as risk factors (p>0.05). Conclusion Because the majority of complications occurred after port placement and during treatment, meticulous care and management and appropriate education are necessary when using TICVAPs. PMID:24570862

  5. Unusual forms of venous thrombosis and thrombophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Martinelli; Angelo Bianchi

    2002-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) results from multiple interactions between inherited and environmental risk factors. The lower limbs are the most common site of VTE, but more rarely other venous sites can be involved. The role of risk factors for VTE can be differ- ent in the various thrombotic manifestations, and there are specific risk factors for specific sites. Coagulation abnormalities causing

  6. MR angiography of the portal venous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanh Vu Nghiem; Thomas C Winter; Udo P Schmiedl; Patrick C Freeny

    1996-01-01

    MR angiography (MRA) has become an increasingly important and practical clinical tool for the noninvasive assessment of abdominal vessels. Both two-dimensional time-of-flight and phase contrast techniques allow accurate evaluation of the portal venous system. This article reviews these two MRA techniques and discusses their impact on the diagnosis of vascular abnormalities of the portal venous system.

  7. MR angiography of the portal venous system.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, H V; Winter, T C; Schmiedl, U P; Freeny, P C

    1996-08-01

    MR angiography (MRA) has become an increasingly important and practical clinical tool for the noninvasive assessment of abdominal vessels. Both two-dimensional time-of-flight and phase contrast techniques allow accurate evaluation of the portal venous system. This article reviews these two MRA techniques and discusses their impact on the diagnosis of vascular abnormalities of the portal venous system. PMID:8858775

  8. Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabir Roy-Chaudhury; Burnett S. Kelly; Mary Ann Miller; Anita Reaves; Janice Armstrong; Nuwan Nanayakkara; Sue C. Heffelfinger

    2001-01-01

    Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts.BackgroundVascular access dysfunction is the most important cause of morbidity and hospitalization in the hemodialysis population in the United States at a cost of $1 billion per annum. Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) characterized by stenosis and subsequent thrombosis accounts for the overwhelming majority of pathology resulting in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dialysis graft failure. Despite the

  9. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  10. A Retained Epidural Catheter Fragment Treated by Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Oda, Takaaki; Tono, Osamu; Suetsugu, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The breakage of an epidural catheter is an extremely rare complication. We describe a unique case where a retained epidural catheter fragment after epidural anesthesia was treated by surgery. The epidural catheter broke during its removal, requiring surgery to remove the retained catheter. Intraoperatively, the removal of the catheter was attempted by simple traction, but was impossible because of the adhesion. The adhesion of the dura mater surface was carefully exfoliated and the successful removal of the catheter was accomplished. Conventionally, it was said that this follow-up was enough for the retained catheter. However, if a catheter is retained within the spinal canal, surgical removal should thus be considered before the adhesion advances.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Devices § 870.2870 Catheter tip pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a device incorporated...properties change in relation to changes in blood pressure. These changes are transmitted to...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Devices § 870.2870 Catheter tip pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a device incorporated...properties change in relation to changes in blood pressure. These changes are transmitted to...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Devices § 870.2870 Catheter tip pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a device incorporated...properties change in relation to changes in blood pressure. These changes are transmitted to...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Devices § 870.2870 Catheter tip pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a device incorporated...properties change in relation to changes in blood pressure. These changes are transmitted to...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1210 - Continuous flush catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1210 Continuous...catheter is an attachment to a catheter-transducer system that permits continuous intravascular...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1210 - Continuous flush catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1210 Continuous...catheter is an attachment to a catheter-transducer system that permits continuous intravascular...

  17. A Retained Epidural Catheter Fragment Treated by Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Oda, Takaaki; Tono, Osamu; Suetsugu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    The breakage of an epidural catheter is an extremely rare complication. We describe a unique case where a retained epidural catheter fragment after epidural anesthesia was treated by surgery. The epidural catheter broke during its removal, requiring surgery to remove the retained catheter. Intraoperatively, the removal of the catheter was attempted by simple traction, but was impossible because of the adhesion. The adhesion of the dura mater surface was carefully exfoliated and the successful removal of the catheter was accomplished. Conventionally, it was said that this follow-up was enough for the retained catheter. However, if a catheter is retained within the spinal canal, surgical removal should thus be considered before the adhesion advances. PMID:26097665

  18. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  19. Fracture of temporary femoral haemodialysis catheter: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Sanjay D; Gupta, Monica; Kaur, Ravinder; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    We report two similar cases of fracture and proximal migration of temporary femoral haemodialysis catheters. The two cases were encountered 6?years apart. These types of occurrences, especially in centres where catheter reuse is practiced, are not uncommon but seldom reported in the literature. Alert dialysis staff on both the occasions took remedial steps in time, which prevented embolisation of the catheters into the inferior vena cava. Both the catheters were removed successfully by the surgical team. PMID:23729711

  20. Care of patients with long-term indwelling urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Elizabeth; Neff, Donna Felber

    2003-01-01

    The complications and management of long-term indwelling catheters used for urinary retention and incontinence were reviewed. Research evidence from 1992 - 2002 was located through searches of CINAHL (38 articles), and Medline (89 articles). Fifty studies were critiqued for this review. The most common complications of long-term indwelling catheters are bacteriuria, encrustation, and blockage. Less common is the prevalence of bacteremia and renal disease. Risk factors for bacteriuria include female gender, older age, and long-term indwelling catheter use. Urinary white blood cells are the best indicator of urinary tract infection. For drainable catheter systems used by community dwelling adults, daily bag cleaning with a diluted bleach solution (1:10) is effective in reducing bacterial counts to negligible numbers. Application of topical antibiotic cream to the meatus around the catheter does not reduce bacteriuria. Silicone catheters and larger lumen size catheters are more resistant to encrustation than other catheter types and smaller lumen size catheters. Acidifying the urine without removing the urease-producing bacteria does not reduce encrustation. Removal of catheter blockage is preventive for renal disease. Because of the complications of long-term indwelling catheter usage, periodic assessment and voiding trials should be used to determine the continued need for a catheter. Evidence-based recommendations for managing indwelling urinary catheters include screening for risk factors and evaluating urinary white blood cell count for infection, and assessment of the continued need for a catheter. Interventions include consideration of closed versus open drainage systems, type of catheter, and size of catheter lumen. PMID:14656194

  1. Central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and intrathoracic blood volumes as preload indicators in cardiac surgery patients 1 Presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of The European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 28 – October 1, 1997. Winner of the Young Investigator's Award. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Gödje; M Peyerl; T Seebauer; P Lamm; H Mair; B Reichart

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Monitoring of cardiac preload is mainly performed by measurement of central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in combination with assessment of cardiac output, applying the pulmonary arterial thermal dilution technique. However, the filling pressures are negatively influenced by mechanical ventilation and the pulmonary artery catheter is criticized because of its inherent risks. Measurement of right atria, right ventricular,

  2. Catheter-related bacteremia by Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Santangelo, Rosaria; Fiori, Barbara; De Angelis, Giulia; Conte, Viola; Giaquinto, Alessia; Palucci, Ivana; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Di Florio, Viviana; Giani, Tommaso; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Spanu, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus bacteremia is a rare infection and identification of the pathogen is difficult. We present four cases of bacteremia by Cupriavidus metallidurans that were initially identified to the genus level by both Bruker and Vitek matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and later identified to the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of C. metallidurans catheter-related infections. Patients were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and catheter removal. PMID:25446890

  3. Confirmation of endovenous placement of central catheter using the ultrasonographic "bubble test".

    PubMed

    Baviskar, Ajit S; Khatib, Khalid I; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Galwankar, Sagar C; Dongare, Harshad C

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) is the most common procedure to be performed in Intensive Care Units. Addition of ultrasonographic guidance to this procedure, which was initially performed blindly, has improved safety of this procedure. Confirmation of endovenous placement of CVC though, is tricky, as methods for confirmation are either operator dependent, time-consuming or not available at bedside. Prospective observational study was carried out to study feasibility of use of sonobubble test to confirm the presence of CVC within central vein. After insertion of CVC in the internal jugular, subclavian or axillary vein, a 10 ml bolus of shaken saline microbubble is injected through port of CVC, and opacification of right atrium is observed in xiphoid view on ultrasonography. The Sonobubble test was helpful for dynamic confirmation of endovenous placement of CVC and prevented complications such as arterial puncture and cannulation. We recommend its use following CVC insertion. PMID:25624649

  4. Insertion of Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices by Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyeonjun; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Jung, Eun-Joo; Kang, Hyun Jong; Paik, Jin Hee; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the results for the insertion of totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) by surgeons. Methods Total 397 patients, in whom TICVADs had been inserted for intravenous chemotherapy between September 2008 and June 2014, were pooled. This procedure was performed under local anesthesia in an operation room. The insertion site for the TICVAD was mainly in the right-side subclavian vein. In the case of breast cancer patients, the subclavian vein opposite the surgical site was used for insertion. Results The 397 patients included 73 males and 324 females. Primary malignant tumors were mainly colorectal and breast cancer. The mean operation time was 54 minutes (18-276 minutes). Operation-related complications occurred in 33 cases (8.3%). Early complications developed in 15 cases with catheter malposition and puncture failure. Late complications, which developed after 24 hours, included inflammation in 6 cases, skin necrosis in 6 cases, hematoma in 3 cases, port malfunction in 1 case, port migration in 1 case, and intractable pain at the port site in 1 case. Conclusion Insertion of a TICVAD under local anesthesia by a surgeon is a relatively safe procedure. Meticulous undermining of the skin and carefully managing the TICVAD could minimize complications. PMID:25960974

  5. Catheter-associated fungemia due to Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, S; Alpan, O; Malowitz, R; Spitzer, E D

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of catheter-associated Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis fungemia in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child who was successfully treated with antifungal therapy and catheter removal. Catheter-associated W. dermatitidis fungemia appears to be distinct from previously described cases of disseminated infection with organ involvement. PMID:8815072

  6. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of silver iontophoretic catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaam Raad; Ray Hachem; Alfonso Zermeno; Mel Dumo; Gerald P. Bodey

    1996-01-01

    A silver iontophoretic catheter was designed consisting of two silver wires connected to an electric power source and disposed in a parallel and helical manner around the proximal subcutaneous segment of a silicone catheter. In an in vitro tunnelled bridge model the silver iontophoretic catheter prevented the migration of Staphylococcus epidermidis from the highly contaminated hub to the sterile tip

  7. Robotic Catheters for Beating Heart Surgery A dissertation presented

    E-print Network

    Robotic Catheters for Beating Heart Surgery A dissertation presented by Samuel Benjamin Kesner. Kesner Thesis Advisor Author Robotic Catheters for Beating Heart Surgery Abstract Compliant and flexible cardiac catheters provide direct access to the inside of the heart via the vascular system without

  8. Not all nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteriurias are catheter-associated

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Jonas; Ota, Kyle N; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Warren, David K

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively determined what proportion of nosocomial E. coli bacteriurias are associated with urinary catheters. Only 46% (95% CI 37–56%) of nosocomial E. coli bacteriurias were catheter-associated. Compared to bacteriuric patients with catheters, non-catheterized patients were less likely to be male and have renal insufficiency or a recent urogenital procedure. PMID:22011547

  9. [Long-term catheterization of the central venous system in children].

    PubMed

    Spatenka, J; Smelhaus, V; Spicáková, V; Janda, J; Cerný, K; Starý, J; Lochman, O; Hon?k, T

    1990-08-01

    The authors explain the principle of central venous catheters (CVC) for long-term use, indicators for insertion, mode of insertion and principles of care of children with these special CVC. The authors inserted since 1982 42 CVC of the Broviac-Hickmann type in 32 children (age 22 days--15 years; body weight 2.4-17 kg). Since 1987 they inserted 16 CVC for long-term use with a subcutaneous capsule to 16 children and adolescents (age 1 years-17 years; body weight 11.5-73.5 kg). These CVC were inserted under general anaesthesia, in catheterization theatre. There were no technical complications. The authors treated and followed under standard protocol a group of 14 children with 20 CVC of the Broviac type (age at onset of treatment 22-715 days; body weight 2.4-10 kg) as well as the above described group of 16 children and adolescents with CVC for long-term use with a subcutaneous capsule. During treatment of children with Broviac catheters five technical complications were observed (mechanical damage of the CVC); in children with CVC with a subcutaneous capsule one technical complication was recorded (damage of the chamber of the Chemoport Vygon system, by incorrect puncture). The authors searched for thromboembolic and infectious complications. In four of 20 children with Broviac catheters purulent phlebitis of the cannulated veins was found (all died)--one thromboembolic complication developed on average after 234 days of use of Broviac catheters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2078871

  10. Leash Your Guiding Catheter: Or How to Obtain a Stable Catheter Position for Crossover Iliac Embolization Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de; Charalambous, Nikolas; Trentmann, Jens; Schaefer, Fritz K. W. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Gross, Justus; Siggelkow, Markus [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery (Germany); Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    We present a safe and quick technique for crossover embolization procedures of the internal iliac artery with high-profile guiding catheter systems, after a pull-through maneuver with establishment of a crossover catheter-snare system. The attached snare is used to stabilize and direct the guiding catheter.

  11. Haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Silke; Platzek, Ivan; Zöphel, Klaus; Weise, Matthias; Kolditz, Martin; Halank, Michael; Hoeffken, Gert

    2014-06-01

    Haemoptysis is a potentially life-threatening condition with the need for prompt diagnosis. In about 10-20% of all cases the bleeding source remains unexplained with the standard diagnostic approach. The aim of this article is to show the necessity of widening the diagnostic approach to haemoptysis with consideration of pulmonary venous stenosis as a possible cause of even severe haemoptysis and haemoptoe. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline/PubMed database with the terms: "pulmonary venous stenosis", "pulmonary venous infarction" and "haemoptysis". Further references from the case reports were considered. 58 case reports and case collections about patients with haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis were detected. This review gives an overview about the case reports and discusses the underlying pathophysiology and the pros and cons of different imaging techniques for the detection of pulmonary venous stenosis. Several conditions predispose to the obstruction of the mediastinal pulmonary veins. Clinical findings are unspecific and may be misleading. Pulmonary venous stenosis can be detected using several imaging techniques, yet three-dimensional magnetic resonance-angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced computed tomography are the most appropriate. Pulmonary venous stenosis should be considered in patients with haemoptysis. PMID:24881072

  12. Acidovorax oryzae Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Alison; Isalska, Barbara; Williams, Simon G.; Muldoon, Eavan G.

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax oryzae is a bacterium that has never before been reported as pathogenic in human subjects. Here we describe the first case of a successfully treated A. oryzae catheter-associated bloodstream infection in an immunocompetent patient prior to heart transplantation. PMID:25275006

  13. Ultraminiature manometer-tipped cardiac catheter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Miniature diaphragm-type capacitance transducer capable of being mounted on the end of a cardiac catheter has been developed for measurement of intravascular pressures. The transducer can be inserted in small ducts /arteries and veins/ without disturbing the flow characteristics. It is very useful for making measurements in babies.

  14. Best practices in urinary catheter care.

    PubMed

    Herter, Rebecca; Kazer, Meredith Wallace

    2010-06-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common healthcare intervention used to manage urinary dysfunction that poses serious associated risks and complications. This article discusses methods of urinary catheterization and their indications, catheter-associated complications, and assessment and management strategies that home healthcare practitioners can employ to ensure best patient outcomes and minimize complications. PMID:20539136

  15. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is relatively unimportant. Low calf venous compliance probably results from stiffer venous, skeletal muscle, and connective tissues, and better-developed local and central neural controls of venous distensibility. This research establishes that upper-to-lower body reduction of venous compliance can explain headward positioning of the hydrostatic indifference level in humans.

  16. [Initial management of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Mismetti, Patrick; Bertoletti, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    The initial management or venous thromboembolism (VTE) corresponds to the first 3 months of treatment. Pulmonary embolism (PE) are mostly hospitalized. Serious PE associated with hemodynamic instability has to be admitted in intensive care unit due to the need for fibrinolytics. PE without any risk factor for VTE recurrences or death could be followed as outpatient. Conversely, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), including proximal DVT are not hospitalized with the xception of patients with serious risk factors. The therapeutic strategy is identical between DVT and PE treatment with an acute phase with either parenteral anticoagulants, especially low molecular weight heparins or fondaparinux, or by an intensive dose of direct oral anticoagulant such as rivaroxaban or apixaban. Then maintenance therapy has to be prescribed either with vitamin K antagonists with overlapping parenteral anticoagulants for at least 72 hours, or with a maintenance dose of apixaban or rivaroxaban. PMID:25939220

  17. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with

    PubMed Central

    Scoville, Elizabeth A; Konijeti, Gauree G; Nguyen, Deanna D; Sauk, Jenny; Yajnik, Vijay; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease is a well known risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Existing guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients do not extend to other clinical scenarios that may also be associated with VTE risk. Our aim was to estimate the fraction of VTE events in IBD patients that could be prevented. Methods A retrospective analysis assessed all IBD patients diagnosed with VTE at a single academic medical center from 2002–2012. Confirmed cases were analyzed for VTE risk factors, inpatient status, the use of DVT prophylaxis, and when applicable the reason for omission of prophylaxis. IBD VTE cases were compared with age- and sex-matched non-IBD VTE controls with regards to risk factors and potential opportunities for VTE prevention. Results There were 204 IBD patients (108 UC, 96 CD) diagnosed with VTE (110 DVT, 66 PE, 27 intra-abdominal thromboses, 1 other). One third of the VTE events occurred in hospitalized patients. Two-third of the medical inpatients and 44% of surgical in-patients who developed VTE did not receive prophylaxis. Importantly, 129 VTE events occurred in outpatients. The proportion of outpatients hospitalized within 4 weeks of developing venous thrombosis was higher in IBD patients than non-IBD controls (33 vs. 15%, p=0.0003). One-third of patients (36%) were experiencing ambulatory disease flares at the time of VTE diagnosis. Conclusions A substantial portion of VTE events in IBD patients occurred in clinical scenarios not routinely recommended for thromboprophylaxis. Further investigation of primary prophylaxis for IBD patients in high risk outpatients may be warranted. PMID:24552828

  18. Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wee Shian

    2004-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a major preventable cause of maternal mortality in developed countries. Following objective diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, appropriate treatment with anticoagulation should be initiated. The therapeutic options in pregnancy are limited to the use of either unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin. Oral anticoagulants, like warfarin, are relatively contraindicated for use during pregnancy for the treatment of venous thromboembolism because they freely cross the placenta and can be associated with adverse fetal effects. The appropriate length of treatment for acute venous thromboembolic disease diagnosed during pregnancy should be at least 3 months and possibly up till 6 weeks after delivery. PMID:15066244

  19. Simultaneous subcutaneous implantation of two osmotic minipumps connected to a jugular vein catheter in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johannes; Weij, Michel; Oosten, Annemieke Smit-van; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2014-10-01

    Subcutaneous osmotic pump implantation connected to a venous catheter is a well-established method for delivering compounds intravenously for an intermediate duration (approximately two weeks). When prolonged release is desired (approximately four weeks) reduced flow rate is needed with a similar pump volume. With a fixed intra-pump compound concentration, reduced flow rate results in unwanted reduced bioavailability of the compound. Prolonged intravenous delivery would therefore need a pump replacement, resulting in increased discomfort and confounding effects on experimental outcome. To overcome this, we describe a method to double the compound infusion rate for four weeks by implanting two low-flow rate osmotic pumps (2.5 µL/h for 28 days) connected to a jugular vein catheter in a single rat. Rats implanted with a single high-flow rate pump (5 µL/h for 14 days) served as controls. Double pump-implanted rats displayed similar post-operative weight gain and physical activity indicating similar levels of discomfort when compared with single pump-implanted rats. Double pump-implanted rats had an increased risk of pump-related complications (four delivery failures [double pump] versus one delivery failure [single pump]). Our data show that double pump implantation is a feasible alternative to changing pumps or the use of extracorporeal pump systems connected via a long wire to partly restrained animals. PMID:25002205

  20. Surgical Management of a Primary Retroperitoneal Venous Aneurysm Originating from the Presacral Venous Plexus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuchen; Shao, Jiang; Li, Fangda; Zheng, Yuehong

    2015-07-01

    Venous aneurysms are rare vascular abnormalities, and primary venous aneurysm originating from sacral venous plexus is exceedingly rare. In this article, we report a 28-year-old man with a large venous aneurysm (?15 × 10 cm in size) originating from presacral venous plexus. The patient complained of 1 year of constant back pain associated with frequent defecation and urination, caused by the compression from the aneurysm. Exploratory laparotomy was performed for diagnosis, with successful aneurysmectomy to relieve the compression. The patient recovered uneventfully with complete relief of symptoms. Postoperative histopathologic examination manifested classic venous aneurysm. During follow-up 6 months after surgery, all symptoms were resolved without significant postoperative complications. PMID:25747888

  1. Quality of life in patients with venous stasis ulcers and others with advanced venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tracz, Edyta; Zamojska, Ewa; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Zaborski, Daniel; Grzesiak, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life (QoL) in patients with advanced venous insufficiency (including venous stasis ulcers, skin discoloration, stasis eczema, and lipodermatosclerosis) assessed using the Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological (CEAP) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) classifications is presented. Also, disease features such as: intensity of pain, edema and inflammatory response that exerted the most profound effect on different domains of QoL are reported. The global QoL in patients with lower leg venous ulcerations was relatively similar to that observed in other patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The presence of venous ulcerations was associated with lower QoL in a Physical domain. Significant correlations were found between pain intensity and the values of Physical, Physiological, Level of Independence and Environmental domains, between edema intensity and Social domain as well as between the intensity of inflammatory response and Physical and Spiritual domains. PMID:25658932

  2. Analysis of the acute cytotoxicity of the Erlanger silver catheter.

    PubMed

    Greil, J; Spies, T; Böswald, M; Bechert, T; Lugauer, S; Regenfus, A; Guggenbichler, J P

    1999-01-01

    The Erlanger silver catheter consists of a new form of polyurethane, which contains finely dispersed metallic silver. The aim of this study was to establish the biocompatibility of this intravenous catheter by investigating the acute cytotoxicity of extracts from the Erlanger silver catheter on human fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Extracts of the Erlanger silver catheter were not cytotoxic for MRC-5 human fibroblasts nor for sensitized phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocytes. The addition of silver powder of up to 2% by weight to the basic catheter polyurethane Tecothane led to no increase in acute cytotoxicity in comparison with untreated Tecothane. The Erlanger silver catheter is a new intravenous catheter with good biocompatibility. PMID:10379441

  3. Asian venous thromboembolism guidelines: prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Liew, N C; Chang, Y H; Choi, G; Chu, P H; Gao, X; Gibbs, H; Ho, C O; Ibrahim, H; Kim, T K; Kritpracha, B; Lee, L H; Lee, L; Lee, W Y; Li, Y J; Nicolaides, A N; Oh, D; Pratama, D; Ramakrishnan, N; Robless, P A; Villarama-Alemany, G; Wong, R

    2012-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is under-utilized in Asia because of the misconception that its incidence is lower in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. The available data on VTE in Asia is limited due to the lack of well-designed multicenter randomized controlled trials as well as non-standardized research designs, making data comparison difficult. Emerging data indicates that the VTE incidence is not low in Asia, and is comparable to that reported in the Western literature in some instances. There is also a trend towards increasing incidence of VTE, as demonstrated by a number of hospital-based studies in Asia. This could be attributed to lifestyle changes, ageing population, increasing awareness of VTE and wider availability of Duplex ultrasound. The risk of VTE in hospitalized patients remain the same in Asians and Caucasians, even though there may be factors that are inherent to patients in Asia that influence the slight variation in incidence. The utilization rate of VTE prophylaxis remains suboptimal in Asia. The Asian Venous Thrombosis Forum (AVTF) comprises participants from various countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and experts from Australia and Europe. The forum evaluated the available data on VTE from the Asian region and formulated guidelines tailored to meet the needs of the region. We recommend that serious considerations are given to VTE prophylaxis especially in the at-risk group and a formal hospital policy be established to facilitate the implementation. On admission to the hospital, we recommend assessing the patients for both VTE and bleeding risk. We recommend mechanical prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of bleeding and utilizing it as an adjunctive measure in combination with pharmacological prophylaxis in patients with high risk of VTE. For patients undergoing general or gynecological surgery and with moderate risk for VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with one of the following: low dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For the same group of patients at high risk of VTE, we recommend pharmacological or combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgeries like total hip replacement, total knee replacement and proximal hip fracture surgery, we recommend using one of the following: LMWH, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran, warfarin or aspirin with IPC. For patients admitted to the hospital with acute medical illness and has moderate risk of VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with LDUH, LMWH or Fondaparinux. For the same group at high risk of VTE, we recommend combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. PMID:23222928

  4. Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the surface of the legs to the deep leg veins, from which calf muscles pump blood ... is located in the superficial veins or the deep veins. (See "Diagnostic evaluation of chronic venous insufficiency" .) ...

  5. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review. PMID:25716715

  6. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  7. Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik

    2014-07-01

    We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented. PMID:25097742

  8. A new technique for early detection of portal vein and arterial thromboses. Indwelling mesenteric venous catheterization and relevance to small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yamataka, A; Kawamoto, S; Ishikawa, M; Lancaster, J F; Miyano, T; Lynch, S V

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether, in an animal model, continuous monitoring of mesenteric venous pressure (MVP) via an indwelling mesenteric venous catheter could assist in early detection of thrombosis of the portal vein (PVT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMAT). The role of portography via the catheter was also studied in confirming these complications. An animal model of PVT and SMAT was developed in pigs. At laparotomy, a 20-cm jejunal loop was isolated and a heparin-coated catheter was inserted into a mesenteric vein of the isolated jejunum and connected to a pressure transducer. Conditions of PVT were simulated by progressive occlusion of the portal vein (PV) using a silastic tourniquet and those of SMAT by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) clamping. MVPs (mm Hg) were found to significantly increase with all degrees of PV occlusion (P < 0.01, Student's t test) and to significantly decrease after SMA occlusion (P < 0.01). Portography clearly demonstrated all degrees of PV stenosis after PV occlusion and stasis of contrast medium during SMA occlusion. The authors feel that this method enables rapid diagnosis of PVT and SMAT and may be useful in the monitoring of the therapy for these complications after small bowel transplantation. PMID:8212141

  9. Delaying urinary catheter insertion in the reception and resuscitation of blunt multitrauma and using a full bladder to tamponade pelvic bleeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sean; Vohora, Ashray; Russ, Matthias K; Mathew, Joseph K; Johnny, Cecil S; Stevens, Jeremy; Fitzgerald, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    This article proposes a counter-argument to standard Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training--which advocates bladder catheterisation to be performed as an adjunct to the primary survey and resuscitation for early decompression of the bladder and urine output monitoring. We argue the case for delaying bladder catheterisation until after definitive truncal Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. To reduce pelvic volume and associated bleeding, our trauma team delay catheter insertion until after the initial CT scan. The benefits of a full bladder also include improved views on initial Focussed Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) scan and improved interpretation of injuries on CT. Our urinary catheter related infection rates anecdotally decreased when insertion was delayed and consequently performed in a more controlled, non-resuscitation setting following CT. Adult blunt multitrauma patients with pelvic ring fractures are at risk of significant haemorrhage. Venous, arterial and medullary injuries with associated bleeding may be potentiated by an increased pelvic volume with ring disruption, as well as a reduced pressure effect from retroperitoneal and intra-pelvic organs on bleeding sites. Various techniques are used to reduce intra-pelvic bleeding. For shocked patients who have sustained major pelvic injuries with no other signs of urinary tract trauma and minimal urine in the bladder on initial FAST scan, we advocate careful, aseptic Foley catheter insertion followed by bladder insufflation with 500-600 mL of Normal Saline (NS) and subsequent catheter clamping to tamponade pelvic bleeding. PMID:25805552

  10. Alternate energy sources for catheter ablation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Wang; Munther K. Homoud; Mark S. Link; N. A. Mark Estes

    1999-01-01

    Because of the limitations of conventional radiofrequency ablation in creating large or linear lesions, alternative energy\\u000a sources have been used as possible methods of catheter ablation. Modified radiofrequency energy, cryoablation, and microwave,\\u000a laser, and ultrasound technologies may be able to create longer, deeper, and more controlled lesions and may be particularly\\u000a suited for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias and for

  11. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

  12. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: Indications and Complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Dubin; G. F. Van Hare

    2000-01-01

    .   Radiofrequency catheter ablation was first described in pediatric patients in the early 1990s. Since then, multiple advances\\u000a in the technology and understanding of radiofrequency ablation have allowed this technique to blossom into one of the most\\u000a powerful therapeutic tools available to the pediatric electrophysiologist. This treatment has, in the majority of cases, replaced\\u000a arrhythmia surgery as the definitive cure

  13. Proximally pedicled medial plantar flap based on superficial venous system alone for venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Mossaad, Bassem M; Chummun, Shaheel; Khan, Umraz; Chapman, Thomas W L

    2013-07-01

    The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap is well described for coverage of wounds around the ankle and heel. This flap is usually based on the deep venae comitantes for venous drainage, with the superficial veins divided during dissection. Usually any disruption of the deep venous system of the flap would result in abandoning this choice of flap. Venous congestion is a recognised complication of medial plantar flaps. The patient described in this case report had a medial ankle defect with exposed bone, for which a proximally pedicled medial plantar flap was used. As we raised the flap, both venae comitantes of the medial planter artery were found to be disrupted. The flap was raised based on the superficial veins draining into the great saphenous, as the only system for venous drainage, with no evidence of venous congestion. The flap was successfully transposed into the defect and healed with no complications. The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap can safely rely on the superficial venous system alone for drainage. In addition, preserving the superficial veins minimise the risk of venous congestion in this flap. We recommend preservation of superficial venous system when possible. PMID:23587679

  14. Lesion-specific laser catheters for angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy-Chutorian, Douglas

    1991-07-01

    Since no one laser catheter can treat all types of disease, a new family of 'lesion-specific' devices was evaluated with a holmium laser source. Fifty patients (avg. 69 yrs) with lifestyle-limiting peripheral vascular disease and 29 patients (avg. 58 yrs) with symptomatic coronary disease were studied. Average lesion length was 5.3 cm in legs and 1.5 cm in hearts. A 1.5, 2.0, or 2.8 mm, tapered-tip or non-tapered, multifiber catheter (Eclipse, Palo Alto, CA) was advanced over the wire while emitting 300-1200 mj/pulse at 5 Hz. Mean percent stenosis decreased from 89% to 45% after lasing with a mean of 411 pulses in legs and from 86% to 46% with a mean of 158 pulses in hearts. Complications were infrequent. Laser technical success was 80% and overall procedural success was 97%. Conclusion: 1) Specialized laser catheters delivering holmium laser energy are capable of reducing the severity of peripheral and coronary stenoses including balloon angioplasty failures and bypass graft failures; 2) Follow-up studies are in progress to assess long term efficacy.

  15. Flow Structure Associated with Hemodialysis Catheters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Jason

    2005-11-01

    Insertion of a hemodialysis catheter into the superior vena cava (SVC) gives rise to complex flow patterns, which arise from the simultaneous injection and extraction of blood through different holes (ports) of the catheter. Techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed in a scaled-up water facility. This approach allows characterization of both the instantaneous and time-averaged flow structure due to generic classes of side hole geometries. The trajectory of the injection jet is related to the ratio of the initial jet velocity to the mainstream velocity through the SVC, and to the type of distortion of the jet cross-section. Furthermore, the mean and fluctuating velocity and vorticity fields are determined. Significant turbulent stresses develop rapidly in the injection jet, which can impinge upon the wall of the simulated SVC. Immediately downstream of the injection hole, a recirculation cell of low velocity exists adjacent to the catheter surface. These and other representations of the flow structure are first evaluated for a steady throughflow, then for the case of a pulsatile waveform in the SVC, which matches that of a normal adult.

  16. Ultrasound catheters for circumferential cardiac ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Taylor, Kevin; Maguire, Mark T.; Picazo, Guillermo; Gangu, Madhuri; Lesh, Michael D.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate performance characteristics of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator intended for circumferential ablation of cardiac tissue. The catheter design integrates a cylindrical ultrasound transducer within a distendable water filled balloon in order to produce circumferential lesions at sites in the atria (i.e., pulmonary vein ostia), intended for treatment of certain atrial arrhythmias. Biothermal simulations were used to investigate thermal lesion depths corresponding to variations in applied power, duration, balloon diameter, and acoustic efficiency. Prototype applicators of varying frequency (7 - 12 MHz) and balloon diameter were constructed and characterized using measurements of acoustic efficiency and rotational beam plots. In vitro studies were performed in freshly excised beef hearts to characterize the radial penetration, axial length, and angular uniformity of thermal lesions produced by these applicators. Selected applicators were tested in vivo within pulmonary veins, coronary sinus, and atrial appendage of canine and porcine hearts. These preliminary efforts have indicated that circumferential ablation of cardiac tissue using ultrasound balloon catheters is feasible, and devices between 7 - 12 MHz with balloon diameters of 1.5 - 2.0 cm are capable of producing uniform lesions between 1 - 5 mm depth or greater for treatment durations of 120 seconds or less.

  17. Penile strangulation and necrosis due to condom catheter.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Heval S; ?rkoren, Saime; Sivrio?lu, Nazan

    2015-06-01

    Condom catheters are often used in the management of male urinary incontinence, and are considered to be safe. As condom catheters are placed on the male genitalia, sometimes adequate care is not taken after placement owing to poor medical care of debilitated patients and feelings of embarrassment and shame. Similarly, sometimes the correct size of penile sheath is not used. Strangulation of penis due to condom catheter is a rare condition; only few such cases have been reported in the literature. Proper application and routine care of condom catheters are important in preventing this devastating complication especially in a neurologically debilitated population. We present a case of penile necrosis due to condom catheter. We will also discuss proper catheter care and treatment of possible complications. PMID:23758994

  18. Emerging Technologies Part I: New Brachytherapy Catheter Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh R. Patel; Adam Dickler

    In an effort to merge the simplicity and reproducibility of the single-entry MammoSite balloon device with the customization\\u000a and dose flexibility of the multicatheter interstitial technique, three novel hybrid breast brachytherapy catheter systems\\u000a have been developed: the Contura, SAVI, and ClearPath. Each of these catheter systems is reviewed in this chapter. These novel\\u000a catheter systems represent a new iteration of

  19. Antimicrobial surface functionalization of plastic catheters by silver nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Roe; Balu Karandikar; Nathan Bonn-Savage; Bruce Gibbins; Jean-Baptiste Roullet

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To test the antimicrobial activity and evaluate the risk of systemic toxicity of novel catheters coated with silver nanoparticles. Methods: Catheters were coated with silver using AgNO3, a surfactant and N,N,N 0,N 0-tetramethylethy- lenediamine as a reducing agent. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy. Silver release from the catheters was determined in vitro and in vivo using radioactive

  20. Stimulating Popliteal Catheters for Postoperative Analgesia After Hallux Valgus Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Taboada; Javier Carceller; Juan Lagunilla

    2006-01-01

    Stimulating catheters have been recently introduced in clinicalpractice.Weassessedtheefficacyofstimulating andnonstimulatingcatheterplacementforpaincontrol and local anesthetic requirements after hallux valgus repair with continuous sciatic popliteal nerve block in this comparative, randomized, blinded-to-observer study of 48 patients. A stimulating catheter was placed in groups S-125 and S-0625. The same catheter was in- serted without stimulation in group NS-125. An infu- sion of 0.125% levobupivacaine was

  1. Haptic virtual fixture for robotic cardiac catheter navigation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Woo; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Yongdoo; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    In manual or robot-assisted catheter intervention, excessive manipulation force may cause tissue perforation. Using images acquired by an imaging device routinely used for catheter interventions such as X-ray fluoroscopy, the structure and size of blood vessels and the relative position of the catheter tip inside the vessel can be obtained. To prevent collision of the catheter tip and the vessel wall, vision-assisted control methods using forbidden-region virtual fixture (FRVF) technique can be utilized and an experimental implementation has been performed in this study. A master-slave configured robotic platform for cardiac catheter was used for this study. The robotic master handle can provide haptic rendering to the user. A vessel phantom model mimicking human vasculature for the inner radii was fabricated for simulated intervention experiments. A digital optical camera was used for image acquisition. After the vessel phantom and the catheter tip were segmented, distance between the vessel centerline and the catheter tip was calculated and the forbidden region that the catheter tip should keep away from was set for the safe catheter manipulation. Virtual force generation algorithm was implemented for feeding the signal indicating the catheter tip penetrating into the forbidden region back to the user in the robotic master handle. To validate the suggested method, in vitro experiments were conducted. Through a chain of image filtering procedures including edge detection, the catheter tip and the vessel wall were able to be well segmented. The virtual force generator worked appropriately. The developed FRVF technique could provide helpful auxiliary information to clinicians for safer manipulation of catheters in cardiac catheterization procedures. PMID:22023171

  2. Acute phase treatment of venous thromboembolism: advanced therapy. Systemic fibrinolysis and pharmacomechanical therapy.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, S V; Wärntges, S

    2015-05-26

    Venous thromboembolism, which encompasses deep-vein thrombosis and acute pulmonary embolism (PE), represents a major contributor to global disease burden worldwide. For patients who present with cardiogenic shock or persistent hypotension (acute high-risk PE), there is consensus that immediate reperfusion treatment applying systemic fibrinolysis or, in the case of a high bleeding risk, surgical or catheter-directed techniques, is indicated. On the other hand, for the large, heterogeneous group of patients presenting without overt haemodynamic instability, the indications for advanced therapy are less clear. The recently updated guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology emphasise the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function) and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury) for distinguishing between an intermediate and a low risk for an adverse early outcome. In intermediate-high-risk PE defined by the presence of both right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography (or computed tomography) and a positive troponin (or natriuretic peptide) test, the bleeding risks of full-dose fibrinolytic treatment have been shown to outweigh its potential clinical benefits unless clinical signs of haemodynamic decompensation appear (rescue fibrinolysis). Recently published trials suggest that catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, low-dose local fibrinolysis may provide an effective and particularly safe treatment option for some of these patients. PMID:25789580

  3. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Mandel, Jacob J; Wu, Jimin; Yuan, Ying; Webre, Courtney; Pawar, Tushar A; Lhadha, Harshad S; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-08-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is high for patients with brain tumors (11-20 %). Glioblastoma (GBM) patients, in particular, have the highest risk of VTE (24-30 %). The Khorana scale is the most commonly used clinical scale to evaluate the risk of VTE in cancer patients but its efficacy in patients with GBM remains unclear. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of VTE in GBM patients and identify potential risk factors for the development of VTE during adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, we intend to examine whether the Khorana scale accurately predicts the risk of VTE in GBM patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of GBM patients treated at MD Anderson during the years 2005-2011. The study cohort included 440 patients of which 64 (14.5 %) developed VTE after the start of adjuvant treatment. The median time to develop VTE was 6.5 months from the start of adjuvant treatment. On multivariate analysis male sex, BMI ? 35, KPS ? 80, history of VTE and steroid therapy were significantly associated with the development of VTE. The Khorana scale was found to be an invalid VTE predictive model in GBM patients due to poor specificity. Of the 64 patients who developed a VTE, 36 were treated with anticoagulation, 2 with an IVC filter, and 21 with both. Complications (intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding in other organs and thrombocytopenia) secondary to anticoagulation were reported in 16 % (n = 10). VTE is common in patients with GBM. Our results did not validate the Khorana scale in GBM patients. Additional studies identifying which GBM patients are at highest risk for VTE are needed to enable further evaluation of VTE preventive measures in this selected group. PMID:25985958

  4. Wound care in venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mosti, G

    2013-03-01

    Wound dressings: ulcer dressings should create and maintain a moist environment on the ulcer surface. It has been shown that in an ulcer with a hard crust and desiccated bed, the healing process is significantly slowed and sometimes completely blocked so favouring infection, inflammation and pain. In contrast a moist environment promotes autolytic debridement, angiogenesis and the more rapid formation of granulation tissue, favours keratinocytes migration and accelerates healing of wounds. Apart from these common characteristics, wound dressings are completely different in other aspects and must be used according to the ulcer stage. In necrotic ulcers, autolytic debridement by means of hydrogel and hydrocolloids or with enzymatic paste is preferred. In case of largely exuding wounds alginate or hydrofibre are indicated. When bleeding occurs alginate is indicated due to its haemostatic power. Where ulcers are covered by granulation tissue, polyurethane foams are preferred. When infection coexists antiseptics are necessary: dressing containing silver or iodine with large antibacterial spectrum have proved to be very effective. In the epithelization stage polyurethane films or membranes, thin hydrocolloids or collagen based dressings are very useful to favour advancement of the healing wound edge. Despite these considerations, a Cochrane review failed to find advantages for any dressing type compared with low-adherent dressings applied beneath compression. Surgical debridement and grafting of wounds, negative wound pressure treatment: surgical and hydrosurgical debridement are indicated in large, necrotic and infected wounds as these treatments are able to get rid of necrotic, infected tissue very quickly in a single surgical session, thereby significantly accelerating wound bed preparation and healing time. Negative wound pressure treatment creating a negative pressure on ulcer bed is able to favour granulation tissue and shorten healing time. In case of hard-to-heal leg ulcers such as large, deep, infected and long-lasting venous ulcers, sharp debridement and skin grafting may favour and shorten ulcer healing. PMID:23482540

  5. Venous gangrene of the upper extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Shield, G W; Riddell, D H; Snell, J D

    1985-01-01

    Gangrene of the hand associated with acute upper extremity venous insufficiency has been seen in four limbs in three patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. All three patients had life-threatening illnesses associated with diminished tissue perfusion, hypercoagulability, and venous injury. One patient progressed to above-elbow amputation, but venous thrombectomy in one limb and thrombolytic therapy in two others were successful in preventing major tissue loss. All three patients eventually died from their underlying illness. Thirteen previously reported patients with "venous gangrene" of the upper extremity have been analyzed. An underlying life-threatening illness was present in the majority of these patients (7/13, 54%) and, like the Vanderbilt series, amputations were frequent (7/13, 54%) and mortality (5/13, 38%) was high. This unusual form of ischemia appears to be produced by permutations of global circulatory stasis, subclavian or axillary vein occlusion, and peripheral venous thrombosis. Early, aggressive restoration of adequate cardiac output and thrombectomy and/or thrombolytic therapy may provide the best chance for tissue salvage and survival in this group of patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A and B. FIG. 8. PMID:3977453

  6. New technology: heparin and antimicrobial-coated catheters.

    PubMed

    Ibeas-Lopez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Although tunneled hemodialysis catheter must be considered the last option for vascular access, it is necessary in some circumstances in the dialysis patient. Thrombosis and infections are the main causes of catheter-related comorbidity. Fibrin sheath, intimately related with the biofilm, is the precipitating factor of this environment, determining catheter patency and patient morbidity. Its association with bacterial overgrowth and thrombosis has led to the search of multiple preventive measures. Among them is the development of catheter coatings to prevent thrombosis and infections. There are two kinds of treatments to cover the catheter surface: antithrombotic and antimicrobial coatings. In nondialysis-related settings, mainly in intensive care units, both have been shown to be efficient in the prevention of catheter-related infection. This includes heparin, silver, chlorhexidine, rifampicine and minocycline. In hemodialysis population, however, few studies on surface-treated catheters have been made and they do not provide evidence that shows complication reduction. The higher effectiveness of coatings in nontunneled catheters may depend on the short average life of these devices. Hemodialysis catheters need to be used over long periods of time and require clinical trials to show effectiveness of coatings over long periods. This also means greater knowledge of biofilm etiopathogeny and fibrin sheath development. PMID:25751551

  7. Ins and outs of suprapubic catheters--a clinician's experience.

    PubMed

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In today's evolving health care field, outpatient procedures are becoming more commonplace. Many patients with suprapubic catheters are now being seen in outpatient or home care settings. Addressing the educational needs of patients, family members, and nursing staff is now more important than ever for successful patient suprapubic catheter management. A basic understanding of how these catheters are initially placed is essential for proper care and avoidance of possible complications. This review of initial placement of suprapubic catheters and post-insertion care is based on one clinician's experience and practice at a local hospital in Pennsylvania. PMID:22073897

  8. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  3. Magnetic Catheter Manipulation in the Interventional MRI Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark W.; Martin, Alastair B.; Lillaney, Prasheel; Losey, Aaron D.; Yee, Erin J.; Bernhardt, Anthony; Malba, Vincent; Evans, Lee; Sincic, Ryan; Saeed, Maythem; Arenson, Ronald L.; Hetts, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate deflection capability of a prototype endovascular catheter, which is remotely magnetically steerable, for use in the interventional MRI environment. Materials and Methods Copper coils were mounted on the tips of commercially available 2.3 – 3.0 Fr microcatheters. The coils were fabricated in a novel manner by plasma vapor deposition of a copper layer followed by laser lithography of the layer into coils. Orthogonal helical (solenoid) and saddle-shaped (Helmholtz) coils were mounted on a single catheter tip. Microcatheters were tested in water bath phantoms in a 1.5T clinical MRI scanner, with variable simultaneous currents applied to the coils. Catheter tip deflection was imaged in the axial plane utilizing a “real-time” steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRI sequence. Degree of deflection and catheter tip orientation were measured for each current application. Results The catheter tip was clearly visible in the longitudinal and axial planes. Magnetic field artifacts were visible when the orthogonal coils at the catheter tip were energized. Variable amounts of current applied to a single coil demonstrated consistent catheter deflection in all water bath experiments. Changing current polarity reversed the observed direction of deflection, whereas current applied to two different coils resulted in deflection represented by the composite vector of individual coil activations. Microcatheter navigation through the vascular phantom was successful through control of applied current to one or more coils. Conclusion Controlled catheter deflection is possible with laser lithographed multi-axis coil tipped catheters in the MRI environment. PMID:23707097

  4. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the options?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher C.K.; Khandasamy, Yugasaravanan; Singam, Praveen; Hong Goh, Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli M.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract. PMID:21483557

  5. Prevention of Catheter-Related Bacteremia with a Daily Ethanol Lock in Patients with Tunnelled Catheters: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slobbe, Lennert; Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J.; el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Boersma, Eric; van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Rijnders, Bart J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) results in significant attributable morbidity and mortality. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we studied the efficacy and safety of a daily ethanol lock for the prevention of CRBSI in patients with a tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC). Methodology From 2005 through 2008, each lumen of the CVC of adult hematology patients was locked for 15 minutes per day with either 70%-ethanol or placebo, where after the lock solution was flushed through. As a primary endpoint, the incidence rates of endoluminal CRBSI were compared. Principal Findings The intent-to-treat analysis was based on 376 patients, accounting for 448 CVCs and 27,745 catheter days. For ethanol locks, the incidence of endoluminal CRBSI per 1000 CVC-days was 0.70 (95%-CI, 0.4–1.3), compared to 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.9) for placebo (incidence rate-ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.27–1.30; P?=?.19). For endoluminal CRBSI according to the strictest definition (positive hub culture and identical bacterial strain in blood), a 3.6-fold, non-significant, reduction was observed for patients receiving ethanol (2 of 226 versus 7 of 222; P?=?.103). No life-threatening adverse events were observed. More patients receiving ethanol discontinued lock-therapy (11 of 226 versus 1 of 222; P?=?.006) or continued with decreased lock-frequency (10 of 226 versus 0 of 222; P?=?.002), due to non-severe adverse events. Conclusions In this study, the reduction in the incidence of endoluminal CRBSI using preventive ethanol locks was non-significant, although the low incidence of endoluminal CRBSI precludes definite conclusions. Therefore, the lack of statistical significance may partially reflect a lack of power. Significantly more patients treated with ethanol locks discontinued their prophylactic treatment due to adverse effects, which were non-severe but reasonably ethanol related. Additional studies should be performed in populations with higher incidence of (endoluminal) CRBSI. Alternative sources of bacteremia, like exoluminal CRBSI or microbial translocation during chemotherapy-induced mucositis may have been more important in our patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122642 PMID:20520776

  6. Report of an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations in a cadaveric upper limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations discovered during dissection of cervical, axillary and brachial area of a cadaver is described. Variations are thoroughly described and literature is briefly reviewed. Lateral cord of brachial plexus was not formed; Eight Cervical root divided into anterior and posterior division before uniting with First Thoracic root and Upper Trunk was unusually short. Axillary artery gave origin to a superficial brachial artery and then continued as deep brachial artery. Multiple variations in typical axillary artery branches were present including existence of inferior pectoral artery. Cephalic vein was absent. A variety of interventions, from relative simple as central venous catheter placement to most complicated as brachial plexus injury repair demand thorough knowledge of area’s regional anatomy. Familiarity with anatomic variations allows more precise and careful interventions. Research on these variations is valuable for anatomists and embryologists but also for clinicians because it may provide useful information for non - typical cases but also helps in raising a high level of suspicion. PMID:24495850

  7. The angiographic anatomy of the portal venous system in the neonatal dog.

    PubMed

    Burton, C A; White, R N

    1999-06-01

    The angiographic anatomy of the portal venous system in 50 dead, neonatal Labrador/Retriever type puppies is described. Angiography was performed by the injection of radioopaque contrast media through a catheter placed within the umbilical vein. In 49 pups the ductus venosus was a straight vessel arising from the left main portal vein and terminating in an ampulla into which the left hepatic and left phrenic veins entered prior to the ampulla entering the caudal vena cava. The diameter of the ductus venosus was significantly narrower (P<0.001) in pups born alive (n=10) when compared to stillborn individuals (n=39). No discreet narrowing of the ductus venosus indicating a sphincter was found, with closure appearing to be uniform along the vessel's length. A well-developed, patent portal venous system was present in the majority of individuals. One pup showed variation from the others studied having a vascular connection between the portal sinus and the vena cava within the liver. This may represent a normal variant of the ductus venosus, or may be an anatomical abnormality leading to the development of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. If this was an intrahepatic shunt, no concurrent ductus venosus was present. PMID:10333461

  8. Usefulness of central venous oxygen saturation monitoring during bidirectional Glenn shunt.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Nami; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Kambe, Noriko; Kasai, Asuka; Wakamatsu, Narutomo; Katayama, Toshiko; Soga, Tomohiro; Tada, Fumihiko; Kitaichi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A PediaSat™ oximetry catheter (PediaSat: Edwards Lifesciences Co., Ltd., Irvine, CA, U. S. A.), which facilitates continuous measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), may be useful for surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease. We used PediaSat during a bidirectional Glenn shunt. The patient was a 13-month-old boy. Under a diagnosis of left single ventricle (pulmonary atresia, right ventricular hypoplasia, atrial septal defect) and residual left aortic arch/left superior vena cava, a modified right Blalock-Taussig shunt was performed. Cyanosis deteriorated, so a bidirectional Glenn shunt was scheduled. After anesthesia induction, a 4.5 Fr double-lumen (8 cm) PediaSat was inserted through the right internal jugular vein for continuous ScvO2 monitoring. Furthermore, the probe of a near-infrared, mixed blood oxygen saturation-measuring monitor was attached to the forehead for continuous monitoring of the regional brain tissue mixed blood oxygen saturation (rSO2) (INVOS™ 5100C, Covidien; Boulder, CO, U. S. A.). Blockage of the right pulmonary artery and right superior vena cava decreased the oxygen saturation, ScvO2, and rSO2, but increased the central venous pressure. Although changes in ScvO2 were parallel to those in rSO2, the former showed more marked changes. A combination of ScvO2 and rSO2 for monitoring during Glenn shunt may be safer. PMID:24190047

  9. Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Smith, Matthew H; Lompado, Art; Hillman, Lloyd W

    2003-03-01

    The objective was to test calibration of an eye oximeter (EOX) in a vitiligo swine eye and correlate retinal venous oxygen saturation (Srv(O(2))), mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv(O(2))), and cardiac output (CO) during robust changes in blood volume. Ten anesthetized adult Sinclair swine with retinal vitiligo were placed on stepwise decreasing amounts of oxygen. At each oxygen level, femoral artery oxygen saturation (Sa(O(2))) and retinal artery oxygen saturation (Sra(O(2))) were obtained. After equilibration on 100% O(2), subjects were bled at 1.4 ml. kg(-1). min(-1) for 20 min. Subsequently, anticoagulated shed blood was reinfused at the same rate. During graded hypoxia, exsanguination, and reinfusion, Sra(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) were measured by using the EOX, and CO and Sv(O(2)) were measured by using a pulmonary artery catheter. During graded hypoxia, Sra(O(2)) correlated with Sa(O(2)) (r = 0.92). Srv(O(2)) correlated with Sv(O(2)) (r = 0.89) during exsanguination and reinfusion. Sv(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) correlated with CO during blood removal and resuscitation (r = 0.92). Use of vitiligo retinas improved the calibration of EOX measurements. In this robust hemorrhage model, Srv(O(2)) correlates with CO and Sv(O(2)) across the range of exsanguination and resuscitation. PMID:12571124

  10. Prolonged bacterial exposure to minocycline\\/rifampicin-impregnated vascular catheters does not affect antimicrobial activity of catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saima Aslam; Rabih O. Darouiche

    Objectives: We assessed the in vitro effect of exposing various bacteria to minocycline\\/rifampicin- impregnated vascular catheters on the antimicrobial activity of the catheters and the antimicrobial sus- ceptibility of tested organisms. Methods: Segments of minocycline\\/rifampicin-impregnated catheters were placed in agar plates inocu- lated with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE).

  11. Comparison of Interstitial Fluid pH, PCO2, PO2 with Venous Blood Values During Repetitive Handgrip Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Shear, Michael; Walz, Matthias; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a small, fiber optic sensor to measure pH, PCO2 and PO2 from forearm muscle interstitial fluid (IF) during handgrip dynamometry. PURPOSE: Compare pH, PCO2 and PO2 values obtained from venous blood with those from the IF of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during three levels of exercise intensity. METHODS: Six subjects (5M/1F), average age 29+/-5 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space and a fiber optic sensor (Paratrend, Diametrics Medical, Inc.) was placed through a 22 G catheter into the FDS muscle under ultrasound guidance. After a 45 min rest period, subjects performed three 5-min bouts of repetitive handgrip exercise (2s contraction/1 s relaxation) at attempted levels of 15%, 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction. The order of the exercise bouts was random with the second and third bouts started after blood lactate had returned to baseline. Venous blood was sampled every minute during exercise and analyzed with an I-Stat CG-4+ cartridge, while IF fiber optic sensor measurements were obtained every 2 s. Change from pre-exercise baseline to end of exercise was computed for pH, PCO2 and PO2. Blood and IF values were compared with a paired t-test. RESULTS: Baseline values for pH, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.37+/-0.02, 46+/-4 mm Hg, and 36+/-6 mm Hg respectively in blood and 7.39+/-0.02, 44+/-6 mm Hg, and 35+/-14 mm Hg in IF. Average changes over all exercise levels are noted in the Table below. For each parameter the exercise-induced change was at least twice as great in IF as in blood. In blood and IF, pH and PCO2 increases were directly related to exercise intensity. Change in venous PO2 was unrelated to exercise intensity, while IF PO2 decreased with increases in exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of IF pH, PCO2 and PO2 is more sensitive to exercise intensity than measurement of the same parameters in venous blood and provides continuous assessment during and after exercise.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  13. [Cerebral venous thrombosis and Behcet's disease].

    PubMed

    el Bahri Ben Mrad, Fériel; Fredj, Mohamed; Skandrani, Leila; Kaddour, Chokri; Gouider, Riadh; Mrabet, Amel

    2002-02-01

    Behcet's disease is a chronic relapsing multisystem disorder of unknown etiology. Neurological complications are frequent, occurring in 10 to 49% of cases. We report 4 cases with Behcet's disease (3 females and 1 male) who had symptomatic intracranial hypertension due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis within a mean delay of 2 years. The mean age at onset was 31 years and the mean age on referral was 39.5 years. The predominant manifestation in our series were headache, papilledema, seizures and pyramidal syndromes. CT Scan showed non specific abnormalities in all of them and the sinus venous thrombosis was confirmed by MRI in 3 cases. The authors emphasize on the importance of MRI with angio MRI for the diagnosis, the outcome and the evaluation of the cerebral venous thrombosis after treatment. PMID:12080561

  14. Symptomatic upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis after pacemaker placement in a pediatric patient: how to treat?

    PubMed

    Spar, David S; Anderson, Jeffrey B; Palumbo, Joseph S; Kukreja, Kamlesh U; Czosek, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) after pacemaker placement in adults has been reported, but the occurrence of UEDVT in pediatric patients is poorly defined, and no treatment guidelines exist. This report describes a 14-year old girl with a history of complete atrioventricular block who experienced a symptomatic UEDVT 8 months after placement of a transvenous pacemaker. The girl was treated initially with anticoagulation including subcutaneous enoxaparin and a heparin drip, which did not resolve the venous obstruction. In the interventional laboratory, a venogram demonstrated complete obstruction of the left subclavian vein, which was treated successfully with catheter-directed alteplase, direct thrombus removal by manual suctioning, and balloon angioplasty. Warfarin therapy was continued for an additional 6 months, with follow-up venous ultrasounds demonstrating left subclavian vein patency. Soon after completing warfarin therapy, the girl presented with minimal edema of her left distal extremity and was thought to have post-thrombotic syndrome, which resolved quickly. She continued to receive aspirin therapy, with no recurrence of symptoms. In conclusion, symptomatic UEDVT after pacemaker placement in a pediatric patient can be treated successfully with both anticoagulation and interventional therapies. Further studies are needed to evaluate the incidence of thrombus formation among children with transvenous pacemaker placement together with the development of guidelines based on the safety and effectiveness of differing treatments. PMID:22618585

  15. Hyperspectral venous image quality assessment for optimum illumination range selection based on skin tone characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous veins localization is usually performed manually by medical staff to find suitable vein to insert catheter for medication delivery or blood sample function. The rule of thumb is to find large and straight enough vein for the medication to flow inside of the selected blood vessel without any obstruction. The problem of peripheral difficult venous access arises when patient’s veins are not visible due to any reason like dark skin tone, presence of hair, high body fat or dehydrated condition, etc. Methods To enhance the visibility of veins, near infrared imaging systems is used to assist medical staff in veins localization process. Optimum illumination is crucial to obtain a better image contrast and quality, taking into consideration the limited power and space on portable imaging systems. In this work a hyperspectral image quality assessment is done to get the optimum range of illumination for venous imaging system. A database of hyperspectral images from 80 subjects has been created and subjects were divided in to four different classes on the basis of their skin tone. In this paper the results of hyper spectral image analyses are presented in function of the skin tone of patients. For each patient, four mean images were constructed by taking mean with a spectral span of 50 nm within near infrared range, i.e. 750–950 nm. Statistical quality measures were used to analyse these images. Conclusion It is concluded that the wavelength range of 800 to 850 nm serve as the optimum illumination range to get best near infrared venous image quality for each type of skin tone. PMID:25087016

  16. Innovative technique: Distal venous cannulation for salvaging free flap venous thrombosis by heparinised saline irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G. D. S.; Mohanty, Devidutta; Jain, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful free tissue transfer depends on a multitude of factors, and adequate drainage of venous blood is one of the most critical part of successful free tissue transfers. Material and Methods: We report 6 cases of microvascular free flaps used for covering various defects, which developed venous congestion, that were salvaged with heparinised saline irrigation through the distal end of the congested vein by the help of an intravenous cannula. The irrigation was continued for 5 days. Results: All the flaps were successfully salvaged. Conclusion: This method has potential applications in situations for successful salvage of free tissue transfer particularly due to venous thrombosis. PMID:25991887

  17. The Impact of Lower Extremity Venous Ulcers due to Chronic Venous Insufficiency on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Koupidis, Sotirios A; Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Stathopoulos, Vassilios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2008-01-01

    Lower extremity venous ulcers comprise a complex medical and social issue. The conservative and/or surgical management of venous ulcers is often inadequate. In addition, the psychosocial aspect of the disease is often overlooked and most often undertreated. Common symptoms such as pain, low self-esteem and patient isolation are usually not recognized and therefore not adequately managed. This mini-review summarizes the current data on the management of lower extremity venous ulcers and their impact on the quality of life of these patients. PMID:19430523

  18. Anticoagulation Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David K

    2004-01-01

    Context On the basis of theoretical rationale, heparoids and vitamin K antagonists are prescribed to prevent complications of venous thromboembolism (VTE, including pulmonary emboli [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]). They have been employed as the standard of care for treatment of VTE for over 40 years. Objective Critique the evidence supporting the efficacy of anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE in reducing morbidity and/or mortality. Data Sources This includes a search of reference lists and Medline. Study Selection This includes studies concerning the diagnosis and incidence of PE and DVT, efficacy of anticoagulants in preventing complications, risks of anticoagulant therapy, and the costs of diagnosis and the treatment of VTE. Data Extraction I analyzed references cited in reviews and meta-analyses of VTE, and from Medline searches concerning diagnosis and treatment. The data quality and validity of studies depended on the consistency of findings and statistical significance of the data. Data Synthesis No placebo-controlled trials of anticoagulants as treatment of PE with objective criteria for diagnosis have been published. Three randomized trials of anticoagulants vs no anticoagulants in DVT showed no benefit with heparin and vitamin K antagonists (combined all-cause mortality: anticoagulants = 6/66, un-anticoagulated controls = 1/60, P = .07). No placebo-controlled trials of low-molecular-weight heparins or thrombolytic drugs have been done; therefore, their efficacy in VTE depends entirely on randomized comparisons with unfractionated heparin. They have not been proven safer or more efficacious than unfractionated heparin. Thrombolysis causes more major and fatal bleeds than heparin and is no more effective in preventing PE. Diagnosing and treating VTE patients in the United States with anticoagulants costs $3.2 to $15.5 billion per year (1992 dollars). Bleeding and complications of angiography cause 1017-3525 deaths annually. Conclusion Anticoagulants have not been proven efficacious or safe in VTE. The bleeding risks and other complications of anticoagulation are unacceptably high. The use of anticoagulants for patients with VTE should be reconsidered. PMID:15520627

  19. Topical issues in venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Páramo Fernández, José Antonio

    2010-12-14

    Despite clear guidelines and the availability of effective treatments, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains relatively common, particularly in the hospital setting. This paper reviews topical issues in VTE, in terms of treatments, data and guidelines. Existing anticoagulants have several limitations. Bleeding risk is a concern with all anticoagulants. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay of oral anticoagulant therapy, but they are limited by the need for frequent monitoring. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is limited by an inconvenient route of administration (continuous intravenous infusion) and a higher risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding compared with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). LMWH have a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile and greater bioavailability than UFH, which permits weight-adjusted LMWH dosing without the need for monitoring in most patients. LMWH also have a more convenient dosing strategy than UFH (once-daily subcutaneous injection). Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of factor Xa and, like LMWH, does not require monitoring. The efficacy of fondaparinux in long-term VTE treatment remains to be established. The optimal time to initiate thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery remains controversial. Initiating thromboprophylaxis just before or soon after surgery (the 'just-in-time' strategy) achieves better thromboprophylaxis but could increase the risk of bleeding complications. Balancing the need for extended thromboprophylaxis after major surgery with the need to minimize bleeding remains an important consideration. Despite clear guidelines, thromboprophylaxis is widely underused, particularly in medical patients, in whom rates as low as 28% have been reported. Electronic alert systems may be of value for increasing the use of adequate thromboprophylaxis. The use of different definitions of VTE and bleeding in clinical trials, together with missing venography data, conflicting guidelines in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty, and the limited amount of data in children, also make VTE prevention and management more difficult. Administering thromboprophylaxis to a wider group of patients, employing the 'just-in-time' protocols, ensuring adequate duration of thromboprophylaxis, combining different methods of thromboprophylaxis and developing new anticoagulants should help to improve thromboprophylaxis. PMID:21162605

  20. Indwelling pleural catheters for malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    McPhillips, Dympna; Breen, David

    2015-06-01

    Pleural effusions are a common cause of symptoms in patients with malignancy and can adversely affect quality of life. However, not all effusions in the setting of malignancy are due to the cancer itself and therefore it is essential to perform an extensive assessment to diagnose the underlying aetiology. There are a number of treatment options available to manage a malignant effusion and reduce the associated symptomatology. The choice of intervention depends on a number of factors and, in particular, patient preference. In this paper, we will discuss the role of an indwelling pleural catheter in the outpatient management of individuals with malignant effusions. PMID:26126674