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1

The use of an implantable central venous (Hickman) catheter for long-term venous access in dogs undergoing bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Methods were developed for the insertion and maintenance of long-term central venous catheters in dogs in order to provide reliable venous access during bone marrow transplantation. Single-lumen, 9.6 Fr Hickman catheters with a VitaCuff were used. The catheter was inserted into the jugular vein via a surgical cut-down, and tunnelled subcutaneously to exit over the thoracic spine. Fluoroscopic guidance was necessary to ensure proper positioning of the catheter tip in the right atrium. The catheter was secured at the venous entrance site with a grommet and at the cutaneous exit site with a finger-cuff suture. The exit site was bandaged; dressings were changed daily. Five dogs were studied. Catheter insertion and maintenance techniques were developed using two dogs. For the other three dogs, which developed 7 wk of profound myelosuppression induced by total body irradiation, the catheters were used for blood sampling and infusions of antibiotics, fluids, and blood products. For these three dogs there were 261 total catheter-days. Complete catheter obstruction did not occur. Partial obstruction (inability to withdraw blood) occurred for 13 days with one catheter. The tip of this catheter was in the cranial vena cava. One irradiated dog had a staphylococcal exit site infection for several days after catheter insertion, which resolved with antibiotic therapy. Infections of the subcutaneous tunnel, and catheter associated bacteremia, were not identified. Infectious and hemorrhagic complications of myelosuppression were less severe than in six other dogs where intermittent venipuncture was used for vascular access during radiation induced myelosuppression. In conclusion, long-term central venous catheterization is feasible in dogs during profound myelosuppression and markedly facilitates patient management. PMID:1477809

Abrams-Ogg, A C; Kruth, S A; Carter, R F; Valli, V E; Kamel-Reid, S; Dubé, I D

1992-01-01

2

Ethanol versus heparin locks for the prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: a randomized trial in adult haematology patients with Hickman devices.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ethanol locks for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in adult haematology patients has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to compare prospectively heparinized saline with 70% ethanol locks using 2 h dwell time in patients with tunnelled CVCs. In saline (N = 43) and ethanol (N = 42) groups, CLABSI rates were 6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-9.8] and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.9-7.7) per 1000 CVC days, respectively (P = 0.42). In the ethanol group, two exit-site infections and one tunnel/pocket infection were observed. Reduction in device-associated infection was not achieved with prophylactic 70% ethanol locks in patients with haematological malignancy and tunnelled CVCs. PMID:25063013

Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Heath, S; Szer, J; Grigg, A P

2014-09-01

3

Central venous catheters - ports  

MedlinePLUS

Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... A central venous catheter is a tube that goes into a vein in your chest and ends at your ...

4

Central venous catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters are being increasingly used in both intensive care units and general wards. Their use is associated with both mechanical and infectious complications. This review will focus on short- and medium-term mechanical complications of catheter placement; infectious complications will be discussed in a separate article. The most important risk factors are patient characteristics (morbidity, underlying disease and local

Kees H. Polderman; Armand R. J. Girbes

2002-01-01

5

[Venous catheter-related infections].  

PubMed

Central venous catheter-related infections can lead to a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality in patients. Nowadays, with the increase in multi-resistant bacteria, the recent appearance of new antibiotics, and the development of new treatment guidelines, means that this has to be constantly reviewed. The objective of this review is to briefly define the epidemiological and pathogenic concepts and to look in detail at the preventive and therapeutic measures of this type of infection. Practical aspects are presented of different clinical situations such as, antibiotic-lock of the central venous catheter, and the withdrawal or maintenance of the catheter. PMID:23141206

Padrón Ruiz, O M; Ojeda Betancor, N; Morales López, L; Rodríguez Pérez, A

2013-04-01

6

Isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from an infected hickman catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoniae resistant to fluoroquinolones were isolated from an infected Hickman catheter in a 43-year-old diabetic patient who had previously been treated with a 24-day course of ciprofloxacin (200 mg\\/12 h i.v.). MICs and MBCs of nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin and fleroxacin were determined for the strains using the methodology recommended by the NCCLS. Both strains

M. López-Brea; T. Alarcón

1990-01-01

7

Central venous catheter - flushing  

MedlinePLUS

... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... and under your nails. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

8

Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion.  

PubMed

The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "central venous oxygen saturation"), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

2015-03-01

9

Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion  

PubMed Central

The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion.

Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2015-01-01

10

Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

SciTech Connect

Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: alexbarnacle@yahoo.co.uk; Kleidon, Tricia M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

11

Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

Alex M. Barnacle; Tricia M. Kleidon

2005-01-01

12

Serendipitous detection of an errant central venous catheter  

SciTech Connect

The inappropriate placement of a patient's central venous catheter in the pleural space by the serendipitous injection of Tc-99m labeled red blood cells through the catheter during a GI bleeding study was discovered. Position and patency of central venous lines can be incidentally evaluated by using existing central venous catheters for administration of radiopharmaceuticals during radionuclide imaging studies.

Orzel, J.A.; Romdall, K.; Griep, R.

1985-09-01

13

Central venous catheter - dressing change  

MedlinePLUS

... change your dressings, you will need: Sterile gloves Cleaning solution A special sponge A special patch, called ... catheter. Clean the skin with the sponge and cleaning solution. Air dry after cleaning. Place a new ...

14

[Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].  

PubMed

Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings. Midlines have been associated with lower rates of phlebitis than short peripheral IVs, and less infections in contrast to central lines. There are different implantation techniques, which have evolved in terms of materials (silicone and polyurethane) and technological advances (ultrasound): Seldinger technique with micropuncture and Ultrasound-guided Seldinger technique. At present where scientific evidence, clinical needs, efficiency and costs are influential parameters, Midlines should be considered as an alternative peripheral venous access. Unlike PICC lines, Midline catheters offer peripheral, not central venous access. Midlines should be considered early in treatment instead of serial short peripheral IVs. These devices permit the infusion of most or all infusates that are appropriate for short peripheral IVs with the added advantage that Midlines can last much longer; at least six weeks and perhaps for months. PMID:24624619

Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

2014-01-01

15

Peripherally inserted central venous catheters and central venous catheters related thrombosis in post-critical patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) have been proposed as an alternative to central venous catheters (CVC).\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the thrombosis rate in relation to PICC placement in patients discharged from the intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data of patients admitted to the ICU (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, Italy; January–August 2008) and discharged with\\u000a a

Manuela Bonizzoli; Stefano Batacchi; Giovanni Cianchi; Giovanni Zagli; Francesco Lapi; Valentina Tucci; Giacomo Martini; Simona Di Valvasone; Adriano Peris

2011-01-01

16

Complications of central venous catheters in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors.  

PubMed

We report our clinical experience with central venous catheters (CVCs) in 15 patients with haemophilia who, in total, had 34 catheters inserted. Eighteen devices were Hickman, six were Port-A-Cath and 10 were nontunnelled catheters (one Quinton, seven antecubital, one jugular and one subclavian vein access). All patients had factor VIII/IX inhibitors at the time of insertion. The mean age at operation was 8.8 years (range 16 months-39 years). Eight of the 15 patients (26/34 implanted catheters, 76%) presented some kind of complication. Pericatheter bleeding during the postoperative period affected a total of seven CVCs (7/34, 20%) in six patients, which required substitutive treatment for several days. Infection was reported in 15 of the CVCs (15/34, 44%), and four of these (4/15, 26%) had more than one episode, with a mean of 1.4 infection episodes per catheter (21/15). The infection rate was 0.2 infections per 1000 patient days or 0.1 per 1000 catheter days. Despite the usefulness of CVCs in haemophilic patients, the high incidence of complications requires careful assessment of the type of device as well as continuous surveillance. PMID:11851752

Morado, M; Jimenez-Yuste, V; Villar, A; Quintana, M; Del Castillo, F; Garzon, G; Acitores, I; Ibañez, F; Sanjurjo, M J; Gago, J; Hernandez-Navarro, F

2001-11-01

17

Radiological Interventions for Correction of Central Venous Port Catheter Migrations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiological-interventional central venous port catheter corrections in migrated/malpositioned catheter tips. Materials and Methods. Thirty patients with migrated/malpositioned port catheter tips were included in this retrospective analysis. To visualize the catheter patency a contrast-enhanced port catheter series was performed, followed by transfemoral port catheter correction with various 5-F angiographic catheters (pigtail; Sos Omni), gooseneck snares, or combinations thereof. Results. One patient showed spontaneous reposition of the catheter tip. In 27 of 29 patients (93%), radiological-interventional port catheter correction was successful. In two patients port catheter malposition correction was not possible, because of the inability to catch either the catheter tip or the catheter in its course, possibly due to fibrin sheath formation with attachment of the catheter to the vessel wall. No disconnection or port catheter dysfunction was observed after correction. Conclusions. We conclude that in migrated catheter tips radiological-interventional port catheter correction is a minimally invasive alternative to port extraction and reimplantation. In patients with a fibrin sheath and/or thrombosis port catheter correction is often more challenging.

Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de; Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl; Podrabsky, Petr; Werk, Michael; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Felix, Roland [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin-Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2007-07-15

18

Treatment of infected tunneled venous access hemodialysis catheters with guidewire exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of infected tunneled venous access hemodialysis catheters with guidewire exchange. Cuffed venous access catheters have become commonplace for hemodialysis access. The major complications of these catheters are catheter thrombosis, catheter fibrin sheathing and infection. When catheter associated bacteremia occurs treatment with antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful in providing acceptable cure rates. Failed antimicrobial therapy exposes the patient to

Derrick Robinson; Paul Suhocki; Steve J. Schwab

1998-01-01

19

Central Venous Catheter–associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters, often needed by cancer patients, can be the source of Nocardia bacteremia. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 17 cancer patients with Nocardia bacteremia. For 10 patients, the bacteremia was associated with the catheter; for the other 7, it was a disseminated infection. N. nova complex was the leading cause of bacteremia. Nocardia promoted heavy biofilm formation on the surface of central venous catheter segments tested in an in vitro biofilm model. Trimethoprim- and minocycline-based lock solutions had potent in vitro activity against biofilm growth. Patients with Nocardia central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections responded well to catheter removal and antimicrobial drug therapy, whereas those with disseminated bacteremia had poor prognoses. PMID:21888790

Al Akhrass, Fadi; Hachem, Ray; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Haydoura, Souha; Chaftari, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

20

Migration of Indwelling Central Venous Catheter and Fatal Hydrothorax  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheter complications can be related to insertion, indwelling, or extraction. Most of the times, immediate complications are anticipated and managed; whereas, delayed complications can go unnoticed. In the case discussed here, migration and dislodgement of catheter tip resulted in delayed hydrothorax and sudden death of a 9-month-old female infant. PMID:25755966

Jabeen, Shagufta; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hanif, Muhammad Zubair; Morabito, Antonino; Khalil, Basem

2013-01-01

21

Effectiveness of different central venous catheters for catheter-related infections: a network meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the effectiveness of various catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection and to evaluate whether specific catheters are superior to others for reducing catheter-related infections. We identified randomised, controlled trials that compared different types of central venous catheter (CVC), evaluating catheter-related infections in a systematic search of articles published from January 1996 to November 2009 via Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Network meta-analysis with a mixed treatment comparison method using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to combine direct within-trial, between-treatment comparisons with indirect trial evidence. Forty-eight clinical trials (12 828 CVCs) investigating 10 intervention catheters contributed to the analyses. For prevention of CVC colonisation, adjusted silver iontophoretic catheters (odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.95), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine catheters (0.49; 0.36-0.64), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine blue plus catheters (0.37; 0.17-0.69), minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.28; 0.17-0.43) and miconazole-rifampicin catheters (0.11; 0.02-0.33) were associated with a significantly lower rate of catheter colonisation compared with standard catheters. For prevention of CRBSI, adjusted heparin-bonded catheters (0.20; 0.06-0.44) and minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.18; 0.08-0.34) were associated with a significantly lower rate of CRBSI with standard catheters. Rifampicin-based impregnated catheters seem to be better for prevention of catheter-related infection compared with the other catheters. PMID:20638155

Wang, H; Huang, T; Jing, J; Jin, J; Wang, P; Yang, M; Cui, W; Zheng, Y; Shen, H

2010-09-01

22

Multilumen Central Venous Catheters Increase Risk for Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection: Prospective Surveillance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are a leading cause of nosocomial infections associated with significant mortality and costs. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of CRBSI in two large Swiss hospitals and to identify risk factors for this condition. Patients and Methods: During 1 year all central venous catheter (CVC)-inserted in patients admitted for visceral, orthopedic

A. Templeton; M. Schlegel; F. Fleisch; G. Rettenmund; B. Schöbi; S. Henz; G. Eich

2008-01-01

23

Spontaneous migration of central venous catheter tip following extubation  

PubMed Central

Migration of the tip of central venous catheters is not an uncommon event and the mechanism for this is not clear. Increased intrathoracic pressure due to coughing, sneezing or weight lifting, changing the body position or physical movements such as abduction or adduction of the arms is thought to be the cause of such migration. We present here a case of a patient with a port catheter tip that migrated from the left subclavian to the superior vene cava following extubation. PMID:24665255

Prabaharan, Balaji; Thomas, Sara

2014-01-01

24

How to use central venous catheter tip cultures.  

PubMed

Central venous catheter (CVC) tip cultures are useful in the assessment of a patient with a potential catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). However, these results can be misleading particularly in the absence of concomitant peripheral and central line blood cultures. Catheter tip cultures should not be submitted to the laboratory unless CRBSI is suspected as the predictive value of culture results depends on the pretest probability of CRBSI. A positive CVC tip culture does not usually warrant further investigation or therapy (except in the case of Staphylococcus aureus and possibly Candida sp) while a negative catheter tip culture in isolation does not definitively exclude CRBSI. Clinicians can use alternative criteria for the diagnosis of CRBSI that do not require catheter tip cultures if necessary. Further research into the significance of CVC tip cultures in the absence of concomitant bacteraemia is required. PMID:24711374

O'Flaherty, Niamh; Crowley, Brendan

2015-04-01

25

Central Venous Catheter Related Infections: The Role of Antimicrobial Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intravascular devices are indispensable in modern-day medical practice, especially in the care of critically and chronically\\u000a ill patients, such as patients in intensive care units (ICU), cancer patients, patients with renal failure requiring chronic\\u000a hemodialysis, or patients requiring organ or bone marrow transplantation. Additionally surgical patients especially the ones\\u000a with short bowel syndrome, totally depend on intravenous catheters for their

Ioannis Chatzinikolaou; Issam I. Raad

26

Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.  

PubMed

Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter. PMID:25278411

Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

2014-10-01

27

[Prophylaxis of infective complications of central venous catheters].  

PubMed

Infections related to central venous cannulation present first-magnitude problems in recovery rooms and intensive care units. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is the most serious complication because of its high frequency and a mortality rate that averages around 3%. Although infections arise for various reasons, point-of-insertion contamination is the main cause when catheters are implanted for periods of less than 10 days. Contaminating microorganisms (especially Staphyloccocus epidermidis) find refuge from the host's defenses in a biofilm that covers the catheter. Several factors participate in the formation of this biofilm, such as catheter composition, proteins of the host or type of microorganism. Biofilm bacteria are resistant to both antibiotics and the host's own defenses (e.g. phagocytes and antibodies). The microorganism can then begin to reproduce, possibly leading to bloodstream infection. The measures designed to prevent this process include recommendations for both catheter insertion and maintenance. Recent meta-analyses have led to certain conclusions but no unanimity among authors. Thus, there is agreement on the adoption of strict aseptic technique during catheter insertion, on the use of chlorhexidine as a skin antiseptic and on choice of the subclavian vein. Such measures significantly decrease the frequency of CRBSI. Maintenance techniques that have been shown to be effective are the use of connectors impregnated with antiseptic, catheters impregnated with antiseptics or antibiotics, and permeable dressings. Additionally, building an experienced infusion-therapy team to insert and maintain central venous catheters has been shown to be one of the most effective measures for preventing CRBSI. PMID:11898444

Gómez Luque, A; Huertas Simonet, N; Viciana Ramos, M I; Moreno Palacios, M; Hernández Pardo, P E

2002-01-01

28

Unanticipated complication of a malpositioned central venous catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual complication that occurred late in the postoperative period, due to a damaged and malpositioned peripherally\\u000a inserted central catheter (PICC) used for central venous pressure monitoring during esophagocoloplasty and for postoperative\\u000a parenteral nutrition. On the seventh postoperative day, the development of a leak from the neck wound coincided with the administration\\u000a of intravenous fluids via the PICC.

Pankaj Kundra; Bathala V. Sai Chandran; Kasturi S. V. K. Subbarao

2009-01-01

29

The Malposition of Central Venous Catheters in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Contemporary medical care, especially in the field of pediatrics often requires central venous line (CVC – Central Venous Catheter) implantation for carrying out treatment. Some conditions are treated intravenously for several months, other require long-term venous access due to periodical administration of medications or daily nutritional supplementation. Material/Methods A total number of 309 CVCs were implanted at Children’s University Hospital in Cracow between January 2011 and December 2012 (24 months). Malposition of the CVC is not common. The target of our article was to present two rare cases of malposition of catheters and two displacements of catheter due to chest tumors, and to enhance the importance of differential diagnostic imaging when difficulties occur. Results CVC malposition was detected with different imaging modalities followed by appropriate medical procedures. Conclusions In case of any difficulties with central lines, it is necessary to investigate the underlying cause. The central line team at hospital cooperating with other specialists is needed to detect complications and to prevent them. PMID:25177409

Dzierzega, Maria; Ossowska, Magdalena; Chmiel, Dariusz; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Balwierz, Walentyna

2014-01-01

30

Neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis: diagnosis, management and outcome.  

PubMed

Thrombotic occlusion of central venous catheters (CVCs) is a common problem in newborns. There is no guideline that systematically addresses the diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The objective of this review is to establish evidence-based guidance for the management of CVC-related thrombosis. A comprehensive search of the scientific literature was conducted from 1948 to 2012. Twenty-six articles fulfilling four criteria - humans, neonates aged below 28 days, CVC insertion, and English language - were included for analysis. The incidence of thrombosis was 9.2% (308/3332). Singly inserted umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters accounted for over 80% of all CVCs. Frequently reported thrombotic sites were the hepatic vein, right atrium, and inferior vena cava. Symptoms included distal swelling of affected areas and thrombocytopenia. Increased length of catheter stay, infusion of blood products and malpositioned UVCs were identified as risk factors. The commonest diagnostic investigations to confirm thrombosis were echocardiography and ultrasonography. Spontaneous resolution may occur in UVC-related thrombosis, but this warrants close monitoring. Thrombolysis with urokinase alone or combined with low-molecular-weight heparin might be effective and well tolerated as treatment strategies. Prophylactic heparin increases the duration of catheter usability (P?catheter occlusion, but may not uniformly prevent thrombosis. CVL-related thrombosis is an underreported complication because events in the majority occur silently. Currently, solid evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are not possible. Well designed prospective studies are urgently required to establish a concrete investigational approach to CVC-related thrombosis and to institute safe therapeutic modalities. PMID:24477225

Park, Christina K; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Murthy, Prashanth

2014-03-01

31

Systematic review of emergency department central venous and arterial catheter infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is an extensive critical care literature for central venous catheter and arterial line infection, duration of catheterization,\\u000a and compliance with infection control procedures. The emergency medicine literature, however, contains very little data on\\u000a central venous catheters and arterial lines. As emergency medicine practice continues to incorporate greater numbers of critical\\u000a care procedures such as central venous catheter placement, infection

Christopher H. LeMaster; Ashish T. Agrawal; Peter Hou; Jeremiah D. Schuur

2010-01-01

32

Reduced rates of catheter-associated infection by use of a new silver-impregnated central venous catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A central venous catheter with a new form of silver impregnation of the internal and external surfaces was investigated for\\u000a antimicrobial activity and tolerance in patients in a controlled comparative, prospective and randomized clinical study. Commercially\\u000a available catheters with no antimicrobial activity were used as controls. One hundred sixty-five catheters were included in\\u000a the final evaluation. All catheters were percutaneously

M. Böswald; S. Lugauer; A. Regenfus; G. G. Braun; P. Martus; C. Geis; S. Scharf; T. Bechert; J. Greil; J.-P. Guggenbichler

1999-01-01

33

Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use? Modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are costly and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Trials suggest that central venous catheters impregnated with minocycline\\/rifampin, although more expensive, are clinically superior to chlorhexidine\\/silver sulfadiazine impregnated catheters. It remains unclear whether minocycline\\/rifampin catheters are cost-effective for all high-risk patients or only those requiring longer-term catheterization. Methods: We developed a series of decision models with

Kristin D. Marciante; David L. Veenstra; Benjamin A. Lipsky; Sanjay Saint

2003-01-01

34

Malposition of central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein -a case report-  

PubMed Central

The central venous cannulation is commonly performed in the operating rooms and intensive care units for various purposes. Although the central venous catheter (CVC) is used in many ways, the malpositioning of the CVC is often associated with serious complications. We report a case of an unexpected malposition of a CVC in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein.

Ahn, SoWoon; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Chunghyun; Hong, Yong-woo

2015-01-01

35

Another method to prevent venous thrombosis in microsurgery: an in situ venous catheter.  

PubMed

Free-flap failure is in the order of 4 to 10 percent. Heparin is more effective at preventing venous thrombosis than arterial thrombosis. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of delivering heparin at a high dose locally but low dose systemically (heparin infusion via a catheter placed proximal to the venous anastomosis) to prevent venous thrombosis in microsurgery. A model of venous thrombosis was first established by a venous inversion graft in the rat femoral vein (this was performed in seven animals and resulted in 100 percent thrombosis). Saline and heparin were delivered proximal to the inverted vein graft to assess the effect of each in preventing venous thrombosis. Flow/patency distal to the inverted vein graft was assessed by observation under the microscope, the milk test, and rate of flow (flowmeter). Saline infused via a catheter proximal to the venous inversion graft resulted in 100 percent thrombosis in 10 animals. Heparin (100 U/ml at 2 to 3 ml/hour) infused through a catheter for 2 hours proximal to the anastomosis resulted in flow in all 10 animals during the infusion. Blood was also taken before beginning the procedure (control) and after the heparin infusion distal to the anastomosis (local partial thromboplastin time) as well as in the contralateral femoral vein (systemic). The control for all animals that received heparin was <3 minutes. The systemic partial thromboplastin time after heparin infusion was <3 minutes in seven animals, 3.3 minutes in two animals, and >7 minutes in one animal. The local partial thromboplastin time distal to the inverted vein graft was >10 minutes in nine animals and 3.7 minutes in one animal. The study also had a clinical component, in which a catheter was placed in a vein of the free flap, and heparin was infused over 5 days. This technique has been used in 83 consecutive free flaps. In three recent free flaps performed on the limbs, the local partial thromboplastin time (close to the anastomosis) was raised but the systemic time was normal. This technique offers a method in preventing venous thrombosis in microsurgery. It is simple to implement and is not associated with the systemic complications of heparin. PMID:10724260

Hudson, D A; Engelbrecht, G; Duminy, F J

2000-03-01

36

Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.  

PubMed

To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ?1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ?2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

2014-01-01

37

Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ?1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ?2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

2014-01-01

38

Accidental Subclavian Artery Catheterization During Attempted Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter Placement: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation. PMID:25738064

Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

2015-01-01

39

Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters Are Not Superior to Central Venous Catheters in the Acute Care of Surgical Patients on the Ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) have supplanted central venous catheters (CVC) for the administration\\u000a of intravenous antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition to patients in our hospital. From the literature, it appears that\\u000a this change has occurred in a number of other surgical units. Accounting for the change are the expected advantages of low\\u000a complication rates at insertion, prolonged use

Simon Turcotte; Serge Dube ´; Gilles Beauchamp

2006-01-01

40

Caring for Your Venous Access Device: PICC Catheter A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is used when you need IV medications, fluids, and  

E-print Network

Caring for Your Venous Access Device: PICC Catheter A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is used when you need IV medications, fluids, and frequent blood draws. A catheter of your arm. The catheter will eliminate the need for most needle sticks. PICC Dressing/Catheter Site

Kim, Duck O.

41

Peripherally inserted central venous catheters: US-guided vascular access in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US)-guided peripheral venipuncture was performed for peripheral insertion of 222 central venous catheters over a 12-month period. Initial placement was successful in 218 patients but unsuccessful in eight; placement was successful in four the next day (success rate, 98%; complication rate, 5%). Catheters were in place from 3 days to 6 months (mean, 36 days). US guidance allowed successful venipuncture for placement of central venous catheters in children. PMID:7480709

Donaldson, J S; Morello, F P; Junewick, J J; O'Donovan, J C; Lim-Dunham, J

1995-11-01

42

Leakage of Central Venous Catheter Locking Fluid by Hemodynamic Transport.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters are often filled when not in use with an anti-coagulating fluid, usually heparinized saline, known as the locking fluid. However, the use of the locking fluid is associated with known risks due to "leakage" of the lock. A new hypothesis is proposed here to explain the lock fluid leakage; that the leakage is due to advective and diffusive mass transfer by blood flow around the catheter tip in situ. Previously, the leakage mechanism has been hypothesized, based on in vitro experiments, to be fluid motion driven by buoyancy forces between the heavier blood and the lighter locking fluid. The current hypothesis is justified by a simple 1D mass transfer model as well as more sophisticated 3D computational hemodynamic simulations of an idealized catheter. The results predict an initial, fast (<10 s) advection-dominated phase, which may deplete up to 10% of the initial lock, followed by a slow diffusion-limited phase which predicts an additional 1-2% of leakage during a 48 hour period. The current results predict leakage rates which are more consistent with published in vivo data when compared to the buoyancy hypothesis predictions, which tend to grossly over-estimate leakage rates. PMID:24830801

McGah, Patrick M; Gow, Kenneth W; Aliseda, Alberto

2014-05-14

43

Rifampicin-miconazole-impregnated catheters save cost in jugular venous sites with tracheostomy.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters are more expensive than standard catheters (S-C). A higher incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) has been found in jugular venous access with tracheostomy than without tracheostomy. The objective of this study was to determine central venous catheter (CVC)-related costs (considering only the cost of the CVC, diagnosis of CRBSI, and antimicrobial agents used to treat CRBSI) using rifampicin-miconazole-impregnated catheters (RM-C) or S-C in jugular venous access with tracheostomy. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with tracheostomy who received one or more jugular venous catheters. RM-C showed a lower incidence of CRBSI compared with S-C (0 vs. 20.16 CRBSI episodes/1,000 catheter-days; odds ratio=0.05; 95% confidence interval=0.001-0.32; p<0.001) and lower CVC-related costs (including the cost of the CVC, diagnosis, and treatment of CRBSI) (11.46 ± 6.25 vs. 38.11 ± 77.25; p<0.001) in jugular venous access with tracheostomy. The use of RM-C could reduce CVC-related costs in jugular venous access with tracheostomy. The results of our study may contribute to clinical decision-making and selection of those patients who could benefit from the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters. PMID:22187350

Lorente, L; Lecuona, M; Ramos, M J; Jiménez, A; Mora, M L; Sierra, A

2012-08-01

44

Thrombus on Indwelling Central Venous Catheters: The Histopathology of 'Fibrin Sheaths'  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Central venous catheters (CVC) may fail for many reasons, though 'fibrin sheaths' blocking catheter ports are usually implicated. We examined the sheaths removed from dialysis catheters to determine their histopathology.Methods: Ten catheter strippings were performed and the removed material was studied grossly and microscopically.Results: The histologic specimens showed thrombus both with and without a proteinaceous sheath.Conclusion: Dialysis catheters fail because of thrombus formation. This can occur in either the absence or presence of a protein coating on the catheter, the so-called 'fibrin sheath.'.

Suojanen, James Norman; Brophy, David Paul; Nasser, Imad [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 1 Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2000-03-15

45

Percutaneous Retrieval of a Central Venous Catheter Sutured to the Wall of the Right Atrium  

SciTech Connect

A transjugular central venous catheter was inadvertently sutured to the wall of the right atrium in a 63-year-old female during coronary bypass surgery. Using two nitinol Goose Neck snares via a transfemoral and a transjugular approach the catheter was severed into two pieces and retrieved percutaneously.

Neuerburg, Joerg-M.; Guenther, Rolf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Chalabi, Khaled [Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Hunter, David [Department of Radiology, Fairview-University Medical Center, 420 Delaware Street S.E., Box 292, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

1999-01-15

46

[Procedure adverse events: nursing care in central venous catheter fracture].  

PubMed

In a intensive care unit (ICU) there are many factors that can lead to the occurrence of adverse events. A high percentage of these events are associated with the administration of drugs. Diagnostic tests, such as computed tomography, is common in critically ill patients and technique can be performed with injection of contrast agent to enhance the visualization of soft tissue. The contrast is a medication and the nurse is responsible for its proper administration. The management of the critically ill patient is complex. ICU team and radiology shares responsibility for the care and safety of the patient safety during the transfer and performing tests with contrast. The World Health Organisation patient safety strategies, recommends analysing errors and learning from them. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the causes of the category E severity adverse events that occurred in a patient who was admitted to the ICU for septic shock of abdominal origin. An abdominal computed tomography was performed with contrast which was injected through a central venous catheter. The contrast did not appear in the image. What happened? Causal analysis helped to understand what triggered the event. A care plan and an algorithm were drafted to prevent it from happening again, with the following objectives: improving knowledge, skills and promoting positive attitudes towards patient safety, working at primary, secondary and tertiary care levels. PMID:24439203

Pérez-Juan, Eva; Maqueda-Palau, Mònica; Romero-Grilo, Cristina; Muñoz-Moles, Yolanda

2014-01-01

47

Comparison of NHSN-defined central venous catheter day counts with a method that accounts for concurrent catheters.  

PubMed

Central venous catheter (CVC) day definitions do not consider concurrent CVCs. We examined traditional CVC day counts and resultant central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates with a CVC day definition that included concurrent CVCs. Accounting for concurrent CVCs increased device day counts by 8.5% but only mildly impacted CLABSI rates. PMID:25627768

Talbot, Thomas R; Johnson, James G; Anders, Theodore; Hayes, Rachel M

2015-01-01

48

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in patients with chronic venous catheters: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Chronic indwelling catheters have been reported to be associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) via the activation of the classical complement pathway in association with bacterial infections such as coagulase negative staphylococcus. We herein provide supporting evidence for the direct causal relationship between chronic catheter infections and MPGN via a case of recurrent MPGN associated with recurrent catheter infections used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in a man with short gut syndrome. We also present a literature review of similar cases and identify common clinical manifestations that may serve to aid clinicians in the early identification of MPGN associated with infected central venous catheterization or vice versa. The importance of routine monitoring of kidney function and urinalysis among patients with chronic central venous catheterization is highlighted as kidney injury may herald or coincide with overtly infected chronic indwelling central venous catheters. PMID:24592339

Sy, John; Nast, Cynthia C; Pham, Phuong-Thu T; Pham, Phuong-Chi T

2014-01-01

49

A stuck haemodialysis central venous catheter: not quite open and shut!  

PubMed Central

Removal of tunnelled central venous catheters can become complex if left in situ for a prolonged period. We report a challenging case of a stuck tunnelled haemodialysis catheter, which required sternotomy with cardio-pulmonary bypass for retrieval. A 47-year-old female had failed attempts to remove the venous limb of a Tessio line on the ward. A cut down on the internal jugular vein and division of the fibrin sheath failed to release it. Synchronous traction was applied via a snare inserted through a femoral approach. On table trans-oesophageal echocardiogram showed the tip of the catheter traversing the tricuspid valve. At sternotomy with cardio-pulmonary bypass, the tip of the catheter was found attached to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve requiring release and repair. The management of stuck line has potential serious complications. Prophylactic catheter exchange should be considered to avoid complications. PMID:25848086

Jafferbhoy, Sadaf F.; Asquith, John R.; Jeeji, Ravish; Levine, Adrian; Menon, Madhavan; Pherwani, Arun D.

2015-01-01

50

Implementation of a children’s hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

2013-01-01

51

Reduction of catheter-related infections in neutropenic patients: a prospective controlled randomized trial using a chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiseptic coating of intravascular catheters may be an effective means of decreasing catheter-related colonization and subsequent infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine (CH-SS)-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) to prevent catheter-related colonization and infection in patients with hematological malignancies who were subjected to intensive chemotherapy and suffered from severe and sustained

K. Jaeger; S. Zenz; B. Jüttner; H. Ruschulte; E. Kuse; J. Heine; S. Piepenbrock; A. Ganser; M. Karthaus

2005-01-01

52

Evaluation of a triple-lumen central venous heparin-coated catheter versus a catheter coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the incidence of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infections between heparin-coated catheters and those coated with a synergistic combination of chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine. Design Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Setting A 20-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Patients A total of 180 patients requiring the insertion of a trilumen central venous catheter. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive

M. N. Carrasco; A. Bueno; C. de las Cuevas; S. Jimenez; I. Salinas; A. Sartorius; T. Recio; M. Generelo; F. Ruiz-Ocaña

2004-01-01

53

Catheter-directed thrombolysis for double inferior vena cava with deep venous thrombosis: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Double inferior vena cava (DIVC) with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is rare, and there is only one reported case of DIVC with DVT treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with an extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a double IVC who received filter implantation and catheter-directed thrombolysis. PMID:23761872

Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhengxin; Cai, Qianrong

2013-05-17

54

Central venous catheter placement in children: a prospective study of complications in a Brazilian public hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous access is frequently used in infants and children with a wide variety of conditions. This report evaluates\\u000a our experience and the complications from central venous catheters (CVC) placed percutaneously in children at a public hospital\\u000a of a developing country—Brazil. To identify associated complications, data were collected prospectively and 155 consecutive\\u000a catheterizations in children at a public hospital over

Paulo Custódio F. Cruzeiro; Paulo Augusto M. Camargos; Marcelo E. Miranda

2006-01-01

55

A comparison between two types of central venous catheters in the prevention of catheter-related infections: the importance of performing all the relevant cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to determine the efficacy of double-lumen central venous catheters coated with chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine in reducing the incidence of catheter-related infections.\\u000a\\u000aDesign: a randomized controlled trial.\\u000a\\u000aSetting: medical-surgical intensive care unit of a 600-bed teaching hospital.\\u000a\\u000aPatients: adult patients who needed a central venous catheter in the subclavian vein.\\u000a\\u000aIntervention: patients received either a standard catheter (n = 46),

J. van Vliet; J. A. Leusink; B. M. de Jongh; A. de Boer

2001-01-01

56

Use of Sodium Hypochlorite for Skin Antisepsis Before Inserting a Peripheral Venous Catheter: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies. PMID:25230748

Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

2014-09-16

57

In vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy and Biocompatibility of a Silver-Coated Central Venous Catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheter infection presents an important problem in modern medicine, leading sometimes to a life-threatening situation for the patient as well as contributing to prolonged hospital stay and to an increase in costs. We have evaluated the in vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of a silver-coated polyurethane catheter designed for use as a colonization. resistant, antiinfective catheter. Due to

B. Jansen; M. Rinck; P. Wolbring; A. Strohmeier; T. Jahns

1994-01-01

58

Simulation and patient safety: evaluative checklists for central venous catheter insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the advent of concerns for patient safety, simulation training is emerging as a method to train healthcare providers to perform invasive procedures such as central venous catheter (CVC) insertion while minimising harmful complications to the patient. New technologies in medical simulation have begun to shift research attention to the performance component of clinical competency. Accurate assessment of healthcare provider

Leigh V Evans; Kelly L Dodge

2010-01-01

59

Incidence of upper limb venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion

B J J Abdullah; N MOHAMMAD; J V SANGKAR; Y F ABD AZIZ; G G GAN; K Y GOH; I BENEDICT

2005-01-01

60

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: a complication of an indwelling peripherally inserted central venous catheter  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We report a case of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Ultrasound images and video of subclavian thrombus are presented. PICC line-associated DVT, particularly in cancer patients is not uncommon. Point-of-care Emergency Department ultrasound can readily diagnose this complication and device removal is not always necessary.

Carr, Peter J; Rippey, James C R

2015-01-01

61

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk  

E-print Network

information is available at the end of the article Gentile et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R103 httpSubclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type Gentile et al. Gentile et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R103 http

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin, E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian, E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.d [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.d [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde (Germany); Benter, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Benter@klinikum-rg.d [Elblandkliniken Riesa-Grossenhain gGmbH, Klinik fuer Innere Medizin II Haematologie/Onkologie und Gastroenterologie (Germany)

2010-04-15

63

An in vitro study comparing a peripherally inserted central catheter to a conventional central venous catheter: no difference in static and dynamic pressure transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early goal directed therapy improves survival in patients with septic shock. Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is essential to guide adequate resuscitation. Use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is increasing, but little data exists comparing a PICC to a conventional CVP catheter. We studied the accuracy of a novel PICC to transmit static and dynamic pressures in vitro.

Heath E Latham; Timothy T Dwyer; Bethene L Gregg; Steven Q Simpson

2010-01-01

64

Predicting the optimal depth of left-sided central venous catheters in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to predict the optimal depth for insertion of a left-sided central venous catheter in children. Using 3D chest computed tomography angiography, we measured the distance from a point where the internal jugular vein is at the superior border of the clavicle, and from a point where the subclavian vein is inferior to the anterior border of the clavicle, to the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium in 257 children. Linear regression analysis revealed that the distances correlated with age, weight and height. Simple formulae for the depth of a central venous catheter via the left internal jugular vein (0.07 × height (cm)) and the left subclavian vein (0.08 × height (cm)) were developed to predict placement of the central venous catheter tip at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. Using these fomulae, the proportion of catheter tips predicted to be correctly located was 98.5% (95% CI 96.8-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI 90.8-97.3%), respectively. PMID:23889075

Kim, H; Jeong, C-H; Byon, H-J; Shin, H K; Yun, T J; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Kim, J-T

2013-10-01

65

Complications Related to Insertion and Use of Central Venous Catheters (CVC)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Central Venous Catheters (CVC) are essential in everyday medical practice, especially in treating patients in intensive care units (ICU). The application of these catheters is accompanied with the risk of complications, such as the complications caused during the CVC insertion, infections at the location of the insertion, and complications during the use of the catheter, sepsis and other metastatic infections. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective-prospective and it was implemented in the period 1st January 2011- 31st December 2012. It included 108 examinees with CVC placed for more than 7 days. Results: The most common complications occurring in more than 2 attempts of CVC applications are: hearth arrhythmias in both groups in 12 cases, 7 in multi-lumen (12.72%) and 5 in mono-lumen ones (9.43%). Artery puncture occurs in both groups in 7 cases, 5 in multi-lumen (9.09%) and 2 in mono-lumen ones (3.77%). Hematoma occurred in both groups in 4 cases, 3 in multi-lumen CVCs (5.45%) and 1 in mono-lumen ones (1.88%). The most common complication in multi-lumen catheters was heart arrhythmia, in 20 cases (36.37%). The most common complications in mono-lumen CVCs was hearth arrhythmias, in 20 cases as extrasystoles and they were registered in 16 catheter insertions (30.18%). Out of total number of catheters of both groups, out of 108 catheters the complications during insertion occurred in 49 catheters (45.40%). The most common complications in both groups were heart arrhythmias, artery punctures and hematomas at the place of catheter insertion. PMID:25568558

Hodzic, Samir; Golic, Darko; Smajic, Jasmina; Sijercic, Selma; Umihanic, Sekib; Umihanic, Sefika

2014-01-01

66

Inadvertent Puncture of the Thoracic Duct During Attempted Central Venous Catheter Placement  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of puncture of the thoracic duct during left subclavian vein catheterization on the intensive care unit. Computed tomography and measurement of the triglyceride levels in the aspirated fluid proved the inadvertent penetration of the guidewire into the thoracic duct. Early recognition of central line misplacement avoided serious complications. Inadvertent central venous catheter placement into the thoracic duct may have the potential complications of infusion mediastinum and chylothorax.

Teichgraber, Ulf K.M. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu, Berlin, Augusten berger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.de; Nibbe, Lutz [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin, Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard; Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu, Berlin, Augusten berger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2003-11-15

67

Frequent malpositions of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in patients undergoing head and neck surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) do not interfere with surgical access during neck dissection and are\\u000a used in patients undergoing head and neck surgery. However, severe complications associated with malpositioning of PICCs have\\u000a been reported in these patients. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence of aberrant positioning of\\u000a PICCs in patients undergoing free flap reconstructive (FFR)

Leonid Minkovich; George Djaiani; Stuart A. McCluskey; Nicholas Mitsakakis; Ralph W. Gilbert; W. Scott Beattie

68

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a\\u000a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient\\u000a thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term\\u000a results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002–2007) of patients (n = 30) with

Anders Vik; Pål Andre Holme; Kulbir Singh; Eric Dorenberg; Kåre Christian Nordhus; Satish Kumar; John-Bjarne Hansen

2009-01-01

69

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Upper Extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional anticoagulant treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the upper extremities (UEDVT) is associated with a relatively high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for UEDVT would provide efficient thrombolysis with less subsequent PTS than during traditional anticoagulation. Primary efficacy, complications, and long-term results after CDT are reported in a retrospective cohort (2002-2007) of patients (n =

Anders Vik; Pal Andre Holme; Kulbir Singh; Eric Dorenberg; Kare Christian Nordhus; Satish Kumar; John-Bjarne Hansen

2009-01-01

70

Elimination of central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections from the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCentral-venous-catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a complication of intensive care stay which can have important adverse consequences for both patient and institution. There are a number of evidence-based interventions that reduce CRBSI, but it is recognised that consistently applying the best evidence every time is a challenge.MethodsThe authors set out to reduce CRBSI and introduced interventions in our intensive

Andrew G Longmate; Kirsteen S Ellis; Louise Boyle; Shaun Maher; Chris J S Cairns; Suzanne M Lloyd; Colin Lang

2011-01-01

71

Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. METHODS: In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with

Mette KS Larsen; Trine R Thomsen; Claus Moser; Niels Høiby; Per H Nielsen

2008-01-01

72

Chlorhexidine and gauze and tape dressings for central venous catheters: a randomized clinical trial 1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of the chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing in comparison to the gauze and tape dressing in the use of central venous catheters. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial was conducted in the intensive care and adult semi intensive care units of a university hospital in the south of Brazil. The subjects were patients using short-term central venous catheters, randomly assigned to the intervention (chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing) or control (gauze and micro porous tape) groups. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were included: 43 in the intervention group and 42 in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found between dressings in regard to the occurrence of: primary bloodstream infections (p-value = 0.5170); local reactions to the dressing (p-value = 0.3774); and dressing fixation (p-value = 0.2739). CONCLUSION: both technologies are effective in covering central venous catheters in regard to the investigated variables and can be used for this purpose. Registry ECR: RBR-7b5ycz. PMID:25493671

Pedrolo, Edivane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

2014-01-01

73

Evaluation of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters for the prevention of bloodstream infection in leukaemic patients: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that central venous catheters impregnated with antiseptics such as chlohexidine and silver-sulfadiazine reduce the risk of catheter-related bacteraemia in intensive care patients. Patients suffering from haematologic malignancy treated by chemotherapy through a central venous catheter are at even greater sisk of catheter-related bacteraemia. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in order to investigate the

C. Logghe; Ch. Van Ossel; W. D'Hoore; H. Ezzedine; G. Wauters; J. J. Haxhe

1997-01-01

74

[Use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in occluding thrombosis of a Hickman catheter after bone marrow transplantation: clinical and coagulation physiologic aspects].  

PubMed

A 12 year-old female patient suffering from multifocal Ewing's Sarcoma underwent bone marrow transplantation in March 1992. The donor was the patient's HLA-identical brother. On day 38 following BMT, an occluding catheter thrombosis of the superior vena cava was diagnosed. Lysis therapy using rt-PA was initiated. During therapy, serious bleeding occurred and administration was temporarily discontinued. Normalisation of previously high fibrinogen levels during an acute phase reaction was seen concomitantly with systemic fibrin and probably also fibrinogen fragments as demonstrated using the Western blot technique. Lysis therapy resulted in regained catheter patency, while thrombosis of the superior vena cava persisted. The reduction in the need for the transfusion of packed thrombocytes following lysis was seen as being a positive result. The use of rt-PA following BMT should be carefully weighed against the risks and requires careful patient observation. Due to the systemic fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic effects combined with mucositis and thrombocytopenia as a result of transplantation therapy, a high risk of bleeding complications seems likely. PMID:8309209

Eckhof-Donovan, S; Michelmann, I; Nürnberger, W; Stieh, J; Rost, B; Kemperdick, H; Göbel, U

1993-01-01

75

Athrombogenic coating of long-term venous catheter for cancer patients: a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial.  

PubMed

Cancer patients with long-term venous catheter are at risk for thromboembolic complications at the catheter tip and in the adjacent venous vessels. We assessed whether local thrombogenicity could be prevented with an experimental coated (with athrombogenic layer) catheter device (CD) compared to an uncoated CD. Patients requiring a long-term venous catheter were randomly allocated to receive either a standard uncoated or experimental coated (with athrombogenic Camouflage® layer) CD. The athrombogenic layer creates a barrier against non-specific adsorption of plasma proteins. The primary endpoint was urokinase injection in cases of an unsuccessful blood aspiration from the CD. Secondary endpoints included early (haematoma, pneumothorax) and late (venous thrombosis, infection) catheter-associated complications and catheter defects. One hundred and seventy-nine patients were randomly assigned to a CD (experimental n = 89/standard n = 90). One hundred and ten (62%) patients with a total of 1,286 catheter taps were analysed for the primary endpoint. Necessity for urokinase injection was 8/680 (1.2% experimental) vs. 33/606 (5.4% standard) per catheter tap and 4/55 (7.3% experimental) vs. 18/55 (32.7% standard) per patient. A repeated measures logistic regression to assess the effect of coating yielded an odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.4; p = 0.03) for the primary endpoint. All patients allocated per protocol were analysed for the secondary endpoints. Nine (5.4%) local thrombotic complications, seven (4.1%) catheter infections, and no catheter defect were observed. Athrombogenic coating of CD in cancer patients resulted in a significant reduced necessity for urokinase injections and subsequently less inconvenience for patients and fewer costly interventions. PMID:21956636

Hitz, Felicitas; Klingbiel, Dirk; Omlin, Aurelius; Riniker, Salomé; Zerz, Andreas; Cerny, Thomas

2012-04-01

76

The first reported case of central venous catheter-related fungemia caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens.  

PubMed

We describe a case of central venous catheter-related fungemia caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens, a non-neoformans and non-gattii Cryptococcus, in a non-HIV patient. A 71-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy was febrile approximately 30 weeks after central venous port insertion, and C. liquefaciens was isolated from all three performed blood cultures as well as a central venous catheter tip culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that this yeast isolate was susceptible to low concentrations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole yet was resistant to 5-fluorocytosine (MIC: >64 ?g/ml), unlike Cryptococcus neoformans. Treatment of the patient with oral and intravenous voriconazole was effective and consistent with the susceptibility tests. Although non-neoformans and non-gattii Cryptococcus spp. are considered non-pathogenic environmental yeast, they may rarely be the causative agents of serious infections in humans, as in the present case. PMID:25499194

Takemura, Hiromu; Ohno, Hideaki; Miura, Ikuo; Takagi, Taeko; Ohyanagi, Tadatomo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okawara, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Nakashima, Hideki

2015-05-01

77

A role for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in the prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections in patients with hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs) are a serious complication in patients with hematological malignancies. However, it remains unclear whether there is a difference in the rate of CR-BSI associated with the conventional type of central venous catheters (cCVCs) and peripherally inserted CVCs (PICCs) in such patients. To address this question, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of CR-BSIs associated with PICCs versus cCVCs in patients with hematological malignancies. We used PICCs in all consecutive patients requiring CVC placement between February 2009 and February 2013. We compared the CR-BSI rate in patients with PICCs with that in patients with cCVCs treated between September 2006 and January 2009 (control group). Eighty-four patients received PICCs and 85 received cCVCs. The most common reason for removal due to catheter-related complications was CR-BSI. The CR-BSI rate in the PICC group was significantly lower than that in the cCVC group (PICCs: 1.23/1000 catheter days; cCVCs: 5.30/1000 catheter days; P < 0.01). Catheter-related complications other than CR-BSIs occurred at an extremely low rate in the PICC group. The median catheter-related complication-free survival duration was significantly longer in the PICC group than in the cCVC group. Our study shows that PICCs are useful in patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:25248408

Sakai, Toshiro; Kohda, Kyuhei; Konuma, Yuichi; Hiraoka, Yasuko; Ichikawa, Yukari; Ono, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Takada, Kouichi; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

2014-12-01

78

Sonographically guided venous puncture and fluoroscopically guided placement of tunneled, large-bore central venous catheters for bone marrow transplantation—high success rates and low complication rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective  Traditionally, large lumen, tunneled central venous catheters have been implanted by surgeons. We used a technique of sonographically\\u000a guided jugular venous puncture and fluoroscopically guided catheter placement to achieve a high rate of technical success\\u000a and to reduce complication rates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Between June 2002 and December 2006, 186 Patients have been referred to the Radiology Department for

Bernhard Gebauer; Ulf Martin Karl Teichgräber; Michael Werk; Alexander Beck; Hans-Joachim Wagner

2008-01-01

79

Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection in the neonatal unit: a literature review.  

PubMed

Abstract Central venous catheter infections are the leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Moreover, infection poses significant economic consequence which increased hospital costs and increased length of hospital stay. Prevention strategies are detailed in guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States; nevertheless, recent surveys in neonatal units in the United States, and Australia and New Zealand demonstrate these are not always followed. This review discusses the numerous evidence-based strategies to prevent catheter infections including hand hygiene, maximal sterile barriers during insertion, skin disinfection, selection of insertion site, dressings, aseptic non-touch technique, disinfection of catheter hubs/ports, administration set management, prompt removal of catheter, antibiotic locks, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine bathing. Furthermore, it will describe different strategies that can be implemented into clinical practice to reduce infection rates. These include the use of care bundles including checklists, education and the use of CVC teams. PMID:25076387

Taylor, Jacqueline E; McDonald, Susan J; Tan, Kenneth

2014-09-26

80

Positioning artifact causing retained foreign object appearance in a radiograph of a venous catheter.  

PubMed

In preparation for an abdominal tumor debulking procedure, a patient had a right internal jugular central venous catheter (CVC) inserted. A radiologist interpreted a postoperative chest radiograph as containing a 7-cm foreign body in the distal lumen of the CVC. After removal, dissection of the CVC revealed a polyurethane plug in the distal lumen. The manufacturer (Arrow®) states that the synthetic plug is part of standard CVC construction that may produce a radiopaque signal with specific patient positioning during radiography. This report is intended to raise awareness of the potential for this radiographic finding and prevent the unnecessary removal of clinically indicated CVCs. PMID:25867192

Abcejo, Arnoley S; Smith, Hugh M; Hebl, James R

2015-04-15

81

Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.  

PubMed

The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks. PMID:25501778

Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

2015-01-01

82

Risk Factors for Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) To characterize the epidemiology and identify risk factors for complications necessitating removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children. Design Cohort study Setting The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Hospitalized children who had a PICC inserted outside of the neonatal ICU between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2009. Main Exposures Age, PICC dwell time, PICC insertion site, PICC tip location, pediatric ICU exposure, indication for PICC insertion Outcome Measures Complications necessitating PICC removal as recorded by the PICC Team. Results During the study period, 2574 PICCs were placed in 1807 children. Complications necessitating catheter removal occurred in 20.8% of PICCs during 46,021 catheter days (11.6 complications per 1,000 catheter days). These included accidental dislodgement (4.6%), infection (4.3%), occlusion (3.6%), local infiltration (3.0%), leakage (1.5%), breaks (1.4%), phlebitis (1.2%) and thrombosis (0.5%). From 2003 to 2009 complications decreased by 15% per year (IRR 0.85; 95%CI 0.81-0.89). In adjusted analysis, all non-central PICC tip locations - midline (IRR 4.59, 95% CI 3.69-5.69), mid-clavicular (IRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.54-2.98), and other (IRR 3.26 95% CI 1.72-6.15) - compared to central tip location were associated with an increased risk of complications. Pediatric ICU exposure and age less than one year old were independently associated with complications necessitating PICC removal. Conclusion(s) Non-central PICC tip locations, younger age, and pediatric ICU exposure were independent risk factors for complications necessitating PICC removal. Despite reductions in PICC complications, further efforts are needed to prevent PICC-associated complications in children. PMID:23549677

Jumani, Ketan; Advani, Sonali; Reich, Nicholas G.; Gosey, Leslie; Milstone, Aaron M.

2012-01-01

83

Hospital-Wide Multidisciplinary, Multimodal Intervention Programme to Reduce Central Venous Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is the major complication of central venous catheters (CVC). The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a hospital-wide strategy on CLABSI reduction. Between 2008 and 2011, all CVCs were observed individually and hospital-wide at a large university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital. CVC insertion training started from the 3rd quarter and a total of 146 physicians employed or newly entering the hospital were trained in simulator workshops. CVC care started from quarter 7 and a total of 1274 nurses were trained by their supervisors using a web-based, modular, e-learning programme. The study included 3952 patients with 6353 CVCs accumulating 61,366 catheter-days. Hospital-wide, 106 patients had 114 CLABSIs with a cumulative incidence of 1.79 infections per 100 catheters. We observed a significant quarterly reduction of the incidence density (incidence rate ratios [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.88–0.96]; P<0.001) after adjusting for multiple confounders. The incidence densities (n/1000 catheter-days) in the first and last study year were 2.3/1000 and 0.7/1000 hospital-wide, 1.7/1000 and 0.4/1000 in the intensive care units, and 2.7/1000 and 0.9/1000 in non-intensive care settings, respectively. Median time-to-infection was 15 days (Interquartile range, 8-22). Our findings suggest that clinically relevant reduction of hospital-wide CLABSI was reached with a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and multimodal quality improvement programme including aspects of behavioural change and key principles of good implementation practice. This is one of the first multimodal, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide training strategies successfully reducing CLABSI. PMID:24714418

Zingg, Walter; Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Touveneau, Sylvie; Theriault, Michel; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Clergue, François; Pittet, Didier; Walder, Bernhard

2014-01-01

84

Benefit of Heparin in Central Venous and Pulmonary Artery Catheters* A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of heparin on thrombus formation and infection associated with use of central venous and pulmonary artery catheters. Data sources: We used MEDLINE, EMBASE, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, personal files, and contact with expert informants. Study selection: Fourteen randomized controlled trials evaluating prophylactic doses of heparin or heparin bonding were included. Data

Adrienne G. Randolph; Deborah J. Cook; Calle A. Gonzales; Maureen Andrew

85

Unusual venous route of pulmonary artery catheter in a liver transplant recipient: pericardiophrenic or highest intercostal vein?: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report an extraordinary case in which the venous route for pulmonary artery catheterization was unusual. A 41 year-old woman with an end-stage liver disease underwent a living-donor liver transplantation. After induction of anesthesia, the pulmonary artery catheter was revealed to be advanced into the left brachiocephalic vein and then slipped into another vein that drains into the left brachiocephalic vein. In this case, we assumed that the catheter had most likely slipped into the left pericardiophrenic vein since the catheter follows the left heart border similarly to the route of this vein according to the chest X-ray. Patients with liver cirrhosis develop many collateral vessels and have enlarged veins due to portal hypertension, which makes this vascular route possible. We present this case for anesthesiologists to be aware of the possibilities of unusual venous route due to dilated collateral vessels especially in liver transplant patients. PMID:25097741

Park, Ji Hyun; Sim, Ki Choon; Lee, Sooho

2014-01-01

86

Tricuspid valve endocarditis following central venous cannulation: The increasing problem of catheter related infection.  

PubMed

A central venous catheter (CVC) is inserted for measurement of haemodynamic variables, delivery of nutritional supplements and drugs and access for haemodialysis and haemofiltration. Catheterization and maintenance are common practices and there is more to the technique than routine placement as evident when a procedure-related complication occurs. More than 15% of the patients who receive CVC placement have some complications and infectious endocarditis involving the tricuspid valve is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Overenthusiastic and deep insertion of the guide wire and forceful injection through the CVC may lead to injury of the tricuspid valve and predispose to bacterial deposition and endocarditis. We report a case of tricuspid valve endocarditis, probably secondary to injury of the anterior tricuspid leaflet by the guide wire or the CVC that required open heart surgery with vegetectomy and repair of the tricuspid valve. PMID:24163455

Kale, Suresh Babu; Raghavan, Jagannathan

2013-07-01

87

Needle loss in subclavian vein during central venous catheter placement: case report of a rare complication.  

PubMed

We present a case of needle separation during central venous catheter (CVC) placement in a super morbidly obese patient with subsequent surgical intervention in its retrieval. This complication, potentially lethal due to the relevant anatomy of such a procedure, alerts critical care physicians and surgeons to the possibility of equipment failure and stresses proper technique in what has become a routine procedure. It also emphasizes the routine use of ultrasound-guidance for cannulation in patients of any body habitus. While infection and arrhythmia are the generally known complications of CVC placement, clinicians must be alert to unanticipated events such as needle separation. In our case, the retrieval of this needle required multi-disciplinary intervention between radiology, critical care, vascular surgery, and thoracic surgery. Our event stresses hypervigilance to complications in a common procedure. PMID:25709716

Botolin, Daniela; Mooser, Annie; Stillions, Duane; Mortman, Keith; Sarin, Shawn; Babrowicz, Joseph

2015-01-01

88

Comparison of hospital length of stay, costs, and readmissions of alteplase versus catheter replacement among patients with occluded central venous catheters  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheter (CVC) occlusion is common, affecting 30% of all CVCs. Objective To compare length of stay (LOS), costs, and readmissions associated with the use of alteplase to clear catheter blockage to outcomes associated with catheter replacement. Design Retrospective observational study utilizing a large hospital database. Participants Hospitalized patients treated for catheter occlusion from January 2006 to December 2011. Main Measures Univariate analyses of patient characteristics and treatment patterns and multivariable regression analyses of postocclusion hospital costs, LOS, and 30- and 90-day readmissions were conducted. Key Results We included 34,579 patients treated for a CVC occlusion by replacement (N?=?1028) or by alteplase (2 mg) administration (N?=?33,551). Patients receiving alteplase were somewhat younger than those having catheter replacement (60?±?19 vs 62?±?20 years old, P?=?0.0002). After adjusting for patient and hospital factors via regression modeling, average daily postocclusion costs were $317 lower for alteplase recipients than for catheter replacement patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 238.22–392.24; P?catheter replacement (95% CI: 307.27–2458.12; P?=?0.0121). Postocclusion operating room/surgery, radiology, and supply costs were significantly lower for alteplase recipients (P??0.05). Odds of readmission were not significantly different at 30 or 90 days. Conclusions Among patients treated for an occluded CVC, alteplase-treated patients had lower daily and total postocclusion costs than patients receiving catheter replacement. Cost differences were mainly driven by lower operating room/surgery, radiology, and supplier costs. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014;9:490–496. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Hospital Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Hospital Medicine PMID:24825837

Ernst, Frank R; Chen, Er; Lipkin, Craig; Tayama, Darren; Amin, Alpesh N

2014-01-01

89

Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. Methods/Design The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. Discussion The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094 PMID:24885789

2014-01-01

90

Impact of Chlorhexidine-Silver Sulfadiazine-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters on In Vitro Quantitation of Catheter-Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

tion of 10 3 CFU ofStaphylococcus epidermidisper ml, aliquots of catheter-exposed broth were subcultured onto blood agar at 15-min intervals. Decreased mean colony counts were noted at 45 min for broth exposed to antiseptic-impregnated catheters compared with the colony counts for broth exposed to non-antiseptic-im- pregnated catheters (170 versus 540 CFU\\/ml). These effects, which were also demonstrated by the roll-plate

STEVEN K. SCHMITT; CYNTHIA KNAPP; GERALDINE S. HALL; DAVID L. LONGWORTH; JAMES T. MCMAHON

1996-01-01

91

Use of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter as a Conduit for Central Venous Access Across Thrombosed Great Veins  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

Guntur Ramkumar, Prasad, E-mail: prasad.guntur@nhs.net; Chakraverty, Sam, E-mail: schakraverty@nhs.net; Zealley, Ian, E-mail: ian.zealley@nhs.ne [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, NHS Tayside (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

92

Candida parapsilosis Fungemia Associated with Implantable and Semi-Implantable Central Venous Catheters and the Hands of Healthcare Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster of six cases of fungemia among hematology, bone marrow transplant, and oncology patients was investigated in a case-control study (18 controls). The use of implantable and semi-implantable central venous catheters was significantly associated with cases (p = 0.016). The hands of three healthcare workers (HCWs) were positive for Candida parapsilosis. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed two profiles among patients and

A. S Levin; S. F Costa; N. S Mussi; M Basso; S. I Sinto; C Machado; D. C Geiger; M. C. B Villares; A. Z Schreiber; A. A Barone; M. L. M Branchini

1998-01-01

93

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

2013-01-01

94

Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal) and internal (luminal) side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods improves the detection of microorganisms involved in central catheter-related infections. The importance of these microorganisms needs to be investigated further, also in relation to contamination risk from improper catheter handling, as only in vivo contaminants are of interest. This information can be used for development of fast and more reliable diagnostic tools, which can be used in combination with traditional methods. PMID:18954471

Larsen, Mette KS; Thomsen, Trine R; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Per H

2008-01-01

95

Comparison of the duration of antimicrobial activity of 2 different antimicrobial central venous catheters.  

PubMed

We compared the duration of antimicrobial effectiveness of 2 different antimicrobial catheters. The baseline activity of minocycline-rifampin catheters was greater than that of silver-platinum-carbon catheters against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the minocycline-rifampin catheters against these pathogens persisted for up to 12 days, while that of the silver-platinum-carbon catheters was depleted by day 10 (P < .05). PMID:20100086

Matheos, Theofilos; Walz, J Matthias; Adams, Janice P; Johnson, Karen; Longtine, Karen; Longtine, Jaclyn; O'Neill, Melissa; Heard, Stephen O

2010-03-01

96

Prophylactic Administration of Doxycycline Reduces Central Venous Catheter Infections in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells are generally transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC), which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed a high rate of CVC infections at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) unit. Accordingly, we evaluated the impact of administration of doxycycline as a prophylactic strategy to reduce CVC infection rates. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 who received doxycycline (doxycycline group), and we compared their outcomes to a previous cohort of 28 subjects who did not receive doxycycline (comparison group). The groups were comparable in regards to age, gender, transplant type, and CD34 cell dose. No (0%) CVC infection was observed in the doxycycline group, while 5 infection episodes (18%) occurred in 4 patients in the comparison group (p<0.001). Isolated organisms included: Escherichia-coli (EC)=1, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus-spp (CNSS)=2, both EC & CNSS=1. Notwithstanding the non-randomized comparative nature of our study, results suggest that CVC infection rate was reduced significantly after adding doxycycline for prophylaxis. A randomized controlled study is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23505603

Baydoun, Mohamed; Otrock, Zaher K.; Okaily, Samar; Nehme, Rita; Abu-Chahine, Racha; Hamdan, Ali; Noureddine, Samar; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.

2013-01-01

97

Hydrophilic surface coatings with embedded biocidal silver nanoparticles and sodium heparin for central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVCs) have become indispensable in the treatment of neonates and patients undergoing chemotherapy or hemodialysis. A CVC provides easy access to the patient's circulation, thus enabling facile monitoring of hemodynamic parameters, nutritional support, or administration of (cytostatic) medication. However, complications with CVCs, such as bacterial bloodstream infection or thromboembolism, are common. Bloodstream infections, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, are notoriously difficult to prevent and treat. Furthermore, patients receiving infusion therapy through a CVC are at risk for deep-vein thrombosis, especially of the upper limbs. Several recent clinical trials have shown that prophylactic anticoagulation (low-molecular-weight heparin or vitamin K antagonists) is not effective. Here, we report on the systematic development of a new bifunctional coating concept that can -uniquely- be applied to make CVC surfaces antimicrobial and antithrombogenic at the same time. The novel coating consists of a moderately hydrophilic synthetic copolymer of N-vinylpyrrollidinone (NVP) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), containing embedded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and sodium heparin. The work demonstrates that the AgNPs strongly inhibit adhesion of S. aureus (reference strain and clinical isolates). Surprisingly, heparin not only rendered our surfaces practically non-thrombogenic, but also contributed synergistically to their biocidal activity. PMID:21093906

Stevens, Kris N J; Croes, Sander; Boersma, Rinske S; Stobberingh, Ellen E; van der Marel, Cees; van der Veen, Frederik H; Knetsch, Menno L W; Koole, Leo H

2011-02-01

98

Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

2014-01-01

99

A Rare Case of Jejunal Arterio-Venous Fistula: Treatment with Superselective Catheter Embolization with a Tracker-18 Catheter and Microcoils  

SciTech Connect

Arterio-venous fistulas may develop spontaneously, following trauma or infection, or be iatrogenic in nature. We present a rare case of a jejunal arterio- venous fistula in a 35-year-old man with a history of pancreatic head resection that had been performed two years previously because of chronic pancreatitis. The patient was admitted with acute upper abdominal pain, vomiting and an abdominal machinery-type bruit. The diagnosis of a jejunal arterio-venous fistula was established by MR imaging. Transfemoral angiography was performed to assess the possibility of catheter embolization. The angiographic study revealed a small aneurysm of the third jejunal artery, abnormal early filling of dilated jejunal veins and marked filling of the slightly dilated portal vein (13-14 mm). We considered the presence of segmental portal hypertension. The patient was treated with coil embolization in the same angiographic session. This case report demonstrates the importance of auscultation of the abdomen in the initial clinical examination. MR imaging and color Doppler ultrasound are excellent noninvasive tools in establishing the diagnosis. The role of interventional radiological techniques in the treatment of early portal hypertension secondary to jejunal arterio-venous fistula is discussed at a time when this condition is still asymptomatic. A review of the current literature is included.

Sonnenschein, Martin J., E-mail: martin.sonnenschein@insel.ch; Anderson, Suzanne E.; Lourens, Steven; Triller, Juergen [University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

2004-11-15

100

Ultraviolet-C Irradiation for Prevention of Central Venous Catheter Related Infections: An In-vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters (CVC) are widely used in the United States and are associated with 250,000 to 500,000 CVC-related infections in hospitals annually. We used a catheter made from ultraviolet-C (UVC) transmissive material to test whether delivery of UVC from the lumen would allow inactivation of microorganisms on the outer surface of CVC. When the catheter was exposed to UVC irradiation from a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) inside the catheter lumen at a radiant exposure of 3.6 mJ/cm2, more than 6-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria adhered to the outer surface of the catheter were inactivated. Three to 7-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and 2.8 log10 of fungi were inactivated at a radiant exposure of 11 mJ/cm2. UVC irradiation also offered a highly selective inactivation of bacteria over keratinocytes under exactly comparable conditions. After 11 mJ/cm2 UVC light had been delivered, over 6 log10 of bacteria were inactivated while the viability loss of the keratinocytes was only about 57%. PMID:21073470

Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Anderson, Don; Sinofsky, Ed; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

101

Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip  

PubMed Central

Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement.

Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

2015-01-01

102

Variation of Arterial and Central Venous Catheter Use in United States Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Background Arterial (AC) and central venous catheterization (CVC) are common in intensive care units (ICUs). Few data describe which patients receive these devices and whether variability in practice exists. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of adult ICU admissions during 2001–2008 using Project IMPACT to determine whether AC and CVC use is consistent across United States ICUs. We examined trends over time and patients more (mechanically ventilated or on vasopressors) or less (predicted risk of hospital mortality ?2%) likely to receive either catheter. Results Our cohort included 334,123 patients across 122 hospitals and 168 ICUs. Unadjusted AC usage rates remained constant (36.9% (2001) versus 36.4% (2008); P = 0.212) while CVC use increased (from 33.4% (2001) to 43.8% (2008), P < 0.001 comparing 2001 and 2008); adjusted AC usage rates were constant from 2004 (35.2%) to 2008 (36.4%, P = 0.43 for trend). Surgical ICUs used both catheters most often (unadjusted rates, ACs: 56.0% of patients vs. 22.4% in medical and 32.6% in combined units, P < 0.001; CVCs: 46.9% vs. 32.5% and 36.4%, P < 0.001). There was wide variability in AC use across ICUs in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (median (interquartile range): 49.2% (29.9%, 72.3%); adjusted Median Odds-Ratio (AMOR) 2.56), vasopressors (51.7% (30.8%,76.2%); AMOR 2.64), and with predicted mortality ?2% (31.7% (19.5, 49.3%); AMOR 1.94). There was less variability in CVC use (mechanical ventilation: 63.4% (54.9%, 72.9%), AMOR 1.69; vasopressors: 71.4% (59.5%, 85.7%), AMOR 1.93; predicted mortality ?2%: 18.7% (11.9%, 27.3%), AMOR 1.90). Conclusions Both ACs and CVCs are common in ICU patients. There is more variation in use of ACs than CVCs. PMID:24424071

Gershengorn, Hayley B.; Garland, Allan; Kramer, Andrew; Scales, Damon C.; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Wunsch, Hannah

2014-01-01

103

Comparison of the Effects of Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions in Maintenance of Patency of Central Venous Catheters  

PubMed Central

Background Occlusion of central venous catheters is one of the limiting factors in using them. Heparinized saline solution is the standard solution used for keeping the catheters open. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of heparin saline solution and normal saline in maintenance of patency of central venous catheters. Patients and Methods This double-blind study was performed on 84 patients of intensive care unit who had central venous catheters. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of heparin saline receivers and normal saline receivers. In the heparin group after each drug injection into the lumen, 3 mL of heparin saline solution was injected in the catheter as well. The other group only received 10 mL of normal saline instead. The catheters were examined for blood return and flushing every eight hours for 21 days. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and descriptive and analytic statistics were studied. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of flushing (P = 0.872) and possibility of taking blood samples from catheters (P = 0.745) in the two groups of heparin and normal saline receivers. Furthermore, using heparin had no effect on prolonging the survival of catheters. Conclusions Considering possible side effects of heparin and the increase in treatment charges and the fact that using heparin did not have a significant effect on patency and survival of catheters in the studied patients, it is recommended to use normal saline solution to maintain the patency of central venous catheters.

Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Jafari, Hedayat; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

2015-01-01

104

On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

2014-08-28

105

Continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement using a fibre optic catheter in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe the range of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) values in stable newborn infants breathing room air; to examine the correlation between ScvO2 and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2); to describe fractional oxygen extraction; and the shunt index, an estimate of the venous admixture. METHODS: A prospective clinical observational study was made of 10 preterm infants breathing room air after the acute phase of respiratory distress syndrome, and with an umbilical venous catheter in situ. A fibre optic catheter remained in the right atrium for continuous measurement of oxygen saturation. RESULTS: ScvO2, SaO2, blood pressure and heart rate were registered every 15 minutes. Fractional oxygen extraction and shunt index were calculated. SaO2 and ScvO2 were 93.4 (SD 3.7)% and 73.56 (5.25)%, respectively. In seven patients ScvO2 values correlated significantly with SaO2. Fractional oxygen extraction was 0.21 (0.04) and was significantly correlated with ScvO2. The shunt index was 24% (12) and was significantly correlated with SaO2. CONCLUSIONS: Stable preterm infants breathing room air had an ScvO2 ranging from 65% to 82% (5th and 95th percentile), which corresponded to SaO2 > or = 86%. ScvO2 values were significantly correlated with SaO2 in most patients. PMID:8777680

van der Hoeven, M. A.; Maertzdorf, W. J.; Blanco, C. E.

1996-01-01

106

Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer: a randomized controlled open-labelled trial of taurolidine versus heparin.  

PubMed

Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was 0.1 per 1000 catheter-days using taurolidine and 0.9 per 1000 catheter-days using heparin (p = 0.03). This randomized trial confirmed that the use of taurolidine as catheter-lock compared with heparin reduced the rate of CRBSIs; this reduction was not related to a reduction in the intraluminal biofilm formation and the rate of bacterial colonization detected by scanning electron microscopy in the two groups. PMID:22958287

Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

2012-10-01

107

Reduction of central venous catheter associated blood stream infections following implementation of a resident oversight and credentialing policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study assesses the impact that a resident oversight and credentialing policy for central venous catheter (CVC) placement\\u000a had on institution-wide central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). We therefore investigated the rate of CLABSI\\u000a per 1,000 line days during the 12 months before and after implementation of the policy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at an

Robert A Cherry; Cheri E West; Maria C Hamilton; Colleen M Rafferty; Christopher S Hollenbeak; Gregory M Caputo

2011-01-01

108

A Community Collaborative to Develop Consensus Guidelines to Standardize Out-of-Hospital Maintenance Care of Central Venous Catheters.  

PubMed

Central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance is integral to preventing complications and improving outcomes. This process is made more challenging when patients transition from hospital to home care or to an outpatient infusion setting, because different CVC maintenance practices and care parameters confuse patients and care providers alike. Through collaboration and consensus building, a group of metropolitan home health and home infusion agencies developed a standardized approach to CVC maintenance care. This article discusses the multiagency collaborative and resulting guideline and other educational materials that better enable providers, patients, and families to maintain CVC integrity and achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:25723833

Nailon, Regina; Rupp, Mark E

2015-01-01

109

Comparison of two methods of documenting urinary and central venous catheters at an academic medical center.  

PubMed

Accurate documentation of the use of invasive devices, such as urinary and central line catheters, is important to track potential catheter-associated infections. Real-time identification of device infections allows practitioners to initiate timely apparent-cause analyses, therefore allowing rapid improvement of practice. For this reason, it was crucial to ensure our institution's mechanism to capture possible catheter-associated infections is validated after the adoption of a new electronic medical record system. PMID:25687357

Quijano Rondan, Bladimir R; Stachel, Anna; Phillips, Michael

2015-04-01

110

Candidaemia in a paediatric centre and importance of central venous catheter removal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify differences in distribution of Candida species, resistance to antifungals and clinical outcome, as well as the identification of potential risk factors associated with candidaemia in children. We conducted a retrospective analysis in children ?18 years with blood culture proven candidaemia identified between 2004 and 2012. Patients were divided into two groups (Group 1, <3 months, n = 51; Group 2, ?3 months, n = 197) to identify any potential difference between the neonatal and early infantile periods in terms of risk factors and distribution of Candida species. A total of 248 distinct episodes of candidaemia were identified over the study period. The most frequently isolated Candida species were C. albicans (53.2%), followed by C. parapsilosis (26.2%), C. tropicalis (8.1%). Of the 248 episodes, 71 episodes (28.6%) resulted in death within 30 days from the onset of candidaemia. In Group 1, failure of central venous catheter (CVC) removal was found to be associated with a 20.5-fold increase in mortality [95% CI (3.9, 106.5); P < 0.001], compared to a 5.9-fold increased risk with hypoalbuminaemia [95% CI (1.03, 34.1); P = 0.046]. For Group 2, the increased risk was 23-fold for failure of CVC removal [95% CI (7.48, 70.77); P < 0.001], 7.4-fold for mechanical ventilation [95% CI (2.64, 21.08); P < 0.001], 4.4-fold for hypoalbuminaemia [95% CI (1.56, 12.56); P = 0.005], 3.1-fold for neutropaenia [95% CI (1.31, 7.69); P = 0.010] and 2.2-fold for male gender [95% CI (1.02, 4.71); P = 0.043]. Therapeutic choices should be guided by sound knowledge of local epidemiological trends in candidaemia. Removal of CVC significantly reduces mortality and is an essential step in the management of candidaemia. PMID:25678411

Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Kara, Ates; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap; Cengiz, Ali Bulent; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gur, Deniz; Celik, Melda; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur

2015-03-01

111

The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent catheter-related infections in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation. This historical cohort study evaluated 139 patients of whom

J. M. Maaskant; Boer de J. P; O. Dalesio; M. J. Holtkamp; C. Lucas

2009-01-01

112

Estimation of heparin leak into the systemic circulation after central venous catheter heparin lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although most catheter problems in haemodialysis are related to infection or clotting, bleeding associated with the heparin lock is of clinical importance especially during peri-operative conditions. The objective of this in vitro study is to estimate the volume of heparin that may leak into the circulation immediately after performing a catheter lock. Methods. Different volumes (ml) of a dextrose

Mohsen Agharazii; Isabelle Plamondon; Marcel Lebel; Pierre Douville; Simon Desmeules

113

Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: a prospective observational cohort study: part 2.  

PubMed

This is the second part of a 2-part series that reports on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Part 1, published in the May/June 2014 issue of the Journal of Infusion Nursing, provided an extensive review and critique of the literature regarding risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT and identified 28 suspected risk factors. A study was undertaken to examine each of the risk factors among 203 acute care patients with PICCs, 13 of whom experienced a UEDVT, yielding an incidence of 6.4%. The most common reason for admission was infection (33.5%), and the primary reason for insertion of the PICC was venous access (58.6%). Hypertension (P = .022) and obesity (P = .008), defined as a body mass index ?30, were associated with UEDVT. The clinical symptoms of edema (P < .001) and a 3-cm or more increase in arm circumference (P < .001) in the PICC arm after PICC placement were associated with UEDVT. All other variables were not statistically significant. The results suggest that patients who are obese and hypertensive may be at greater risk for the development of UEDVT and that the physical finding of edema and increased arm circumference in the PICC arm are possibly suggestive of UEDVT. PMID:24983259

Maneval, Rhonda E; Clemence, Bonnie J

2014-01-01

114

Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Venous and Synthetic Bypass-Graft Occlusions With a Mechanical Rotational Catheter  

SciTech Connect

PurposePercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) is now established as an alternative treatment of acute arterial occlusions in addition to fibrinolysis and surgical thrombectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was the investigation of a rotational atherothrombectomy catheter in terms of safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions.Materials and MethodsForty-two patients (average age 65.8 {+-} 9.1 years) with acute (<14 days [n = 31]) and subacute (14-42 days [n = 11]) femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated consecutively with a rotational debulking and removal catheter (Straub Rotarex). The average occlusion length was 28.4 {+-} 2.9 (24-34) cm. Thirty-four (81 %) patients underwent venous bypass, and 8 (19 %) patients underwent polytetrafluoroethylene bypass.ResultsThe technical success rate was 97.6 % (41 of 42). In 1 patient, blood flow could not be restored despite the use of the atherothrombectomy system. The average catheter intervention time was 6.9 {+-} 2.1 (4-9) min. Ankle-brachial index increased from 0.39 {+-} 0.13 to 0.83 {+-} 0.11 at discharge and to 0.82 {+-} 0.17 after 1 month (p < 0.05). There were a total of 2 (4.8 %) peri-interventional complications: One patient developed a distal embolism, which was successfully treated with local lysis, and another patient had a small perforation at the distal anastomosis, which was successfully treated with a stent.ConclusionPMT with the Rotarex atherothrombectomy catheter represents a safe and effective option in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions because it can quickly restore blood flow.

Wissgott, Christian, E-mail: cwissgott@wkk-hei.de; Kamusella, Peter; Andresen, Reimer [Westkuestenklinikum Heide-Academic Teaching Hospital of the Universities of Kiel, Luebeck and Hamburg, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany)

2013-08-01

115

The contribution of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation to the risk of central venous catheter-related thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of cen- tral venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis and the contribution of two common inher- ited coagulation disorders (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation) to this com- plication in a large hospital population. Design and Methods. In a prospective setting, patients were assessed daily for signs and symptoms

CORNELIS J. VAN ROODEN; FRITS R. ROSENDAAL; A. EDO MEINDERS; JACQUES A. VAN; FELIX J. M. VAN DER MEER; MENNO V. H UISMAN

116

Oral Contraceptive Induced Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Treated by Local Catheter Directed Thrombolysis  

PubMed Central

Summary We report on a case of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) induced by oral contraception (OC) activated coagulopathy and its endovascular treatment. Deep venous system and dural sinuses thrombosis complicated with severe neurological deficit and coma due to right thalamic edema and ischemia in a young woman was treated by local thrombolysis with an administration of 0.6mg/h of the rtPA and the concomitant intravenous unfractioned heparin infusion (700 IU/h). 3D-Xra digital rotational venography performed at the beginning and after treatment confirmed thrombus resolution with rapid flow restoration. Dynamic flow imaging gives interesting information on the deep venous system and the cortical venous collectors drainage. Final NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) and mRS (modified Rankin Scale) confirmed an excellent clinical outcome of the interventional therapy. PMID:20587216

Prochazka, V.; Rajner, J.; Prochazka, M.; Dvorak, J.; Cizek, V.

2004-01-01

117

Cardiac tamponade due to umbilical venous catheter in the new born  

PubMed Central

With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade following umbilical venous catheterisation in a neonate, an uncommon, yet potentially fatal complication. The patient was diagnosed at the appropriate time by echocardiography and urgent pericardiocentesis proved lifesaving. PMID:22802560

Abdellatif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashfag; Alsenaidi, Khalfan

2012-01-01

118

A time and motion study of peripheral venous catheter flushing practice using manually prepared and prefilled flush syringes.  

PubMed

Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the simplest and most frequently used method for drug, fluid, and blood product administration in the hospital setting. It is estimated that up to 90% of patients in acute care hospitals require a PVC; however, PVCs are associated with inherent complications, which can be mechanical or infectious. There have been a range of strategies to prevent or reduce PVC-related complications that include optimizing patency through the use of flushing. Little is known about the current status of flushing practice. This observational study quantified preparation and administration time and identified adherence to principles of Aseptic Non-Touch Technique and organizational protocol on PVC flushing by using both manually prepared and prefilled syringes. PMID:24583939

Keogh, Samantha; Marsh, Nicole; Higgins, Niall; Davies, Karen; Rickard, Claire

2014-01-01

119

Human infection with Delftia tsuruhatensis isolated from a central venous catheter.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient with catheter-related infection caused by Delftia tsuruhatensis, a newly described species closely related to Delftia acidovorans (formerly Comamonas acidovorans). To date, D. tsuruhatensis has not been described as a pathogen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing D. tsuruhatensis as the causative agent of a human infection. PMID:20965913

Preiswerk, Benjamin; Ullrich, Silvia; Speich, Rudolf; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

2011-02-01

120

Entrapped central venous catheter after mitral valve replacement and its surgical retrieval.  

PubMed

Central venous pressure monitoring line insertion is routine prior to the conduct of cardiac surgery, and in rare instances, malposition can contribute to operative complications. We describe here how a central venous line lying in the right atrium became caught in a left atrial (LA) closure suture during a mitral valve replacement. The opening of the LA suture line is highly unsafe without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of the possibility of systemic air embolism, but by employing an ingenious method of suturing over and unravelling the continuous sutures closing the left atrium, it was possible to surgically retrieve it without the use of a CPB. PMID:22687430

Nair, Hema C; Banakal, Sanjay; Parachuri, V Rao; Shetty, Devi Prasad

2012-09-01

121

A new injection portal for brachially inserted central venous catheter. A multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Totally implantable portal systems are widely used for long-term central venous access. A new venous portal system inserted\\u000a via the brachial veins (P.A.S. Port™ system, Pharmacia Deltec Inc, U.S.A.) was studied in five centres.\\u000a \\u000a From January 1988 through May 1989 61 systems were implanted. Fifty-two patients had malignant diseases. Nine cases had non-malignant\\u000a disorders. The portals were implanted subcutaneously in

Hans Starkhammar; Mats Bengtsson; Thomas B. Gain; William Galen; Leif HÅKansson; John Hirsch; Brian Loggie; Earl S. Schuman; J. Michael Sterchi

1990-01-01

122

Staphylococcus Aureus Prophylaxis in Hemodialysis Patients Using Central Venous Catheter: Effect of Mupirocin Ointment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheterization is a common tech- nique to establish rapid and temporary access for hemodialysis. However, it is a known risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection and bacteremia. Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic with high in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity. A randomized pro- spective trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of mupirocin ointment in the prevention of Staphylococcus au-

RICARDO SESSO; DULCE BARBOSA; IVANI L. LEME; MARIA E. CANZIANI; SILVIA MANFREDI; SERGIO DRAIBE; ANTONIO C. PIGNATARIt

1998-01-01

123

Coiling of central venous catheter in the left subclavian vein, a rare complication  

PubMed Central

Invasive monitoring is the need of the hour in today's scenario in intensive care units and perioperatively in hemodynamically unstable patients. Despite careful placement using proper landmarks and USG guided methods central venous canuulation (CVC) is associated sometimes with unforeseen complications. We report a rare complication of coiling of CVC in the left subclavian vein. PMID:24678154

Goyal, Vipin; Sahu, Sandeep

2014-01-01

124

Linezolid Compared with Eperezolid, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin in an In Vitro Model of Antimicrobial Lock Therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis Central Venous Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified

John Curtin; Martin Cormican; Gerard Fleming; John Keelehan; Emer Colleran

2003-01-01

125

Use of a low-concentration heparin solution to extend the life of central venous catheters in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).  

PubMed

Normal hematologic values for African green monkeys have been reported, but these results are confounded by the effect of chemical restraint (for example, ketamine), physical restraint, and capture stress. The dual-lumen central venous catheter, jacket, and tether combination we describe here allows intravenous fluid administration and repeated blood sampling without the use of anesthesia or inducing capture-related stress. The use of a low-concentration heparin solution for catheter maintenance significantly increased the mean patency time, compared with a saline-only catheter flush solution. Adding a low-concentration heparin solution creates a suitable system for serial blood collection in the African green monkey for as long as 25 d. PMID:17487955

Gamble, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Kenneth O; Leffel, Elizabeth K; Pitt, M Louise M

2007-05-01

126

Microbial biofilms on needleless connectors for central venous catheters: comparison of standard and silver-coated devices collected from patients in an acute care hospital.  

PubMed

Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P=0.11). There were no significant associations (P>0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P=0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P=0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M Ryan; Donlan, Rodney M

2014-03-01

127

Microbial Biofilms on Needleless Connectors for Central Venous Catheters: Comparison of Standard and Silver-Coated Devices Collected from Patients in an Acute Care Hospital  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P = 0.11). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P = 0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P = 0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T.; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P.; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan

2014-01-01

128

Early and Late Complications Related to Central Venous Catheters in Hematological Malignancies: a Retrospective Analysis of 1102 Patients  

PubMed Central

Several severe complications may be associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVC). We retrospectively evaluated on a large cohort of patients the incidence of CVC-related early and late complications. From 7/99 to 12/2005, 1102 CVC have been implanted at our Institution in 881 patients with hematological malignancies (142,202 total day number of implanted CVC). Early mechanic complications were 79 (7.2% - 0.55/1,000 days/CVC). Thirty-nine episodes of early infective complications (<1 week from CVC implant) occurred (3.5% - 0.3/1000 days/CVC): furthermore, 187 episodes of CVC-related sepsis (17% - 1.3/1000 days/CVC) were recorded. There were 29 episodes (2.6%) of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications, with a median interval from CVC implant of 60 days (range 7 – 395). The rate of CVC withdrawal due to CVC-related complications was 26%. The incidence of CVC-related complications in our series is in the range reported in the literature notwithstanding cytopenia often coexisting in hematological patients. PMID:24678388

Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Coppola, Lorenzo; Latagliata, Roberto; Berneschi, Paola; Chistolini, Antonio; Micozzi, Alessandra; Girmenia, Corrado; Breccia, Massimo; Brunetti, Gregorio; Massaro, Fulvio; Rosa, Giovanni; Guerrisi, Pietro; Mandelli, Franco; Foà, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

129

Early and late complications related to central venous catheters in hematological malignancies: a retrospective analysis of 1102 patients.  

PubMed

Several severe complications may be associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVC). We retrospectively evaluated on a large cohort of patients the incidence of CVC-related early and late complications. From 7/99 to 12/2005, 1102 CVC have been implanted at our Institution in 881 patients with hematological malignancies (142,202 total day number of implanted CVC). Early mechanic complications were 79 (7.2% - 0.55/1,000 days/CVC). Thirty-nine episodes of early infective complications (<1 week from CVC implant) occurred (3.5% - 0.3/1000 days/CVC): furthermore, 187 episodes of CVC-related sepsis (17% - 1.3/1000 days/CVC) were recorded. There were 29 episodes (2.6%) of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications, with a median interval from CVC implant of 60 days (range 7 - 395). The rate of CVC withdrawal due to CVC-related complications was 26%. The incidence of CVC-related complications in our series is in the range reported in the literature notwithstanding cytopenia often coexisting in hematological patients. PMID:24678388

Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Coppola, Lorenzo; Latagliata, Roberto; Berneschi, Paola; Chistolini, Antonio; Micozzi, Alessandra; Girmenia, Corrado; Breccia, Massimo; Brunetti, Gregorio; Massaro, Fulvio; Rosa, Giovanni; Guerrisi, Pietro; Mandelli, Franco; Foà, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

130

Falsely elevated cyclosporin and tacrolimus concentrations over prolonged periods of time due to reversible adsorption to central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Falsely elevated concentrations of immunosuppressants can be caused by reversible adsorption to central venous catheter (CVC) systems. If undetected, this may lead to dose reduction resulting in underdosage which may even entail graft-versus-host disease or organ rejection. We analyzed the adsorption and release for cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) in vitro and in vivo. Four types of CVCs were examined in vitro: two made from polyurethane (PU), one from silicone and one from PU with an incorporated silver ion-based antimicrobial agent. All 26 CVCs analyzed in vitro showed significant reversible adsorption of CsA (n=13; p=0.001) and Tac (n=13; p=0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Immediately after infusing the drugs, the mean concentrations of 6420ng/mL of CsA and 250ng/mL of Tac were measured. Flushing with NaCl lowered the drug release. Besides, blood samples of fifteen patients were taken simultaneously from all lumina of the CVC and via venipuncture. The samples from contaminated lumina showed the mean elevations by a factor of 11 for CsA (n=12) and 89 for Tac (n=3). Blood sampling for immunosuppressant monitoring should thus never be performed from lumina previously used for infusing the drug even after prolonged periods of time and extensive rinsing. PMID:24631133

Hacker, Charlotte; Verbeek, Mareike; Schneider, Heike; Steimer, Werner

2014-06-10

131

Human Serum Potentiates the Expression of Genes Associated with Antifungal Drug Resistance in C. albicans Biofilms on Central Venous Catheters.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is a major agent of fungaemias and frequently causes systemic disease through seeded, blood stream dissemination. These infections, particularly common in hospitalized patients with central venous catheters (CVCs), appear to persevere due to biofilm reservoirs of the yeast that tend to develop on the device. Although it is known that candidal biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antifungals compared with their planktonic counterparts, there is a paucity of data on the expression of antifungal drug resistance genes (DRGs) in candidal biofilms in CVC reservoirs. Furthermore, notwithstanding the fact that CVCs are constantly bathed in human serum, there are no studies on the effect of the latter on the DRG expression in candidal biofilms. Hence, we developed in vitro biofilms of three different C. albicans strains on silicone CVC discs immersed in human serum and evaluated the temporal expression of nine antifungal DRGs. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of hyphal elements on DRG expression, we incorporated a hyphal mutant (HM) and its wild-type (WT) counterpart, as well as a fresh clinical isolate in the studies. Human serum significantly up-regulated DRG transcripts in Candida biofilms on CVCs, at different stages of biofilm growth, while the WT strain over-expressed more DRGs than the HM strain. Here, we report, for the first time, that both human serum and the hyphal elements of the yeast have a profound modulatory effect on DRG expression in C. albicans biofilms on CVCs. PMID:25515243

Samaranayake, L P; Anil, S; Hashem, M; Vellappally, S; Cheung, B P K

2015-04-01

132

Using lateral radiographs to determine umbilical venous catheter tip position in neonates.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess the difference in measurement of the distance of the UVC tip from the diaphragm between (Anteroposterior) AP and lateral radiographs and to determine the reliability of the measurement of UVC tip distance from the diaphragm between the two views. A retrospective review of paired AP and lateral radiographs taken to assess UVC tip position was carried out in 25 infants was conducted and reliability analysis was carried out. There was a significant difference in the mean (SD) distance of the UVC catheter above the diaphragm between the AP and lateral radiographs: 8.7 (7.8) mm versus 11.6 (7.3) mm (p = 0.003) respectively. Measurements using lateral radiographs were more reliable (Intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.99 vs. 0.93). Inter-observer reliability analysis yielded similar results. Lateral radiographs are more reliable in measurement of UVC tip position and should be performed in conjunction with AP films to aid in determining UVC position. PMID:25282975

Butler, G C; Al-Assaf, N; Tarrant, A; Ryan, S; El-Khuffash, A

2014-09-01

133

Comparison of microbial adherence to antiseptic and antibiotic central venous catheters using a novel agar subcutaneous infection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agar subcutaneous infection model (agar model), which simulates the rat subcutaneous infection model (rat model), was developed to assess the ability of antimicrobial catheters to resist microbial colonization. The catheters were implanted in the agar and rat models and the insertion sites were infected immediately or on day 7, 14 or 21 post-implantation. The catheters implanted in the agar

Trupti A. Gaonkar; Shanta M. Modak

134

Efficacy of 1.0% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol compared with 10% povidone-iodine for long-term central venous catheter care in hematology departments: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The efficacy of 1% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol and 10% povidone-iodine for skin antisepsis of central venous catheter (CVC) sites were compared among hematology patients. The CVC site colonization rates of those groups were 11.9% and 29.2%, respectively, and the catheter-associated blood stream infections were 0.75 and 3.62 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. One percent chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol was superior to povidone-iodine to reduce skin colonizers at CVC sites even when catheters were used for long duration. PMID:24655901

Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kimura, Hideo; Misao, Hanako; Matsumoto, Hayato; Imafuku, Yuji; Watanabe, Akemi; Mori, Hiroko; Yoshida, Akiko; Miura, Saori; Abe, Yoshinobu; Toba, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kanemitsu, Keiji

2014-05-01

135

Impact of Postplacement Adjustment of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters on the Risk of Bloodstream Infection and Venous Thrombus Formation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital. PATIENTS Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007. METHODS The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records. RESULTS There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P < .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT. PMID:23838218

Baxi, Sanjiv M.; Shuman, Emily K.; Scipione, Christy A.; Chen, Benrong; Sharma, Aditi; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.; Chenoweth, Carol E.

2014-01-01

136

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with a Continuous Infusion of Low-Dose Urokinase for Non-Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Objective We wanted to evaluate the feasibility of catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase for treating non-acute (less than 14 days) deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. Materials and Methods The clinical data of 110 patients who were treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis was analysed. Adjunctive angioplasty or/and stenting was performed for the residual stenosis. Venous recanalization was graded by pre- and post-treatment venography. Follow-up was performed by clinical evaluation and Doppler ultrasound. Results A total of 112 limbs with deep venous thrombosis with a mean symptom duration of 22.7 days (range: 15-38 days) were treated with a urokinase infusion (mean: 3.5 million IU) for a mean of 196 hours. After thrombolysis, stent placement was performed in 25 iliac vein lesions and percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) alone was done in five iliac veins. Clinically significant recanalization was achieved in 81% (90 of 112) of the treated limbs; complete recanalization was achieved in 28% (31 of 112) and partial recanalization was achieved in 53% (59 of 112). Minor bleeding occurred in 14 (13%) patients, but none of the patients suffered from major bleeding or symptomatic pulmonary embolism. During follow-up (mean: 15.2 months, range: 3-24 months), the veins were patent in 74 (67%) limbs. Thirty seven limbs (32%) showed progression of the stenosis with luminal narrowing more than 50%, including three with rethrombosis, while one revealed an asymptomatic iliac vein occlusion; 25 limbs (22%) developed mild post-thrombotic syndrome, and none had severe post-thrombotic syndrome. Valvular reflux occurred in 24 (21%) limbs. Conclusion Catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase combined with adjunctive iliac vein stenting is safe and effective for removal of the clot burden and for restoration of the venous flow in patients with non-acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. PMID:21228945

Gao, Binbin; Wu, Xuejun; Han, Zonglin; Zhou, Hua; Dong, Dianning; Jin, Xing

2011-01-01

137

Citropin 1.1-treated central venous catheters improve the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics in the treatment of experimental staphylococcal catheter-related infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus biofilms developed on 96-well polystyrene tissue culture plates was performed to elucidate the activity of citropin 1.1, rifampin and minocycline. Efficacy studies were performed in a rat model of staphylococcal CVC infection. Silastic catheters were implanted into the superior cava. Twenty-four hours after implantation the catheters were filled with citropin 1.1

Oscar Cirioni; Andrea Giacometti; Roberto Ghiselli; Wojciech Kamysz; Fiorenza Orlando; Federico Mocchegiani; Carmela Silvestri; Alberto Licci; Leonardo Chiodi; Jerzy ?ukasiak; Vittorio Saba; Giorgio Scalise

2006-01-01

138

Rescue therapy of difficult-to-treat indwelling central venous catheter-related bacteremias in cancer patients: a review for practical purposes.  

PubMed

Device-related bacteremia is the most frequent complication in patients with indwelling central venous catheter. Guidelines recommend treatment based on epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, but catheter removal is advocated in the presence of particular clinical conditions or pathogen isolations. Anti-infective drugs might become less effective in the presence of pathogens with increases in minimal inhibitory concentrations or slime production, and sometimes catheter removal is not feasible, for example, in patients with limited vascular sites or in the presence of life-threatening clinical conditions. Catheter lock with anti-infective drugs (antibacterials or antifungals) or other substances with anti-infective properties (e.g., taurolidine, 70% ethanol, 2M HCl) might represent a possible rescue treatment in the presence of difficult-to-treat infections and/or when the device cannot be removed. In the present review, the authors summarize these possible therapeutic options. The aim of the report is not to perform a systematic review of the literature, but to give an 'easy to read' text for everyday practice. PMID:23409823

Castagnola, Elio; Ginocchio, Francesca

2013-02-01

139

Cerebral Air Embolism Following the Removal of a Central Venous Catheter in the Absence of Intracardiac Right-to-Left Shunting: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Air embolism following central venous catheter (CVC) removal is a relatively uncommon complication. Despite its rare occurrence, an air embolism can lead to serious outcomes. One of the most fatal complications is cerebral air embolism.We report a case of cerebral air embolism that occurred after the removal of a CVC in a patient with an underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and a possible intrapulmonary shunt. Although the patient had a brief period of recovery, his condition deteriorated again, and retention of carbon dioxide was sustained due to aggravation of pneumonia. Despite full coverage of antibiotics and maximum care with the ventilator, the patient died about 5 weeks after the removal of the CVC.We suggest that strict compliance to protocols is required even while removing the catheter. Furthermore, additional caution to avoid air embolism is demanded in high-risk patients, such as in this case. PMID:25837752

Eum, Da Hae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyung Won; Jung, Myung Jae; Lee, Jae Gil

2015-04-01

140

Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

141

Chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters: in vitro antibacterial activity and impact on bacterial adhesion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro activity and the impact on bacterial adhesion of two different catheters, one impregnated with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (C-SS) and the other not impregnated with antibacterial agents. The antimicrobial coating prevented the bacterial colonization by slime positive Staphylococcus epidermidis in the first two days. The antibacterial activity of the effluents from catheters impregnated with C-SS dissipated by day seven. Our results demonstrated that the surface treatment modified the composition of impregnated catheters and determined different contact angle values of the two catheters (impregnated and not impregnated). Examination of coated and uncoated catheter segments by scanning electron microscopy showed a good correlation with the results of adherence experiments. In conclusion, the findings suggest that C-SS coated catheters prevent in vitro bacterial adhesion. PMID:22707130

Monzillo, Vincenzina; Corona, Silvia; Lanzarini, Paolo; Dalla Valle, Claudia; Marone, Piero

2012-04-01

142

[Occlusion of central venous port catheters after simultaneous 24 h infusions of 5-FU and calcium-folinic acid in patients with gastrointestinal cancer].  

PubMed

Folinic acid-modulated 5-FU regimens are standard elements in several chemotherapy combinations like FOLFIRI, FOLFOX or AIO-regimen in the palliative treatment of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. When the simultaneous mixed infusion of 5-FU and calcium-folinic acid (Leucovorin) was authorized by the BfArM in 2002, we introduced this application regimen in the treatment of our cancer patients. 19 patients (AIO-regimen [5], FOLFIRI [12] and FOLFOX [2]) received a simultaneously mixed infusion of calcium-folinic acid and 5-FU over 24 hours with a total of 110 applications. 5-FU doses varied between 2000 and 2600 mg/m2, calcium-folinic acid was given with 500 mg/m2, infusion rate was 10 ml/hour using a 24 h pump. Central venous catheters employed included single Barth-Port in 18 cases, 1 patient had a Viggon-Port. In 3 out of the 19 patients catheter occlusion was noticed after 8-10 weekly applications of the mixed infusion. Heparine and subsequently urokinase were not successful in reversing the obstruction. All three catheters had to be explanted. Catheter tips in all cases showed a yellow cristalline precipitation. The crystallographic analysis exhibited calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in its polymorphic form (calcite). Thus, we confirmed calcite formation causing catheter occlusion as a frequent complication during a continuous 24 h-infusion of mixed high dose 5-FU and calcium-folinic acid. This reaction could not be avoided by increasing infusion volume and the application flow rate. As a result of our findings, recommending using calcium-folinic acid mixed with 5-FU has been withdrawn in the meantime. PMID:15244042

Fackler-Schwalbe, I; Schwalbe, B; Epple, M; Becker, A; Prügl, L; Gassel, W D; Stoffels, D; Südhoff, T

2004-05-01

143

Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection in Hospitalized Children with Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: Extending Risk Analyses Outside the Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Background. Increasingly, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are placed for prolonged intravenous access. Few data exist regarding risk factors for central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) complicating PICCs in hospitalized children, especially children hospitalized outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods.?We identified all children with a PICC inserted at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD) from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2009 and used Poisson regression models to identify risk factors for PICC-associated CLABSIs. Results.?A total of 2592 PICCs were placed in 1819 children. One hundred sixteen CLABSIs occurred over 44,972 catheter-days (incidence rate [IR], 2.58 cases per 1000 catheter-days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07–3.00 cases per 1000 catheter-days). Independent predictors of CLABSI in the entire cohort included PICC dwell time of ?21 days (IR ratio [IRR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.26), parenteral nutrition as indication for insertion (IRR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.31–3.84), prior PICC-associated CLABSI (IRR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.18–5.25), underlying metabolic condition (IRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.14–3.74), and pediatric ICU exposure during hospitalization (IRR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.18–2.75). Risk factors for CLABSI in children without PICU exposure included younger age, underlying malignancy and metabolic conditions, PICCs inserted in the lower extremity, and a prior PICC-associated CLABSI. Conclusions.?Prolonged catheter dwell time, pediatric ICU exposure, and administration of parenteral nutrition as the indication for PICC insertion are important predictors of PICC-associated CLABSI in hospitalized children. A careful assessment of these risk factors may be important for future success in preventing CLABSIs in hospitalized children with PICCs. PMID:21454298

Advani, Sonali; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sengupta, Arnab; Gosey, Leslie

2011-01-01

144

Taurolidine is effective in the treatment of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taurolidine is an antimicrobial agent that was originally used in the local treatment of peritonitis and was shown to be effective in the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI). In this pilot study, we used taurolidine solution as an intravenous (i.v.) lock into the totally implantable intravascular devices of 11 consecutive oncological patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections not responding to

M. Koldehoffa

2004-01-01

145

Phase I Study of Hepatic Arterial Melphalan Infusion and Hepatic Venous Hemofiltration Using Percutaneously Placed Catheters in Patients With Unresectable Hepatic Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose We conducted a phase I study of a 30-minute hepatic artery infusion of melphalan via a percutaneously placed catheter and hepatic venous hemofiltration using a double balloon catheter positioned in the retrohepatic inferior vena cava to shunt hepatic venous effluent through an activated charcoal filter and then to the systemic circulation. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate feasibility in an initial cohort and subsequently determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicity of melphalan. Patients and Methods The initial cohort (n = 12) was treated with 2.0 mg/kg of melphalan before dose escalation to 3.5 mg/kg (n = 16). Total hepatic drug delivery, systemic levels, and percent filter efficiency were determined. Patients were assessed for hepatic and systemic toxicity and response. Results A total of 74 treatments were administered to 28 patients. Twelve patients with primary and metastatic hepatic tumors received 30 treatments (mean, 2.5 per patient) at an initial melphalan dose of 2.0 mg/kg. At 3.5 mg/kg, a dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia) was observed in two of six patients. Transient grade 3/4 hepatic and systemic toxicity was seen after 19% and 66% of treatments, respectively. An overall radiographic response rate of 30% was observed in treated patients. In the 10 patients with ocular melanoma, a 50% overall response rate was observed, including two complete responses. Conclusion Delivery of melphalan via this system is feasible, with limited, manageable toxicity and evidence of substantial antitumor activity; 3 mg/kg is the maximum safe tolerated dose of melphalan administered via this technique. PMID:15908655

Pingpank, James F.; Libutti, Steven K.; Chang, Richard; Wood, Bradford J.; Neeman, Ziv; Kam, Anthony W.; Figg, William D.; Zhai, Souping; Beresneva, Tatiana; Seidel, Geoffrey D.; Alexander, H. Richard

2008-01-01

146

Presence of fibrinogen-binding adhesin gene in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters-associated and orthopaedic implant-associated infections.  

PubMed

Attention has recently been paid to identify and elucidate those pathogenetic mechanisms, which play a significant role in sustaining the early phases of Staphylococcus epidermidis colonisation and infection development. Several analogies with the physiology of Staphylococcus aureus, a more thoroughly investigated pathogen, have lead to carefully consider all bacterial surface components that mediate cell adhesion. This study aimed at investigating the presence of the fbe gene encoding for a fibrinogen-binding protein in a collection of 107 S. epidermidis strains isolated from orthopaedic infections and 67 from central venous catheter-associated infections. The strains isolated from orthopaedic infections were in large part associated to four different classes of orthopaedic devices, respectively: internal fixation devices, external fixation devices, knee arthroprostheses and hip arthroprostheses. The molecular epidemiology analysis performed by PCR enlightened a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of this adhesion mechanism between orthopaedic infections and catheter-related infections, respectively, of 78% and 91%. The prevalence of fbe ranged from 67% to 91%, suggesting that, even though this adhesin is not strictly necessary for the development of infection, nevertheless it represents a rather common characteristic of strains causing clinical infections, this independently on the presence or the absence of implant materials. PMID:15120529

Arciola, Carla Renata; Campoccia, Davide; Gamberini, Simonetta; Donati, M Elena; Montanaro, Lucio

2004-08-01

147

Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided. PMID:21864336

2011-01-01

148

C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters  

SciTech Connect

C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

Tam, Alda, E-mail: alda.tam@di.mdacc.tmc.ed [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. (United States); Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, AX Division (Germany); Wallace, Michael J. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)

2009-07-15

149

Peripherally inserted central catheters revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study compares central venous catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) for indications for insertion, complications, and economic impact.Methods: A retrospective review of 838 (283 CVC, 555 PICC) consecutively placed venous catheters reflected 49,365 CVC and 11,814 PICC days.Results: There were 57 (20%) complications in the CVC group, 197 (35%) complications in the PICC group. PICC were

Jeffrey R. Smith; Mark L. Friedell; Michael L. Cheatham; Samuel P. Martin; Michael J. Cohen; John D. Horowitz

1998-01-01

150

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis Along with Mechanical Thromboaspiration versus Anticoagulation Alone in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis-A Comparative Study.  

PubMed

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with assisted mechanical thrombolysis is now considered as the standard of medical care for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The study was conducted to describe the immediate and long-term (6 months) safety and effectiveness of CDT in patient with lower limb DVT compared with the routine anticoagulation alone. All 12 to 85 years old patients with recent (0-8 weeks) DVT were included. In CDT group, thrombus was aspirated mechanically and streptokinase (STK) was given along with unfractionated heparin (UFH). After 6 months, deep venous patency and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) was assessed by using duplex ultrasound and Villalta scale, respectively. Among 51 patients with completed data, 25 patients were allocated additional CDT given for a mean duration of 108?±?32 hours and 26 patients were allocated standard treatment alone. Grade III (complete) lysis was achieved in 37% patients and grade II (50-90%) lysis in 63% of patients. Patients with partial lysis underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and/or venous stenting. After 6 months, iliofemoral patency was found in 20 (80%) in the CDT group versus 7 (23%) in anticoagulation alone group (p?

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Nagesh, C M; Reddy, Babu; Manjunath, C N

2014-12-01

151

Effects of fentanyl on procedural pain and discomfort associated with central venous catheter insertion: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Context: Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion induces pain and discomfort to a conscious patient despite application of a local anesthetic (LA) field block and this pain can be greatly lessened by using additional analgesics. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of fentanyl along with LA field infiltration in controlling pain and discomfort associated with CVC insertion. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients scheduled for planned CVC were randomly assigned to receive either fentanyl (2 ?g/kg) or 0.9% normal saline. Pain and discomfort using a verbal numeric rating pain scale at 5 times points during CVC insertion were assessed and analyzed. Results: The median interquartile range pain score is worst for placebo group after LAI (5 [3-6]) and in the immediate postprocedure period (5 [4-5]) which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl (3.5 [2-5] and 3 [2-4]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001 respectively). Overall, fentanyl and placebo group were not statistically different with median discomfort score except at T10 (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Preprocedural bolus fentanyl infusion provides adequate analgesia and can be safely used for alleviating pain during CVC insertion in conscious patients. PMID:25097353

Samantaray, Aloka; Rao, Mangu Hanumantha

2014-01-01

152

Feasibility of prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction regimens in haemophilic children using fully implantable central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Venous access represents the major barrier to the feasibility of prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction (ITI) in haemophilic children. Ports improve treatment feasibility, but their duration is limited by infectious complications. This study aimed at evaluating whether or not ports allow haemophilic children to maintain the treatment regimen in the long term. Children were prospectively followed-up and underwent port removal either for complications or transition to peripheral veins. Of 27 ports (17 used for prophylaxis and 10 for ITI), 25 were removed after a median of 3.3 years. Inhibitor children showed a younger age at port insertion (P = 0.02), an earlier occurrence of infections (P = 0.006) at a higher rate (P = 0.00001) and an earlier removal for infection (P = 0.05) than non-inhibitor patients. Daily port use was associated with earlier infections at a higher rate compared to less frequent use (P = 0.02). Port removal after a median of 0.8 years prevented ITI completion in 50% of children, while it hampered the maintenance of prophylaxis in 27% of patients. This study showed that ports improved the feasibility of prophylaxis in the majority of non-inhibitor children, while they were not suitable for inhibitor children who require a prolonged ITI regimen with daily infusions. PMID:18410458

Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Sartori, Angelo; Agliardi, Andrea; Santagostino, Elena

2008-05-01

153

Reduction in catheter-related infections after switching from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine for the exit-site care of tunneled central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have investigated the optimal exit site management of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) in pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine solutions and a 5% povidone-iodine solution on the incidence of CVC-related infections in children on HD. The incidence of exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection (TI), and bloodstream infection (BSI) was assessed in two groups of tunneled CVCs. The iodopovidone group consisted of 14 CVCs used between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2012 in 10 children, whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 11.8 years (range 1.2-19.2): 5% povidone-iodine was used for CVC exit-site care. From 1 August 2012 to 31 January 2014, 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol was used for the exit site, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol spray for the hub in 13 CVCs was used in 10 patients (chlorhexidine group), whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 10 years (range 1.2-19.2). Ten episodes of ESI were diagnosed in the iodopovidone group (incidence 3.4/1000 CVC days), and only one in the chlorhexidine group (incidence 0.36/1000 CVC days, P?=?0.008). One TI was observed in the iodopovidone group (0.34/1000 CVC days), and none in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of BSIs decreased from 1.7/1000 CVC days (5 cases) to 0.36/1000 CVC days (1 case, P?=?0.06) after switching to chlorhexidine. Two CVCs were lost due to CVC-related infections in the iodopovidone group, whereas no CVC was lost due to infections in the chlorhexidine group. In comparison with 5% povidone-iodine, the use of chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of ESI, TI, and BSI in children on HD. PMID:25330826

Paglialonga, Fabio; Consolo, Silvia; Biasuzzi, Antonietta; Assomou, Jolanda; Gattarello, Elisabetta; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Alberto; Chidini, Giovanna; Napolitano, Luisa; Edefonti, Alberto

2014-10-01

154

Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for CRBSI. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey in reducing bacterial skin colonization at insertion sites. Methods A prospective, single-center, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed at the ICU of a university hospital in The Netherlands to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey to reduce skin colonization of insertion sites. Medical-grade honey was applied in addition to standard CVC-site dressing and disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Skin colonization was assessed on a daily basis before CVC-site disinfection. The primary end point was colonization of insertion sites with >100 colony-forming units at the last sampling before removal of the CVC or transfer of the patient from the ICU. Secondary end points were quantitative levels of colonization of the insertion sites and colonization of insertion sites stratified for CVC location. Results Colonization of insertion sites was not affected by the use of medical-grade honey, as 44 (34%) of 129 and 36 (34%) of 106 patients in the honey and standard care groups, respectively, had a positive skin culture (P = 0.98). Median levels of skin colonization at the last sampling were 1 (0 to 2.84) and 1 (0 to 2.70) log colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for the honey and control groups, respectively (P = 0.94). Gender, days of CVC placement, CVC location, and CVC type were predictive for a positive skin culture. Correction for these variables did not change the effect of honey on skin-culture positivity. Conclusions Medical-grade honey does not affect colonization of the skin at CVC insertion sites in ICU patients when applied in addition to standard disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Registry, NTR1652. PMID:23111148

2012-01-01

155

[Radiographic assessment of catheters in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)].  

PubMed

Intravascular catheters are widely used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The major types of intravascular access in the newborn are peripheral catheters, venous or arterial umbilical catheters, central venous catheters and peripherally-inserted central venous catheters (PICC). Anomalous positioning of catheters, especially umbilical catheters, is quite frequent as their installation is without imaging guidance. The radiographic assessment of the catheter performed by pediatricians and/or radiologists, who must be able to recognize those poorly positioned as they can cause serious complications, is essential. This article contains a sample of correct and misplaced catheter x-ray often used in a NICU. PMID:25697620

Fuentealba T, Isabel; Retamal C, Andrés; Ortiz C, Guillermo; Pérez R, Marcela

2014-12-01

156

‘Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England  

PubMed Central

Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438?887 (404?252 adult and 34?635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20?months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20?months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (? 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

2013-01-01

157

Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access  

SciTech Connect

Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.sierre@usa.net [Hospital Aleman, Department of Interventional Radiology (Argentina)

2011-12-15

158

Rare complication of a dialysis catheter insertion  

PubMed Central

Insertion of a dialysis catheter is a very common procedure in renal medicine, which is associated with one or more complications in ?15% of patients. Central venous catheter vascular erosion is a rare but serious complication, the incidence appears to be between 0.4 and 1% which can be difficult to diagnose, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (PLSVC) and a possible central venous catheter vascular erosion following insertion of a left-sided internal jugular dialysis catheter. We discuss the mechanisms, diagnosis and measures to limit vascular erosion and also briefly discuss PLSVC.

Balasubramanian, Santhanakrishnan; Gupta, Sanjay; Nicholls, Marcus; Laboi, Paul

2014-01-01

159

Lower associated costs using rifampicin-miconazole?impregnated catheters compared with standard catheters.  

PubMed

Previous cost-effectiveness analyses found that antibiotic-impregnated catheters decrease the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) as well as the costs related to central venous catheter (CVC) use, including increased hospital length of stay. The effect varied greatly among the studies, however. In this retrospective cohort study, compared with standard catheters, the use of rifampicin-miconazole-impregnated catheters was associated with lower CRBSI incidence and immediate CVC-related costs (taking into account only the costs of CVC, diagnosis, and treatment of CRBSI) (P < .001). Our data indicate that the use of rifampicin-miconazole-impregnated catheters can save associated costs. PMID:21741122

Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Ramos, María José; Jiménez, Alejandro; Mora, María L; Sierra, Antonio

2011-12-01

160

Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation  

E-print Network

A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

2009-01-01

161

Catheter-related thrombosis in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The prevalence of asymptomatic catheter-related thrombosis of the upper venous system in children with cancer has not been determined. We evaluated patients with cancer and implantable central venous catheters (ports) for this complication. Study Design: Children with cancer undergoing port removal were eligible for this study. Vessel patency was evaluated by contrast venography. We examined each child for physical

Darryl W. Glaser; Desiree Medeiros; Nancy Rollins; George R. Buchanan

2001-01-01

162

Urinary catheters  

MedlinePLUS

... dementia Catheters come in many sizes, materials (latex, silicone, Teflon™), and types (Foley, straight, coude tip). A Foley catheter, for example, is a soft, plastic or rubber tube that is inserted into the bladder to ...

163

[Tunnelled internal jugular vein catheters with taurolidine lock: an acceptable challenge to arterio-venous fistula in 70 years old haemodialyzed patients: a prospective pilot study].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is still in 2010 the gold standard of vascular(2) access in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Nevertheless it may be difficult to obtain and/or to use AVF in elderly. With this prospective randomised pilot study, we compare two strategies of vascular access in 70 years old or more new HD patients. AVF were compared to tunnelled jugular vein catheters (TIJC) with taurolidine as bacterial lock solution. Results were as follow: [table: see text] The responses with the visual analogic scale of comfort was 8/10 for TIJC and 5/10 with AVF * P<0.05. In five TIJC patients, heparin was added with success to taurolidine because of partial clotting of catheters. Albuminemia was significantly lower in AVF failure patients compared to AVF success patients (24.8g/L vs 31.1g/L). This pilot study allows to conclude that TIJC is an acceptable challenge to AVF in haemodialysed patients of 70 years or more in a two years long use. PMID:21601549

Branger, Bernard; Reboul, Pascal; Prelipcean, Camélia; Noguera, Maria Eugenia; Cariou, Sylvain; Granolleras, Céline; Vecina, Frédérique; Zabadani, Bachir; Boubenider, Samir; Rousseau, Philippe; Deshodt, Gérard; Ramperez, Pierre; Hory, Bernard; Picard, Eric; Branchereau, Pascal; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fourcade, Jacques

2011-07-01

164

Venous insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic venous insufficiency; Chronic venous stasis; Chronic venous disease ... Freischlag JA, Heller JA. Venous disease. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

165

Removal of Iatrogenic Foreign Bodies Within Cardiac Chambers with a New Snare Catheter  

PubMed Central

A technique for extracting an embolized venous catheter lodged in the pulmonary artery is described. A Deyhle-Seuberth catheter,* which is generally used to excise gastrointestinal polyps, was used successfully to accomplish the extraction. Images PMID:15226952

Lijoi, Antonia; Barberis, Luca; Passerone, Gian Carlo; Venere, Giuseppe

1982-01-01

166

Complications and cost associated with parenteral nutrition delivered to hospitalized patients through either subclavian or peripherally-inserted central catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is typically delivered through catheters inserted into the superior vena cava (SVC) via a subclavian or internal jugular vein approach. A peripherally-inserted central venous catheter (PICC), utilizing a cephalic or basilic venous approach, may provide a safe alternative to the standard catheter approach and, because non-physician providers can insert the PICC, may introduce

C. T. COWL; J. V. WEINSTOCK; A. AL-JURF; K. EPHGRAVE; J. A. MURRAY; K. DILLON

2000-01-01

167

Critical appraisal of surgical venous access in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVC) have become an important adjunct to the overall management of paediatric patients, but their use is associated with frequent complications resulting in premature removal. This report evaluates the insertion techniques and complications of 295 consecutive surgically inserted CVC from 1987 to 1991 in a paediatric hospital. Fully implanted catheters had significantly less incidence of catheter-related problems

M. A. Hollyoak; T. H. Ong; J. F. Leditschke

1997-01-01

168

Prevention of catheter lumen occlusion with rT-PA versus heparin (Pre-CLOT): study protocol of a randomized trial [ISRCTN35253449  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many patients with end-stage renal disease use a central venous catheter for hemodialysis access. A large majority of these catheters malfunction within one year of insertion, with up to two-thirds due to thrombosis. The optimal solution for locking the catheter between hemodialysis sessions, to decrease the risk of thrombosis and catheter malfunction, is unknown. The Prevention of Catheter Lumen

Brenda R Hemmelgarn; Louise Moist; Rachel M Pilkey; Charmaine Lok; Marc Dorval; Paul YW Tam; Murray J Berall; Martine LeBlanc; Edwin B Toffelmire; Braden J Manns; Nairne Scott-Douglas

2006-01-01

169

Internal jugular/subclavian venous access in electrophysiology study and ablation.  

PubMed

Multiple venous accesses are required for catheter placement during electrophysiology study and ablation. Internal jugular/subclavian venous access, though restricted nowadays, can be important in difficult situations. PMID:19652728

Bohora, Shomu; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

2009-01-01

170

Internal Jugular/Subclavian Venous Access In Electrophysiology Study And Ablation  

PubMed Central

Multiple venous accesses are required for catheter placement during electrophysiology study and ablation. Internal jugular/subclavian venous access, though restricted nowadays, can be important in difficult situations. PMID:19652728

Bohora, Shomu; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

2009-01-01

171

Catheter Ablation  

MedlinePLUS

... areas of heart tissue where abnormal heartbeats may cause an arrhythmia to start. Catheter ablation often involves radiofrequency (RF) energy. This type of energy uses radio waves to produce heat that destroys the heart tissue. Studies have shown ...

172

Detection and identification of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman by the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora fragariae Hickman, which causes strawberry red stele and raspberry root rot, is a quarantine organism for which specific and sensitive detection methods are required to test the health of planting material. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene repeat (rDNA) were used to develop primers for P. fragariae in a nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Peter Bonants; Marjanne Hagenaar-de Weerdt; Marga van Gent-Pelzer; Isabelle Lacourt; David Cooke; Jim Duncan

1997-01-01

173

From "A Cowgirl Romance" to "Ravine": An Interview with Janet Hickman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with Janet Hickman. Notes that she is a highly respected scholar in children's literature and a recognized and much lauded author of novels for children. Discusses disparate topics from her earliest encounters with print to mandates surrounding scientifically based reading research (SBRR). (SG)

Thompson, Deborah

2003-01-01

174

Do catheters harm the patient?  

PubMed

There is an increasing use of central venous catheters (CVCs) as a first-line vascular access in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. CVCs are associated with short-term complications related to the catheter insertion procedure and with long-term complications as a consequence of the intravascular interaction of catheter material with the venous endothelium. Removal of CVCs is also associated with specific risks, such as pulmonary or air embolism. Bacteremia and sepsis, however, are the most important risks associated with CVCs. In incident HD patients, the mortality risk from infection is highest during the first 6 months after dialysis initiation, and has steadily increased over the last decade. The relative risk for infection from CVCs in HD patients now clearly exceeds the risk for catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. CVCs should therefore always be the last preference for vascular access in HD. The option for PD should always be evaluated before using CVCs as a permanent vascular access in end-stage renal disease patients. PMID:21625094

Kuhlmann, Martin K

2011-01-01

175

A case of non-lethal pulmonary air embolism after leukapheresis catheter removal.  

PubMed

Mononuclear cell leukapheresis requires good-quality venous access. Catheter placement and removal of the catheter may be associated with life-threatening local or systemic complications. Thus, prompt recognition of these complications and appropriate therapy can be life-saving. We report the case of a young man who presented with an air embolism following removal of a jugular venous catheter after peripheral blood stem cell collection. We have reviewed the signs and symptoms presented by the patient and the methodology used to remove the catheter. Catheter removal requires careful attention in order to avoid potentially serious complications. PMID:15892083

Grífols, Joan-Ramon; Ferrà, Christelle; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Pujol, Misericordia; Ribera, Josep-Maria

2005-07-01

176

Measurement of ultrasonic-induced chlorhexidine liberation: correlation of the activity of chlorhexidine-silver-sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters to agar roll technique and broth culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related infections continues to be a challenge to both the clinician and the microbiologist.To assess the antiseptic effects of silver-sulfadiazine-chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheters (SSC) on catheter culture systems, segments of fresh antiseptic- and non antiseptic-impregnated catheters as well as extracted catheters following five days of immersion in PBS were sonicated. The chlorhexidine liberated from the catheter

J. M. Schierholz; A. Bach; C. Fleck; J. Beuth; G. Pulverer

2000-01-01

177

[Cardiac tamponade after withdrawal of a peripheral access central catheter].  

PubMed

Central venous catheterization is a very common technique, although its complications can be multiple and sometimes fatal. A case is presented of cardiac tamponade by parenteral nutrition a few hours after moving a central venous catheter peripherally inserted a few days before. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography, and an emergency pericardiocentesis was performed, achieving complete recovery of the patient. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are more likely to change their position secondary to the movements of the patient's arm, thus it is important to use soft catheters, make sure the tip lies above the carina to avoid perforation of the pericardial reflexion, and fix it well to the skin. Diagnosis must be made as soon as possible, given the high mortality rate of this complication, and the essential diagnostic tool is echocardiography. Elective treatment consists of early catheter withdrawal and emergency pericardiocentesis. PMID:24929256

García-Galiana, E; Sanchis-Gil, V; Martínez-Navarrete, M Á

2015-03-01

178

Shifting Identities in South Kansas City: Hickman Mills's Transformation from a Suburban to Urban School District  

E-print Network

this. As is normal with dissertations, I have a host of people to thank and I apologize for any omissions. Dr. John Rury, as advisor for my entire graduate school career, started me on this path—in the case of Hickman Mills, quite literally. He... Mills in the Wake of the 1957 Tornado and a School Board Scandal, 1957-1960………………………...……………..………57 Chapter Three - Mixed Feelings: Urbanization, Modernization, and the Fight to Stay Independent and Self-Sufficient, 1959...

Rife, Aaron Tyler

2014-08-31

179

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs): Do they have a role in the care of the critically ill patient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over an eight-month period, 177 patients were admitted to a study to determine whether there was any significant difference between the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in relation to the central venous catheter (CVC) and the peripheral venous access device in respect of the length of stay, incidence of phlebitis and the need for removal for suspected sepsis and infection.The

Vivien R. Griffiths; Peter Philpot

2002-01-01

180

Percutaneous femoral arterial and venous catheterisation during neonatal intensive care  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Femoral vessel catheterisation is generally avoided in the neonatal period because of technical difficulties and the fear of complications.?AIM—To review the use of femoral arterial and venous catheters inserted percutaneously on the neonatal intensive care unit.?METHODS—Infants admitted to one of two regional neonatal intensive care units who underwent femoral vessel catheterisation were identified. Information collected included basic details, indication for insertion of catheter, type of catheter and insertion technique, duration of use, and any catheter related complications.?RESULTS—Sixty five femoral catheters were inserted into 53 infants. The median gestational age was 29 weeks (range 23-40). Twenty three femoral arterial catheters (FACs) were inserted into 21infants and remained in situ for a median of three days (range one to eight). Twelve (52%) FACs remained in place until no longer required, and four (17%) infants developed transient ischaemia of the distal limb. Forty two femoral venous catheters (FVCs) were inserted into 40 infants and remained in situ for a median of seven days (range 1-29). Twenty seven (64%) FVCs remained in place until no longer required, and eight (19%) catheters were removed because of catheter related bloodstream infection.?CONCLUSIONS—FACs and FVCs are useful routes of vascular access in neonates when other sites are unavailable. Complications from femoral vessel catheterisation include transient lower limb ischaemia with FACs and catheter related bloodstream infection.?? PMID:11517206

Wardle, S; Kelsall, A; Yoxall, C; Subhedar, N

2001-01-01

181

Catheter related bloodstream infection following PICC removal in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Describe the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), following removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) in preterm infants.Study Design:A retrospective cohort study of infants <29 weeks gestational age with a PICC revealed 101 PICCs placed (2159 PICC days). Patients were hospitalized in a level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between January 2002 and December 2003. ?2

R W Brooker; W J Keenan

2007-01-01

182

Incidental discovery of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in the surgical critical care unit.  

PubMed

Routine chest roentgenogram to confirm catheter placement in a postsurgical patient showed a left-sided internal jugular central venous catheter that did not appear to cross the midline. Arterial blood gas samples showed greater oxygenation from the central catheter as compared with the peripheral arterial sample. However, a transduced waveform showed a venous tracing and pressure. Computed tomographic scan of the thorax without intravenous contrast showed a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with drainage of the left upper lobe pulmonary vein into the innominate vein. PMID:25439398

Khanna, Ashish K; Maheshwari, Ankit; Popovich, Marc J; Mathur, Piyush

2014-12-01

183

Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification\\u000a of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central\\u000a catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas\\u000a venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of

Philip J. ButlerShreya; Shreya Sood; Hamid Mojibian; Michael G. Tal

2011-01-01

184

Reducing catheter-associated infections with silver-impregnated catheters in long-term therapy of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Central venous long-term catheters offer reliable, large-lumen vascular access with high flow rates for delivery of nutrition\\u000a or for cell-containing infusions and perfusions. Catheter-associated infections (CAI) pose the greatest threat to such vascular\\u000a access, despite existing preventive measures. In this article one prospective and one retrospective study of CAI in pediatric\\u000a therapy are presented. Study I: A retrospective investigation from

R. T. Carbon; S. Lugauer; U. Geitner; A. Regenfus; M. Böswald; J. Greil; T. Bechert; S.-I. Simon; H. P. Hümmer; J.-P. Guggenbichler

1999-01-01

185

Recanalisation of cerebral venous thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate recanalisation in the first 12 months after cerebral venous thrombosis. Methods: 33 consecutive patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) or catheter angiography. Patients were initially treated with intravenous heparin. Warfarin was given for at least four months. Cerebral MRI and MRV were done at four months and repeated after 12 months if venous thrombosis persisted. Outcome was evaluated by the Rankin scale at 12 months. Results: Outcome at 12 months was good, with a median modified Rankin scale score of 0 (range 0 to 2); 27 patients (82%) had no residual deficits. No patient suffered recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism during follow up. After four months, all deep cerebral veins and cavernous sinuses, 94% of superior sagittal sinuses, 80% of straight sinuses, 73% of jugular veins, 58% of transverse sinuses, and 41% of sigmoid sinuses had recanalised. No further recanalisation was observed thereafter. Conclusions: The results suggest that recanalisation only occurs within the first four months following cerebral venous thrombosis and not thereafter, irrespective of oral anticoagulation. PMID:12640063

Baumgartner, R; Studer, A; Arnold, M; Georgiadis, D

2003-01-01

186

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances  

PubMed Central

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-01-01

187

Dialysis Catheter-Related Superior Vena Cava Syndrome with Patent Vena Cava: Long Term Efficacy of Unilateral Viatorr Stent-Graft Avoiding Catheter Manipulation  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters are the most frequent causes of benign central vein stenosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman on hemodialysis through a twin catheter in the right internal jugular vein, presenting with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome with patent SVC. The clinically driven endovascular therapy was conducted to treat the venous syndrome with a unilateral left brachiocephalic stent-graft without manipulation of the well-functioning catheter. The follow-up was uneventful until death 94 months later. PMID:24843241

Galli, Franco; Moramarco, Lorenzo Paolo; Corti, Riccardo; Leati, Giovanni; Fiorina, Ilaria; Maestri, Marcello

2014-01-01

188

Total parenteral alimentation via indwelling umbilical catheters in the newborn period.  

PubMed Central

Total parenteral alimentation (TPA) was delivered to 80 infants via indwelling umbilical artery and to 9 via indwelling umbilical venous catheters. The primary indication for catheter placement and maintenance was monitoring of arterial blood gases (umbilical venous catheter tip in left atrium) in a group of sick neonates requiring increased inspired oxygen or assisted ventilation. Results were compared with those from 23 infants who had tunnelled jugular catheters for a variety of chronic medical and surgical problems preventing gastric or intestinal feeding. A mean weight gain was achieved in both groups. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar in both groups. The most common complications were infection and thrombotic phenomena. Metabolic complications were few. It is concluded that infusing TPA solutions via indwelling umbilical catheters presents no greater risk than infusion via tunnelled jugular catheters, and provides a method for supplying adequate caloric intake for growth during the acute stage of illness. PMID:827978

Hall, R T; Rhodes, P G

1976-01-01

189

Positional ventricular tachycardia from a fractured mediport catheter with right ventricular migration--a case report.  

PubMed

The totally implantable catheter system has gained popularity as venous access when prolonged treatment is needed. Despite its frequent use, intravascular fracture and embolization of catheter fragments from implantable venous port-catheter systems present a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. Any implanted catheters should therefore be removed after completion of the treatment or the system's integrity should be monitored on a regular basis. This report illustrates such a case, which presented with ventricular tachycardia triggered by changes in body position from a fractured Mediport catheter with cardiac migration. A 34-year-old woman had a venous port catheter (Mediport) implanted into the right subclavian vein for neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Owing to the patient's difficult venous access the catheter was left in situ after treatment. Three years after insertion of the Mediport she presented with shortness of breath and palpitations when lying in the left lateral position. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities. An electrocardiogram was within normal rhythm. An outpatient Holter monitor revealed multiple episodes of nonsustained and sustained ventricular tachycardia triggered by lying in the left lateral position. A chest radiograph showed a normal location of the port-system, but the distal fragment of the catheter had embolized into the right ventricle. The embolized fragment was extracted with a gooseneck snare technique and the reservoir of the system was removed under local anesthesia without any complications. The patient was free of symptoms at 7 seven months follow-up. PMID:15378119

Gowda, Mamatha R; Gowda, Ramesh M; Khan, Ijaz A; Punukollu, Gopikrishna; Chand, Sunil P; Bixon, Rhonda; Reede, Deborah L

2004-01-01

190

A Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection With Mycobacterium frederiksbergense in an Immunocompromised Child.  

PubMed

We report a case of a catheter-related bloodstream infection with Mycobacterium frederiksbergense in an immunocompromised child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nontuberculous mycobacteria have been implicated in central venous catheter infections in immunosuppressed individuals, however, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of invasive infection with this organism. PMID:25259934

Senozan, Erin A; Adams, Daniel J; Giamanco, Nicole M; Warwick, Anne B; Eberly, Matthew D

2015-04-01

191

Predictors of Venous Thromboembolic Events Associated with Central Venous Port Insertion in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Insertion of central venous port (CVP) catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE), or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4–7.3%) at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4–13.2%) at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0–9.3%) at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1–17.6%) at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24665264

Hohl Moinat, Christine; Périard, Daniel; Hayoz, Daniel; André, Pascal; Kung, Marc; Betticher, Daniel C.

2014-01-01

192

Molecular-marker characterization of strawberry differential genotypes for race determination of isolates of Phytophthora fragariae var.fragariae Hickman  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten Fragaria L. (strawberry) differentials for race determination of isolates of Phytophthora fragariae C.J. Hickman var. fragariae, the causal organism of red stele root rot disease, were molecularly characterized with previously published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based sequence-characterize...

193

Clinical study of the erlanger silver catheter—Data management and biometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The clinical evaluation of venous catheters for catheter-induced infections must conform to a strict biometric methodology.\\u000a The statistical planning of the study (target population, design, degree of blinding), data management (database design, definition\\u000a of variables, coding), quality assurance (data inspection at several levels) and the biometric evaluation of the Erlanger\\u000a silver catheter project are described. The three-step data flow included:

P. Martus; C. Geis; S. Lugauer; M. Böswald; J.-P. Guggenbichler

1999-01-01

194

BRIEFCASE | SEARCH | EMAIL THIS EVENT | LOGIN RSNA 2004 > Cadaveric Central and Peripheral Venous Access Using ...  

E-print Network

Grafts and Catheters) Cadaveric Central and Peripheral Venous Access Using the Sonic Flashlight, a Novel looks through the half- silvered mirror, the US image appears to float beneath the surface of the skin

Stetten, George

195

Venous Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation depicts the function of a venous valve. It is shown in the context of a transverse section. During systole corpuscles are shown flowing through the open valve. As the pressure reverses during diastole, the valve closes and back flow is blocked.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2009-11-20

196

Urinary catheter - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... penis in boys and near the vagina in girls. The doctor or nurse will: Clean the tip of the penis or around the vagina. Gently put the catheter into the bladder. If a Foley catheter is used, there is a very small balloon on the end of the catheter in ...

197

Thrombolytic therapy for management of complicated catheter-related Candida albicans thrombophlebitis.  

PubMed

In immunocompromised patients, endovascular infection due to Candida albicans is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recommended management includes removal of any existing central venous catheter. Rarely, complications of endocarditis or infected mural thrombi may arise, with poorer clinical outcomes. For large endoluminal lesions, particularly of the great vessels or those that are intra-atrial, thrombolysis has been used in paediatric populations or before surgery for dissolution of infected thrombus. We describe the case of an adult patient with lung carcinoma who developed persisting candidaemia with a large endovascular fungal lesion adherent to the tip of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. Local urokinase infusion enabled safe removal of the catheter without embolization. As an adjunct to antifungal therapy, local thrombolysis may play a contributory role in the management of central venous catheter-related candidal septic thrombosis. PMID:19290985

Block, A A; Thursky, K A; Worth, L J; Slavin, M A

2009-01-01

198

Deep venous thrombosis and superficial venous reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although superficial venous reflux is an important determinant of post-thrombotic skin changes, the origin of this reflux is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and etiologic mechanisms of superficial venous reflux after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Methods: Patients with a documented acute lower extremity DVT were asked to return for serial venous duplex

Mark H. Meissner; Michael T. Caps; Brenda K. Zierler; Robert O. Bergelin; Richard A. Manzo; D. Eugene Strandness

2000-01-01

199

Early Results of Thrombolysis vs Anticoagulation in Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis. A Randomised Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: catheter directed thrombolysis has been advocated for complete and rapid dissolution of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The aim of our study is to compare, in a randomised trial, local thrombolysis and anticoagulation with anticoagulation alone in patients with iliofemoral DVT.Methods: a consecutive series of 35 eligible patients, were randomised to either catheter directed thrombolysis followed by anticoagulation or

M. Elsharawy; E. Elzayat

2002-01-01

200

Venous obstruction in permanent pacemaker patients: an isotopic study  

SciTech Connect

Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.

Pauletti, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Solfanelli, S.; Marini, C.; Contini, C.; Giuntini, C.

1981-01-01

201

Prospective study on central venous line associated bloodstream infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo prospectively assess the incidence rates and characteristics of central venous line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in one institution.MethodsAll patients with indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 were enrolled. The medical records of patients were reviewed and information on relevant characteristics entered into a standardised questionnaire. Central laboratory records were regularly checked for

Mine Wagner; Jan Bonhoeffer; Thomas O Erb; René Glanzmann; Frank Martin Häcker; Michael Paulussen; Daniel Weibel; Ulrich Heininger

2011-01-01

202

Endovascular Removal of Long-Term Hemodialysis Catheters  

SciTech Connect

Central venous catheters that have been in place for a long time can become fixed to the vein wall, making them impossible to pull out. Leaving them in situ is undesirable because of the risk that they could act as a nidus for thrombosis. Moreover, inserting new catheters alongside the old ones might compromise flow in the superior vena cava, further predisposing to thrombosis. Surgical removal is likewise undesirable, as this would necessitate thoracotomy with the attendant risks. We describe a novel technique, which we were able to use to remove retained long-term hemodialysis catheters in a patient who needed new catheters and who would have been a high-risk candidate for surgery. The right internal jugular vein was punctured adjacent to the site of insertion and a guide wire was used to form a snare, which was passed around the catheters and used to saw through the fibrous attachments to the vein wall. The midsection of one catheter could not be freed but the snare was used to cut off the proximal and distal ends, which could then be removed, the latter via the femoral vein. New catheters were then inserted via the left internal jugular vein. This technique enabled successful catheter extraction and replacement in a patient who would have been a poor candidate for cardiothoracic surgery.

Foley, Peter T.; Carter, Ranjana M.; Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Raman.Uberoi@orh.nhs.uk

2007-09-15

203

Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Venous thromboembolism, a clinical entity which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common,\\u000a lethal disease that affects both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, recurs frequently, is often overlooked, and results\\u000a in long-term complications. The currently available antithrombin agents, including unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight\\u000a heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors, vitamin K antagonists, and factor Xa antagonists are

Esther S. H. Kim; John R. Bartholomew

204

Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, affects an estimated 300,000–600,000 individuals in the U.S. each year, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. It is a disorder that can occur in all races and ethnicities, all age groups, and both genders. With many of the known risk factors—advanced age, immobility, surgery, obesity—increasing in society, VTE is

Michele G. Beckman; W. Craig Hooper; Sara E. Critchley; Thomas L. Ortel

2010-01-01

205

In Vitro Activity and Durability of a Combination of an Antibiofilm and an Antibiotic against Vascular Catheter Colonization  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated infections can cause severe complications and even death. Effective antimicrobial modification of catheters that can prevent device colonization has the potential of preventing clinical infection. We studied in vitro the antimicrobial activities of central venous catheters impregnated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antibiofilm agent, and a broad-spectrum antibiotic against a range of important clinical pathogens. NAC-levofloxacin-impregnated (NACLEV) catheters were also evaluated for their antiadherence activity. NACLEV catheters produced the most active and durable antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and significantly reduced colonization (P < 0.0001) by all tested pathogens compared to control catheters. These in vitro results suggest that this antimicrobial combination can potentially be used to combat catheter colonization and catheter-associated infection. PMID:23114776

Hull, Richard A.; Stager, Charles E.; Cadle, Richard M.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

2013-01-01

206

In vitro activity and durability of a combination of an antibiofilm and an antibiotic against vascular catheter colonization.  

PubMed

Catheter-associated infections can cause severe complications and even death. Effective antimicrobial modification of catheters that can prevent device colonization has the potential of preventing clinical infection. We studied in vitro the antimicrobial activities of central venous catheters impregnated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antibiofilm agent, and a broad-spectrum antibiotic against a range of important clinical pathogens. NAC-levofloxacin-impregnated (NACLEV) catheters were also evaluated for their antiadherence activity. NACLEV catheters produced the most active and durable antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and significantly reduced colonization (P < 0.0001) by all tested pathogens compared to control catheters. These in vitro results suggest that this antimicrobial combination can potentially be used to combat catheter colonization and catheter-associated infection. PMID:23114776

Mansouri, Mohammad D; Hull, Richard A; Stager, Charles E; Cadle, Richard M; Darouiche, Rabih O

2013-01-01

207

Old and new risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Well known risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis are the presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) and malignancy, but other potential risk factors, such as surgery, injury and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), have not yet been explored. Methods: We performed a population-based case-control study including 179 consecutive patients, aged 18–70 years with upper extremity deep venous

J. W. Blom; C. J. M. Doggen; S. Osanto; F. R. Rosendaal

2005-01-01

208

American Venous Forum  

MedlinePLUS

... venous and lymphatic health through education and disease awareness. Addressing your specific venous and lympatic disease questions ... veinforum.org © 2015 American Venous Forum. Contact Us | Legal/Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Sitemap

209

Venous thrombosis - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Blood clot formation in the veins is called venous thrombosis. Venous thrombosis most commonly forms in the veins of the legs. Risk factors for venous thrombosis include prolonged bed rest or immobility, as can ...

210

Functional study of antibodies against a fibrogenin-binding protein in Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to polyethylene catheters.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important pathogen in foreign body-associated infections. In a previous study, we showed that a surface-located fibrinogen-binding protein, termed Fbe, from S. epidermidis mediated the bacterial adherence to fibrinogen-coated surfaces in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that antibodies against Fbe can block adherence of S. epidermidis to fibrinogen-coated catheters, subcutaneously implanted catheters from rats, and peripheral venous catheters from human patients. PMID:11398109

Pei, L; Flock, J I

2001-07-01

211

Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications  

SciTech Connect

The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

Walser, Eric M., E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

2012-08-15

212

Four cases of adhered permanent double lumen hemodialysis catheters (Permcath).  

PubMed

Between September 2010 and January 2012, four patients in our hospital were observed to have permanent dialysis catheters that adhered to either the SVC or right atrium. The first patient underwent intraoperative fluoroscopy and was scheduled for cardiac surgery. Unfortunately due to metabolic disturbances, the patient's condition deteriorated and she died before surgery.  The second patient underwent cardio-thoracic surgery with mid-sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass. The catheter was removed and another access route for hemodialysis was established. The third case was scheduled for interventional venocavagraphic exploration of the adhered Permcath. An endovascular snare was passed through the guide wire, which separated the catheter from the SVC. Finally, the fourth patient was a known case of Von Willebrand disease who was scheduled for interventional angiographic Permcath removal. Unfortunately, a few hours following the attempt at surgical removal of the Permcath, her condition deteriorated and she died. Several methods have been used to manage an adherent Permcath. It is assumed that the longer the catheter is in place, the probability of adhesion to the central veins increases. Histological changes have been demonstrated in the venous wall adjunct to the catheter.  Interventional venacavagraphic exploration of the catheter and snaring the adherent site of the catheter seems to be a valuable option. PMID:23496370

Beigi, Ali Akbar; Yaribakht, Mohammad; Sehhat, Siavoush

2013-04-01

213

CATHETER SURFACE INTERACTIONS WITH HUMAN  

E-print Network

Most Successful Impregnation With Antimicrobials Silver Sulfadiazine Chlorohexidene Catheters ReleaseCATHETER SURFACE INTERACTIONS WITH HUMAN TISSUE Anthony Chesna Anthony DiBella #12;Introduction to Catheters Usages Supply or Extract Fluids Open Blocked Passages Diagnostics & Image Main Problem Infection

Müftü, Sinan

214

Mixed venous oximetry.  

PubMed

We now have the technology through reflectance spectrophotometry to evaluate and display continuously mixed venous oxygen saturation SvO2 through use of a modified pulmonary artery catheter. Adding this method of assessing the balance of oxygen supply and demand to our standard armamentarium of hemodynamic monitoring may improve our ability to diagnose and treat cardiovascular aberrations at an earlier stage than was previously possible. Through analysis of the Fick equation, it can be seen that SvO2 depends upon the cardiac output, the arterial oxygen saturation, the hemoglobin level, and the rate of oxygen consumption. These are, in turn, affected by a great number of factors (see Fig 8). As seen in the variety of patient care examples cited above, the usefulness of SvO2 monitoring continues to grow. It appears that there are no intrinsic risks associated with SvO2 monitoring beyond those of customary PA monitoring. This new technology provides us with online information not previously available, at an associated cost that needs to be further examined. PMID:2670771

Kupeli, I A; Satwicz, P R

1989-01-01

215

Comparison between standard heparin and tinzaparin for haemodialysis catheter lock.  

PubMed

Tinzaparin offers some advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH) for hemodialysis circuit anticoagulation. No study has compared these two molecules as hemodialysis catheter locks. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of tinzaparin and UFH as locks for hemodialysis tunnelled central venous catheter in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A randomized, prospective, single-blinded, controlled study was undertaken. Patients were randomly assigned to receive UFH and tinzaparin for two 7-week periods in a crossover fashion. The doses used were 5,000 U of UFH and 2,000 U of tinzaparin per catheter line. The primary outcome was the need for thrombolytic catheter lock use defined with the Hemodialysis Unit alteplase protocol. Forty-two patients with ESRD were enrolled, totalling 815 UFH lock sessions and 729 tinzaparin lock sessions. A 47.4% reduction in the incidence of alteplase lock use was observed with tinzaparin lock (3.16% vs. 6.01%, chi-square, p = 0.0078). There was no significant difference in the time to first alteplase use between the two locks by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (logrank, p = 0.0900). Our results suggest that tinzaparin could be an appropriate alternative for a hemodialysis tunnelled central venous catheter lock, but these results should be confirmed with a larger trial. PMID:20051836

Malo, Josianne; Jolicoeur, Carine; Theriault, Fannie; Lachaine, Jean; Senecal, Lynne

2010-01-01

216

Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

2015-03-01

217

Venous flaps.  

PubMed

One of the earliest postulates concerning the physiological basis of flap survival is attributed to Sushruta, who, in his inimitable style, very succinctly noted in Sanskrit verse the following words: "through continuity survives." Sanskrit being a very telegraphic language, what derives from these words is as follows: Through (the flap's) continuity (with its original location) (it) survives. The principle of continuity has survived through the ages, though continuity has come to imply vascular continuity based on the Harvesian model of circulation. No matter how we classify flaps, i.e., random or axial, the Harvesian model of circulation is the key to the mechanism of survival. Lately, however, a new category of flaps, that is, "venous flaps," have been reported by a number of investigators where the classical Harvesian model is not in evidence, at least apparently. The following effort is directed toward presenting the existing data on this subject for future guidance in research and clinical applications. PMID:8446733

Thatte, M R; Thatte, R L

1993-04-01

218

Placement of Hemodialysis Catheters Through Stenotic or Occluded Central Thoracic Veins  

SciTech Connect

A method for hemodialysis catheter placement in patients with central thoracic venous stenosis or occlusion is described and initial results are analyzed. Twelve patients, with a mean age of 63.2 years (42-80 years), with central venous stenosis or occlusion, and who required a hemodialysis catheter were reviewed. All lesions were confirmed by helical CT or phlebography. Five patients had stenosis while seven patients were diagnosed with an occlusion of thoracic central veins. All patients were asymptomatic, without sign of superior vena cava syndrome. After percutaneous transstenotic catheterization or guidewire-based recannalization in occlusions, a balloon dilatation was performed and a stent was placed, when necessary, prior to catheter placement. Technical success was 92%. Three patients had angioplasty alone and nine patients had angioplasty with stent placement. Dialysis catheters were successfully inserted through all recannalized accesses. No immediate complication occurred, nor did any patient develop superior vena cava syndrome after the procedure. The mean follow-up was 21.8 months (range, 8-48 months). Three patients developed a catheter dysfunction with fibrin sheath formation (at 7, 11, and 12 months after catheter placement, respectively). Two were successfully managed by percutaneous endovascular approach and one catheter was removed. In conclusion, for patients with central venous stenosis or occlusion and those who need a hemodialysis catheter, catheter insertion can be reliably achieved immediately after endovascular recannalization with acceptable technical and long-term success rates. This technique should be considered as an alternative procedure for placing a new hemodialysis catheter through a patent vein.

Haller, Claude, E-mail: claude.haller@rsv-gnw.ch; Deglise, Sebastien; Saucy, Francois [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery (Switzerland); Mathieu, Claudine [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Nephrology (Switzerland); Haesler, Erik [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Vascular Medicine (Switzerland); Doenz, Francesco [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Corpataux, Jean Marc [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery (Switzerland); Qanadli, Salah Dine, E-mail: salah.qanadli@chuv.c [CHUV-University of Lausanne, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

2009-07-15

219

Is it feasible to diagnose catheter-related candidemia without catheter withdrawal?  

PubMed

Many bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) are not catheter-related (CR). Assessment of catheter involvement without catheter withdrawal has not been studied in candidemia. We assessed the value of conservative techniques to evaluate catheters as the origin of candidemia in patients with CVC in a prospective cohort study (superficial Gram stain and culture, Kite technique (Gram stain and culture of the first 1 cm blood drawn from the CVC), proportion of positive blood cultures (PPBCs), differential time to positivity (DTP), and minimal time to positivity (MTP)). All catheters were cultured at withdrawal. From June 2008 to January 2012, 22 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CR-candidemia (CRC) was confirmed in 10. Validity values for predicting CRC were: superficial Gram stain (S, 30%; Sp, 81.83%; PPV, 60%; NPV, 56.3%; Ac, 57.1%), superficial cultures (S, 40%; Sp, 75%; PPV, 57.1%; NPV, 60%; Ac, 59.1%), Kite Gram stain (S, 33.3%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 50%; NPV, 50%; Ac, 50%), Kite culture (S, 80%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 80%; Ac, 72.7%), PPBC (S, 50%; Sp, 41.7%; PPV, 41.7%; NPV, 50.0%; Ac, 45.5%), DTP (S, 100%; Sp, 33.3%; PPV, 55.6%; NPV, 100%; Ac, 63.6%), and MTTP (S, 70%; Sp, 58.3%; PPV, 58.3%; NPV, 70%; Ac, 63.6%). While combinations of two tests improved sensitivity and NPV, more than two tests did not improve validity values. Classic tests to assess CR-BSI caused by bacteria cannot be reliably used to diagnose CRC. Combinations of tests could be useful, but more and larger studies are required. PMID:24847039

Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Suárez-Salas, Marisol; Rojas-Wettig, Loreto; Pérez, María Jesús; Guinea, Jesús; Guembe, María; Peláez, Teresa; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio

2014-07-01

220

Persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central catheter.  

PubMed

A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair. PMID:22259211

Moissenet, Didier; Becker, Karsten; Mérens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnès; Dubern, Béatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

2012-04-01

221

A rare complication of endovenous laser ablation: intravascular laser catheter breakage  

PubMed Central

During endovenous laser ablation, which is performed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency of lower extremity and associated varicose veins, it was realised that the distal end of the catheter protecting the fibre sheared off; the retained catheter fragment in the saphenous vein was removed by a mini incision. Herein, we aim to present a rare complication of endovenous laser ablation. PMID:23513025

Bozoglan, Orhan; Mese, Bulent; Inci, Mehmet Fatih; Eroglu, Erdinc

2013-01-01

222

Persistent Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria rhizophila Related to a Damaged Central Catheter  

PubMed Central

A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair. PMID:22259211

Becker, Karsten; Mérens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnès; Dubern, Béatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

2012-01-01

223

A prospective, randomized study in critically ill patients using the Oligon Vantex ® catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial colonization and the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) associated with Oligon Vantex® silver central venous catheters (CVC) in critically ill patients were determined. A prospective, randomized, controlled 17-month trial was carried out in an intensive care unit (ICU). All patients requiring a triple-lumen CVC for four days or longer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive a standard

L Corral; M Nolla-Salas; J Ibañez-Nolla; M. A León; R. M D??az; M Cruz Mart??n; R Iglesia; R Catalan

2003-01-01

224

Selection of the vascular catheter: can it minimise the risk of infection?  

PubMed

Data regarding the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) by making the correct decisions about when to place a central line, the appropriate selection of catheter composition and the size and number of lumens, a suitable choice of insertion site and the technique used are not well reported in recent medical literature. There is no clear evidence that the composition of the catheters presently on the market makes a significant difference to the risk of infection. Several prospective studies suggest that femoral vein location represents the highest risk of infection, followed by jugular vein and subclavian vein positioning, however, most articles do not correct for basic confounding variables. Several papers have reported that arterial catheters have a similar risk of infection as central venous catheters (CVCs). The slight increase in infection risk when using multi-lumen catheters is probably offset by their improved convenience. Current evidence does not support routine tunnelling of short-term catheters until its efficacy is evaluated at different placement sites, using specific catheters and situations and in relation to other preventive interventions. Cuffing is usually applied only to long-term tunnelled catheters. The available evidence suggests that chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine, minocycline-rifampicin CVCs and antifungal-coated catheters are useful in decreasing the incidence of CRBSI when other measures are not effective. PMID:21130605

Bouza, E; Guembe, M; Muñoz, P

2010-12-01

225

Posterior triangle approach for lateral in-plane technique during hemodialysis catheter insertion via the internal jugular vein  

PubMed Central

A recent widespread concept is that ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion is a mandatory method. Some techniques have been introduced for ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. Among them, short-axis lateral in-plane technique is considered to be the most useful technique for internal jugular vein access. Therefore, we used this technique for the insertion of a large-bore cuffed tunneled dual-lumen catheter for hemodialysis. Additionally, a lesser number of catheter angulations may lead to good flow rates and catheter function; we recommend that skin puncture site in the neck at the posterior triangle is better than the Sedillot's triangle. Using this approach, we can reduce the possible complications of pinching and kinking of the catheter. PMID:25692124

Song, Dan; Cho, Sungwoo

2015-01-01

226

Clinical relevance of data from the pulmonary artery catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of parameters measured using the pulmonary artery catheter has been challenged because no benefit in patient outcome has been observed in clinical trials. However, technological advances have been made, including continuous measurement of cardiac output (CO), mixed venous saturation (SvO2), and right ventricle end-diastolic volume (CEDV) have been made. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), CEDV and right atrial

Emmanuel Robin; Marion Costecalde; Gilles Lebuffe; Benoît Vallet

2006-01-01

227

Hemodialysis catheter insertion: is increased PO2 a sign of arterial cannulation? A case report  

PubMed Central

Background Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) for temporary vascular access, preferably using the right internal jugular vein, is widely accepted by nephrologists. However CVC is associated with numerous potential complications, including death. We describe the finding of a rare left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection during central venous catheterization for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Case presentation Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large bore temporary dual-lumen Quinton-Mahurkar catheter into the left internal jugular vein was performed for CRRT initiation in a 66 year old African-American with sepsis-related oliguric acute kidney injury. The post-procedure chest X-ray suggested inadvertent left carotid artery cannulation. Blood gases obtained from the catheter showed high partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of 140 mmHg and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) of 22 mmHg, suggestive of arterial cannulation. However, the pressure-transduced wave forms appeared venous and Computed Tomography Angiography located the catheter in the left internal jugular vein, but demonstrated that the tip of the catheter was lying over a left pulmonary vein which was abnormally draining into the left brachiocephalic (innominate) vein rather than into the left atrium. Conclusion Although several mechanical complications of dialysis catheters have been described, ours is one of the few cases of malposition into an anomalous pulmonary vein, and highlights a sequential approach to properly identify the catheter location in this uncommon clinical scenario. PMID:25073708

2014-01-01

228

Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

2013-01-01

229

Transhepatic Guidance of Translumbar Hemodialysis Catheter Placement in the Setting of Chronic Infrarenal IVC Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

When patients with end-stage renal disease have exhausted both conventional and unconventional venous access options, creative solutions must be sought for hemodialysis catheter placement in order to ensure survival. This case describes a patient in urgent need of a dialysis catheter despite total occlusion of the jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins. Occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right renal vein resulted in failed attempts at translumbar catheter placement. A gooseneck snare was temporarily advanced through the liver to the IVC for use as a fluoroscopic target to facilitate successful single-puncture, translumbar catheterization.

Lorenz, Jonathan M., E-mail: jlorenz@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Regalado, Sidney; Navuluri, Rakesh, E-mail: rnavuluri@gmail.com; Zangan, Steven; Thuong Van Ha; Funaki, Brian [University of Chicago Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

2010-06-15

230

Deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome: Invasive management.  

PubMed

Invasive management of postthrombotic syndrome encompasses the two ends of the deep vein thrombosis spectrum, patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis and those with chronic postthrombotic iliofemoral venous obstruction. Of all patients with acute deep vein thrombosis, those with involvement of the iliofemoral segments have the most severe chronic postthrombotic morbidity. Catheter-based techniques now permit percutaneous treatment to eliminate thrombus, restore patency, potentially maintain valvular function, and improve quality of life. Randomized trial data support an initial treatment strategy of thrombus removal. Failure to eliminate acute thrombus from the iliofemoral system leads to chronic postthrombotic obstruction of venous outflow. Debilitating chronic postthrombotic symptoms of the long-standing obstruction of venous outflow can be reduced by restoring unobstructed venous drainage from the profunda femoris vein to the vena cava. PMID:25729069

Comerota, Aj

2015-03-01

231

Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients  

SciTech Connect

Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

Butler, Philip J., E-mail: philip.butler@yale.edu; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G. [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

232

Catheter inside the right heart for 22 years: to intervene or not to intervene?  

PubMed Central

Treatment of a central venous catheter emboli that has been asymptomatic for a number of years is controversial. A 56-year-old male patient who had an operation for sinus Valsalva aneurism rupture 22 years ago was referred to cardiology department for routine control. He had a mass inside the right heart on echocardiographic examination, and computed tomography revealed that this mass was an embolic piece of catheter. Catheters that have stayed inside the heart for a long time are removed due to the risk of distal embolisation and endocarditis, but the risk of removal is not known. Non-invasive follow-up of asymptomatic patients is often preferred because of the stabilisation of the embolised catheter due to endothelisation and the risk of complications during removal. Treatment of patients with catheter-piece emboli who are asymptomatic should be individualised, taking into account the risk of thrombosis, arrhythmia, and infection.

Do?an, Mehmet; Akyel, Ahmet; Yeter, Ekrem

2015-01-01

233

Vascular catheter-related infection claims to health insurance company: often preventable.  

PubMed

Using the main French health insurance company database over a 10-year period, the preventability of catheter-related infections of patients who claimed compensation after prosecution was reviewed by a panel expert. They occurred in 71 patients with few co-morbidities or risk factors for nosocomial infection and were mainly related to the use of a peripheral vascular catheter (42 cases) and due to Staphylococcus aureus (51 cases). Forty-two infections were considered to be preventable. Infections due to peripheral venous catheters were significantly more often preventable than those due to central ones (p < 0.05). We conclude that catheter-related infections perceived by patients and the justice system as not related to unforeseeable medical complications are mainly peripheral catheter infections due to S. aureus and might be an appropriate target for new preventive strategies. PMID:24845401

Gagneux-Brunon, A; Timsit, J F; Lepape, A; Berthelot, P

2014-12-01

234

Semi-automated location identification of catheters in digital chest radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localization of catheter tips is the most common task in intensive care unit imaging. In this work, catheters appearing in digital chest radiographs acquired by portable chest x-rays were tracked using a semi-automatic method. Due to the fact that catheters are synthetic objects, its profile does not vary drastically over its length. Therefore, we use forward looking registration with normalized cross-correlation in order to take advantage of a priori information of the catheter profile. The registration is accomplished with a two-dimensional template representative of the catheter to be tracked generated using two seed points given by the user. To validate catheter tracking with this method, we look at two metrics: accuracy and precision. The algorithms results are compared to a ground truth established by catheter midlines marked by expert radiologists. Using 12 objects of interest comprised of naso-gastric, endo-tracheal tubes, and chest tubes, and PICC and central venous catheters, we find that our algorithm can fully track 75% of the objects of interest, with a average tracking accuracy and precision of 85.0%, 93.6% respectively using the above metrics. Such a technique would be useful for physicians wishing to verify the positioning of catheter tips using chest radiographs.

Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Cham, Matthew D.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.

2007-03-01

235

Central Venous Line and Acute Neurological Deficit: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Abstract Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is a practical way to assess patients hemodynamic specially in cardiovascular surgery but this relatively simple junior level procedure is not risk free and its common reported complications include; pneumothorax, hydrothorax, hemothorax, local hematoma, cardiac tamponade, vascular injury, thrombosis, embolism, and catheter disruption. Here in this article we are going to present 6 patients with very unusual presentation of CVC complication which was neurological deficit presented by agitation, unconsciousness, disorientation to time and place and hemiparesis. All patients undergone neurologic consult and brain computed tomography. Final diagnosis was brain ischemic damage and finally we kept them on conservative management; fortunately we did not have any permanent damage.

Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Shirzad, Mahmood; Zeraatian, Sam; Salehiomran, Abbas; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Ghiasi, Atefeh

2014-01-01

236

Prevention of transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms during catheter exchange using antimicrobial catheters.  

PubMed

Exchanging a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated CVC in the presence of bacteremia can result in cross-infection of the newly exchanged CVC. A recent retrospective clinical study showed that exchanging a catheter over a guide wire in the presence of bacteremia using an antimicrobial minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheter may improve outcomes. To expand on this, we developed an in vitro cross-contamination model of exchange to evaluate the efficacy of different antimicrobial CVCs in preventing cross-contamination of multidrug-resistant organisms during exchange. Uncoated CVCs were allowed to form biofilm by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 h, the biofilm-colonized CVCs were placed in a glass tube containing bovine calf serum plus Mueller-Hinton broth, and each catheter was exchanged over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated or an M/R-, chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS)-, or chlorhexidine-M/R (CHX-M/R)-coated CVC. Cross-contamination of exchanged catheters was enumerated by sonication and quantitative plating methods. The exchange of M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA biofilms compared to control exchanged CVCs (P<0.0001). Exchange with CHX/SS CVCs reduced but did not completely prevent cross-contamination by MRSA (P=0.005). Exchange with CHX-M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans biofilms (P<0.0001). Furthermore, CHX-M/R CVCs were superior to M/R CVCs against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (P=0.003) and were superior to CHX/SS CVCs against MRSA and P. aeruginosa (P=0.01). In conclusion, exchange with the novel CHX-M/R CVC was the only exchange effective in completely and concurrently preventing cross-contamination from bacteria and Candida. PMID:24957841

Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray; Chaftari, Ann-Marie; Raad, Issam I

2014-09-01

237

Prevention of Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms during Catheter Exchange using Antimicrobial Catheters  

PubMed Central

Exchanging a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated CVC in the presence of bacteremia can result in cross-infection of the newly exchanged CVC. A recent retrospective clinical study showed that exchanging a catheter over a guide wire in the presence of bacteremia using an antimicrobial minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheter may improve outcomes. To expand on this, we developed an in vitro cross-contamination model of exchange to evaluate the efficacy of different antimicrobial CVCs in preventing cross-contamination of multidrug-resistant organisms during exchange. Uncoated CVCs were allowed to form biofilm by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 h, the biofilm-colonized CVCs were placed in a glass tube containing bovine calf serum plus Mueller-Hinton broth, and each catheter was exchanged over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated or an M/R-, chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS)-, or chlorhexidine-M/R (CHX-M/R)-coated CVC. Cross-contamination of exchanged catheters was enumerated by sonication and quantitative plating methods. The exchange of M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA biofilms compared to control exchanged CVCs (P < 0.0001). Exchange with CHX/SS CVCs reduced but did not completely prevent cross-contamination by MRSA (P = 0.005). Exchange with CHX-M/R CVCs completely prevented cross-contamination by MRSA, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans biofilms (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, CHX-M/R CVCs were superior to M/R CVCs against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (P = 0.003) and were superior to CHX/SS CVCs against MRSA and P. aeruginosa (P = 0.01). In conclusion, exchange with the novel CHX-M/R CVC was the only exchange effective in completely and concurrently preventing cross-contamination from bacteria and Candida. PMID:24957841

Rosenblatt, Joel; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray; Chaftari, Ann-Marie; Raad, Issam I.

2014-01-01

238

Association Between Disruption of Fibrin Sheaths Using Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Balloons and Late Onset of Central Venous Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

To compare the rates of central venous stenosis in patients undergoing hemodialysis who underwent disruption of fibrin sheath with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloons and those who underwent over-the-wire catheter exchange. This study is a retrospective review of 209 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption and 1304 over-the-wire catheter exchange procedures performed in 753 patients. Approval from the Human Investigations Committee was obtained for this study. Up to 10-year follow-up was performed. A {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare the rates of central venous stenosis after balloon disruption versus catheter exchange. A t-test was used to compare time to central venous stenosis development. Of the 753 patients in the study, 127 patients underwent balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and 626 had catheter exchange. Within the balloon disruption group, 18 (14.2%) of 127 patients subsequently developed central venous stenosis, compared with 44 (7.0%) of 626 in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Time to central venous stenosis development was approximately 3 years in both groups and not significantly different (1371 and 1010 days, P = 0.20). A total of 25.2% of patients in the balloon disruption group had four or more subsequent catheter exchanges, versus 12.6% in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). In conclusions, there is a possible association between percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and late-onset central venous stenosis. Because venography was not routinely performed in catheter exchange patients, future randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

Ni, Nina, E-mail: nina.ni@yale.edu; Mojibian, Hamid; Pollak, Jeffrey; Tal, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Tal@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

239

Transcutaneously Tunneled Central Venous Lines in Cancer Patients: An Analysis of Device-Related Morbidity Factors Based on Prospective Data Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstaract  Background: Long-term transcutaneous tunneled central venous catheters are frequently placed in cancer patients, accounting for significant costs and morbidity. Factors influencing outcome, though, are poorly studied.Methods: Between June 1991 and June 1993, 923 central venous tunneled catheters were placed in 791 patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Placement-, device-, and patient-related parameters were charted prospectively (median follow-up: 120 days) and

Roderich E. Schwarz; Daniel G. Coit; Jeffrey S. Groeger

2000-01-01

240

Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes  

MedlinePLUS

Patient Section Who Are Interventional Radiologists? Multimedia Insurance Coverage IR Treatments Abdominal aortic aneurysms Angiography Angioplasty and stent placement Cancer - bone Cancer - breast Cancer - kidney Cancer - liver Cancer - lung ...

241

Is catheter rupture rare after totally implantable access port implantation via the right internal jugular vein? Report of a case.  

PubMed

Catheter rupture after totally implantable access port (TIAP) implantation via the right internal jugular vein is thought to be very rare. We report a case of catheter rupture found 682 days after TIAP surgery in a 52-year-old woman with recurrent right breast cancer. It is possible that chronic stress at the flexure of the catheter induced by neck movements caused the catheter to rupture. Therefore, when inserting a TIAP via the right internal jugular vein, the site of venous puncture should be decided on carefully. Although a fracture of this type is rarely reported in the literature, the incidence of catheter injury of a TIAP inserted via the internal jugular vein at our institute is 1.8 %. This highlights the need to educate and caution medical staff and patients about preventing catheter fracture being caused by external factors. PMID:23732842

Nagasawa, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Chou, Hirotomi; Mekata, Eiji; Tani, Tohru

2014-07-01

242

Percutaneous retrieval of an intracardiac central venous port fragment using snare with triple loops  

PubMed Central

Peripherally inserted venous ports fracture with embolization in patients who received chemotherapy is a serious and rare complication, and few cases have been reported in children. We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare for retrieving broken peripherally inserted venous ports in a child for chemotherapy. Catheter fragments may cause complications such as cardiac perforation, arrhythmias, sepsis, and pulmonary embolism. A 12-year-old female received chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia through a central venous port implanted into her right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 6 months ago. Venous port was accidentally fractured during its removal. Chest radiographs of the patient revealed intracardiac catheter fragment extending from the right subclavian to the right atrium (RA) and looping in the RA. The procedure was performed under ketamine and midazolam anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance using a percutaneous femoral vein approach. A snare with triple loops (10 mm in diameter) was used to successfully retrieve the catheter fragments without any complication. Percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of catheter fragments is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters and can be chosen before resorting to surgery, which has potential risks related to thoracotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and general anesthesia.

Ghaderian, Mehdi; Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Ali Reza

2015-01-01

243

How to deal with dialysis catheters in the ICU setting  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation. PMID:23174157

2012-01-01

244

Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed, E-mail: sarfraznazir@doctors.org.uk; Ganeshan, Arul [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Nazir, Sheraz [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

245

Antibiofilm activity of Cobetia marina filtrate upon Staphylococcus epidermidis catheter-related isolates  

PubMed Central

We report the antibiofilm activity by the sponge-associated bacterium Cobetia marina upon Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates obtained from central venous catheters. Antibiofilm activity/antimicrobial susceptibility correlation might predict the action of the metabolite(s) upon Staphylococcus epidermidis in the clinic, making it a possible adjuvant in therapies against biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24031760

Trentin, D.S.; Gorziza, D. F.; Abraham, W.R.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Lerner, C.; Mothes, B.; Termignoni, C.; Macedo, A.J.

2011-01-01

246

Improved antibiotic-impregnated catheters with extended-spectrum activity against resistant bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

Minocycline-rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters (M/R CVCs) have been shown to be efficacious in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and inhibiting the biofilm adherence of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp. To expand the spectrum of antimicrobial activity, a novel second-generation M/R catheter was developed by adding chlorhexidine (CHX-M/R). CVCs and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were impregnated with CHX-M/R and compared with first-generation M/R catheters, CHX-silver sulfadiazine-treated CVCs (CHX/SS-CVCs), chlorhexidine-treated PICCs, and uncoated catheters. A biofilm catheter colonization model was used to assess the efficacy of catheters against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), P. aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata. CHX-M/R-impregnated CVCs were the only antimicrobial catheters that completely inhibited the biofilm colonization of all resistant bacterial and fungal organisms tested at all time intervals, and they were significantly superior to uncoated catheters (all P values were ?0.003). Furthermore, CHX-M/R-coated CVCs had a significantly more effective and prolonged (up to 3 weeks) antimicrobial activity against MRSA and P. aeruginosa than M/R, CHX/SS, and uncoated CVCs (P < 0.0001). Similarly, CHX-M/R-coated PICCs were also superior to M/R-coated and CHX-coated PICCs in preventing biofilms of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and Candida species (P value = 0.003 for all). Our study shows that novel CHX-M/R-coated catheters have unique properties in completely inhibiting biofilm colonization of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and fungi in a manner superior to that of M/R- and chlorhexidine-treated catheters. PMID:22123686

Raad, Issam; Mohamed, Jamal A; Reitzel, Ruth A; Jiang, Ying; Raad, Sammy; Al Shuaibi, Munirah; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray Y

2012-02-01

247

Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

1994-01-01

248

Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

NONE

1995-03-01

249

The peritoneal dialysis catheter.  

PubMed

The results obtained from the positioning and management of the catheter for peritoneal dialysis depend on the techniques used, but also and above all, on the experience of the practitioners. A comparison between practitioners may help to change their convictions, as well as to further improve results, in the interests of patient welfare. This is the aim of these Best Practice Guidelines.. PMID:24307439

Amici, Gianpaolo; Bernacconi, Tonino; Bonforte, Giuseppe; Ceraudo, Emilio; Dell'Aquila, Roberto; Galli, Emilio; Maffei, Stefano; Sardellini, Cecilia; Zeiler, Matthias; Santarelli, Stefano; Iadarola, Gian Maria; La Milia, Vincenzo; Virga, Giovambattista; Brunori, Giuliano; Garosi, Guido; Cancarini, Giovanni

2013-01-01

250

A prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on the use of 5% citrate lock versus 10% citrate lock in permanent hemodialysis catheters.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters are used as permanent vascular access for chronic hemodialysis when construction of an arteriovenous fistula is not possible or contraindicated. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 5% citrate versus 10% citrate catheter lock for permanent single-lumen dialysis catheters in a double-blind, crossover study of 28 patients during 1,876 dialysis sessions. There was a slightly higher number of dialysis sessions with clot formation in the 5% citrate group; entirely attributable to the formation of small clots. There was no statistically significant difference in the formation of large clots, complete obstruction of the catheter or the need for urokinase between the 2 study groups. In view of the ongoing debate on the safety of high-concentration citrate catheter locks, we conclude that a 5% citrate lock is equally efficient in preventing catheter dysfunction compared with a 10% citrate lock and is therefore the preferred citrate catheter-locking solution. PMID:15640601

Meeus, Gert; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Claes, Kathleen; Evenepoel, Pieter; Maes, Bart; Vanrenterghem, Yves

2005-01-01

251

Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Central Venous Access Device Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infection is a well-known complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use, with an incidence of 3–6 bloodstream infections\\u000a per 1,000 catheter days in children. Prevention of CVAD infections has improved with new strategies including the use of chlorhexidine\\u000a antisepsis, bundles, maximal sterile barriers for insertion, prophylactic locks, antibiotic impregnated catheters and tunnelling\\u000a of long-term devices. Despite these strategies, catheter-related

Asha Bowen; Jonathan Carapetis

252

Successful prevention of tunneled, central catheter infection by antibiotic lock therapy using cefotaxime  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Chronic hemodialysis patients frequently require vascular access through central venous catheters (CVCs). The most significant complication of these catheters is infection. This risk can be lowered by the use of an antibiotic-Heparin lock. This study focuses on hemodialysis patients using Tunneled-cuffed catheters (TCC), to assess the rate of catheter-related infections (CRI) in catheter-restricted filling with Cefotaxime and Heparin in end stage renal disease patients. METHODS: A double-blind randomized study was conducted to compare 5000 U/ml Heparin plus10 mg/ml cefotaxime (CE/HS) as catheter-lock solutions, with Heparin (5000 U/ml) alone. A total of 30 patients with end-stage renal disease and different etiologies, were enrolled for chronic hemodialysis with permanent catheters from December 2009 to March 2010. These patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 members. Blood samples were collected for culture, sensitivity, and colony count, from the catheter lumen and the peripheral vein. CRI was considered as the end point. RESULTS: The rate of CRI was significantly lower in the cefotaxime group versus control group (p < 0.001). No exit site infection was occurred in both groups. Infection-free survival rates at 180 days were 100% for the CE/HS group, and 56% for the HS group. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic lock therapy using cefotaxime reduces the risk of CRI in hemodialysis patients. PMID:22091249

Mortazavi, Mojgan; Alsaeidi, Samira; Sobhani, Roohollah; Salimi, Fereshte; Atapour, Abdolamir; Sharif, Nima; Akbari, Mojtaba; Pakzad, Bahram; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

2011-01-01

253

Treatment of venous ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  Underlying the pathogenesis of venous ulceration is venous hypertension. Therefore, the use of multilayered compression therapy\\u000a is the gold standard in the treatment of a venous ulcer. As treatment progresses, an important determinant of response is\\u000a wound assessment, which should be performed on initial visit and subsequently thereafter. Among the methods to assess improvement\\u000a are digital photography and planimetry,

Tami S. De Araujo; Camile Luiza Hexsel; Robert S. Kirsner

2005-01-01

254

Catheter associated urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

2014-01-01

255

Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism is, first, to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism and, second, to reduce the morbidity associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the postphlebitic limb. This should now be standard practice for most patients over 40 years of age undergoing major surgery and for younger patients with a history of venous thromboembolism. Particularly high-risk groups

Vijay V. Kakkar; Mark D. Stringer

1990-01-01

256

Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are now effective measures for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in most medical and surgical conditions. Based on information from level 1 clinical trials and systematic reviews, recommendations for the prevention of venous thromboembolism can be made for most circumstances encountered by the physician or surgeon. Where such information is not available, recommendations must be based on extrapolation from

Graham Pineo; Russell Hull

257

Mesenteric venous thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the intestine. ... Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a clot that blocks blood flow in a mesenteric vein. There are two such veins through ...

258

Uncommon aetiological agents of catheter-related bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) due to uncommon microorganisms was assessed in a retrospective case-control study over a 9-year period in a tertiary teaching hospital. Uncommon microorganisms were defined as those representing <0·5% of all CR-BSI. Diagnosis of CR-BSI required that the same microorganism was grown from at least one peripheral venous blood culture and a catheter tip culture. Thirty-one episodes of CR-BSI were identified due to 13 different genera and these accounted for 2·3% of all CR-BSI in the hospital. Although these infections were not associated with increased mortality, they occurred in patients with more severe underlying conditions who were receiving prolonged antibiotic therapy. PMID:24887020

Reigadas, E; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Sánchez-Carrillo, C; Martín-Rabadán, P; Bouza, E

2015-03-01

259

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-11-01

260

Comparison of complications and dialysis adequacy between temporary and permanent tunnelled catheter for haemodialysis.  

PubMed

Number of hemodialysis patients each day is increasing. The quality of their lives is largely determined by the quality of hemodialysis treatment. One of the most important factors is the type of applied blood approach. The type of blood approach in the most case is artery venous fistula, permanent, temporary catheters, grafts. Any complications of blood strand approach inevitably leads to lower quality of hemodialysis treatment which is connected with not adequate dialysis and poorer general state of patients. Our research was carried out as a prospective study, for the period of 36 months. In the study were included 31 patients, which are on chronic haemodialysis treatment. During this study, we are followed all complications, which occurred at temporary, and permanent tunneled haemodialysis catheters. Complications have occurred in terms of thrombotic problems, low blood flow, occurrence of infection. All patients are divided in two groups, 16 patients with permanent and 15 patients with temporary catheters. In the course of the study was analyzed blood flow and dialysis adequacy (Kt/Vdp) as well as complications and results was compared with randomly selected 16 patients who haemodialysis treatment performed by artery venous fistula (AVF). Two patients were lost to further follow-up to the end of the study. 26 patients at the end of the study had functional catheters, while in the case of 3 patients the catheter was removed. Infection was found in 10 patients while thrombotic complications were observed in 27 cases regardless of catheter type. Mean blood flow in patients with permanent catheter was significantly higher (296,9+/-28,45 cm3/min) compared to patients with temporary catheter (226,3+/-39,8 cm3/min) (p<0,001). Kt/Vdp delivered was 1,22+/-0,15 on patients with permanent catheter and 1,30+/-0,18 for artery venous fistula (AVF) access respectively. The loss of dialysis efficacy using catheters was estimated at 6%. However, in all cases Kt/Vdp values remained above the recommended values (Kt/Vdp > or = 1,2). PMID:20001990

Kukavica, Nihad; Resic, Halima; Sahovic, Vahidin

2009-11-01

261

21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

262

21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

263

21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

265

21 CFR 870.1340 - Catheter introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Catheter introducer. (a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

266

Symptomatic Central Venous Stenosis in a Hemodialysis Patient Leading to Loss of Arteriovenous Access: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Central venous stenosis is a well-described sequel to the placement of hemodialysis catheters in the central venous system. The presence of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula or graft often leads to severe venous dilatation, arm edema and recurrent infections. Vascular access thrombosis, compromised blood flow and inadequate dialysis delivery are dreaded complications that eventually render the access unusable. We report the case of a 58-year-old male hemodialysis patient who developed symptomatic central venous stenosis to illustrate the problem and review the pertinent literature. This patient developed severe enlargement of upper extremity veins due to central venous stenosis. The symptoms were refractory to multiple endovascular interventions and eventually necessitated ligation of his arteriovenous fistula. Central venous stenosis remains a pervasive problem despite advances in our understanding of its etiology and recognition of the enormity of its consequences. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, prevention is better than cure. PMID:24803921

Tatapudi, Vasishta S.; Spinowitz, Noam; Goldfarb, David S.

2014-01-01

267

Microbiological and Clinical Features of Four Cases of Catheter-Related Infection by Methylobacterium radiotolerans.  

PubMed

Four cases of central venous catheter-related Methylobacterium radiotolerans infection are presented here. The patients were all long-term catheter carriers with an underlying diagnosis of leukemia, and they mostly manifested fevers. The isolated bacterial strains all showed far better growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar during the initial isolation and/or subcultures than they did on sheep blood or chocolate agar. This microbiological feature may improve the culture recovery of this fastidious pink Gram-negative bacillus that has rarely been isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25631797

Li, Li; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y

2015-04-01

268

Catheter-Malposition-Induced Cardiac Tamponade via Contrast Media Leakage During Computed Tomography Study  

SciTech Connect

We present a rare case of a central venous catheter-malposition-induced life-threatening cardiac tamponade as a result of computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement in an infant with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiographs and CT study with catheter perforation through the right atrial wall and extravasation of the contrast medium into the pericardium, leading to cardiac tamponade and subsequent circulatory collapse. Two hours after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient gradually resumed normal hemodynamic status.

Liang, C.-D. [Chang Gung University (China)], E-mail: cdliang@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Ko, S.-F.; Huang, C.-F.; Chien, S.J.; Tiao, M.M. [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Radiology (China)

2005-12-15

269

Stepwise Angioplasty and Catheter Directed Thrombolysis for Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicated with Floating Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava  

PubMed Central

Recently, we experienced a rare case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome. The case was a 57-year-old female patient. Venous return had been severely disturbed by the membranous occlusion of the IVC and a giant floating thrombus. After catheter directed thrombolysis combined with stepwise percutaneous angioplasty, the IVC was recanalized sufficiently and the thrombus was completely resolved. PMID:24995066

2014-01-01

270

Stepwise angioplasty and catheter directed thrombolysis for budd-Chiari syndrome complicated with floating thrombus in inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

Recently, we experienced a rare case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome. The case was a 57-year-old female patient. Venous return had been severely disturbed by the membranous occlusion of the IVC and a giant floating thrombus. After catheter directed thrombolysis combined with stepwise percutaneous angioplasty, the IVC was recanalized sufficiently and the thrombus was completely resolved. PMID:24995066

Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Higashi, Shigeki

2014-01-01

271

Heart catheter cable and connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraminiature catheter cables that are stiff enough for intravenous insertion yet flexible at the tip, sterilizable, and economical are fabricated entirely from commercially available parts. Assembly includes air passageway for reference pressures and coaxial cable for transmission of signals from the tip of catheter.

Harrison, D. R.; Cota, F. L.; Sandler, H.

1972-01-01

272

Treatment of chronic venous insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux.\\u000a Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous valvular reflux, thereby inhibiting the ensuing pathologic inflammatory\\u000a process. Compression therapy using pumps, bandaging, and\\/or graded compression stockings is the mainstay of treatment for\\u000a CVI. Compression therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing venous

Suman W. Rathbun; Angelia C. Kirkpatrick

2007-01-01

273

A numerical study of the effect of catheter angle on the blood flow characteristics in a graft during hemodialysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For patients with renal failure, renal replacement therapies are needed. Hemodialysis is a widely used renal replacement method to remove waste products. It is important to improve the patency rate of the vascular access for efficient dialysis. Since some complications such as an intimal hyperplasia are associated with the flow pattern, the hemodynamics in the vascular access must be considered to achieve a high patency rate. In addition, the blood flow from an artificial kidney affects the flow in the vascular access. Generally, the clinical techniques of hemodialysis such as the catheter angle or dialysis dose have been set up empirically. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed on the effect of the catheter angle on the flow in the graft. Blood is assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid. According to the high average wall shear stress value, the leucocytes and platelets can be activated not only at the arterial anastomosis, but also at the bottom of the venous graft, when the catheter angle is not zero. For a catheter angle less than five degrees, there is a low shear and high oscillatory shear index region that appears at the venous graft and the venous anastomosis. Thus, a catheter angle less than five degrees should be avoided to prevent graft failure.

Ryou, Hong Sun; Kim, Soyoon; Ro, Kyoungchul

2013-02-01

274

Comparison of arterial and venous whole blood clot initiation, formation, and strength by thromboelastography in anesthetized swine.  

PubMed

Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was used to determine if differences exist between venous and arterial samples in anesthetized swine, using identical sampling techniques for each of the samples. We hypothesized that TEG parameters would not differ between native whole blood venous and arterial samples. Thirty male Landrace swines were included in the study. Both the femoral artery and vein were catheterized using standard cut-down techniques and with identically sized catheters to rule out any catheter size effects on the results. Standard TEG parameters for native whole venous and arterial blood samples (r, K, ?, MA, G, and coagulation index) were measured or calculated, and t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test used for comparison when appropriate. Significant differences were detected for r (venous < arterial), K (venous < arterial), ? (venous > arterial), and coagulation index (venous > arterial) TEG parameters. No significant differences were measured for MA or G. These differences are important, especially when temporal changes in TEG are utilized to monitor patient stability and fluid therapy protocols using trends in coagulation properties. Taken together, these results suggest that clots are more likely to form at a faster rate in venous samples compared to arterial samples, but the overall clot strength does not differ. Therefore, if TEG analysis is being used to monitor coagulation profiles in a patient, care should be taken to use the same site and technique if results are to be used for comparative purposes. PMID:24126246

Doering, Clinton J; Wagg, Catherine R; Caulkett, Nigel A; McAllister, Russell K; Brookfield, Caroline E; Paterson, Jessica M; Warren, Amy L; Smith, Barbara L; Boysen, Søren R

2014-01-01

275

Peripherally Placed Totally Implantable Venous-access Port Systems of the Forearm: Clinical Experience in 763 Consecutive Patients  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneously placed totally implantable venous-access ports (TIVAPs) of the forearm. Between January 2006 and October 2008, peripheral TIVAPs were implanted in 763 consecutive patients by ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. All catheters were implanted under local anesthesia and were tunneled subcutaneously. Indication, technical success, and complications were retrospectively analyzed according to Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) criteria. Presence of antibiotic prophylaxis, periprocedurally administered drugs (e.g., sedation), and laboratory results at the time of implantation were analyzed. Maintenance during the service interval was evaluated. In total, 327,499 catheter-days were analyzed. Technical success rate was 99.3%. Reasons for initial failure of implantation were either unexpected thrombosis of the subclavian vein, expanding tumor mass of the mediastinum, or failure of peripheral venous access due to fragile vessels. Mean follow-up was 430 days. There were 115 complications observed (15.1%, 0.03 per 100 catheter-days), of which 33 (4.3%) were classified as early (within 30 days from implantation) and 82 (10.7%) as late. Catheter-related venous thrombosis was found in 65 (8.5%) of 763 (0.02 per 100 catheter-days) TIVAPs. Infections were observed in 41 (5.4%) of 763 (0.01 per 100 catheter-days) devices. Other complications observed included dislocation of the catheter tip (0.8%), occlusion (0.1%), or rupture (0.1%) of the port catheter. Dislocated catheters were corrected during a second interventional procedure. In conclusion, implantation of percutaneously placed peripheral TIVAPs shows a high technical success rate and low risk of early complications when ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance are used. Late complications are observed three times as often as early complications.

Goltz, Jan P., E-mail: Goltz@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de; Scholl, Anne; Ritter, Christian O. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Wittenberg, Guenther [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bielefeld Gilead, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany)

2010-12-15

276

[Functional venous explorations].  

PubMed

The methods for exploring venous function globally are presented first. These methods include venous pressure and plethysmography for which the methods using a garrot are separated from those using air volumetry which give reliable physiological and reproducible results. The Nachev method, the thermometry, the thermography and isotope clearances are also reviewed since they have been important in the development of exploration of venous function. The methods giving morphological or segmentary data are then presented in historical order: phlebography (completed by tomodensitography and nuclear magnetic resonance), then ultrasonography with Doppler, echography and duplex and colour techniques. Finally promising methods for the future including oxygen partial pressures, laser-Doppler, capillaroscopy and venous endoscopy are discussed. For each method, there is a description of the technique, a presentation of the measured parameters and their reliability, the signification of the measurement and its clinical use. Finally, each method is discussed in the context of concrete clinical situations with a schema for management of diagnosis. PMID:8177873

Mollard, J M

1994-02-10

277

Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a cause of mesenteric ischemia. Acute thrombosis commonly presents with abdominal pain and chronic type with features of portal hypertension. Contrast enhanced CT scan of abdomen is quite accurate for diagnosing and differentiating two types of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Prothrombotic state, hematological malignancy, and local abdominal inflammatory conditions are common predisposing conditions. Over the last decade, JAK-2 (janus kinase 2) mutation has emerged as an accurate biomarker for diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm, an important cause for mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice for acute mesenteric venous thrombosis. Thrombolysis using systemic or transcatheter route is another option. Patients with peritoneal signs or refractory to initial measures require surgical exploration. Increasing recognition of mesenteric venous thrombosis and use of anticoagulation for treatment has resulted in reduction in the need for surgery with improvement in survival. PMID:25755568

Hmoud, Bashar; Singal, Ashwani K.; Kamath, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

278

Venous thrombolysis: Current perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Venous thromboembolism is a common problem in hospital and community patients and is associated with longer hospital stays,\\u000a significant morbidity, and mortality. It is the third most common cardiovascular disease after ischemic coronary artery disease\\u000a and stroke. A quarter of patients with acute myocardial infarction and more than half of patients with acute ischemic stroke\\u000a may develop venous thromboembolism.

Jay Menon; Mahmoud M. Salman; George Hamilton

2004-01-01

279

CHLORHEXIDINE-IMPREGNATED DRESSING FOR PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION: A META-ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Background Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed. Objective To assess the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter-related colonization and CRBSI using meta-analysis. Data Sources Multiple computerized database searches supplemented by manual searches including relevant conference proceedings. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing compared with conventional dressings for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI. Data Extraction Data were extracted on patient and catheter characteristics and outcomes. Data Synthesis Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and I2. Subgroup analyses were used to explore heterogeneity. Results Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing resulted in a reduced incidence of CRBSI (random effects RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42–0.79, P=0.002). The incidence of catheter colonization was also markedly reduced in the chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing group (random effects RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.39–0.67, P< 0.001). There was significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI, including arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. Other than in low birth weight infants, adverse effects were rare and minor. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing is beneficial in preventing catheter colonization and, more importantly, CRBSI and warrants routine use in patients at high risk of CRBSI and CVC or arterial catheter colonization in ICUs. PMID:24674924

Safdar, Nasia; O’Horo, John C.; Ghufran, Aiman; Bearden, Allison; Didier, Maria Eugenia; Chateau, Dan; Maki, Dennis G.

2014-01-01

280

Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty  

SciTech Connect

The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

Angelini, P.

1987-01-01

281

Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin\\/Hemagglutinin in the Pathogenesis of Intravascular Catheter-Associated Infection in a Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm production is thought to be a crucial factor in the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a bio- material-based infection. A rat central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was used to assess the im- portance of biofilm production, mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin\\/hemagglutinin (PIA\\/HA), in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection. PIA\\/HA-positive S. epidermidis 1457 was signifi- cantly more

MARK E. RUPP; JOSEPH S. ULPHANI; PAUL D. FEY; DIETRICH MACK

1999-01-01

282

Interventional treatment of venous thromboembolism: a review.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the third most common cardiovascular disease after coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the general population. Full dose anticoagulation is the standard therapy for VTE, both for the acute and the long-term phase. The latest guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians recommend treatment with a full-dose of unfractioned heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or thrombolysis for most patients with objectively confirmed VTE. Catheter-guided thrombolysis and trombosuction are interventional approaches that should be used only in selected populations; interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with a filter can be performed to prevent life-threatening PE in patients with VTE and contraindications to anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications during antithrombotic treatment, or VTE recurrences despite optimal anticoagulation. In this review we summarize the currently available literature regarding interventional approaches for VTE treatment (vena cava filters, catheter-guided thrombolysis, thrombosuction) and we discuss current evidences on their efficacy and safety. Moreover, the appropriate indications for their use in daily clinical practice are reviewed. PMID:22119500

Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio; Salmi, Raffaella; Duce, Rita; Gallerani, Massimo

2012-04-01

283

Encapsulation of an intrathecal catheter.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old patient with cancer pain underwent implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery device. When the patient suffered from an infection with fever, pain on injection into the catheter and an elevated number of granulocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid 7 weeks later, radiologic examination showed an encapsulation of the catheter tip. Concentrations of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the cerebrospinal fluid suggested transport of morphine into the systemic circulation via the vascularisation of the encapsulating membrane. After antibiotic therapy and removal of the catheter, morphine was administered intravenously with a one to one conversion ratio. PMID:12749977

Gaertner, Jan; Sabatowski, Rainer; Elsner, Frank; Radbruch, Lukas

2003-05-01

284

Catheter ablation in supraventricular tachycardia.  

PubMed

The evolution of catheter ablation for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardias represents a major advance in the management of cardiac arrhythmias. Excellent results in the majority of patients undergoing the procedure, together with a low rate of early complications and a brief hospitalization, make catheter ablation a highly cost-effective permanent cure. At present, however, its place in relation to alternate therapies in the management of supraventricular tachycardias has not been clearly established owing to unresolved risk-benefit issues. Continuing technical advances will likely enable catheter ablation to be successfully applied to a broader range of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:7598475

Deshpande, S; Jazayeri, M; Dhala, A; Blanck, Z; Sra, J; Bremner, S; Akhtar, M

1995-01-01

285

The venous anatomy of the abdominal wall for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Despite improving outcomes, venous problems in the harvest of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps remain the more common vascular complications. However, it is apparent that the venous anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall has not been described to the same extent as the arterial anatomy. Cadaveric dissection studies of venous anatomy frequently lack the detail of their arterial counterparts. Venous valves complicate retrograde injection, resulting in poor quality studies with limited anatomical information. Methods The current manuscript comprises a review of the literature, highlighting key features of the anatomy of the venous drainage of the abdominal wall integument, with particular pertinence to DIEP flaps. Both cadaveric and clinical studies are included in this review. Our own cadaveric and in-vivo studies were undertaken and included in detail in this manuscript, with the cadaveric component utilizing direct catheter venography and the in-vivo studies were undertaken using preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA), mapping in-vivo venous flow. Results Several key features of the venous anatomy of the abdominal wall render it different to other regions, and are of particular importance to DIEP flap transfer. Conclusions The cause of venous compromise is multi-factorial, with perforator diameter, midline crossover, and deep-superficial venous communications all important. Venous cadaveric studies as well as clinical CTA preoperatively can identify these anomalies. PMID:25083432

Ashton, Mark W

2012-01-01

286

The Use of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) in Adult with Acute Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate peripher- ally inserted central catheter (PICC) as a sole venous access device for management of patients with newly diagnosed leukemia. Forty-four PICCs (4-French, single lumen) were placed in 41 newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients mostly complicated with active systemic infection and bleeding tendency. Sonography-guided venipuncture using a 14-gauge needle sheath was performed

SUNG-YU CHU; CHEN-HSIEN WU; JIAN-LUN WU; CHEN-HONG TOH; JENG-HWEI TSENG; CHIAN-FU HUNG; KEE-MIN YEOW

2004-01-01

287

Declotting a Thrombosed Brescia-Cimino Fistula by Manual Catheter-Directed Aspiration of the Thrombus  

SciTech Connect

Acute thrombosis of native fistulae for hemodialysis occurs more rarely than for prosthetic grafts. The vascular access should be reopened as soon as possible in order to resume regular dialysis and to avoid resorting to a temporary central line. Manual aspiration is one of the numerous methods described in this setting. Clinical examination is essential to rule out local infection, which is the only serious contraindication to percutaneous maneuvers. Two introducer-sheaths are placed in a criss-cross fashion in order to gain access to the venous outflow and to the anastomosis. Access to the venous outflow is performed first in order to check the proximal extent of the thrombosis. Heparin and antibiotics are injected systemically. A similar maneuver is then performed in the direction of the anastomosis. The aspiration phase is then initiated. A 7-9 Fr aspiration catheter is pushed through the 'venous' introducer. Manual aspiration is created through a 50 ml syringe while the catheter is progressively removed with back and forth movements. The catheter and the contents of the syringe are flushed through a gauze on the working table to evaluate the amount of thrombus which has been removed and the maneuver is repeated as often as necessary to remove all the thrombus. Once all the clots located downstream from the venous introducer have been removed, any unmasked underlying stenosis is NOT dilated at this stage since it provides protection against major embolism coming from the inflow. The aspiration catheter is then pushed through the 'arterial' introducer down to the anastomosis in order to aspirate the thrombus located between the tip of the introducer and the anastomosis. Dilatation of unmasked stenoses is finally performed using high-pressure balloons. The holes made by the two introducers are closed using a U-shaped suture with interposition of a short piece of plastic and the patient is sent back to the nephrologists for dialysis.

Turmel-Rodrigues, Luc A [Clinique Saint-Gatien, Radiologie Vasculaire, Diagnostique et Interventionnelle (France)], E-mail: luc.turmel@wanadoo.fr, E-mail: cim.stgatien@wanadoo.fr

2005-01-15

288

Measuring the efficacy of antimicrobial catheters.  

PubMed

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are a major cause of morbidity in hospitals worldwide. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances such as silver alloy and nitrofurazone were introduced to reduce CAUTI. A previous Cochrane review reported that antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters may reduce the number of asymptomatic bacteriuria present but it was uncertain whether they reduced CAUTI. The Catheter Trial compared these and standard catheters for short-term use in NHS hospitals. Results showed silver alloy-coated catheters did not reduce symptomatic CAUTI compared with standard catheters; nitrofurazone-impregnated catheters had borderline clinical benefit in reducing symptomatic CAUTI. The findings do not support the routine use of antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters for patients in hospital who need short-term catheters. Instead, health professionals should focus on simple preventive strategies and reducing the need for catheterisation. PMID:24371878

Makuta, Gladys; Chrysafis, Manolis; Lam, Thomas

289

Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion  

MedlinePLUS

PICC - insertion ... A PICC is a long, thin tube (called a catheter) that goes into a vein in your upper arm. ... in a large vein near your heart. The PICC helps carry nutrients and medicines into your body. ...

290

Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants  

MedlinePLUS

PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

291

Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing  

MedlinePLUS

To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... and under your nails. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

292

Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult  

PubMed Central

A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

2015-01-01

293

Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult.  

PubMed

A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

2015-02-01

294

Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

In this chapter, an overview of some of the prominent risk factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis will be discussed. In 1856, Dr Rudolf Virchow developed the concept outlining the genesis of intravascular thrombosis. Dr Virchow hypothesized that circulatory stasis due to interrupted blood flow, changes in the blood leading to blood coagulation, and irritation or damage to the vascular endothelium would initiate acute venous thrombus generation. Presently, it is known that these above-mentioned risk factors are influenced by increasing age, gender, and obesity. The current chapter will focus on recent preclinical and clinical investigations that will give the reader insight into the prothrombotic mechanisms that lead to acute venous thrombosis. PMID:25729062

Myers, Dd

2015-03-01

295

Supraventricular tachycardia precipitated by a peripherally inserted central catheter in an infant with gastroschisis.  

PubMed

Gastroschisis is a common congenital abdominal wall defect requiring surgical correction in early neonatal life. The time to full enteral feeds among infants with gastroschisis is variable. Gastroschisis remains a common surgical cause of intestinal failure in neonates. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are commonly used to provide long-term venous access for parenteral nutrition during the time enteral feeds are being slowly established. The PICC is placed under fluoroscopic guidance with the distal end of the catheter usually placed at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. In rare circumstances, the catheter tip may advance into intracardiac chambers, precipitating supraventricular re-entrant tachycardia. We report a case of an infant who was antenatally diagnosed with uncomplicated gastroschisis in whom a supraventricular tachycardia was precipitated by the PICC in the right atrium. PMID:24569259

Thyoka, Mandela; Haq, Iram; Hosie, Gareth

2014-01-01

296

Asymptomatic catheter related Rhizobium radiobacter infection in a haploidentical hemapoetic stem cell recipient.  

PubMed

Catheter related infections are reported as one of the most common source of nosocomial infections. Rhizobium radibacter infections are generally manifested by fever and leukocytosis. Here, a 14 months-old girl diagnosed as T (-) B (-) NK (+) severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is presented. She had received repeated (x3) unconditioned haploidentical hematopoetic stem cell transplantations. During the follow-up, she has been arised an asymptomatic infection with R. Radiobacter, which was isolated from central venous catheter and peripheral blood while she was clinically stable, free of symptoms, fever or leukocytosis. She was treated successfully with cefepime and amikacin and did not require catheter removal. So, it is once more clear that the blood cultures should be obtained on regular basis from all patients with an intravascular device, even they were asymptomatic. PMID:20818107

Erol Cipe, Funda; Do?u, Figen; Sucuo?lu, Deniz; Aysev, Derya; Ikincio?ullar?, Aydan

2010-08-01

297

Evaluation of prosthetic venous valves, fabricated by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) remains a major health problem worldwide. Direct venous valve surgical repair and venous segment transplantation are clinical options; however, they are highly invasive procedures. The objectives of this study were to fabricate prosthetic venous valves (PVVs) by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of CVI, and evaluate their hydrodynamic characteristics in vitro at the same locations and under the same flow conditions. The PVVs consisted of polyurethane fiber scaffolds attached to a cobalt-chromium stent. PVVs with two different valve-leaflet configurations were compared: biomimetic PVV (bPVV) and open PVV (oPVV). A balloon catheter was used to implant the devices in a poly(vinyl chloride) tube and the column outlet was set at a height of 100 cm above the test valve to simulate the elevation of the heart above a distal vein valve while standing; 50 wt% glycerin solution was used as the test fluid. The devices were evaluated for antegrade flow, effect of ankle flexion, and stagnation zones around the valve leaflets. During sudden hydrostatic backpressure, little leakage and constant peripheral pressure were observed for the devices; under forward pulsatile pressure of 0-4 mmHg, to simulate the effect of breathing, the oPVV had a higher flow rate than the bPVV. With regard to the effect of ankle flexion, the oPVV was functionless. Moreover, the stagnation zone around the oPVV valve leaflets was larger than that around the bPVV valve leaflets. These results suggest that the bPVV would be clinically suitable for percutaneous treatment of CVI. PMID:21789716

Moriyama, Masaki; Kubota, Shinichiro; Tashiro, Hideo; Tonami, Hiroyuki

2011-12-01

298

Prophylaxis of venous thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  |\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Mechanical measures such as graduated compression stockings and intermittent compression boots are available for venous thrombosis\\u000a prophylaxis, but compliance may be limited. Plantar venous pneumatic compression devices have attained widespread acceptance\\u000a by both patients and nurses because of their comfort and compact size, but their track record for efficacy is poor. Inferior\\u000a vena cava filters prevent pulmonary

Samuel Z. Goldhaber

2001-01-01

299

Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

300

Deep venous thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

Deep venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly ... To prevent deep vein thrombosis: Wear the pressure stockings your doctor prescribed. Moving your legs often during long plane trips, car ...

301

Mesenteric venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of mesenteric venous thrombosis has increased over the past 2 decades with the routine use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients presenting with abdominal pain and those with portal hypertension. Concurrent with increasing recognition, routine and frequent use of anticoagulation has reduced the need for surgical intervention and improved outcome in these patients. Acute thrombosis often presents with abdominal pain, whereas chronic disease manifests either as an incidental finding on CT or with features of portal hypertension. Contrast-enhanced CT diagnoses about 90% of cases. The presence of collateral circulation and cavernoma around a chronically thrombosed vein differentiates chronic from acute disease. The superior mesenteric vein is often involved, whereas involvement of the inferior mesenteric vein is rare. Associated portal venous thrombosis can be seen if the disease originates in the major veins instead of the small vena rectae. Thrombophilia and local abdominal inflammatory conditions are common causes. Management is aimed at preventing bowel infarction and recurrent thrombosis. Anticoagulation, the mainstay of management, has also been safely used in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. This review discusses the pathogenesis of thrombosis of mesenteric veins, the diagnosis and differentiation from arterial ischemia, the emergence of the JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) sequence variation as a marker of thrombophilia and myelodysplastic neoplasms, and new anticoagulants. Algorithms for the management of acute and chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis are provided to help readers understand and remember the approach to the management of acute and chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis. PMID:23489453

Singal, Ashwani K; Kamath, Patrick S; Tefferi, Ayalew

2013-03-01

302

Venous insufficiency (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The valves in the veins usually channel the flow of blood toward the heart. When these valves are damaged, blood leaks and pools in the legs and feet. Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins fail to return blood ...

303

21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

2012-04-01

304

21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

2014-04-01

305

21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

2010-04-01

306

21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

2013-04-01

307

21 CFR 870.1250 - Percutaneous catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1250 Percutaneous catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire. (b) Classification. Class II...

2011-04-01

308

Comparison of a new venous control device with a bladder box system for use in ECMO.  

PubMed

During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), forward pump flow must not be allowed to exceed the rate of blood drainage from the patient so that excessive negative pressure does not develop within the ECMO circuit or in the patient's right atrium. A distensible reservoir ("bladder") and mechanically actuated electronic switch ("bladder box"), has typically been used for this purpose. If the rate of blood flow from the patient to the pump is insufficient to support the perfusion rate desired and adjustments in volume status and catheter position do not increase blood drainage, the only recourse is to increase the siphon pressure by elevating the patient. At the author's institution, a novel venous control module (VCM), without a reservoir, that can provide increased venous drainage without elevating the patient is used. Using an in vitro model of neonatal ECMO, the authors' compared their VCM to a commercially available "bladder box" system. Pressures were monitored in a collapsible chamber inside a water bath (simulating the right atrium), at the gravitational high point of the ECMO circuit ("neck site") and at the low point of the circuit ("venous site") at flow rates of 100, 450, 900, and 1,300 cc/min. Pump shut-off characteristics for both systems were also measured with either sudden interruption of venous drainage ("cross-clamping") or restriction of venous inflow ("hypovolemia"). Under continuous flow conditions, higher flows could be achieved with the VCM. With acute venous catheter occlusion, instantaneous ("trough") pressures at the neck site were lower, and venous monitoring site pressures were higher with the bladder box system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1450482

Setz, K; Kesser, K; Kopotic, R J; Cornish, J D

1992-01-01

309

Measurement of body venous tone.  

PubMed

The venous system contains about 70% of the blood volume, and approximately 75% of the venous volume is in the small veins and venules. Veins play an active role in the control of cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure. Drugs that interfere with venous tone have profound effects on CO and blood pressure due to the large venous capacity. Information on body venous tone cannot be obtained from studies using isolated venous preparations and perfused venous beds, which lack modulating cardiovascular reflex mechanisms. In vivo methods used for the assessment of venous function in experimental animals and humans are as follows: the mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) method for the determination of body venous tone, constant CO reservoir technique for measuring vascular compliance and unstressed volume, plethysmography or blood-pool scintigraphy along with venous occlusion for measuring the volume and compliance of an organ, linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) technique for estimating the diameter of a human dorsal hand vein, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging technique to monitor the cross-sectional area of a large vein, and ultrasonic crystals to estimate the dimension of an organ. These methods are described and critically evaluated to disclose their validity, merits and limitations. PMID:11325578

Pang, C C

2000-01-01

310

Continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation measurement: A significant advance in hemodynamic monitoring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter in combination with reflective fiberoptic oximetry techniques allows\\u000a the clinician to continuously measure mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). A briet review of the determinants of oxygen balance, the Fick principle, and the technology of continuous SvO2 monitoring is preliminary to a debate between two clinicians on the usefulness ot SvO2 monitoring.\\u000a \\u000a One clinician

Edward A. Norfleet; Charles B. Watson

1985-01-01

311

Minimally Invasive Catheter Procedures to Assist Complicated Pacemaker Lead Extraction and Implantation in the Operating Room  

SciTech Connect

We report on percutaneous catheter procedures in the operating room (OR) to assist complicated manual extraction or insertion of pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads. We retrospectively reviewed complicated PM revisions and implantations performed between 2004 and 2009 that required percutaneous catheter procedures performed in the OR. The type of interventional procedure, catheter and retrieval system used, venous access, success rates, and procedural complications were analyzed. In 41 (12 female and 29 male [mean age 62 {+-} 17 years]) of 3021 (1.4%) patients, standard manual retrieval of old leads or insertion of new leads was not achievable and thus required percutaneous catheter intervention for retrieval of misplaced leads and/or recanalisation of occluded central veins. Thirteen of 18 (72.2%) catheter-guided retrieval procedures for misplaced (right atrium [RA] or ventricle [RV; n = 3], superior vena cava [n = 2], brachiocephalic vein [n = 5], and subclavian vein [n = 3]) lead fragments in 16 patients were successful. Percutaneous catheter retrieval failed in five patients because there were extremely fixed or adhered lead fragments. Percutaneous transluminal angiography (PTA) of central veins for occlusion or high-grade stenosis was performed in 25 patients. In 22 of 25 patients (88%), recanalization of central veins was successful, thus enabling subsequent lead replacement. Major periprocedural complications were not observed. In the case of complicated manual PM lead implantation or revision, percutaneous catheter-guided extraction of misplaced lead fragments or recanalisation of central veins can be performed safely in the OR, thus enabling subsequent implantation or revision of PM systems in the majority of patients.

Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S., E-mail: rotemshlomo@yahoo.de; Miese, Falk R.; Blondin, Dirk [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany); Winter, Joachim [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Scherer, Axel; Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2011-04-15

312

Peripheral venous pressure as a reliable predictor for monitoring central venous pressure in patients with burns  

PubMed Central

Background: Optimizing cardiovascular function to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery is a key objective in the care of critically ill patients with burns. Hemodynamic monitoring may be necessary to optimize resuscitation in serious burn patients with reasonable safety. Invasive central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring has become the corner stone of hemodynamic monitoring in patients with burns but is associated with inherent risks and technical difficulties. Previous studies on perioperative patients have shown that measurement of peripheral venous pressure (PVP) is a less invasive and cost-effective procedure and can reliably predict CVP. Objective: The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to determine whether a reliable association exists between changes in CVP and PVP over a long period in patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU). Subjects and Methods: The CVP and PVP were measured simultaneously hourly in 30 burns patients in the BICU up to 10 consecutive hours. The predictability of CVP by monitoring PVP was tested by applying the linear regression formula and also using the Bland–Altman plots of repeated measures to evaluate the agreement between CVP and PVP. Results: The regression formula revealed a reliable and significant association between CVP and PVP. The overall mean difference between CVP and PVP was 1.628 ± 0.84 mmHg (P < 0.001). The Bland–Altman diagram also showed a perfect agreement between the two pressures throughout the 10 h period. Conclusion: Peripheral venous pressure measured from a peripheral intravenous catheter in burns patients is a reliable estimation of CVP, and its changes have good concordance with CVP over a long period of time. PMID:25878426

Sherif, Lulu; Joshi, Vikas S.; Ollapally, Anjali; Jain, Prithi; Shetty, Kishan; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

2015-01-01

313

Advances in the diagnosis and management of central venous access device infections in children.  

PubMed

Infection is a well-known complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use, with an incidence of 3-6 bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter days in children. Prevention of CVAD infections has improved with new strategies including the use of chlorhexidine antisepsis, bundles, maximal sterile barriers for insertion, prophylactic locks, antibiotic impregnated catheters and tunnelling of long-term devices. Despite these strategies, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) continue to be an important health problem. New approaches to diagnosis include differential time to positivity and quantification of blood cultures and molecular diagnostics. The management of CRBSIs includes techniques for line salvage including ethanol, antibiotic, hydrochloric acid, taurolidine and urokinase locks. When these fail, line removal and antimicrobial therapy are recommended. PMID:21120722

Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

2011-01-01

314

Stability of Trisodium Citrate and Gentamicin Solution for Catheter Locks after Storage in Plastic Syringes at Room Temperature  

PubMed Central

Background: Catheter-related infections are a major problem for hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters for vascular access. Catheter lock solutions containing an anticoagulant are used to maintain the patency of the catheter between hemodialysis sessions. There is evidence that the use of lock solutions containing an antibiotic is associated with lower rates of infection but also that these solutions can kill microbes in colonized catheters and thus avoid the risks and costs associated with replacing the catheter. Objective: This stability study was conducted to determine whether an extemporaneously prepared gentamicin–citrate catheter lock solution would retain its potency over time, thus allowing for advance preparation of the solution. Methods: Catheter lock solutions containing gentamicin alone, citrate alone, and the combination of gentamicin and citrate were prepared aseptically and packaged in polyethylene syringes. The syringes were stored at room temperature. At timed intervals over 112 days, samples were withdrawn for analysis by means of validated high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: None of the 3 lock solutions showed any evidence of degradation during the 112-day observation period. In the formulation containing both gentamicin 2.5 mg/mL and sodium citrate 40 mg/mL (4%), there was no change in the concentration of either gentamicin (p = 0.34) or citrate (p = 0.55). Linear regression analysis of the concentration–time data for the combined formulation showed that 99.97% of the labelled amount of gentamicin and 101.30% of the labelled amount of citrate remained at day 112. The lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals indicated that more than 98.17% of the gentamicin and more than 99.57% of the citrate remained on day 112. Conclusion: The results of this study will allow pharmacies to extemporaneously compound the combined gentamicin–citrate catheter lock solution in advance of use. The method described here will yield a stable product for use in clinical applications. PMID:22478993

Cote, Dennis; Lok, Charmaine E; Battistella, Marisa; Vercaigne, Lavern

2010-01-01

315

Cytometric Catheter for Neurosurgical Applications  

SciTech Connect

Implantation of neural progenitor cells into the central nervous system has attracted strong interest for treatment of a variety of pathologies. For example, the replacement of dopamine-producing (DA) neural cells in the brain appears promising for the treatment of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Previous studies of cell-replacement strategies have shown that less than 90% of implanted cells survive longer than 24 - 48 hours following the implantation procedure. However, it is unknown if these cells were viable upon delivery, or if they were affected by other factors such as brain pathology or an immune response. An instrumented cell-delivery catheter has been developed to assist in answering these questions by facilitating quantification and monitoring of the viability of the cells delivered. The catheter uses a fiber optic probe to perform flourescence-based cytometric measurments on cells exiting the port at the catheter tip. The current implementation of this design is on a 3.2 mm diameter catheter with 245 micrometer diameter optical fibers. Results of fluorescence testing data are presented and show that the device can characterize the quantity of cell densities ranging from 60,000 cells/ml to 600,000 cells/ml with a coefficient of determination of 0.93.

Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Fillmore, Helen [ORNL; Broaddus, William C [ORNL; Dyer, Rachel L [ORNL; Gillies, George [ORNL

2010-01-01

316

Failure of an epidural catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good product design implies integrity when a product is in service, and is especially important in medical devices. The environment in which the product functions can vary but must be taken into account as well as its past history of environmental exposure. A case study shows how an epidural catheter fractured during childbirth, leaving the distal tip in the spinal

Peter R. Lewis; Colin Gagg

2009-01-01

317

Risk factors for venous port migration in a single institute in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background An implantable port device provides an easily accessible central route for long-term chemotherapy. Venous catheter migration is one of the rare complications of venous port implantation. It can lead to side effects such as pain in the neck, shoulder, or ear, venous thrombosis, and even life-threatening neurologic problems. To date, there are few published studies that discuss such complications. Methods This retrospective study of venous port implantation in a single center, a Taiwan hospital, was conducted from January 2011 to March 2013. Venous port migration was recorded along with demographic and characteristics of the patients. Results Of 298 patients with an implantable import device, venous port migration had occurred in seven, an incidence rate of 2.3%. All seven were male and had received the Bard port Fr 6.6 which had smaller size than TYCO port Fr 7.5 and is made of silicon. Significantly, migration occurred in male patients (P?=?0.0006) and in those with lung cancer (P?=?0.004). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that lung cancer was a significant risk factor for port migration (odds ratio: 11.59; P?=?0.0059). The migration rate of the Bard port Fr 6.6 was 6.7%. The median time between initial venous port implantation and port migration was 35.4 days (range, 7 to 135 days) and 71.4% (5/7) of patients had port migration within 30 days after initial port implantation. Conclusions Male sex and lung cancer are risk factors for venous port migration. The type of venous port is also an important risk factor. PMID:24423026

2014-01-01

318

Clinical utility of the Covidien Closure Fast™ Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter  

PubMed Central

The Closure Fast™ Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter is the latest version of a minimally invasive system for the treatment of patients with superficial venous disease. The Closure Fast™ catheter heats the vein wall to 120°C, causing denaturation of the collagen of the vein wall and contraction of the vessel such that no blood can flow through it. Nearly one million systems have been sold since the product was launched. Many, if not all, patients can be treated under local anesthesia with the Closure Fast™ catheter. Duplex ultrasound reports occlusion rates for the treated vein of 94%–98% at 1 year and 85%–93% at 3 years. The system produces average postoperative pain scores of less than 2 out of 10 on a visual analog score. In the first postoperative week, 76% of patients do not require analgesia. Some 45% of patients return to normal activity on the first postoperative day. Serious complications appear to be rare following the Closure Fast™ procedure. Transient paresthesia occurs in 0.2% of cases, thrombophlebitis in 1%–10%, and thromboembolic events in up to 1.4%, mainly heat-induced thrombosis. Closure Fast™ adds significant costs to treating superficial venous disease but studies have shown it to be cost-effective when used in an office setting. PMID:24940086

Braithwaite, Simon A; Braithwaite, Bruce D

2014-01-01

319

Assessment of temporary dialysis catheter performance on the basis of flow and pressure measurements in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

The efficiency of hemodialysis treatments depends on catheter performance and, consequently, on effective blood flow that can be achieved at maximum extracorporeal pressures. Differences in effective and displayed flow were determined with ultrasound dilution technology, and a mathematical correction function for the MultiFiltrate hemodialysis machine was developed. This algorithm was used to calculate effective blood flow during treatment from displayed flow and arterial pressure. To assess catheter performance over time, we measured effective blood flow as function of extracorporeal pressure in 11 uncuffed, tunneled hemodialysis catheters with shotgun design. Pressure and flow profiles of the catheters were determined, and pressure symmetry was measured. To assess flow resistance over time, pressure trends of the catheters at different blood flow rates were measured for each patient over a mean period of 6.1 +/- 3.0 days. Increases in flow resistance during the study period were found to be small. Mean arterial pressure decreased from -185 mm Hg to -200 mm Hg, and mean venous pressure increased from 197 mm Hg to 215 mm Hg. Effective flow did not change significantly during the study. In conclusion, all catheters investigated easily provided effective flows above 450 mL/min over the study period at maximum extracorporeal pressures below +/-300 mm Hg. PMID:17515728

Kindgen-Milles, Detlef; Kram, Rainer; Kleinekofort, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

320

Vascular access for hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Indwelling central venous catheters were consecutively used as access for acute and chronic hemodialysis, emergency treatment of pulmonary fluid overload, intoxication and electrolyte disturbances, plasmapheresis, and semiacute continuous dialysis strategies, such as continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). Modification in catheter structure also made it possible to use this access for long-term treatment (e.g., surgically insertable catheters [Hickman], soft large-bore catheters for blind insertion). We discuss the remaining open questions in this field: Which is the insertion site of preference (i.e., subclavian, femoral, or deep jugular)? Should we prefer stiff or soft catheters? Should soft catheters be positioned surgically or is blind insertion by nonsurgeons as adequate? Is it necessary to couple catheter insertion to adjuvant techniques, such as echographic guidance, to reduce complications? Is the currently used polymer structure of the catheters acceptable? Should catheter dialysis be used with single or double vascular access? PMID:8024472

Vanholder, R; Ringoir, S

1994-04-01

321

Cutting peripherally inserted central catheters may lead to increased rates of catheter-related deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between cutting or trimming peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and the development of deep vein thromboses (DVTs). An observational, retrospective study was conducted on 634 patients who had a PICC inserted between 2011 and 2012. Patients who had a reverse-taper PICC inserted were assigned into 1 of 2 groups. The first group included patients with a reverse-taper PICC that was cut/trimmed (PC) before insertion (n = 224). The second group was made up of patients whose PICC was not cut/trimmed (PNC) before insertion (n = 410). All PICC-associated DVTs were confirmed by a positive venous Doppler result and recorded. A statistically significant difference (P < .001) was found between patients in the PC group who developed a DVT (9.82%) and patients in the PNC group in which PICCs were not trimmed (1.95%). There is evidence to suggest that altering the reverse-taper PICC by cutting or trimming the tip before insertion may be associated with increased DVTs. Further study is required to determine whether PICCs should be reduced in length or whether there is an appropriate method of trimming the catheter to ensure its stability after insertion. PMID:25376324

Steele, Denise; Norris, Colleen M

2014-01-01

322

[Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].  

PubMed

The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (8/32; 25%), penicillin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (8/32; 25%) and Candida albicans (4/32; 12.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of the quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods of the catheter tip and the differential time to positivity (positive result obtained at least two hours earlier in blood cultures drawn through the catheter than the peripheral blood cultures which were taken simultaneously) between blood cultures drawn through the catheter and those drawn from the peripheral vein were 100% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity and NPV of the isolation method of the same microorganism from blood culture drawn through the catheter and drawn from the peripheral vein were 100%, specificity was 85% and PPV was 88% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of Gram and drawn simultaneously from the peripheral vein and quantitative and semiquantitative cultures of the catheter tip in patients with removed catheter, were important factors in terms of diagnosis of CR-BSI. It was also concluded that AO staining could provide additional benefit in the diagnosis of CR-BSI since it has higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs for peripheral blood cultures and catheter tip cultures compared to Gram staining. PMID:21341162

Ataman Hatipo?lu, Ci?dem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

2011-01-01

323

Venous ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... venous ulcers occur on the leg, above the ankle. This type of wound can be slow to heal. ... and legs every day: the tops and bottoms, ankles, and heels. Look ... prevent venous ulcers. If you have a wound, take these steps ...

324

Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

2013-01-01

325

Catheter-associated infections in urology: Possible use of silver-impregnated catheters and the erlanger silver catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Indwelling urinary catheters play a very important part in urology. However, their use is accompanied by a considerable increase\\u000a in the risk of nosocomial urinary tract infections. The pathophysiological cause is ascribed to pathogens that adhere to the\\u000a catheter surface, proliferate and produce a biofilm. In addition to aseptic techniques, modification of the catheter material\\u000a to confer antimicrobial activity plays

W. Rösch; S. Lugauer

1999-01-01

326

Randomized, controlled trial of topical exit-site application of honey (Medihoney) versus mupirocin for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The clinical usefulness of hemodialysis catheters is limited by increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Topical antiseptic agents, such as mupirocin, are effective at reducing this risk but have been reported to select for antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy and the safety of exit-site application of a standardized antibacterial honey versus mupirocin in preventing catheter-associated infections. A randomized, controlled trial was performed comparing the effect of thrice-weekly exit-site application of Medihoney versus mupirocin on infection rates in patients who were receiving hemodialysis via tunneled, cuffed central venous catheters. A total of 101 patients were enrolled. The incidences of catheter-associated bacteremias in honey-treated (n = 51) and mupirocin-treated (n = 50) patients were comparable (0.97 versus 0.85 episodes per 1000 catheter-days, respectively; NS). On Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the use of honey was not significantly associated with bacteremia-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 3.24; P = 0.92). No exit-site infections occurred. During the study period, 2% of staphylococcal isolates within the hospital were mupirocin resistant. Thrice-weekly application of standardized antibacterial honey to hemodialysis catheter exit sites was safe, cheap, and effective and resulted in a comparable rate of catheter-associated infection to that obtained with mupirocin (although the study was not adequately powered to assess therapeutic equivalence). The effectiveness of honey against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and its low likelihood of selecting for further resistant strains suggest that this agent may represent a satisfactory alternative means of chemoprophylaxis in patients with central venous catheters. PMID:15788475

Johnson, David Wayne; van Eps, Carolyn; Mudge, David William; Wiggins, Kathryn Joan; Armstrong, Kirsty; Hawley, Carmel Mary; Campbell, Scott Bryan; Isbel, Nicole Maree; Nimmo, Graeme Robert; Gibbs, Harry

2005-05-01

327

An Organoselenium Compound Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms on Hemodialysis Catheters In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus. PMID:22123688

Tran, Phat L.; Lowry, Nathan; Campbell, Thomas; Reid, Ted W.; Webster, Daniel R.; Tobin, Eric; Aslani, Arash; Mosley, Thomas; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.

2012-01-01

328

An organoselenium compound inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on hemodialysis catheters in vivo.  

PubMed

Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus. PMID:22123688

Tran, Phat L; Lowry, Nathan; Campbell, Thomas; Reid, Ted W; Webster, Daniel R; Tobin, Eric; Aslani, Arash; Mosley, Thomas; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

2012-02-01

329

Catheter-related Mycobacterium fortuitum bloodstream infection: rapid identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with stage III mediastinal Non Hodgkin Lymphoblastic T cell Lymphoma who suffered from catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBI) due to Mycobacterium fortuitum whilst receiving chemotherapy. Isolation of this rare pathogen was done directly from blood culture and identification was made rapidly within 48?h using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectro-metry as well as specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse hybridization method. This allowed prompt directed antibiotic therapy apart from central venous catheter removal and resulted in an excellent clinical response. This case highlights the potential benefit of using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, a fast, cost-effective and precise methodology, in the diagnosis and subsequent management of invasive bacterial infection. PMID:24554588

Artacho-Reinoso, M J; Olbrich, P; Solano-Paéz, P; Ybot-Gonzalez, P; Lepe, J A; Neth, O; Aznar, J

2014-04-01

330

Hemodialysis catheter outcomes pilot study: no dressing coverage with prescribed showering.  

PubMed

This six-month prospective, multi-site study incorporated no dressing coverage over hemodialysis central venous catheter exit sites and compared the outcomes of two groups of patients receiving incenter hemodialysis: a shower group and a non-shower group. Outcomes included exit site infection rates, tunnel infection rates, and catheter-related bloodstream infection rates. The study enrolled 40 patients--31 patients in the shower group and nine patients in the non-shower group. The study was initially designed as a randomized controlled study, but after a month of enrolling patients, most patients insisted on being in the shower group. Results for both groups demonstrated infection rates that were not statistically different and were below levels reported in other studies. The qualitative satisfaction in ability to shower by patients in this study was an additional important finding. PMID:24689265

Evans, Elizabeth C; Hain, Debra; Kear, Tamara M; Dork, Leslie A; Schrauf, Christine

2014-01-01

331

Smart central venous port for early detection of bacterial biofilm related infections.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of bloodstream infections must be performed promptly so that adequate antimicrobial therapy can be started and patient outcome improved. An ideal diagnostic technology would identify the infecting organism(s) in a timely manner, so that appropriate pathogen-driven therapy could begin promptly. Unfortunately, despite the essential information it provides, blood culture, the gold standard, largely fails in this purpose because time is lost waiting for bacterial or fungal growth. This work presents a new design of a venous access port that allows the monitoring of the inner reservoir surface by means of an impedimetric biosensor. An ad-hoc electronic system was designed to manage the sensor and to allow communication with the external receiver. Historic data recorded and stored in the device was used as the reference value for the detection of bacterial biofilm. The RF communication system sends an alarm signal to the external receiver when a microbial colonization of the port occurs. The successful in vitro analysis of the biosensor, the electronics and the antenna of the new indwelling device prototype are shown. The experimental conditions were selected in each case as the closest to the clinical working conditions for the smart central venous catheter (SCVC) testing. The results of this work allow a new generation of this kind of device that could potentially provide more efficient treatments for catheter-related infections. PMID:24515846

Paredes, J; Alonso-Arce, M; Schmidt, C; Valderas, D; Sedano, B; Legarda, J; Arizti, F; Gómez, E; Aguinaga, A; Del Pozo, J L; Arana, S

2014-06-01

332

Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients  

PubMed Central

Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive. PMID:22947496

2012-01-01

333

Teaching oncology nurses about epidural catheters.  

PubMed

Medication administered through epidural catheters for control of acute and chronic pain is becoming a common practice in some hospitals. The care of epidural catheters usually is not included in basic nursing education curriculum. In settings where RNs will administer medication by this route or monitor patients receiving epidural medication, adequate preparation of the RN staff is vital to ensure that the catheter remains intact, that therapy is administered without complications, and that the patient has optimal pain relief. Instruction should include information on the catheter's purpose, administration techniques, pharmacology of the drug, side effects, and monitoring techniques. For program planning, a multidisciplinary group set criteria on which the policy and procedure for administration of epidural analgesia were based. The educational program focused on administering morphine sulfate through an epidural catheter and on safe discontinuation of the catheter. PMID:2251185

Camp-Sorrell, D; Fernandez, K; Reardon, M B

1990-01-01

334

Translumbar placement of paired hemodialysis catheters (Tesio Catheters) and follow-up in 10 patients  

SciTech Connect

For lack of other suitable access, 10 consecutive patients received paired hemodialysis catheters for long-term hemodialysis using a translumbar approach to the inferior vena cava (IVC). All attempts were successful. Five paired catheters were placed using the single-puncture technique, and five using the dual-puncture technique. Catheters were in place for a total of 2252 catheter days. The average duration of catheter placement was 250 days (range 30-580 days). All catheters were functioning up to the time the study was completed or the patient died. The most common complication was partial dislodgment of the catheter in 3 of 23 catheters (13%), all occurring in obese patients. One episode of retroperitoneal hemorrhage was noted in a patient having the single-access technique. There were no episodes of infection or IVC thrombosis.

Biswal, Rajiv; Nosher, John L.; Siegel, Randall L.; Bodner, Leonard J. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Radiology, MEB 404 (United States)

2000-01-15

335

Hyperhomocysteinaemia and chronic venous ulcers.  

PubMed

Chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the major cause of chronic wounds of lower extremities, and is a part of the complex of chronic venous disease. Previous studies have hypothesised that several thrombophilic factors, such as hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), may be associated with chronic venous ulcers. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of HHcy in patients with venous leg ulcers and the effect of folic acid therapy on wound healing. Eighty-seven patients with venous leg ulcers were enrolled in this study to calculate the prevalence of HHcy in this population. All patients underwent basic treatment for venous ulcer (compression therapy ± surgical procedures). Patients with HHcy (group A) received basic treatment and administered folic acid (1·2 mg/day for 12 months) and patients without HHcy (group B) received only basic treatment. Healing was assessed by means of computerised planimetry analysis. The prevalence of HHcy among patients with chronic venous ulcer enrolled in this study was 62·06%. Healing rate was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in group A patients (78·75%) compared with group B patients (63·33%). This study suggests a close association, statistically significant, between HHcy and CVU. Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid seems to expedite wound healing. Despite these aspects, the exact molecular mechanisms between homocysteine and CVU have not been clearly defined and further studies are needed. PMID:23418772

de Franciscis, Stefano; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Longo, Paola; Buffone, Gianluca; Molinari, Vincenzo; Stillitano, Domenico M; Gallelli, Luca; Serra, Raffaele

2015-02-01

336

Dual-lumen catheters for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: limits for blood delivery via femoral vein access and a potential alternative in an experimental setting in anesthetized pigs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Small intravascular volume, pathophysiological hemorheology, and/or low cardiac output [CO] are assumed to reduce available blood flow rates via common dual-lumen catheters (except for those with a right atrium catheter tip position) in the critically ill patient. We performed an experimental animal study to verify these assumptions. Methods Anesthetized, ventilated pigs (35 to 50 kg) were allocated to different hemorheological conditions based on the application of different volume substitutes (that is, colloids and crystalloids, n = 6 to 7 per volume substitute). In a second step, allocation to the final study group was performed after the determination of the highest values for access flow (Qa) via an axial dual-lumen catheter (11 French, 20 cm long, side holes) placed in the femoral vein. High Qa rates (>300 ml/minute) were allocated to the dual-lumen catheter group; low Qa rates were switched to a 'dual-vein approach' using an alternative catheter (8.5-French sheath) for separate blood delivery. Hemodynamics (CO and central venous pressure [CVP]) and blood composition (blood cell counts, plasma proteins, and colloid osmotic pressure) were measured. Catheter tip positions and vessel diameters were exemplified by computed tomography. Results Forty-four percent of the animals required an alternative vascular access due to only minimal Qa via the dual-lumen catheter. Neither hemorheologically relevant aspects nor CO and CVP correlated with the Qa achievable via the femoral vein access. Even though the catheter tip of the alternative catheter provided common iliac vein but not caval vein access, this catheter type enabled higher Qa than the dual-lumen catheter positioned in the caval vein. Conclusion With respect to the femoral vein approach, none of the commonly assumed reasons for limited Qa via the arterial line of an axial dual-lumen catheter could be confirmed. The 8.5-French sheath, though not engineered for that purpose, performed quite well as an alternative catheter. Thus, in patients lacking right jugular vein access with tip positioning of large-French dual-lumen catheters in the right atrium, it would be of interest to obtain clinical data re-evaluating the 'dual-vein approach' with separate blood delivery via a tip-hole catheter in order to provide high-volume hemofiltration. PMID:17302971

Unger, Juliane K; Pietzner, Klaus; Francis, Roland C; Birnbaum, Juergen; Theisen, Marc Michael; Lemke, Arne-Joern; Niehues, Stefan M

2007-01-01

337

Venous surgery for impotence.  

PubMed

Venous surgery for impotence is in a dynamic state. The drainage of the corpora cavernosa normally occurs through the crural veins or the cavernous veins and the deep dorsal penile vein. Patients with drainage seen on cavernosography only into a superficial system that persists after injection of intracavernous vasoactive agents are likely to have good results if this drainage is eliminated. This type of patient is not common. A surgical approach that attempts to eliminate the deep dorsal penile system or the crural veins is not as successful. Perhaps subtle arterial disease, concurrent presence of neurologic disease, and collateralization all add to the significant failure rate. Many failures of spontaneous erection will, however, respond to intracavernous injection of vasoactive agents postoperatively. Deep dorsal vein arterialization probably should be reserved for those patients who have an arterial component to their impotence as well as a venogenic cause. PMID:3344555

Lewis, R W

1988-02-01

338

Type of peritoneal dialysis catheter and outcomes.  

PubMed

In peritoneal dialysis (PD), a well-functioning catheter is of great importance, because a dysfunctional catheter may be associated with incidence of peritonitis, efficiency of dialysis, and to the overall quality of treatment, representing one of the main barriers to optimal use of PD. When considering the relationship between PD catheter type and outcomes, we should keep in mind the different types of available PD catheters, those that are most commonly used in clinical practice, and the available head-to-head comparisons in the literature. The main differences in PD catheter design include the number of cuffs, the shape of subcutaneous tract (straight vs. swan neck), and the shape of intraperitoneal tract (straight vs. coiled).The availability of the best catheter design and materials, along with a skillful management of PD access, may have the greatest impact on long-term patient outcome on PD. It is now established that the use of straight catheters may improve outcomes and technique survival, but further advances in PD catheter technology can potentially improve technique survival. The self-locating PD catheter is a well established device that has not been fully studied and it may represent, based on the available observational evidence and on the clinical experience, an already existing technological advance deserving further studies. PMID:25751555

Gallieni, Maurizio; Giordano, Antonino; Pinerolo, Cristina; Cariati, Maurizio

2015-03-01

339

Scheme for Creating a Subcutaneous Tunnel to Place an Indwelling Implantable Central Venous Access System in the Forearm  

SciTech Connect

We report a method that we have devised in which a secure subcutaneous tunnel is prepared during the placement of an indwelling central venous reservoir in the forearm. Subjects included 69 cases in which a procedure for implanting an indwelling reservoir in the forearm was performed between June 2006 and May 2007. For the subcutaneous tunnel, a 22-G Cathelin needle was advanced from the puncture site, turning toward the subcutaneous pocket side to the deep subcutaneous area. A 14-G Surflo IV catheter was then advanced along the 22-G Cathelin needle from the subcutaneous pocket. With the tip of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter emerging above the skin at the puncture site, the inner needle of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter and the 22-G Cathelin needle were removed. The catheter was passed through the outer 14-G Surflo IV catheter to emerge on the subcutaneous pocket site, then the outer needle of the Surflo catheter was also removed, and a connection to the port was made to create the subcutaneous tunnel. In all 69 cases, the subcutaneous tunnel in the forearm of the nondominant arm was successfully created within a short period of time (100% success rate). No problems were observed due to slack in the catheter until removal of the sutures 1 week later and for 3 months after treatment. With this method, we believe that a subcutaneous tunnel can be prepared in which the contained catheter has minimal freedom of movement, and which minimizes any damage induced by slack in the catheter within the subcutaneous tunnel.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: rad043@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Tanikake, Masato; Arimoto, Hiroshi; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15

340

CATHETER PRIMING VOLUMES CATHETER FLUSH/DISCARD Brand Size small  

E-print Network

(PICCs) Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) Arrow (Dual lumen) Arrow (Dual lumen) 4F 0.33ml 0 Per-Q-cath (Double lumen) 4F 0.38ml 0.45ml 4F 1.14ml 1.35ml Angiodynamics Morpheus CT PICC Angiodynamics Morpheus CT PICC 3F 0.34ml N/A 3F 1.02ml N/A 4F 0.52ml N/A 4F 1.56ml N/A 5F 0.82ml N/A 5F 2.46ml N

Kay, Mark A.

341

Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration  

PubMed Central

Objective: Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. Methods: This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. Conclusion: The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance. PMID:25097505

Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

2014-01-01

342

Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.  

PubMed

The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

Gulati, Om P

2014-03-01

343

21 CFR 870.1200 - Diagnostic intravascular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others. (b)...

2011-04-01

344

21 CFR 870.1200 - Diagnostic intravascular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others. (b)...

2014-04-01

345

21 CFR 870.1200 - Diagnostic intravascular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others. (b)...

2013-04-01

346

21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be...

2014-04-01

347

21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be...

2011-04-01

348

21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be...

2012-04-01

349

21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be...

2013-04-01

351

21 CFR 870.1200 - Diagnostic intravascular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others. (b)...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 868.6810 - Tracheobronchial suction catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tracheobronchial suction catheter. 868.6810 Section 868...Miscellaneous § 868.6810 Tracheobronchial suction catheter. (a) Identification. A tracheobronchial suction catheter is a device used to...

2010-04-01

353

Venous complications of pancreatitis: a review.  

PubMed

Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose a system to classify pancreatitis associated venous complications. PMID:25640778

Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

2015-01-01

354

Continuing controversy of midclavicular catheters.  

PubMed

A review of 50 years of research on catheter tip placement indicates an overwhelming preference for the lower third of the superior vena cava as the appropriate tip location. Despite this evidence, there are still practitioners, physicians, and nurses who advocate tip placement within the axillo-subclavian-innominate vein (also referred to as the midclavicular). This article looks at the arguments presented by practitioners who support midclavicular tip placement. It also reviews some of the research from which the recommendations for superior vena cava placement are derived. PMID:17895805

Cook, Lynda S

2007-01-01

355

Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.  

PubMed

Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a debilitating condition with a prevalence between 60-70%. The disease pathophysiology is complex and involves genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with individuals developing visible telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Patient with significant lower extremity symptoms have pain, dermal irritation, swelling, skin changes, and are at risk of developing debilitating venous ulceration. The signature of CVD is an increase in venous pressure referred to as venous hypertension. The various symptoms presenting in CVD and the clinical signs that are observed indicate that there is inflammation, secondary to venous hypertension, and it leads to a number of inflammatory pathways that become activated. The endothelium and glycocalyx via specialized receptors are critical at sensing changes in shear stress, and expression of adhesion molecules allows the activation of leukocytes leading to endothelial attachment, diapedisis, and transmigration into the venous wall/valves resulting in venous wall injury and inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues. There is a complex of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and proteinases, produced by activated leukocytes, that are expressed and unbalanced resulting in an environment of persistent inflammation with the clinical changes that are commonly seen, consisting of varicose veins to more advanced presentations of skin changes and venous ulceration. The structural integrity of protein and the extracellular matrix is altered, enhancing the progressive events of CVD. Work focusing on metabolic changes, miRNA regulation, inflammatory modulation and the glycocalyx will further our knowledge in the pathophysiology of CVD, and provide answers critical to treatment and prevention. PMID:24755829

Raffetto, J D; Mannello, F

2014-06-01

356

Eliminating catheter-associated urinary tract infections: part II. Limit duration of catheter use.  

PubMed

This article is the second in a two-part series focusing on catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Part I of the series focused on the most significant modifiable risk factor, avoiding use of urethral catheters. Part II focuses on the second major modifiable risk factor, reducing catheter-days. A quality improvement case is provided to illustrate the strategies for limiting the duration of catheter use. Together, these two articles provide important information on the two most significant risk facts for eliminating the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. PMID:19957459

Rhodes, Nancy; McVay, Tonya; Harrington, Linda; Luquire, Rosemary; Winter, Melissa; Helms, Brenda

2009-01-01

357

Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

1991-01-01

358

Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in prone position  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed intraoperative procedure. Traditionally, CVC placement is performed blindly using anatomic landmarks as a guide to vessel position. Real-time ultrasound provides the operator the benefit of visualizing the target vein and the surrounding anatomic structures prior to and during the catheter insertion, thereby minimizing complications and increasing speed of placement. A 22-year-old male underwent open reduction and internal fixation of acetabulum fracture in prone position. Excessive continuous bleeding intraoperatively warranted placement of CVC in right internal jugular vein (IJV), which was not possible in prone position without the help of ultrasound. Best view of right IJV was obtained and CVC was placed using real-time ultrasound without complications. Ultrasound-guided CVC placement can be done in atypical patient positions where traditional anatomic landmark technique has no role. Use of ultrasound not only increases the speed of placement but also reduces complications known with the traditional blind technique. PMID:20668564

Sofi, Khalid; Arab, Samer

2010-01-01

359

Which is the easiest and safest technique for central venous access? A retrospective survey of more than 5,400 cases.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing debate on the technique for central venous catheterization associated with the lowest complication rate and the highest success rate. In an attempt to better define the easiest and safest venous approach, we have reviewed our 7-year experience with 5479 central venous percutaneous punctures (by Seldinger's technique) for the insertion of short-term (n=2109), medium/long-term (n=2627) catheters, as well as double-lumen, large-bore catheters for hemodialysis and/or hemapheresis (n=743). We have analyzed the incidence of the most frequent in-sertion-related complications by comparing seven different venous approaches: jugular vein, low lateral approach; jugular vein, high lateral approach; jugular vein, low axial approach; subclavian vein, infraclavicular approach; subclavian vein, supraclavicular approach; external jugular vein; femoral vein. The results of our retrospective study suggest that the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein, as described by Jernigan and modified according to our protocol, appears to be the easiest and safest technique for percutaneous insertion of central venous access, being characterized by the lowest incidence of accidental arte-rial puncture (1.2%) and malposition (0.8%), no pneumothorax, and an extremely low rate of repeated attempts (i.e. more than two punctures before successful cannulation) (3.3%). We advocate the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein as first-choice technique for venipuncture in both adults and children, for both short-term and long-term central venous percutaneous cannulation. PMID:17638235

Pittiruti, M; Malerba, M; Carriero, C; Tazza, L; Gui, D

2000-01-01

360

A Retrospective Comparative Study of Tunneled Haemodialysis Catheters Inserted Through Occluded or Collateral Veins Versus Conventional Methods  

SciTech Connect

Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan, E-mail: tze2000@hotmail.co [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Narlawar, Ranjeet S.; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

361

Glyceryl Trinitrate Complements Citrate and Ethanol in a Novel Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution To Eradicate Biofilm Organisms  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization. GTN has a long history of intravenous use as a hypotensive agent. It is potentially attractive as a component of a catheter lock solution because its physiologic half-life is quite short and its metabolic pathways are known. A lock containing 7% citrate and 20% ethanol required 0.01% GTN to fully eradicate biofilms of all test organisms within 2 h in the model. This GTN concentration is below the levels where clinically significant hypotensive effects are expected. PMID:23669393

Reitzel, Ruth; Dvorak, Tanya; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray Y.; Raad, Issam I.

2013-01-01

362

Incidence, risk factors and microbiology of central vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Although there are many studies about catheter related infection in industrialized countries, very few have analyzed it in emerging countries. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence, microbiological profile and risk factors for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in a Tunisian medical intensive care unit. Over eight months (1 January 2012-30 August 2012) a prospective, observational study was performed in an 18-bed medical surgical intensive care unit at Tunis military hospital. Patients who required central venous catheter (CVC) placement for a duration greater than 48 h were included in the study. Two hundred sixty patients, with a total of 482 CVCs were enrolled. The mean duration of catheterization was 9.6 ± 6.2 days. The incidence for CRBSI and catheter colonization (CC) was 2.4 and 9.3 per 1000 catheter days, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CRBSI were diabetes mellitus, long duration of catheterization, sepsis at insertion and administration of one or more antibiotics before insertion. The mortality rate among the CRBSI group was 21.8%. The predominant microorganisms isolated from CRBSI and CC episodes were Gram negative bacilli. All Gram negative organisms isolated among dead patients in CRBSI group were Extensive Drug Resistant (XDR). In our study the mortality rate among patients with CRBSI was high despite a low incidence of CRBSI. This high rate can be explained by the high-virulent status of Gram negative bacteria involved in CRBSI. PMID:24508422

Hajjej, Zied; Nasri, Mourad; Sellami, Walid; Gharsallah, Hedi; Labben, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

2014-03-01

363

Postoperative cerebral venous infarction  

PubMed Central

Background: Postoperative cerebral venous infarction (POCVI) is not an uncommon complication in cranial surgeries. However, literature is sparse on the epidemiology and management of postoperative venous infarcts. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to study the incidence and clinico-radiological course of POCVI in patients in a tertiary level neurosurgical unit and compare the outcome between pediatric and adult patients following POCVI. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study carried out over an 8 month period, consecutive patients undergoing elective major cranial surgeries were monitored neurologically and with serial computed tomography (CT) of the head for POCVI in the postoperative period. All patients had at least one CT head done within 24 hours of surgery. Diagnosis of hemorrhagic POCVI was based on the presence of subcortical, multifocal hyperdensities with irregular margins and or low density areas in the perioperative fields. Nonhemorrhagic POCVI was diagnosed if CT showed a localized hypodensity poorly demarcated in the subcortical white matter with/without mass effect, along with the presence of fresh neurological deficits. Observations and Results: A total of 376 patients were enrolled in the study period. Of these, 26 (7%) developed POCVI. The male: female ratio was 1.2:1 and age ranged from 6 to 68 years with 12 (46%) being under the age of 18 years. Sixteen (61%) patients developed hemorrhagic POCVI and 10 (39%) patients developed nonhemorrhagic POCVI. The mean time to POCVI detection was 72 hours (range 24–144 hours). Seventeen (66%) patients were managed conservatively, and nine (34%) patients underwent decompressive craniectomy as an additional procedure for management of POCVI. In five patients (all with hemorrhagic POCVI), the infarction was an incidental finding. Of the 21 patients with symptomatic POCVI, 13 (61.9%) patients improved neurologically and were discharged with residual deficits. Two (9.5%) showed no neurological improvement till discharge, and 6 (28.5%) died during the hospital stay following POCVI. Conclusions: Children constitute a significant population (46% in our study) of the patients who develop POCVI with poor outcome similar to that seen in adult patients.

Agrawal, Deepak; Naik, Vikas

2015-01-01

364

Automated Pointing of Cardiac Imaging Catheters  

PubMed Central

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheters enable high-quality ultrasound imaging within the heart, but their use in guiding procedures is limited due to the difficulty of manually pointing them at structures of interest. This paper presents the design and testing of a catheter steering model for robotic control of commercial ICE catheters. The four actuated degrees of freedom (4-DOF) are two catheter handle knobs to produce bi-directional bending in combination with rotation and translation of the handle. An extra degree of freedom in the system allows the imaging plane (dependent on orientation) to be directed at an object of interest. A closed form solution for forward and inverse kinematics enables control of the catheter tip position and the imaging plane orientation. The proposed algorithms were validated with a robotic test bed using electromagnetic sensor tracking of the catheter tip. The ability to automatically acquire imaging targets in the heart may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of intracardiac catheter interventions by allowing visualization of soft tissue structures that are not visible using standard fluoroscopic guidance. Although the system has been developed and tested for manipulating ICE catheters, the methods described here are applicable to any long thin tendon-driven tool (with single or bi-directional bending) requiring accurate tip position and orientation control. PMID:24683501

Loschak, Paul M.; Brattain, Laura J.; Howe, Robert D.

2013-01-01

365

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection acquired in both hospitals and nursing homes and is usually associated with catheterization. This infection would be even more common but for the use of the closed catheter system. Most modifications have not improved on the closed catheter itself. Even with meticulous care, this system will not prevent bacteriuria. After

John W. Warren

2001-01-01

366

Prolonged Antimicrobial Activity of a Catheter Containing Chlorhexidine-Silver Sulfadiazine Extends Protection against Catheter Infections In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated in vitro and in vivo a new chlorhexidine (C)-silver sulfadiazine (S) vascular catheter (the CS2 catheter) characterized by a higher C content and by the extended release of the surface- bound antimicrobials. The CS2 catheter was compared with a first-generation, commercially available CS catheter (the CS1 catheter). The CS2 catheter produced slightly smaller zones of inhibition

STEFANO BASSETTI; JEAN HU; RALPH B. D'AGOSTINO; R. J. Sherertz

2001-01-01

367

A randomised controlled trial of Heparin versus EthAnol Lock THerapY for the prevention of Catheter Associated infecTion in Haemodialysis patients – the HEALTHY-CATH trial  

PubMed Central

Background Tunnelled central venous dialysis catheter use is significantly limited by the occurrence of catheter-related infections. This randomised controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a 48 hour 70% ethanol lock vs heparin locks in prolonging the time to the first episode of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI). Methods Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) via a tunnelled catheter were randomised 1:1 to once per week ethanol locks (with two heparin locks between other dialysis sessions) vs thrice per week heparin locks. Results Observed catheter days in the heparin (n=24) and ethanol (n=25) groups were 1814 and 3614 respectively. CRBSI occurred at a rate of 0.85 vs. 0.28 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin vs ethanol group by intention to treat analysis (incident rate ratio (IRR) for ethanol vs. heparin 0.17; 95%CI 0.02-1.63; p=0.12). Flow issues requiring catheter removal occurred at a rate of 1.6 vs 1.4 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin and ethanol groups respectively (IRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.20-3.5 p =0.82 (for ethanol vs heparin). Conclusions Catheter survival and catheter-related blood stream infection were not significantly different but there was a trend towards a reduced rate of infection in the ethanol group. This study establishes proof of concept and will inform an adequately powered multicentre trial to definitively examine the efficacy and safety of ethanol locks as an alternative to current therapies used in the prevention of catheter-associated blood stream infections in patients dialysing with tunnelled catheters. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000493246 PMID:23121768

2012-01-01

368

Is the pH of vancomycin an indication for central venous access?  

PubMed

All vascular access devices (VADs) have associated risks and benefits. Therefore, the decision to place a particular VAD rests on the assumption that the benefits of that device will outweigh the risks and allow for effective delivery of the treatment plan. The study by Caparas and colleagues, in the present issue of JVA, challenges the pH restrictions presented in the Standards. Caparas and her team have reconfirmed the previously reported findings that peripheral venous administration of vancomycin carries a low risk of phlebitis and extravasation and an even lower risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Central venous administration of vancomycin, on the other hand, carries the greater risk of central line associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In light of these findings and a lack of evidence to the contrary, the decision to place a central venous access device based solely on the pH of the intended therapy, vancomycin in particular, is not supported by the evidence and findings of this study. From a risk-benefit perspective, based on Caparas's study evidence, midline catheters are a safe option for patients for the administration of vancomycin, under specific concentrations, and for many other indicated medications and solutions. PMID:24811587

Moureau, Nancy L

2014-01-01

369

Catheter-related urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Indwelling urinary catheters are used frequently in older populations. For either short- or long-term catheters, the infection rate is about 5% per day. Escherichia coli remains the most common infecting organism, but a wide variety of other organisms may be isolated, including yeast species. Bacteria tend to show increased resistance because of the repeated antimicrobial courses. Urinary tract infection (UTI) usually follows formation of biofilm on both the internal and external catheter surface. The biofilm protects organisms from both antimicrobials and the host immune response. Morbidity from UTI with short-term catheter use is limited if appropriate catheter care is practised. In patients with long-term catheters, fever from a urinary source is common with a frequency varying from 1 per 100 to 1 per 1000 catheter days. Long-term care facility residents with chronic indwelling catheters have a much greater risk for bacteraemia and other urinary complications than residents without catheters. Asymptomatic catheter-acquired UTI should not be treated with antimicrobials. Antimicrobial treatment does not decrease symptomatic episodes but will lead to emergence of more resistant organisms. For treatment of symptomatic infection, many antimicrobials are effective. Wherever possible, antimicrobial selection should be delayed until culture results are available. Whether to administer initial treatment by an oral or parenteral route is determined by clinical presentation. If empirical therapy is required, antimicrobial selection is based on variables such as route of administration, anticipated infecting organism and susceptibility, and patient tolerance. Renal function, concomitant medications, local formulary and cost may also be considered in selection of the antimicrobial agent. The duration of therapy is usually 10-14 days, but patients who respond promptly and in whom the catheter must remain in situ may be treated with a shorter 7-day course to reduce antimicrobial pressure. Relevant clinical trials are necessary to define optimal antimicrobial regimens for the management of catheter-acquired UTI. Prevention of catheter-acquired UTI and its complications is a major goal. With short-term catheters, avoiding their use or limiting the duration of use to as short a time as possible are the most effective prevention strategies. Maintaining a closed drainage system and adhering to appropriate catheter care techniques will also limit infection and complications. As the duration of catheterisation is the principal determinant of infection with long-term indwelling catheters, it is not clear that any interventions can decrease the prevalence of bacteriuria in this setting. Catheter flushing or daily perineal care do not prevent infection and may, in fact, increase the risk of infection. Complications of infection may be prevented by giving antibacterials for bacteriuria immediately prior to any invasive urological procedure, and by avoiding catheter blockage, twisting or trauma. The major focus of future advances in prevention of catheter-acquired UTI is the development of biomaterials resistant to biofilm formation. There is substantial current research addressing this issue, but current catheter materials all remain susceptible to biofilm formation. PMID:16060714

Nicolle, Lindsay E

2005-01-01

370

Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

371

Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial/antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate/methylene blue/parabens)  

PubMed Central

Background. Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution containing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm. These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml. Methods. The tested solution (C/MB/P comprising 7% sodium citrate, 0.05% methylene blue and 0.165% parabens) and individual components were challenged against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi. Control solutions were heparin with preservatives. Studies included evaluation of eradication of planktonic bacteria and sessile organisms in a biofilm grown on polymeric and glass coupons. Biofilm samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vital stains. Results. The C/MB/P solution, contrary to heparin, kills most tested planktonic microorganisms within 1 h of incubation. All tested organisms have an MIC of 25% or less of the original concentration of a new catheter lock. Bacteria strains did not develop resistance over more than 40 passages of culture suspensions. The C/MB/P solution is able to kill nearly all sessile bacteria in biofilm growth on plastic or glass discs in 1 h. Microscopic methods demonstrated extensive physical elimination of biofilm deposits from treated coupons. In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms. Conclusions. The new multicomponent lock solution has strong antimicrobial properties against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms. By comparison, heparin with preservative has weak antibacterial properties against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia. PMID:19181762

Steczko, Janusz; Ash, Stephen R.; Nivens, David E.; Brewer, Lloyd; Winger, Roland K.

2009-01-01

372

A Crossover Intervention Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of a Chlorhexidine-Impregnated Sponge (BIOPATCH®) to Reduce Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Catheter-related bloodstream infections (BSI) account for the majority of hemodialysis-related infections. There are no published data on the efficacy of the chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing at reducing catheter-related BSI in hemodialysis patients. Design Prospective non-blinded cross-over intervention trial to determine the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing (Biopatch®) to reduce catheter-related BSI in hemodialysis patients. Setting Two outpatient dialysis centers Patients A total of 121 patients who were dialyzed through tunneled central venous catheters received the intervention during the trial. Methods The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. A nested cohort study of all patients who received the Biopatch® Antimicrobial Dressing was also conducted. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for development of BSI. Results 37 bloodstream infections occurred in the intervention group for a rate of 6.3 BSIs/1000 dialysis sessions and 30 bloodstream infections in the control group for a rate of 5.2 BSIs/1000 dialysis sessions and [RR 1.22, CI (0.76, 1.97); P=0.46]. The Biopatch® Antimicrobial Dressing was well-tolerated with only two patients (<2%) experiencing dermatitis that led to its discontinuation. The only independent risk factor for development of BSI was dialysis treatment at one dialysis center [aOR 4.4 (1.77, 13.65); P=0.002]. Age ? 60 years [aOR 0.28 (0.09, 0.82); P=0.02] was associated with lower risk for BSI. Conclusion The use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing (Biopatch®) did not decrease catheter-related BSIs among hemodialysis patients with tunneled central venous catheters. PMID:20879855

Camins, Bernard C.; Richmond, Amy M.; Dyer, Kathrin L.; Zimmerman, Heather N.; Coyne, Daniel W.; Rothstein, Marcos; Fraser, Victoria J.

2011-01-01

373

Impact of different vein catheter sizes for mechanical power injection in CT: in vitro evaluation with use of a circulation phantom.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different peripheral vein catheter sizes on the injection pressure, flow rate, injection duration, and intravascular contrast enhancement. A flow phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used. High-iodine-concentration contrast medium (370 mg iodine/ml; Ultravist 370) was administered in the venous compartment through peripheral vein catheters of different sizes (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 G) using a double-head power injector with a pressure limit of 325 psi. The flow rate was set to 5 ml/s, with a total iodine load of 36 g for all protocols. Serial CT scans at the level of the pulmonary artery and the ascending and the descending aorta replica were obtained. The true injection flow rate, injection pressure, injection duration, true contrast material volume, and pressure in the phantom during and after injection were continuously monitored. Time enhancement curves were computed and both pulmonary and aortic peak time and peak enhancement were determined. Using peripheral vein catheters with sizes of 14-20 G, flow rates of approximately 5 ml/s were obtained. During injection through a 22-G catheter the pressure limit was reached and the flow rate was decreased, with a consecutive decreased pulmonary and aortic contrast enhancement compared to the 14- to 20-G catheters. Injection through a 24-G peripheral vein catheter was not possible because of disconnection of the canula due to the high flow rate and pressure. In summary, intravenous catheters with sizes of 14-20 G are suitable for CT angiography using an injection protocol with a high flow rate and a high-iodine-concentration contrast medium. PMID:18521665

Behrendt, Florian F; Bruners, Philipp; Keil, Sebastian; Plumhans, Cedric; Mahnken, Andreas H; Stanzel, Sven; Das, Marco; Günther, Rolf W; Mühlenbruch, Georg

2009-01-01

374

Comparative utility of centrally versus peripherally transduced venous pressure monitoring in the perioperative period in spine surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To compare central venous pressure (CVP) with peripheral venous pressure (PVP) monitoring during the intraoperative and postoperative periods in patients undergoing spine surgery. Design Prospective observational study. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients 35 ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 patients. Interventions A peripheral catheter in the forearm or hand and a central catheter into the internal jugular vein were placed for PVP and CVP monitoring, respectively. Measurements CVP and PVP values were collected simultaneously and recorded electronically at 5-minute intervals throughout surgery and in the recovey room. The number of attempts for catheter placement, ease of use, maintenance, and interpretation were recorded. Patient comfort, frequency of complications, and cost were analyzed. Main results The correlation coefficient between CVP and PVP was 0.650 in the operating room (P < 0.0001) and 0.388 in the recovery room (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between groups in number of attempts to place either catheter, maintenance, and interpretation with respect to PVP and CVP monitoring in the operating room. In the recovery room, the nurses reported a higher level of difficulty in interpretation of PVP than CVP, but no differences were noted in ease of maintenance. There were no complications related to either central or peripheral catheter placement. Patient comfort and cost efficiency were higher with a peripheral than a central catheter. Conclusion During clinically relevant conditions, there was limited correlation between PVP and CVP in the prone position during surgery and postoperatively in the recovery room. PMID:22999983

Bombardieri, Anna Maria; Beckman, James; Shaw, Pamela; Girardi, Federico P.; Ma, Yan; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2012-01-01

375

Double-lumen arterial balloon catheter technique for Onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas: initial experience  

PubMed Central

Background Dural arteriovenous fistulas are vascular malformations with variable clinical symptoms that range in severity from completely asymptomatic to seizures, dementia, loss of vision and intracranial hemorrhage. Historically, surgical obliteration was the treatment of choice but, more recently, endovascular embolization has become the first-line treatment. The liquid embolic agent Onyx (ethyl vinyl copolymer) has become the agent of choice, but problems with reflux around the delivery microcatheter and inadvertent venous penetration have arisen. Methods and results We present six cases in which the double-lumen balloon microcatheter was used to transarterially embolize dural arteriovenous fistulas via injection of Onyx through the wire lumen. Depending on the individual pathology a venous balloon was also used in some cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of these devices are discussed. Conclusions We consider that the use of the double-lumen balloon technique for fistula embolization has the potential for reducing overall procedural times, procedural failures and catheter retention in certain situations. In such cases we would advocate this as a first-line technique. When lower profile, more navigable balloon catheters become available, this may become the standard of care. PMID:23749795

Chiu, Albert Ho Yuen; Aw, Grace; Wenderoth, Jason David

2014-01-01

376

Intralesional radiofrequency in venous malformations.  

PubMed

Venous malformations are usually asymptomatic and managed conservatively. Treatment, in the form of laser, sclerotherapy, or resection, is needed only if lesions present with symptoms or cosmetic deformity. The aim of this study was to find out how effective radiofrequency ablation was in patients with incomplete or unsatisfactory resolution of a venous malformation after an intralesional injection of bleomycin. During the 5 year period 2008-2012, we organised a prospective, clinical study at a tertiary care centre. Patients were selected from the outpatient department of the Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, India. Five patients with venous malformations were treated by intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5U/kg body weight, which was repeated every 2 weeks for a total of 8 injections. They then had multiple intralesional radiofrequency ablation every 2 months until a satisfactory outcome was achieved. After the initial 8 doses the reduction in the size of the lesions was minimal (less than 50%). After 2-4 applications of radiofrequency ablation there was appreciable reduction in the size of the lesions (about 80%) with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. Radiofrequency ablation is an effective adjunct for patients with venous malformations of the head and neck that have not responded satisfactorily to intralesional injection of bleomycin. To our knowledge radiofrequency ablation after intralesional injection of bleomycin has not previously been described as a treatment for venous malformations. PMID:25554592

Garg, S; Kumar, S; Singh, Y B

2015-03-01

377

Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

Honnef, Dagmar, E-mail: honnef@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-06-15

378

Distended Bladder Presenting with Altered Mental Status and Venous Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background New onset or acute worsening of bilateral lower extremity swelling is commonly caused by venous congestion from decompensated heart failure, pulmonary disease, liver dysfunction, or kidney insufficiency. A thromboembolic event, lymphatic obstruction, or even external compression of venous flow can also be the culprit. Case Report We report the case of an 83-year-old male with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to acute myeloid leukemia, bipolar disorder, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. He presented with altered mental status and new onset lower extremity edema caused by acute bladder outflow obstruction. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed the patient's distended bladder compressing bilateral external iliac veins. Conclusion Insertion of a Foley catheter resulted in several liters of urine output and marked improvement in his lower extremity edema and mental status a few hours later. Our extensive workup failed to reveal a cause of the patient's acute change in mental status, and we attributed it to a concept known as cystocerebral syndrome.

Washco, Vaughan; Engel, Lee; Smith, David L.; McCarron, Ross

2015-01-01

379

Interpretation of peripheral venous duplex testing.  

PubMed

Venous duplex ultrasound and plethysmography are used to evaluate patients for suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or venous insufficiency symptoms. Testing can provide clinicians with detailed information on location, extent, and severity of venous conditions before and after treatment. Duplex ultrasound can image the venous system from the vena cava to the peripheral veins, including veins of the calf musculature, and is the recommended technique to diagnose DVT. Accurate interpretation of venous testing requires an understanding of venous hemodynamics, including normal flow phasicity with cardiac and respiratory motion and the changes produced by acute DVT. Duplex scanning provides a roadmap of vein anatomy similar to contrast venography and essential hemodynamic information about the presence of proximal obstruction, vein valve function, and perforator vein reflux. Indications for testing include the diagnosis of acute/chronic DVT and evaluation of patients with venous insufficiency manifested as edema, varicose veins, or ambulatory venous hypertension. Venous plethysmography, an indirect physiologic test, can be used to estimate severity of obstructive or reflux venous pathophysiology and document improvement in venous hemodynamics after intervention. Using criteria based on ultrasound imaging and physiologic testing, venous conditions producing a swollen or painful limb can be accurately determined and aid in appropriate treatment selection. PMID:24636608

Barleben, Andrew; Bandyk, Dennis F

2013-01-01

380

Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taurolidin\\/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates) in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or\\/Broviac-\\/Hickman-catheter type). METHODS: In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy

Arne Simon; Roland A Ammann; Gertrud Wiszniewsky; Udo Bode; Gudrun Fleischhack; Mette M Besuden

2008-01-01

381

ATLS: Catheter and tube placement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specific objectives of this experiment are: to evaluate the rack mounted equipment and medical supplies necessary for medical procedures; to evaluate the attachments, mounting points, and inner drawer assemblies for the medical supplies; and to evaluate the procedures for performing medical scenarios. The resources available in the HMF miniracks to accomplish medical scenarios and/or procedures include: medical equipment mounted in the racks; a patch panel with places to attach tubing and catheters; self contained drawers full of critical care medical supplies; and an ALS 'backpack' for deploying supplies. The attachment lines, tubing and associated medical supplies will be deployed and used with the equipment and a patient mannequin. Data collection is provided by direct observations by the inflight experimenters, and analysis of still and video photography.

Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.; Pepper, L.; Orsak, Debra

1991-01-01

382

Catheters for optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this review article is to overview technology, clinical evidence, and future applications to date optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes to yield the diagnostic purpose. We have reviewed the designing, construction and working of different categories of OCT probes developed for optical diagnostics having a potential for non invasive and improved detection of different types of cancer as well as other neoplasm. Rotational and balloon catheters, imaging needles and hand-held, linear scanning, multichannel, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology based, dynamic focusing, forward view imaging, and common path interferometer based probes have been discussed in details. The fiber probes have shown excellent performance for two dimensional and three dimensional higher resolution, cross-sectional imaging of interior and exterior body tissues that can be compared with histopathology to provide the information about the angiogenesis and other lesions in the tissue. The MEMS-technology based probes are found to be more suitable for three dimensional morphological imaging.

Atif, M.; Ullah, H.; Hamza, M. Y.; Ikram, M.

2011-09-01

383

Prevention of catheter-related urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomial infection, with hospitalized patients having a risk of 5% per day an indwelling catheter is in place. Use of catheters coated with silver alloy-hydrogel significantly reduces the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and the burden on the NHS. PMID:20220720

Hameed, Ammar; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Thwaini, Ali

2010-03-01

384

PERITONEOSCOPIC PLACEMENT OF THE TENCKHOFF CATHETER: FURTHER CLINICAL EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the past two and one-half years, 80 Tenckhoff peritoneal catheters have been placed by peritoneoscop ic tech nique using a NeedlescopeR with a surrounding catheter guide. Peritoneoscopic inspection of the abdomen (after filling with one liter of air), allows placement of the catheter guide in a space free of omental involvement or adhesions. The catheter guide then allows

Stephen R. Ash; Alan E. Handt; Richard Bloch

385

Peritoneal catheter for massive cardiac ascites  

PubMed Central

Cardiac ascites represents 5% of all causes of ascites. Diuretics and salt restriction remain the cornerstone of management. Large volume paracentesis is needed among patients who do not respond to conservative management. The use of peritoneal catheters to continuously drain steady amounts of ascitic fluid has been generally used in malignant ascites. When the ascites of any other origin is massive and requires many consecutive days of large-volume paracentesis, the use of a catheter may represent a more convenient strategy. We present a patient with cardiac ascites that was successfully managed with a peritoneal catheter. PMID:23595184

Aisenberg, Gabriel M

2013-01-01

386

Urethral catheters: can we reduce use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Indwelling urinary catheters are the main cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections. It can be expected that\\u000a reduction of the use of urinary catheters will lead to decreased numbers of urinary tract infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The efficacy of an intervention programme to improve adherence to recommendations to reduce the use of urethral catheters\\u000a was studied in a before-after comparison in ten Dutch

Pieter J van den Broek; Jan C Wille; Birgit HB van Benthem; Rom JM Perenboom; M Elske van den Akker-van Marle; Barbara S Niël-Weise

2011-01-01

387

Does prophylactic anticoagulation prevent PICC-related upper extremity venous thrombosis? A case-control study.  

PubMed

The evidence regarding the value of prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent peripherally inserted central catheter-related upper extremity venous thrombosis (PRUEVT) is inconsistent. The authors reviewed 3 years of data, identifying all cases of PRUEVT at a facility in Texas, and individually matched each for risk factors with 2 controls. Not being on any form of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent was associated with a modestly increased risk of PRUEVT (odds ratio 1.93, P = .036, 95% confidence interval, 1.025-3.602). Each approach to thrombosis prevention showed a trend toward a protective effect, but none reached statistical significance individually. PMID:25191821

Wilson, James D; Alred, Steven C

2014-01-01

388

Indwelling catheter and conservative measures in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in fulminant acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the effect of combined indwelling catheter, hemofiltration, respiration support and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Dahuang) in treating abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis were divided randomly into 2 groups of combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring and routine conservative measures group (group 1) and control group (group 2). Routine non-operative conservative treatments including hemofiltration, respiration support, gastrointestinal TCM ablution were also applied in control group patients. Effectiveness of the two groups was observed, and APACHE II scores were applied for analysis. RESULTS: On the second and fifth days after treatment, APACHE II scores of group 1 and 2 patients were significantly different. Comparison of effectiveness (abdominalgia and burbulence relief time, hospitalization time) between groups 1 and 2 showed significant difference, as well as incidence rates of cysts formation. Mortality rates of groups 1 and 2 were 10.0% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients in group 1, celiac drainage quantity and intra-abdominal pressure, and hospitalization time were positively correlated (r = 0.552, 0.748, 0.923, P < 0.01) with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSION: Combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring, short veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH), gastrointestinal TCM ablution, respiration support have preventive and treatment effects on abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. PMID:16937509

Sun, Zhao-Xi; Huang, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Hong

2006-01-01

389

Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technical success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.

Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fan, Stanley [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Blakeney, Charles; Fotheringham, Tim [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Sobeh, Mohammed [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Matson, Matthew [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

390

Sickle cell disease and venous thromboembolism: what the anticoagulation expert needs to know  

PubMed Central

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The etiology of increased risk of VTE in SCD patients is multifactorial and is related to both traditional factors and SCD-specific factors. Traditional risk factors such as central venous catheters, frequent hospitalization, orthopedic surgeries for avascular necrosis, and pregnancy may lead to increased incidence of VTE in the SCD population. In addition, SCD itself appears to be a hypercoagulable state, and many SCD-specific factors such as thrombophilic defects, genotype and splenectomy may modify the risk of VTE. SCD complications such as acute chest syndrome and pulmonary hypertension may also be related to VTE. Anticoagulation experts should be aware of these factors to help inform prophylaxis and treatment decisions. PMID:23435703

Naik, Rakhi P.; Streiff, Michael B.; Lanzkron, Sophie

2015-01-01

391

Silver catheter study: Methods and results of microbiological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Within the framework of the clinical study of the Erlangen silver catheter 104 silver catheters and 105 control catheters\\u000a were tested by microbiological culture. This was done by rolling the catheter on a blood agar plate, washing the lumen through\\u000a with tryptic soy broth (TSB) and, after ultrasound treatment, incubating the catheter tip in TSB as an enrichment culture\\u000a for

C. Schoerner; J.-P. Guggenbichler; S. Lugauer; A. Regenfus

1999-01-01

392

Eliminating catheter-associated urinary tract infections: part I. Avoid catheter use.  

PubMed

This article is the first in a two-part series focusing on catheter-associated urinary tract infections. There is a convergence of factors necessitating zero tolerance toward catheter-associated urinary tract infections, including the risks associated with patient safety and to a lesser extent the changes in reimbursement. Part I of this series focuses on the most significant modifiable risk factor, avoiding use of urethral catheters. A quality improvement case study is highlighted along with a practice bundle for evidence-based practice. Part II focuses on the second most significant risk factor, reducing urethral catheter-days. PMID:19957458

Winter, Melissa; Helms, Brenda; Harrington, Linda; Luquire, Rosemary; McVay, Tonya; Rhodes, Nancy

2009-01-01

393

Task-Space Motion Planning of MRI-Actuated Catheters for Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a motion planning algorithm for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) actuated catheters for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The MRI-actuated catheters is a new robotic catheter concept which utilizes MRI for remote steering and guidance. Magnetic moments generated by a set of coils wound near the tip are used to steer the catheter under MRI scanner magnetic field. The catheter during an ablation procedure is modeled as a constrained robotic manipulator with flexible joints, and the proposed motion-planning algorithm calculates a sequence of magnetic moments based on the manipulator model to move the tip of the catheter along a predefined trajectory on the surface of the left atrium. The difficulties in motion planning of the catheter are due to kinematic redundancy and underactuation. The proposed motion planning algorithm overcomes the challenges by operating in the task space instead of the configuration space. The catheter is then regulated around this nominal trajectory using feedback control to reduce the effect of uncertainties. PMID:25485168

Greigarn, Tipakorn; Cavu?o?lu, M Cenk

2014-09-01

394

The Chait Trapdoor cecostomy catheter: an alternative access device to pigtail catheters for chronic cholecystostomy drains.  

PubMed

Acute cholecystitis is a well known complication in the critically ill patient population. These patients are often at high risk for morbidity and mortality associated with cholecystectomy. Percutaneous cholecystostomy has been shown to be an effective procedure in the treatment of acute cholecystitis in this patient population. Some patients require prolonged catheter drainage before definitive therapy. In four patients with patent cystic ducts, standard drainage catheters were exchanged for 10.2-F Chait pediatric cecostomy catheters. The low profile of the catheter and the "Trapdoor" feature allow maintenance and increased patient satisfaction while maintaining drainage and access. PMID:18192480

Allen, Anthony W; Varma, Manish K; Meyermann, Mark W

2008-01-01

395

Capillary versus venous bedside blood glucose estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the mean difference and correlation between capillary and venous bedside glucose estimation in comparison to laboratory blood glucose analysis in emergency department (ED) patients.Methods: Blood glucose levels were synchronously analysed using a bedside blood glucometer on capillary and venous derived samples from consenting ED patients aged >12 years. The venous sample was sent for comparative testing using

R Boyd; B Leigh; P Stuart

2005-01-01

396

Pathogenesis of venous thrombosis: a new insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis have long been observed to result in painful inflammation around the affected veins. The full extent of the synergistic interaction between thrombosis and the inflammatory response and how this leads to the later sequelae of chronic venous insufficiency is only now beginning to be understood. Venous thrombosis is known directly to elicit an inflammatory response in

T. W Wakefield; R. M Strieter; M. R Prince; L. J Downing; L. J Greenfield

1997-01-01

397

21 CFR 874.4175 - Nasopharyngeal catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...4175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4175 Nasopharyngeal catheter. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

398

21 CFR 874.4175 - Nasopharyngeal catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4175 Nasopharyngeal catheter. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

399

21 CFR 874.4175 - Nasopharyngeal catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...4175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4175 Nasopharyngeal catheter. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

400

21 CFR 874.4175 - Nasopharyngeal catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...4175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4175 Nasopharyngeal catheter. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

401

Adult Catheter Care and Infection Prevention Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... chlorhexidine solution in 70% alcohol, 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 5. Properly clean/disinfect the exit site ... g. sensitivity or allergy), use 70% alcohol or povidone-iodine. 6. Cover the catheter exit site with ...

402

Peripherally inserted central catheter - dressing change  

MedlinePLUS

PICC - dressing change ... You have a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). This is a tube that goes into a vein in your arm. It carries nutrients and medicines into your body. It is also ...

403

Intravascular Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Intravascular catheters required for the care of many hospitalized patients can give rise to bloodstream infection, a complication of care that has occurred most frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) has guided development of effective diagnostic, management, and prevention strategies. When CRBSIs occur in the ICU, physicians must be prepared to recognize and treat them. Prevention of these infections requires careful attention to optimal catheter selection, insertion and maintenance, and to removal of catheters when they are no longer needed. This review provides a succinct summary of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of CRBSIs and a review of current guidance for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these infections. PMID:24167648

Shah, Harshal; Bosch, Wendelyn; Thompson, Kristine M.; Hellinger, Walter C.

2013-01-01

404

Excimer laser catheter for pacing lead removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel laser catheter design has been utilized to assist in the removal of chronically implanted pacing leads. The catheter, or 'laser sheath,' uses fiber optics to convey pulsed 308 nm light from a CVX-300 XeCl excimer laser to the distal tip of the catheter. As the catheter is threaded over an implanted pacing lead, into the patient's vasculature, lasing action can be used to cut through fibrotic adhesions that typically overgrow the lead, making lead removal difficult. In a randomized clinical trial, greater than 300 patients have been treated with the laser sheath, with no complications secondary to the use of the laser. Leads were totally removed in nearly all laser cases. Design features of the laser sheath that contribute to its clinical success are discussed.

Reiser, Christopher; Taylor, Kevin D.

1997-05-01

405

21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

406

Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage  

SciTech Connect

Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

Stockland, Andrew H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Willingham, Darrin L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Grewal, Hani P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); McKinney, J. Mark [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Hughes, Christopher B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Walser, Eric M., E-mail: Walser.eric@mayo.ed [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

2009-03-15

407

Complications of Central Venous Catheterisation  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheterisation (CVC) is a common bedside invasive procedure done in medical practice. Even though it is a safe procedure when done with ultrasound guidance, difficulties and complications do occur even in experienced hands. Here, we describe the difficulties encountered in the form of the breakage of the guidewire while inserting a CVC in a patient with sickle cell disease. PMID:22087404

Tawfic, Qutaiba A.; Bhakta, Pradipta; Burad, Jyoti; Mishra, Pragyandipta; Kausalya, Rajini

2011-01-01

408

Automated grading of venous beading.  

PubMed

The degree of venous beading in ocular fundus images has been shown to be a more powerful predictor of conversion to proliferative diabetic retinopathy than any other type of retinal abnormality. Further, the degree of venous beading has been shown to be well correlated with disease progression. An algorithm for automated grading of venous beading in digitized ocular fundus images is described. Thresholding is used to extract a rough silhouette of the vein. Morphological closing is used to fill any holes in the silhouette arising from either the central light reflex or noise. The silhouette is then "thinned" to find vein centerlines. Each centerline is partitioned into fixed-length segments of 32 pixels. Vein diameters are measured as a function of distance along each segment with the aid of the local centerline orientations. The resulting diameter data are then interpolated and resampled to generate diameter data at constant sampling intervals. A fast Fourier transform is performed on the resulting data to determine the magnitude spectrum of vein segment diameter. A venous beading index is calculated from the distribution of vein diameter frequency components. Performance of the new algorithm is compared to the currently accepted clinical practice of manual grading in a pilot clinical study of 51 subjects. The algorithm is seen to perform well. PMID:8549121

Gregson, P H; Shen, Z; Scott, R C; Kozousek, V

1995-08-01

409

Air travel and venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

2002-01-01

410

Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) can present with a variety of clinical symptoms ranging from isolated headache to deep coma. Prognosis is better than previously thought and prospective studies have reported an independent survival of more than 80% of patients. Although it may be difficult to predict recovery in an individual patient, clinical presentation on hospital admission and the

F. Masuhr; S. Mehraein; K. Einhäupl

2004-01-01

411

Magnetocardiographically-guided catheter ablation.  

PubMed

After more than 30 years since the first magnetocardiographic (MCG) recording was carried out with induction coils, MCG is now approaching the threshold of clinical use. During the last 5 years, in fact, there has been a growing interest of clinicians in this new method which provides an unrivalled accuracy for noninvasive, three-dimensional localization of intracardiac source. An increasing number of laboratories are reporting data validating the use of MCG as an effective method for preoperative localization of arrhythmogenic substrates and for planning the best catheter ablation approach for different arrhythmogenic substrates. In this article, available data from literature have been reviewed. We consider the clinical use of MCG to localize arrhythmogenic substrates in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and in patients with ventricular tachycardia in order to assess the state-of-the-art of the method on a large number of patients. This article also addresses some suggestions for industrial development of more compact, medically oriented MCG equipments at reasonable cost. PMID:10159774

Fenici, R R; Covino, M; Cellerino, C; Di Lillo, M; De Filippo, M C; Melillo, G

1995-12-01

412

Bench-to-bedside review: Challenges of diagnosis, care and prevention of central catheter-related bloodstream infections in children  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may be difficult. Technology such as CVC impregnation or catheter locking with antimicrobial substances has been shown less effective than anticipated. Despite encouraging results in CRBSI prevention among adults, the goal of zero infection in children is still not in range. More high-quality research is needed in the field of prevention, accurate and reliable diagnostic measures and effective treatment of CRBSI in children. PMID:24041298

2013-01-01

413

Blood flow in hemodialysis catheters: a numerical simulation and microscopic analysis of in vivo-formed fibrin.  

PubMed

Although catheters with side holes allow high flow rate during hemodialysis, they also induce flow disturbances and create a critical hemodynamic environment that can favor fibrin deposition and thrombus formation. This study compared the blood flow and analyzed the influence of shear stress and shear rate in fibrin deposition and thrombus formation in nontunneled hemodialysis catheters with unobstructed side holes (unobstructed device) or with some side holes obstructed by blood thrombi (obstructed device). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed to simulate realistic blood flow under laminar and turbulent conditions. The results from the numerical simulations were compared with the fibrin distribution and thrombus architecture data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and two photons laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) on human thrombus formed in catheters removed from patients. CFD showed that regions of flow eddies and separation were mainly found in the venous holes region. TPLSM characterization of thrombi and fibrin structure in patient samples showed fibrin formations in accordance with simulated flux dynamics. Under laminar flow conditions, the wall shear stress close to border holes increased from 87.3±0.2?Pa in the unobstructed device to 176.2±0.5?Pa in the obstructed one. Under turbulent flow conditions, the shear stress increased by 47% when comparing the obstructed to the unobstructed catheter. The shear rates were generally higher than 5000/s and therefore sufficient to induce fibrin deposition. This findings were supported by SEM data documenting a preferential fibrin arrangement on side hole walls. PMID:24341622

Lucas, Thabata Coaglio; Tessarolo, Francesco; Jakitsch, Victor; Caola, Iole; Brunori, Giuliano; Nollo, Giandomenico; Huebner, Rudolf

2014-07-01

414

Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

Izaki, Kenta, E-mail: izaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

2011-06-15

415

Percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for pancreas graft thrombosis: a case report.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. PMID:21191585

Izaki, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

2011-06-01

416

Analysis of Risk Factors for Catheter-Related Bacteremia in 2000 Permanent Dual Catheters for Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infection constitutes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The type of vascular access is an important determinant of the risk of infection. Therefore, identification of risk factors leading to catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is strongly required. The aim of this prospective large cohort study of HD patients using only catheters as vascular access was to

Xavier Lemaire; Marion Morena; Hélène Leray-Moragués; Delphine Henriet-Viprey; Leila Chenine; Christine Defez-Fougeron; Bernard Canaud

2009-01-01

417

Identification of Mycobacterium neoaurum Isolated from a Neutropenic Patient with Catheter-Related Bacteremia by 16S rRNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

A rapidly growing pigmented mycobacterial strain with an ambiguous biochemical profile was isolated from the blood culture taken through the Hickman catheter of a 9-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis showed that the best match profile was that of Mycobacterium aurum, but the similarity index was only 0.217, meaning that there were no good matches between the isolate and the organisms in the database of the Microbial Identification System. The 16S rRNA gene of the mycobacterial strain was amplified, agarose gel purified, and sequenced. There were 44 base differences between the gene sequence of the isolate and that of M. aurum but only one base difference between the sequence of the isolate and that of Mycobacterium neoaurum, showing that the isolate was indeed a strain of M. neoaurum by using this “gold standard.” This represents the first case of M. neoaurum infection documented by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:10970421

Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Leung, Kit-Wah; Lum, Peggy N. L.; Leung, Andy S. P.; Ma, Choi-Ha; Kam, Kai-Man; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2000-01-01

418

Identification of Mycobacterium neoaurum isolated from a neutropenic patient with catheter-related bacteremia by 16S rRNA sequencing.  

PubMed

A rapidly growing pigmented mycobacterial strain with an ambiguous biochemical profile was isolated from the blood culture taken through the Hickman catheter of a 9-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis showed that the best match profile was that of Mycobacterium aurum, but the similarity index was only 0.217, meaning that there were no good matches between the isolate and the organisms in the database of the Microbial Identification System. The 16S rRNA gene of the mycobacterial strain was amplified, agarose gel purified, and sequenced. There were 44 base differences between the gene sequence of the isolate and that of M. aurum but only one base difference between the sequence of the isolate and that of Mycobacterium neoaurum, showing that the isolate was indeed a strain of M. neoaurum by using this "gold standard." This represents the first case of M. neoaurum infection documented by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:10970421

Woo, P C; Tsoi, H W; Leung, K W; Lum, P N; Leung, A S; Ma, C H; Kam, K M; Yuen, K Y

2000-09-01

419

Assessment of parameters associated to the risk of PVC catheter reuse.  

PubMed

The practice of single use devices (SUD) recycling raises public health concerns, primarily with regard to the potential risks of infection and device malfunction. These concerns have led to a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) revision of the present regulations. The purpose of our work is to identify different material parameters that could contribute to the health risks associated with the practice of reprocessing PVC catheters for use in other patients. Ethylene oxide hospital-reprocessed central venous catheter samples were obtained from the stock of a health-care institution. One device trademark was selected, and samples that had been used 8 and 24 times were compared with new ones. In order to determine the total percentage of extractables, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used, and off-line gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was employed for identification and quantitation of bis-(2-ethyl hexil)phthalate (DEHP). Storage modulus (E') and dissipation factor (tan delta curves were obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Successive catheter recycles produced increased plasticizer loss, increased glass transition temperature (T(g)) and E', widening of tan delta curve with a simultaneous shift to higher temperature, small decrease of weight average molecular weight (M(w)), increased surface roughness, and increased appearance of surface grooves (severe damage). The magnitude of biomaterial parameter changes measured suggests that reuse could alter the original device performance. Examples of possible adverse clinical events include leaching of toxic agents, device rigidization or breakage, increased catheter protein retention, or the promotion of bacterial adhesion by device topography modification. PMID:11505424

Granados, D L; Jiménez, A; Cuadrado, T R

2001-01-01

420

Diagnostic Usefulness of Differential Time to Positivity for Catheter-Related Candidemia  

PubMed Central

A differential time to positivity (DTP) of ?120 min is useful for diagnosing catheter-related bacteremia, but data on diagnosing catheter-related candidemia (CRC) in this way are limited. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of the DTP for diagnosing CRC. All adult patients who had the same Candida species isolated from blood cultures drawn simultaneously from a central venous catheter (CVC) and a peripheral vein were included at a tertiary care hospital over an 18-month period. A total of 105 patients with candidemia who had positive simultaneous CVC and peripheral vein blood cultures were included in our study. Sixty-one patients (58%) had CRC (47 definite and 14 probable), and 38 (36%) had candidemia from another source (non-CRC). The remaining 6 patients (6%) with indeterminate candidemia were excluded from the final analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity of a DTP of ?120 min for diagnosing CRC were 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74% to 93%) and 82% (95% CI, 66% to 92%), respectively, and for neutropenic patients, they were 75% (95% CI, 19% to 99%) and 100% (95% CI, 75% to 100%), respectively. For Candida glabrata infections, the optimal DTP cutoff was ?6 h, with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI, 35% to 85%) and a specificity of 75% (95% CI, 35% to 97%). In summary, DTP is useful for diagnosing CRC, and a DTP of ?120 min appears to be the optimal cutoff except for CRC caused by C. glabrata. For neutropenic patients, DTP may be useful as an adjunct test to rule in CRC and to decide whether a catheter should be removed. PMID:24829236

Park, Ki-Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

2014-01-01

421

Diagnostic usefulness of differential time to positivity for catheter-related candidemia.  

PubMed

A differential time to positivity (DTP) of ? 120 min is useful for diagnosing catheter-related bacteremia, but data on diagnosing catheter-related candidemia (CRC) in this way are limited. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of the DTP for diagnosing CRC. All adult patients who had the same Candida species isolated from blood cultures drawn simultaneously from a central venous catheter (CVC) and a peripheral vein were included at a tertiary care hospital over an 18-month period. A total of 105 patients with candidemia who had positive simultaneous CVC and peripheral vein blood cultures were included in our study. Sixty-one patients (58%) had CRC (47 definite and 14 probable), and 38 (36%) had candidemia from another source (non-CRC). The remaining 6 patients (6%) with indeterminate candidemia were excluded from the final analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity of a DTP of ? 120 min for diagnosing CRC were 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74% to 93%) and 82% (95% CI, 66% to 92%), respectively, and for neutropenic patients, they were 75% (95% CI, 19% to 99%) and 100% (95% CI, 75% to 100%), respectively. For Candida glabrata infections, the optimal DTP cutoff was ? 6 h, with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI, 35% to 85%) and a specificity of 75% (95% CI, 35% to 97%). In summary, DTP is useful for diagnosing CRC, and a DTP of ? 120 min appears to be the optimal cutoff except for CRC caused by C. glabrata. For neutropenic patients, DTP may be useful as an adjunct test to rule in CRC and to decide whether a catheter should be removed. PMID:24829236

Park, Ki-Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

2014-07-01

422

A Case-Control Study to Identify Risk Factors for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port-Related Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 1,642 patients with solid cancer received an implantable central venous port for delivery of chemotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011 in a single center. CVP-BSI was diagnosed in 66 patients (4%). We selected a control group of 130 patients, who were individually matched with respect to age, sex, and catheter insertion time. Results CVP-BSI occurred most frequently between September and November (37.9%). The most common pathogen was gram-positive cocci (n=35, 53.0%), followed by fungus (n=14, 21.2%). Multivariate analysis identified monthly catheter-stay as a risk factor for CVP-BSI (p=0.000), however, its risk was lower in primary gastrointestinal cancer than in other cancer (p=0.002). Initial metastatic disease and long catheter-stay were statistically significant factors affecting catheter life span (p=0.005 and p=0.000). Results of multivariate analysis showed that recent transfusion was a risk factor for mortality in patients with CVP-BSI (p=0.047). Conclusion In analysis of the results with respect to risk factors, prolonged catheter-stay should be avoided as much as possible. It is necessary to be cautious of CVP-BSI in metastatic solid cancer, especially non-gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, avoidance of unnecessary transfusion is essential in order to reduce the mortality of CVP-BSI. Finally, considering the fact that confounding factors may have affected the results, conduct of a well-designed prospective controlled study is warranted. PMID:25038760

Lee, Guk Jin; Hong, Sook Hee; Roh, Sang Young; Park, Sa Rah; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Hong, Young Seon; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk

2014-01-01

423

Conversion of Non-Tunneled to Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the safety and efficacy of conversion of non-tunneled (temporary) catheters to tunneled catheters in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of 112 consecutive conversions in 111 patients was performed over a period of 4 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 97 patients had clinical follow-up. Temporary catheters were converted to tunneled catheters utilizing the same internal jugular venotomy sites and a modified over-the-wire technique with use of a peel-away sheath . Follow-up clinical data were reviewed. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 112 procedures. None of the 97 patients with follow-up suffered early infection within 30 days. The total number of follow-up catheter days was 13,659 (range 2-790). Cases of confirmed and suspected bacteremia requiring catheter removal occurred at a frequency of 0.10 per 100 catheter days. Suspected catheter infection treated with antibiotics but not requiring catheter intervention occurred at a frequency of 0.04 per 100 catheter days. Frequency of all suspected or confirmed infections was 0.14 per 100 catheter days. Catheter interventions as a result of poor blood flow, inadvertent removal, catheter fracture, or kinking occurred at a rate of 0.18 per 100 catheter days. Life table analysis revealed primary patency rates of 86%, 64%, and 39% at 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days, respectively. Conclusion. Conversion of temporary catheters to tunneled catheters using the pre-existing venotomy sites is safe and has low rates of infection and malfunction. These rates are comparable to previously published rates for tunneled catheters placed de novo and tunneled catheter exchanges.

Ha, Thuong G. Van, E-mail: tgvanha@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Fimmen, Derek [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Han, Laura [University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (United States); Funaki, Brian S.; Santeler, Scott; Lorenz, Jonathan [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

2007-04-15

424

Ultrasound accelerated catheter directed thrombolysis for pulmonary embolus and right heart thrombus secondary to transvenous pacing wires.  

PubMed

Acute pulmonary embolism is associated with a significant number of deaths each year, which are commonly attributed to deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. Pulmonary embolism due to right-sided cardiac thrombus associated with transvenous wires is a rare occurrence. Treatment considerations have been systemic anticoagulation with heparin or systemic thrombolytic therapy. A unique case of a patient with symptomatic PE and extensive atrial and ventricle thrombus formation associated with transvenous pacing wires treated with ultrasound accelerated catheter directed thrombolysis is presented. PMID:21278170

Amankwah, Kwame S; Seymour, Keri; Costanza, Michael J; Gahtan, Vivian

2011-04-01

425

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a 13-Day-Old Neonate and Review of Literature  

SciTech Connect

Complete inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVC) in neonates is uncommon, but may cause significant morbidity. A 13-day-old neonate suffered IVC thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III deficiency, possibly contributed to by a mutation in the methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, Alteplase) was used successfully to treat extensive venous thrombosis in this neonate without complications. We also review the literature on CDT for treatment of IVC thrombosis in critically ill neonates and infants.

Khan, Jawad U. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Takemoto, Clifford M.; Casella, James F. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (United States); Streiff, Michael B. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (United States); Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.ed [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

2008-07-15

426

Protein adsorption to hydrocephalus shunt catheters: CSF protein adsorption  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the quantity and nature of the proteins that adsorb to hydrocephalus shunt catheters after implantation, and to determine whether sufficient could accumulate to obstruct the catheter.?DESIGN—Elution of proteins from 102 explanted shunt catheters, with protein assay and electrophoresis of the eluate, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the catheters.?RESULTS—The amount of protein elutable was extremely low, and significant protein, apart from a thin film, was not found on SEM. Qualitative analysis disclosed that most of the adsorbed protein was albumin.?CONCLUSIONS—Protein deposition on hydrocephalus catheters does not occur in sufficient quantities to cause catheter obstruction.?? PMID:9598681

Brydon, H.; Keir, G.; Thompson, E.; Bayston, R.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.

1998-01-01

427

Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved radionuclides (uranium, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, gross alpha, and gross beta) and any key indicators of water chemistry, except in water from the Highland Rim system, in which radon-222 was moderately related to pH and weakly related to dissolved magnesium. The only relation among radiochemical constituents indicated by the data was between radium-226 and gross alpha activity; this relation was indicated for water from both aquifer systems.

Hileman, G.E.; Lee, R.W.

1993-01-01

428

Management strategy for facial venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular malformations, caused by abnormalities in the development of the veins. Venous malformations vary in size and location within the body. When the skin or tissues just under the skin are affected, they appear as slightly blue-colored skin stains or swellings. These can vary in size from time to time because of swelling within the malformation. As these are vascular malformations, they are present at birth and grow proportionately with the child. Venous malformations can be very small to large in size, and sometimes, can involve a significant area within the body, When the venous malformation is well localized, this may cause localized swelling, however, when the venous malformation is more extensive, there may be more widespread swelling of the affected body part. Some patients with venous malformations have abnormal blood clotting within the malformation. Most venous malformations cause no life-threatening problems for patients. Some venous malformations cause repeated pain due to intermittent swelling and congestion of the malformation or due to the formation of blood clots within the malformation. Rarely, venous malformations may be part of a syndrome (an association of several clinically recognizable features) or be linked to an underlying genetic abnormality. We present 12 cases of venous malformations of the head and neck area, which have been managed at our hospital. PMID:25298729

Kumar, Shailendra; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Surender

2014-01-01

429

Six-year experience with swan neck catheters.  

PubMed

From the beginning of our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) program in January 1977 until June 1985, we used Tenckhoff and Toronto Western Hospital catheters. Throughout these years catheter survival probabilities of about 30% at three years persisted unchanged and were similar to survival probabilities reported by the National CAPD Registry special survey for these catheters. The first improvement in catheter results regarding leaks was noted after the adoption of lateral catheter insertion. Malfunction was less using swan neck prototypes from August 1985 to April 1986. The latter catheters were made of 80 degrees arc angle tubing between 8.5 cm spaced cuffs and were inserted in a reversed U-shape tunnel with the incision at the top of the tunnel. The use of these catheters was abandoned because of high cuff extrusion and exit infection rates. The next generation of swan neck catheters, the swan neck Missouri 2 and 3 catheters with straight intraperitoneal segments, improved the results dramatically. These catheters were made of 180 degrees arc angle tubing between 5 or 3 cm spaced cuffs. The estimated survival probability of 61% at three years more than doubled compared to previously used catheters. Recently we modified the intraperitoneal segment of the catheters, replacing the straight segment with a coiled one. These modified catheters, the swan neck Missouri coiled catheters, have been used exclusively since February 1990. In addition to an acceptable survival probability of 88% at one year, there are two major advantages of these catheters, the same as for other coiled catheters: elimination of infusion pain due to a jet effect and pain related to straight catheter tip pressure on the peritoneum experienced by some patients. PMID:1420498

Twardowski, Z J; Prowant, B F; Nichols, W K; Nolph, K D; Khanna, R

1992-01-01

430

Venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukemia: incidence, risk factors, and effect on survival  

PubMed Central

A population-based cohort was used to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among Californians diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1993 to 1999. Principal outcomes were deep vein thrombosis in both the lower and upper extremities, pulmonary embolism, and mortality. Among 5394 cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE was 281 (5.2%). Sixty-four percent of the VTE events occurred within 3 months of AML diagnosis. In AML patients, female sex, older age, number of chronic comorbidities, and presence of a catheter were significant predictors of development of VTE within 1 year. A diagnosis of VTE was not associated with reduced survival in AML patients. Among 2482 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the 2-year incidence of VTE in ALL was 4.5%. Risk factors for VTE were presence of a central venous catheter, older age, and number of chronic comorbidities. In the patients with ALL, development of VTE was associated with a 40% increase in the risk of dying within 1 year. The incidence of VTE in acute leukemia is appreciable, and is comparable with the incidence in many solid tumors. PMID:19088376

Ku, Grace H.; White, Richard H.; Chew, Helen K.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Zhou, Hong

2009-01-01

431

The use of central venous lines in the treatment of chronically ill children.  

PubMed

Treatment of chronic diseases in children is a special medical problem. Maintaining constant access to the central vascular system is necessary for long-term hemato-oncological and nephrological therapies as well as parenteral nutrition. Providing such access enables chemotherapic treatment, complete parenteral nutrition, long-term antibiotic therapy, hemodialysis, treatment of intensive care unit patients, monitoring blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and stimulation of heart rate in emergency situations as well as treatment of patients suffering from complications, especially when chances of access into peripheral veins are exhausted. Continuous access to the central vascular system is desirable in the treatment of chronically ill children. Insertion of a central venous catheter line eliminates the unnecessary pain and stress to a child patient accompanying injection into peripheral vessels. In order to gain long-term and secure access to the central venous system, respecting the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention contained in the updated 'Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections' is necessary. PMID:25618129

Barczykowska, Ewa; Szwed-Koli?ska, Marzena; Wróbel-Bania, Agnieszka; ?lusarz, Robert

2014-01-01

432

Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2014-03-01

433

Review of Venous Vascular Ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Duplex ultrasound (US) has become the new gold standard in the assessment of acute deep vein thrombosis. In view of the large\\u000a number of cases with persistent changes, all cases should be reassessed at 6 months to document the extent of residual disease.\\u000a The role of duplex US in chronic venous disease is less well established but it is

Gareth W. L. Phillips

2000-01-01

434

The importance of effective catheter securement.  

PubMed

This article examines the importance of securing/fixing indwelling urinary catheters. The Oxford English dictionary interlinks the two words-'secure' and 'fix'-as having the same meaning. To secure the catheter should not be confused with 'support', whereby the weight of the urine drainage bag is supported with the use of velcro straps or a sleeve. The author introduces the need for the concept of this practice to be at the forefront of nurses' minds in all settings, and this is demonstrated through the use of case studies. Current guidance in this area is reviewed, as well as the problems that can arise when catheters are not secured properly and the available products for health professionals to use. PMID:20948482

Fisher, Jayne