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1

The use of an implantable central venous (Hickman) catheter for long-term venous access in dogs undergoing bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Methods were developed for the insertion and maintenance of long-term central venous catheters in dogs in order to provide reliable venous access during bone marrow transplantation. Single-lumen, 9.6 Fr Hickman catheters with a VitaCuff were used. The catheter was inserted into the jugular vein via a surgical cut-down, and tunnelled subcutaneously to exit over the thoracic spine. Fluoroscopic guidance was necessary to ensure proper positioning of the catheter tip in the right atrium. The catheter was secured at the venous entrance site with a grommet and at the cutaneous exit site with a finger-cuff suture. The exit site was bandaged; dressings were changed daily. Five dogs were studied. Catheter insertion and maintenance techniques were developed using two dogs. For the other three dogs, which developed 7 wk of profound myelosuppression induced by total body irradiation, the catheters were used for blood sampling and infusions of antibiotics, fluids, and blood products. For these three dogs there were 261 total catheter-days. Complete catheter obstruction did not occur. Partial obstruction (inability to withdraw blood) occurred for 13 days with one catheter. The tip of this catheter was in the cranial vena cava. One irradiated dog had a staphylococcal exit site infection for several days after catheter insertion, which resolved with antibiotic therapy. Infections of the subcutaneous tunnel, and catheter associated bacteremia, were not identified. Infectious and hemorrhagic complications of myelosuppression were less severe than in six other dogs where intermittent venipuncture was used for vascular access during radiation induced myelosuppression. In conclusion, long-term central venous catheterization is feasible in dogs during profound myelosuppression and markedly facilitates patient management. PMID:1477809

Abrams-Ogg, A C; Kruth, S A; Carter, R F; Valli, V E; Kamel-Reid, S; Dube, I D

1992-01-01

2

Thrombotic complications of silicone rubber catheters during autologous marrow and peripheral stem cell transplantation: prospective comparison of Hickman and Groshong catheters.  

PubMed

Thrombosis is common after placement of silicone rubber subclavian vein catheters in patients with malignancy receiving conventional doses of chemotherapy. To determine the incidence of this complication in marrow transplant patients and the effect of different catheter designs on thrombosis rates, patients were randomized to receive either open-ended Hickman catheters or valve-ended Groshong catheters for venous access during the transplantation procedure. A total of 35 catheters were placed, of which 23 were double-lumen (11 Groshong and 12 Hickman) and 12 were single-lumen (six Groshong and six Hickman). Arm venograms were performed on all patients at the time of hematopoietic recovery or occurrence of symptoms of subclavian vein thrombosis. There were 10 cases of total subclavian vein thrombosis (three were symptomatic) and 12 cases of asymptomatic non-occlusive mural thrombi. Only 13 normal veins were found. There was no difference in thrombosis rate between the Hickman and Groshong catheters. Double lumen catheters tended to be more likely to cause total venous occlusion (nine of 23) than single lumen catheters (one of 12) (p = 0.06, Fisher's exact test). We conclude that subclavian vein thrombosis is a common occurrence after placement of silicone rubber catheters for venous access during marrow transplantation. Most cases are asymptomatic. Groshong catheters are just as likely to cause this complication as Hickman catheters. PMID:1675136

Haire, W D; Lieberman, R P; Lund, G B; Edney, J A; Kessinger, A; Armitage, J O

1991-01-01

3

Hickman catheter-induced thoracic vein thrombosis. Frequency and long-term sequelae in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

One hundred sixty-eight bone marrow transplant recipients and 49 patients who received high-dose chemotherapy were evaluated for symptomatic thrombosis after Hickman catheter placement. The timing of thrombotic complications was different between these two groups, with the transplant group having a significantly lower thrombus-free survival by 28 days after catheter placement. By 100 days after placement the thrombus-free survival rates of the two groups were similar. The platelet count at time of catheter placement was significantly lower in the nontransplant group, and the thrombus-free survival was longer in patients whose catheter was placed when their platelet count was less than 150,000, suggesting that thrombocytopenia delays thrombotic complications. Placement of two Hickman catheters resulted in a 12.9% thrombosis rate (21 of 162 patients) and was significantly more likely to be associated with thrombosis than placement of one catheter. Long-term follow-up evaluation of patients treated without successful fibrinolytic therapy showed no residual symptoms of venous obstruction. In those patients presenting with concomitant catheter obstruction resulting from thrombosis, low-dose fibrinolytic therapy was successful in restoring catheter function 70% of the time. Placement of two Hickman catheters is associated with an inordinate incidence of thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia at the time of catheter placement may delay this complication. Thrombotic catheter obstruction can be treated successfully with low-dose fibrinolytic therapy. Even without fibrinolytic therapy, catheter-induced subclavian vein thrombosis rarely causes long-term disability. PMID:2386917

Haire, W D; Lieberman, R P; Edney, J; Vaughan, W P; Kessinger, A; Armitage, J O; Goldsmith, J C

1990-09-01

4

Infectious Complications of Radiologically Inserted Hickman Catheters in Patients with Hematologic Disorders  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the incidence of infections and its influence on the survival of radiologically inserted Hickman catheters (HCs) in patients with hematologic disorders and to determine factors associated with premature HC removal. Methods: Survival and complications of 175 HCs in 115 patients were studied retrospectively. To describe the data the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used, using the date of HC removal due to HC-related infection as endpoint. A stratified Cox regression model was used to determine explanatory factors. Results: Seventy (40%) HCs were removed prematurely because of proven or probable HC-related infections. The incidence of infection leading to HC removal was 4.78 per 1000 catheter-days for proven HC infections. Univariate analysis revealed that acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, or treatment for these diseases, gender, each subsequent catheter in the same patient and insertion site increased the risk of premature removal of the catheter due to infection. Conclusion: Infection is a major problem in patients with HCs. Unfortunately, the factors associated with increased infection rates that were found in this study cannot be influenced. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of environmental conditions in a radiology suite in relation to the risk of developing a catheter-related infection.

Bakker, Jeannette; Overhagen, Hans van [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL-3015 GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wielenga, Jenne [Department of Hematology, University Hospital Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL-3015 GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Marie, Siem de; Nouwen, Jan [Department of Bacteriology, University Hospital Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL-3015 GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ridder, Marie A.J. de [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus University, PO Box 1738, NL-3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Johan S. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL-3015 GD Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1998-03-15

5

Central venous catheter - flushing  

MedlinePLUS

... not working correctly. You may be receiving kidney dialysis. You will need to make sure the skin where the catheter is placed stays healthy. This will help protect you from infection. You will need to check the skin and ...

6

Clonal expansion of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains causing Hickman catheter-related infections in a hemato-oncologic department  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed analysis of 411 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci\\u000a (CoNS) obtained from 40 neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients (61 Hickman\\u000a catheter episodes) on intensive chemotherapy is described. By random\\u000a amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, a total of 88 different\\u000a genotypes were detected: 51 in air samples and 30 in skin cultures prior\\u000a to insertion, 12 in blood cultures after insertion, and

JAN L. NOUWEN; Belkum van A. F; SIEM DE MARIE; JACQUELINE SLUIJS; JENNE J. WIELENGA; JAN A. J. W. KLUYTMANS; HENRI A. VERBRUGH

1998-01-01

7

A comparative analysis of radiological and surgical placement of central venous catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare the differences in practice and outcome of all radiologically and surgically placed central venous catheters retrospectively\\u000a over a 2-year period simultaneously, at a single institution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 253 Hickman catheters were inserted in 209 patients; 120 were placed radiologically in 102 patients and 133 were\\u000a placed surgically in 107 patients. The indication was chemotherapy in 76% of

Kieran D. McBride; Ross Fisher; Neil Warnock; David A. Winfield; Malcolm W. Reed; Peter A. Gaines

1997-01-01

8

[Central venous catheter with a poor flow].  

PubMed

Insertion of a central venous catheter is a quite common procedure; for instance in USA it is done for approx. five million patients per year. At the operating department of Meilahti hospital, central venous catheters have been placed as a main or side procedure for approx. 2000 patients per year. In addition, central venous catheters are placed in emergency departments and in some operational units, such as dialysis catheters in dialysis units. Although the application of ultrasound imaging has now resulted in improved patient safety, complications continue to occur. To exclude complications, a chest X-ray is often taken after the procedure. The control image may reveal even unexpected issues. PMID:25272788

Niemi-Murola, Leila; Jousela, Irma

2014-01-01

9

Right phrenic nerve palsy as a complication of indwelling central venous catheters  

PubMed Central

Five cases are reported of patients who developed a raised right hemidiaphragm while an indwelling central venous catheter was in situ. The patients were being treated with protracted venous infusions of chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma. All five patients had a chest radiograph following insertion of the Hickman line which showed normal diaphragmatic positions. A mean of 93 days later (range 55-134 days) elevation of the right hemidiaphragm was noted in these patients on repeat chest radiographs. Two of the patients had a right phrenic nerve palsy demonstrated by magnetic stimulation of the nerve. The remaining three patients had paradoxical motion of the right hemidiaphragm on sonography, but were unable to undergo studies of phrenic nerve function before death from metastatic disease. It is suggested that right phrenic nerve palsy is a late complication of an indwelling central venous catheter. ??? PMID:9371220

Rigg, A.; Hughes, P.; Lopez, A.; Filshie, J.; Cunningham, D.; Green, M.

1997-01-01

10

Complex central venous catheter insertion for hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Despite the introduction of payment by results in the UK, there has been no decrease in central venous catheter (CVC) use. In part, this may relate to a requirement to dialyse through a CVC while autogenous access matures. Mortality data have improved in parallel and patients on hemodialysis live longer, which may lead to an increased exposure to CVCs.Exposure to CVCs carries a significant risk of infection and occlusion requiring their repositioning or exchange. The mid to long-term sequelae of CVC use is central venous occlusion leaving clinical teams with an ever increasing challenge to find adequate venous access.In this article, we will discuss the challenges faced by operators inserting CVCs into the hemodialysis-dependent patient who has exhausted more tradition insertion sites. These include translumbar caval catheters, transocclusion and transcollateral catheters, transjugular Inferior Vena Cava catheter positioning, and transhepatic catheters. We will demonstrate the techniques employed, complications, and anticipated longevity of function. PMID:24817471

Powell, Steven; Belfield, Jane

2014-01-01

11

Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

SciTech Connect

Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: alexbarnacle@yahoo.co.uk; Kleidon, Tricia M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

12

Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)  

MedlinePLUS

... of central line Collarbone ATS PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES Infection— ? ? Any tube (catheter) entering the body can make it easier for ... catheter. 4 If you have any sign of infection or other catheter problem, call your health care provider immediately. Doctor’s ...

13

A comparative analysis of radiological and surgical placement of central venous catheters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To compare the differences in practice and outcome of all radiologically and surgically placed central venous catheters retrospectively over a 2-year period simultaneously, at a single institution. Methods.A total of 253 Hickman catheters were inserted in 209 patients; 120 were placed radiologically in 102 patients and 133 were placed surgically in 107 patients. The indication was chemotherapy in 76% of radiological and in 47% of surgical cases; the remainder were for total parenteral nutrition and venous access. Results. There were 6 (4.5%) primary surgical failures and a further 17 (13%) surgical cases requiring multiple placement attempts. Pneumothorax occurred once (0.8%) surgically and four times (3.3%) radiologically. There were no radiological primary misplacements but there were five (3.7%) surgical ones. Catheter or central vein thrombosis occurred in four (3.3%) radiological and five (3.7%) surgical cases. The rate of infection per 1000 catheter-days was 1.9 in radiologically placed catheters and 4.0 in surgically placed ones (p<0.001). Average catheter life-span was similar for the two placement methods (100{+-}23 days). Conclusion. Radiological placement is consistently more reliable than surgical placement. There are fewer placement complications and fewer catheter infections overall.

McBride, Kieran D. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fisher, Ross [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Warnock, Neil [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Winfield, David A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Hematology (United Kingdom); Reed, Malcolm W. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Gaines, Peter A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

1997-01-15

14

Central venous catheter - dressing change  

MedlinePLUS

... not working correctly. You may be receiving kidney dialysis. You may be receiving cancer drugs. Dressings are special bandages that block germs and keep your catheter site dry and clean. You will learn how ...

15

An unusual case of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.  

PubMed

Some hemodialysed patients need definitive central venous catheterization. One of the main complications is catheter infection, and each infection must be treated. We report a case of an unusual cause of central venous catheter (CVC) infection: physical examination and catheter opacification demonstrated two pin-holes in the catheter. It was possible to salvage the catheter following a treatment regimen combining systemic antibiotics, antibiotic locks, fibrinolytics, and removal of a catheter segment. PMID:21948129

Badin, Julie; François, Maud; Birmelé, Béatrice; Turmel-Rodrigues, Luc; Nivet, Hubert; Pengloan, Josette

2012-01-01

16

Clinical evaluation of percutaneous insertion and long-term usage of a new cuffed polyurethane catheter for central venous access.  

PubMed Central

A new, long-term venous access catheter was evaluated in clinical practice and the insertion time, complication rate and prospective follow-up recorded. Fifty novel polyurethane catheters (Cuff-Cath) were inserted in 48 patients, for cytotoxic chemotherapy in 36, long-term total parenteral nutrition in five and miscellaneous indications in seven. All catheters were inserted by a percutaneous technique under local anaesthesia. The mean insertion time was 18 min. There were three insertion complications; failure to cannulate, pneumothorax and malposition. Seven catheters required removal (sepsis in five, subclavian vein thrombosis in two) and one catheter fell out. Total catheter days to date has been 6607 (mean 132, range 18-831 days). Eleven catheters are still in use a mean of 154 days (range 38-490 days) after insertion. Furthermore, a new technique has been described which prevents inadvertent displacement. This new catheter combines the mechanical advantages of polyurethane, together with those of a Dacron cuff. Early results suggest that this catheter may be a useful alternative to silicone catheters of the Hickman/Broviac type for long-term central venous access. Images Figure 1 PMID:1471841

Moran, B. J.; Sutton, G. L.; Karran, S. J.

1992-01-01

17

Echocardiographic Evaluation of Umbilical Venous Catheter Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare techniques for guiding and confirming placement of umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) using two-dimensional echocardiography.STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-three newborns admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit who required an UVC or who were transferred within 24 hours of UVC placement at a referring hospital were studied. UVC position was assessed by antero-posterior (AP) chest radiography (CXR), lateral CXR, and

Anne Ades; Craig Sable; Susan Cummings; Russell Cross; Bruce Markle; Gerard Martin

2003-01-01

18

Staphylococcus epidermidis and retention of neonatal percutaneous central venous catheters.  

PubMed Central

The percutaneous insertion of central venous catheters has become an established practice on many neonatal units. We describe four low birthweight babies, whose catheters became tethered in the vein, and discuss the management of this unusual complication. PMID:2317075

Gladman, G; Sinha, S; Sims, D G; Chiswick, M L

1990-01-01

19

Dialysis central venous catheter types and performance.  

PubMed

The choice of both short-term (nontunneled) and long-term (tunneled) central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis is a difficult one, due to the large number of available catheters, with very different characteristics and cost.CVC-related complications (in particular infections, thrombosis and inefficient dialysis) can determine ominous consequences and death, with extremely elevated costs due to prolonged hospitalization and expensive procedures. Thus, the correct balance between cost and quality of CVC is required when deciding which kind of CVC should be adopted.In this regard, the design of CVCs has become a very active area of industrial and clinical research, with the ultimate goal of improving the long-term function of the catheter and of reducing complication rates, because even small improvements in the complication or reintervention rates have a positive impact on individual patient care and cost to society. In this article we review the general features of CVCs, including differences between tunneled and nontunneled CVCs, materials and their compatibility with lock solutions, the implications of straight versus precurved design in nontunneled CVCs, lumen and tip features with their clinical implications, catheter coatings and their effect on infection and thrombosis. PMID:24817472

Gallieni, Maurizio; Brenna, Irene; Brunini, Francesca; Mezzina, Nicoletta; Pasho, Sabina; Giordano, Antonino

2014-01-01

20

Impact of different catheter lock strategies on bacterial colonization of permanent central venous hemodialysis catheters.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine hemodialysis patients with permanent central venous catheters were analyzed for bacterial catheter colonization comparing different catheter-lock strategies. The closed needleless Tego connector with sodium chloride lock solution was significantly more frequently colonized with bacteria than the standard catheter caps with antimicrobially active citrate lock solution (odds ratio, 0.22 [95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.71]; P = .011). PMID:24225618

Erb, Stefan; Widmer, Andreas F; Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Neff, Ursula; Fischer, Manuela; Dickenmann, Michael; Grosse, Philipp

2013-12-01

21

Evaluation of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection in intensive care unit patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheterization represents a significant medical advancement, particularly in the treatment of critical ill. However, there is a high risk of central venous catheters-related infection. A novel antiseptic central venous catheter, made of polyurethane and impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine, was developed to reduce the risk of catheters-related infection. In this study, we did a randomized clinical study

Wang-Huei Sheng; Wen-Je Ko; Jann-Tay Wang; Shan-Chwen Chang; Po-Ren Hsueh; Kwen-Tay Luh

2000-01-01

22

Segmental cultures of central venous catheters for diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimCatheter-related sepsis (CRS) is an important complication affecting neonates with indwelling percutaneously-inserted central venous catheters (PCVCs). Culture of a catheter tip sent at line removal is commonly used to assist diagnosis of CRS. We examined the relative utility of microbiological culture of three discrete segments of a PCVC for assisting diagnosis of neonatal CRS.Design\\/methodsProspective study of infants with

V Ponnusamy; V Venkatesh; A Curley; P Musonda; N Brown; C Tremlett; P Clarke

2011-01-01

23

Automated identification of adverse events related to central venous catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for surveillance of adverse events (AEs) in clinical settings are limited by cost, technology, and appropriate data availability. In this study, two methods for semi-automated review of text records within the Veterans Administration database are utilized to identify AEs related to the placement of central venous catheters (CVCs): a Natural Language Processing program and a phrase-matching algorithm. A sample

Janet F. E. Penz; Adam B. Wilcox; John F. Hurdle

2007-01-01

24

[The quality assessment of the management of venous catheters].  

PubMed

A study was conducted in 2009 at Nantes University Hospital (44) to assess nurses' knowledge and practices with regard to dressing rehabilitation and the changing of central venous catheter IV lines in conventional hospital departments, excluding intensive care units. A self-assessment questionnaire was used along with direct observations in the wards, involving health care professionals. PMID:23697053

Boidé, Maryline; Bourigault, Céline; des Buttes, Anne-Claire Guille; Lepelletier, Didier

2013-04-01

25

Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.  

PubMed

Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter. PMID:25278411

Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

2014-10-01

26

The evolution and function of central venous catheters for dialysis.  

PubMed

The use of central venous catheters (CVC) for acute or chronic dialysis has been a relatively recent innovation in Nephrology. The first problem addressed has been how to allow removal and return of blood at high flow rates throughout a dialysis treatment. Four solutions have emerged: place the lumens within the right atrium; place the removal lumen on the inside of the catheter; use a large catheter size; or provide independent limbs with multiple blood-entry ports to draw and return blood in all directions. Many other requirements include resistance to infection, especially the passage of organisms around the catheter. A subcutaneous Dacron cuff within a tunnel has successfully accomplished this goal for most chronic CVC dialysis catheters, but other immobilizing devices such as plugs have also been successful. Materials for CVC dialysis catheters have improved, providing strength to allow the catheters to last for several years, with flexibility to avoid vein damage (in general). However, component and material failures still occur, and some materials are incompatible with medications placed at the exit site. CVC for dialysis will remain a necessary choice for many patients beginning and continuing dialysis therapy. PMID:11851926

Ash, S R

2001-01-01

27

The Malposition of Central Venous Catheters in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Contemporary medical care, especially in the field of pediatrics often requires central venous line (CVC – Central Venous Catheter) implantation for carrying out treatment. Some conditions are treated intravenously for several months, other require long-term venous access due to periodical administration of medications or daily nutritional supplementation. Material/Methods A total number of 309 CVCs were implanted at Children’s University Hospital in Cracow between January 2011 and December 2012 (24 months). Malposition of the CVC is not common. The target of our article was to present two rare cases of malposition of catheters and two displacements of catheter due to chest tumors, and to enhance the importance of differential diagnostic imaging when difficulties occur. Results CVC malposition was detected with different imaging modalities followed by appropriate medical procedures. Conclusions In case of any difficulties with central lines, it is necessary to investigate the underlying cause. The central line team at hospital cooperating with other specialists is needed to detect complications and to prevent them. PMID:25177409

Dzierzega, Maria; Ossowska, Magdalena; Chmiel, Dariusz; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Balwierz, Walentyna

2014-01-01

28

Neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis: diagnosis, management and outcome.  

PubMed

Thrombotic occlusion of central venous catheters (CVCs) is a common problem in newborns. There is no guideline that systematically addresses the diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The objective of this review is to establish evidence-based guidance for the management of CVC-related thrombosis. A comprehensive search of the scientific literature was conducted from 1948 to 2012. Twenty-six articles fulfilling four criteria - humans, neonates aged below 28 days, CVC insertion, and English language - were included for analysis. The incidence of thrombosis was 9.2% (308/3332). Singly inserted umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters accounted for over 80% of all CVCs. Frequently reported thrombotic sites were the hepatic vein, right atrium, and inferior vena cava. Symptoms included distal swelling of affected areas and thrombocytopenia. Increased length of catheter stay, infusion of blood products and malpositioned UVCs were identified as risk factors. The commonest diagnostic investigations to confirm thrombosis were echocardiography and ultrasonography. Spontaneous resolution may occur in UVC-related thrombosis, but this warrants close monitoring. Thrombolysis with urokinase alone or combined with low-molecular-weight heparin might be effective and well tolerated as treatment strategies. Prophylactic heparin increases the duration of catheter usability (P?catheter occlusion, but may not uniformly prevent thrombosis. CVL-related thrombosis is an underreported complication because events in the majority occur silently. Currently, solid evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are not possible. Well designed prospective studies are urgently required to establish a concrete investigational approach to CVC-related thrombosis and to institute safe therapeutic modalities. PMID:24477225

Park, Christina K; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Murthy, Prashanth

2014-03-01

29

Systematic review of emergency department central venous and arterial catheter infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is an extensive critical care literature for central venous catheter and arterial line infection, duration of catheterization,\\u000a and compliance with infection control procedures. The emergency medicine literature, however, contains very little data on\\u000a central venous catheters and arterial lines. As emergency medicine practice continues to incorporate greater numbers of critical\\u000a care procedures such as central venous catheter placement, infection

Christopher H. LeMaster; Ashish T. Agrawal; Peter Hou; Jeremiah D. Schuur

2010-01-01

30

Adjacent central venous catheters can result in immediate aspiration of infused drugs during renal replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Dual-lumen haemodiafiltration catheters enable continuous renal replacement therapy in the critically ill and are often co-located with central venous catheters used to infuse drugs. The extent to which infusions are immediately aspirated by an adjacent haemodiafiltration catheter remains unknown. A bench model was constructed to evaluate this effect. A central venous catheter and a haemodiafiltration catheter were inserted into a simulated central vein and flow generated using centrifugal pumps within the simulated vein and haemodiafiltration circuit. Ink was used as a visual tracer and creatinine solution as a quantifiable tracer. Tracers were completely aspirated by the haemodiafiltration catheter unless the infusion was at least 1 cm downstream to the arterial port. No tracer was aspirated from catheters infusing at least 2 cm downstream. Orientation of side ports did not affect tracer elimination. Co-location of central venous and haemodiafiltration catheters may lead to complete aspiration of infusions into the haemodiafilter with resultant drug under-dosing. PMID:22059378

Kam, K Y R; Mari, J M; Wigmore, T J

2012-02-01

31

Nurse-led central venous catheter insertion—Procedural characteristics and outcomes of three intensive care based catheter placement services  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNurse-led central venous catheter placement is an emerging clinical role internationally. Procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes is an important consideration in appraisal of such advanced nursing roles.

Evan Alexandrou; Margherita Murgo; Eda Calabria; Timothy R. Spencer; Hailey Carpen; Kathleen Brennan; Steven A. Frost; Patricia M. Davidson; Ken M. Hillman

32

Mini-review: Antimicrobial central venous catheters – recent advances and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) nowadays constitute critical devices used in medical care, namely in intensive care units. However, CVCs also represent one of the indwelling medical devices with enhanced risk of nosocomial device-related infection. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, often justifying premature catheter removal and an increase in costs and use of resources.

Cláudia Sousa; Mariana Henriques; Rosário Oliveira

2011-01-01

33

Retention of antibacterial activity and bacterial colonization of antiseptic-bonded central venous catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined how long antiseptic impregnation with silver sulphadiazine and chlorhexidine (SCC) on polyurethane central venous double- or triple-lumen catheters is retained in vivo. A total of 116 antiseptic catheters were tested for antibacterial activity in an in-vitro bioassay after various periods of iv catheterization. Segments from the subcutaneous (sc) and intravenous (iv) portions of the catheters were cultured. The

A. Bach; H. Schmidt; B. Böttiger; B. Schreiber; H. Böhrer; J. Motsch; E. Martin; H. G. Sonntag

1996-01-01

34

Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. Case presentation We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Conclusion Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure. PMID:17967173

Bentur, HN; Dalzell, AM; Riordan, FAI

2007-01-01

35

The potential reduction of microbial contamination of central venous catheters.  

PubMed

The microbial contamination of stopcock entry ports attached to central venous catheters (CVC) was determined using a specially designed swab. The swab was made of a highly porous material, Porex, and was designed to fit exactly into the entry port of stopcocks. The swab was used to determine the frequency of microbial contamination of entry ports attached to CVC in patients located on an Intensive Care Unit. Of the 200 swabs obtained 44 (22%) contained microorganisms. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 43 of the swabs and diphtheroid bacilli from 1 swab. In vitro studies were carried out to investigate the efficiency of the swab in removing excess residual fluid and organisms from entry ports. The swab absorbed relatively large numbers of bacteria within seconds. When entry ports were inoculated with between 10(3) and 10(5) cfu of either Staphylococcus epidermidis or Klebsiella pneumoniae greater than 99% of the organisms were absorbed by the swab (P < 0.01). The absorbent swab was more efficient at removing S. epidermidis from the entry port when compared to a standard cotton swab (P < 0.01). In vitro this absorbent swab reduced the potential for catheter contamination resulting from migration of organisms from the entry port via the intraluminal route. The use of the swab in the clinical situation may reduce the incidence of CVC-related infections. PMID:7636276

Tebbs, S E; Trend, V; Elliott, T S

1995-03-01

36

Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement  

SciTech Connect

Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James [SDI Radiology, Department of Radiology, Saint Joseph's Hospital, 3001 Dr. Martin Luther King Blvd., Tampa, FL 33607 (United States)

2001-03-15

37

[Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review].  

PubMed

This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters. PMID:23596935

Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

2012-12-01

38

Central venous catheter infection-induced Henoch-Schönlein purpura in a patient on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man, who had been dialyzed using a permanent central venous catheter for 2 years, presented with Henoch-Schönlein purpura and positive perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). He was diagnosed with catheter-related infection by Staphylococcus aureus. After administration of antibiotic and steroid therapy, purpura disappeared and p-ANCA gradually became negative. This case supports the conclusion that infection can be pathogenesis of the vasculitis, including ANCA-positive HSP. Additionally, impregnation of catheters with antibiotics can be an effective treatment for catheter infections. PMID:24845224

Gao, Jian Jun; Wei, Jia Mei; Gao, Yue Hua; Li, Shuang; Na, Yu

2014-08-01

39

Implementation of a children's hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle  

PubMed Central

Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

2013-01-01

40

Bacterial infection of central venous catheters in short-term total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Fourteen severely ill ventilated patients in an intensive care unit, requiring short-term total parenteral nutrition, were examined for catheter-related infection. Microbiological analysis using Maki's SQ technique was carried out on catheter exit site, catheter hub, proximal subcutaneous segment of catheter and catheter up. Qualitative cultures were carried out on total parenteral nutrition and peripheral blood samples. Twenty six of 29 catheters removed (90%) were culture positive but only 7 catheters were related to positive blood cultures, giving a catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) rate of 24%. Haematogenous seeding was strongly implicated in 7/29 (24%) of catheters. Patients' skin flora appeared to be the main source of catheter-related infection. The organisms isolated for patients with CRB included coagulase-negative staphylococci, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. It is suggested that to control infective complications of central venous catheters, emphasis should be focused on specialised intravenous therapy teams and the use of strict protocols for insertion and care of central lines. PMID:10968131

Chan, L; Ngeow, Y F; Parasakthi, N

1998-03-01

41

Clearance of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans Bacteremia in a Child without Central Venous Catheter Removal  

PubMed Central

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica) rarely causes human infection. Infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts or in patients with foreign bodies, such as catheters, where treatment has generally involved removal of the foreign body. We report on a case in which the organism was isolated in multiple blood cultures from a 13-year-old male. After initial therapy failed, treatment with vancomycin and rifampin resulted in infection clearance without removal of the central venous catheter. PMID:16825406

Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bruckner, David A.; Hinnebusch, Claudia; Nielsen, Karin; Deville, Jaime G.

2006-01-01

42

Clearance of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans bacteremia in a child without central venous catheter removal.  

PubMed

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica) rarely causes human infection. Infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts or in patients with foreign bodies, such as catheters, where treatment has generally involved removal of the foreign body. We report on a case in which the organism was isolated in multiple blood cultures from a 13-year-old male. After initial therapy failed, treatment with vancomycin and rifampin resulted in infection clearance without removal of the central venous catheter. PMID:16825406

Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bruckner, David A; Hinnebusch, Claudia; Nielsen, Karin; Deville, Jaime G

2006-07-01

43

Rhodococcus equi venous catheter infection: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that was initially isolated from horses and is being increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans with impaired cellular immunity. However, this pathogen is underestimated as a challenging antagonist and is frequently considered to be a mere contaminant despite the potential for life-threatening infections. Most case reports have occurred in immunocompromised patients who have received organ transplants (for example kidney, heart, bone marrow) or those with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Infections often manifest as pulmonary involvement or soft tissue abscesses. Bacteremia related to R. equi infections of tunneled central venous catheters has rarely been described. Case presentation We report the case of a 63-year-old non-transplant recipient, non-HIV infected Caucasian woman with endometrial carcinoma who developed recurrent bloodstream infections and septic shock due to R. equi and ultimately required the removal of her port catheter, a subcutaneous implantable central venous catheter. We also review the medical literature related to human infections with R. equi. Conclusion R. equi should be considered a serious pathogen, not a contaminant, particularly in an immunocompromised patient who presents with a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. Counseling patients with central venous catheters who participate in activities involving exposure to domesticated animals is recommended. PMID:21827681

2011-01-01

44

Shower and no-dressing technique for tunneled central venous hemodialysis catheters: a quality improvement initiative.  

PubMed

Self-care practices and quality-of-life nuances juxtaposed our tunneled hemodialysis central venous catheter (CVC) protocols. Despite our advice, individuals with CVCs were showering. As a quality improvement initiative, we compared the standard CVC dressing practices to the "shower and no-dressing" technique. After 1380 catheter months (n = 119) infection rates were 0.31 events per 1000 catheter days. The "shower and no-dressing" technique appears to be a safe CVC dressing option with improved quality of life, no increase in infection rates, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24689266

Lawrence, Julie Ann; Seiler, Suzanne; Wilson, Barbara; Harwood, Lori

2014-01-01

45

Central venous catheters and cardiac tamponade in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the incidence of cardiac tamponade related to peripherally inserted central catheters in newborns weighing less than 1,500 g during the past 8 years and to provide guidelines in order to avoid death due to this complication.DesignRetrospective case review.SettingTertiary level neonatal intensive care unit.Patients and participantsRetrospective study of a total of 280 peripherally inserted central catheters positioned in 258 preterm newborns.Measurements

Marco Pezzati; Luca Filippi; Gianna Chiti; Carlo Dani; Sauro Rossi; Giovanna Bertini; Firmino F. Rubaltelli

2004-01-01

46

Risk Factors for Early Infection of Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In an effort to avoid infections that can lead to the premature removal of indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs), the surgical technique and host factors present in pediatric recipients of permanent CVCs were reviewed.Study Design: All patients receiving CVCs over a 17-month period were identified. Those patients with fever and positive blood cultures drawn through the CVC within 45

Donald B Shaul; Bryan Scheer; Sepehr Rokhsar; Valerie A Jones; Linda S Chan; Beth A Boody; Marcio H Malogolowkin; Wilbert H Mason

1998-01-01

47

The central venous catheter as a source of medical chaos in Munchausen syndrome by proxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of childhood central venous catheters (CVC) are placed in victims of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) and to evaluate the clinical indications and complications of CVCs in MSBP.Methods: Study design was by retrospective chart review. Data were obtained from the regional children's hospital and regional child abuse consultation network.

Kenneth W Feldman; Robert O Hickman

1998-01-01

48

Successful treatment of central venous catheter induced superior vena cava syndrome with ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis.  

PubMed

Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome results from obstruction of flow through the vessel either by external compression or thrombosis. External compression by intrathoracic neoplasms is the most common etiology, especially lung cancer and lymphoma. Thrombosis is becoming increasingly common due to the use of indwelling catheters and implantable central venous access devices. Most patients are unresponsive to anticoagulation alone which appears to be effective only in the mildest cases. However, recent advances in catheter-based interventions have led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive endovascular strategies to remove venous thrombus and accepted as an important first-line treatment given its high overall success rate and low morbidity as compared with medical and surgical treatments. Ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (UACDT) has been developed to rapidly and completely resolve the existing thrombus. This technique integrates high frequency, low intensity ultrasound (US) with standard CDT in order to accelerate clot dissolution, reducing treatment time and the incidence of thrombolysis-related complications. An US wave enhances drug permeation through thrombus by disaggregating the fibrin matrix, exposing additional plasminogen receptor sites to the thrombolytic agent. The US energy affects thrombus in the entire venous segment, increasing the probability of complete thrombus clearing. We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with a 5 days history of SVC syndrome symptoms who had been receiving chemotherapy for colon cancer through a right subclavian vein port catheter. The patient successfully treated with UACDT with EkoSonic(®) Mach4e Endovascular device with an overnight infusion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23404752

Dumantepe, Mert; Tarhan, Arif; Ozler, Azmi

2013-06-01

49

Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin, E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian, E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.d [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.d [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde (Germany); Benter, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Benter@klinikum-rg.d [Elblandkliniken Riesa-Grossenhain gGmbH, Klinik fuer Innere Medizin II Haematologie/Onkologie und Gastroenterologie (Germany)

2010-04-15

50

An in vitro study comparing a peripherally inserted central catheter to a conventional central venous catheter: no difference in static and dynamic pressure transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early goal directed therapy improves survival in patients with septic shock. Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is essential to guide adequate resuscitation. Use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is increasing, but little data exists comparing a PICC to a conventional CVP catheter. We studied the accuracy of a novel PICC to transmit static and dynamic pressures in vitro.

Heath E Latham; Timothy T Dwyer; Bethene L Gregg; Steven Q Simpson

2010-01-01

51

Abnormal location of umbilical venous catheter due to Scimitar syndrome  

PubMed Central

Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly where the right pulmonary veins return to the inferior vena cava (IVC) just below the diaphragm. On chest X-ray (CXR), an IVC catheter will be in a bizarre location outside the heart if it inadvertently passes into the scimitar vein rather than into the right atrium.

Mart, Christopher R; Van Dorn, Charlotte S

2014-01-01

52

Hospital-wide survey of the use of central venous catheters.  

PubMed

There are few data on indications for central venous catheter (CVC) use. We conducted an observational, hospital-wide prospective cohort study to quantify the indications for catheter placement over dwell time and to investigate agreement between healthcare workers (HCWs) on CVC use. Catheter use was observed by on-site visits, HCW interviews, and screening of patient charts. A total of 378 CVCs were inserted in 292 patients, accounting for 2704 catheter-days. Of these, 93% CVCs were multilumen catheters and 70% were placed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Median dwell time (interquartile range) was 5 (2-9) days overall, and 4 (2-7) and 8 (3-15) in the ICU and non-ICU settings, respectively. The mean number of specified indications for CVC use per day was 1.7 (1.9 for ICU and 1.5 for non-ICU; P<0.001). The most frequent reason (49%) for catheter use was prolonged (>7 days) antibiotic therapy followed by parenteral nutrition (22.3%). A total of 130 catheter-days (4.8%) were unnecessary with a higher proportion in non-ICU settings (6.6%). In 94% of cases, there was agreement among HCWs on indications for CVC use. However, 35 on-site visits (8.3%) in non-ICU settings revealed that neither the nurse nor the treating physician knew why the catheter was in place. ICU catheters have a short dwell time but are utilised more often, whereas catheters in non-ICU settings show a reverse characteristic. Prevention measures targeting catheter care are more likely to be successful in non-ICU settings. PMID:21288595

Zingg, W; Sandoz, L; Inan, C; Cartier, V; Clergue, F; Pittet, D; Walder, B

2011-04-01

53

ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications).  

PubMed

When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion and maintenance. These too depend on appropriate choice of device, skilled implantation and correct positioning of the catheter, adequate stabilization of the device (preferably avoiding stitches), and the use of infusion pumps, as well as adequate policies for flushing and locking lines which are not in use. PMID:19464090

Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek

2009-08-01

54

[Long-term central venous catheter-related infections].  

PubMed

Long-term intravenous catheters (LTIVC) are standard practice for patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, digestive disease requiring total parenteral nutrition or end-stage renal disease. Even if they greatly improved patients' care, the use of LTIVC is also associated with microbial contamination and subsequent infection. These catheter-related infections are associated with morbidity, mortality and increased health-care costs. As patients carrying these LTIVC stay at home for their treatment (home parenteral nutrition for instance) or between cycles of treatment (antineoplastic chemotherapy or dialysis), it is mandatory that general practitioner and nurses are aware of recent data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of LTIVC-related infections. PMID:24923045

Lebeaux, David; Joly, Dominique; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

2014-05-01

55

(Mis)placed central venous catheter in the left superior intercostal vein  

PubMed Central

Background Chest X-ray is routinely performed to check the position of the central venous catheter (CVC) inserted through the internal jugular or subclavian vein, while the further evaluation of CVC malfunction is usually performed by contrast venography. In patients with superior vena cava obstruction, the tip of the catheter is often seen in collateral mediastinal venous pathways, rather than in the superior vena cava. In such cases detailed knowledge of thoracic vessel anatomy is necessary to identify the exact location of the catheter. Case report. We report a case of 32-year-old female patient with relapsing mediastinal lymphoma and previous superior vena cava obstruction with collateral azygos-hemiazygos venous pathways. The patient had CVC inserted through the left subclavian vein and its position was detected by CT to be in the dilated left superior intercostal vein and accessory hemiazygos vein. Considering that dilated accessory hemiazygos vein can tolerate infusion, the CVC was left in place and the patient had no complaints related to CVC (mal)position. Furthermore, we present anatomical and radiological observations on the azygos-hemiazygos venous system with the special emphasis on the left superior intercostal vein. Conclusions Non-contrast CT scans can be a valuable imaging tool in the detection of the CVC position, especially in patients with renal insufficiency and contrast media hypersensitivity. PMID:22933931

Padovan, Ranka Stern; Paar, Maja Hrabak; Aurer, Igor

2011-01-01

56

Fatal cardiac tamponade associated with central venous catheter: a report of 2 cases diagnosed in autopsy.  

PubMed

The authors present 2 cases of fatal cardiac tamponade associated with the insertion of a central venous catheter. The first case occurred soon after the insertion of the catheter (early complication), and the second case, 4 days after (late complication). In both cases, the post-catheter insertion check chest x-ray film showed the tip of the catheter located within the heart silhouette. The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made only during the cadaverous examination. In the first case, the catheter was found to be in the right internal jugular vein at autopsy. The postmortem examination showed a clear liquid inside the pericardial cavity and the inferior vena cava injury. In the second case, the catheter had been inserted via the right subclavian vein puncture and there was a perforation of the right atrium at autopsy. The child was using total parenteral nutrition, and the intrapericardial liquid was milky. The incorrect placement of the catheter tip and unrecognized complications led the 2 children to death. PMID:24457580

dos Santos Modelli, Manoel Eugenio; Cavalcanti, Felipe Barbosa

2014-03-01

57

Principles of tunneled cuffed catheter placement.  

PubMed

Tunneled cuffed catheters provide reliable and instant long-term intravenous access for a large variety of therapeutic purposes, including chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and apheresis. The most frequent application is for patients with renal failure as an access device for hemodialysis. In this capacity, the rate of catheter use has remained stable in the United States, despite the promotion of arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous grafts. The latter 2 procedures achieve superior longevity and much higher cost-efficiency. Tunneled catheters, however, serve as bridging devices during maturation of newly placed arteriovenous fistulas or as the final option in patients in whom fistulas and grafts have failed. High-quality vascular access is a hallmark of interventional radiology, and its significance for patient care and for our specialty cannot be overestimated. Familiarity with basic concepts of the device and procedural techniques are crucial to achieve successful long-term venous access. The following article demonstrates key concepts of tunneled venous catheter placement by means of dialysis, inasmuch as dialysis catheters represent the most commonly placed tunneled central venous catheters. The principles of placement and techniques utilized, however, are applicable to devices that are used for chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition, such as the Hickman, Broviac, Groshong, or tunneled peripherally inserted central catheters. PMID:22099010

Heberlein, Wolf

2011-12-01

58

Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections: incidence and an analysis of risk factors.  

PubMed

Six hundred and fifty-five central venous catheters (CVC) in 496 patients in the intensive care unit of Hospital Sultanah Aminah were studied to determine the incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI). CR-BSI was diagnosed in 38 catheters, giving an incidence of 9.43 CR-BSI per 1000 catheter days. The mean duration in situ was 8.4 +/- 4.9 days for infected CVCs and 6.0 +/- 3.8 days for non infected CVCs (p = 0.001). CVCs inserted in ICU had the highest infection rate (9.4%) compared to those inserted in the operating theatre (1.4%) and ward (2.8%) (p = 0.001). The highest rate of CR-BSI occurred with 4-lumen catheters (usually inserted when patients needed total parenteral nutrition) with a percentage of 15.8%. The majority of the CVCs (97.9%) were inserted via the subclavian or the internal jugular routes and there was no statistical difference in CR-BSI between them (p = 0.83). Number of attempts more than one had a higher rate of CR-BSI compared to single attempt with percentage of 7.0% vs 4.8% (p = 0.22). The top two organisms were Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In conclusion, the incidence of CR-BSI in our ICU was 9.43 CR-BSI per 1000 catheter days. The risk factors were duration of CVC in situ, venue of insertion and use of 4 lumen catheter for total parenteral nutrition. The site of insertion, number of lumen up to 3 lumens and the number of attempts were not risk factors. PMID:18705468

Tan, C C; Zanariah, Y; Lim, K I; Balan, S

2007-12-01

59

Obstructed central venous catheters. Restoring function with a 12-hour infusion of low-dose urokinase.  

PubMed

Thrombotic obstruction frequently prohibits infusion through or withdrawal of blood from central venous catheters and can occur in conjunction with symptomatic thrombosis of the subclavian vein. Thirty catheters were radiographically proved to be obstructed by thrombus and had not responded to at least one instillation of 5000 units of urokinase. All catheters were treated with a 12-hour infusion of urokinase at the rate of 40,000 units/hour. The obstructing thrombus was either eliminated or reduced in size in all instances and full function was restored in all but one catheter. No bleeding complications were seen. Six patients with obstructed catheters also had symptoms of subclavian vein thrombosis. All patients with symptoms of subclavian vein obstruction became asymptomatic on anticoagulant therapy even though no attempt at dissolving the thrombus obstructing the subclavian vein was made. A 12-hour infusion of low doses of urokinase can safely salvage function of obstructed catheters that otherwise may require replacement. Patients with concomitant subclavian vein thrombosis become asymptomatic on anticoagulant therapy without need to dissolve the obstructing thrombus. PMID:2123125

Haire, W D; Lieberman, R P; Lund, G B; Edney, J; Wieczorek, B M

1990-12-01

60

Elimination of central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections from the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCentral-venous-catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a complication of intensive care stay which can have important adverse consequences for both patient and institution. There are a number of evidence-based interventions that reduce CRBSI, but it is recognised that consistently applying the best evidence every time is a challenge.MethodsThe authors set out to reduce CRBSI and introduced interventions in our intensive

Andrew G Longmate; Kirsteen S Ellis; Louise Boyle; Shaun Maher; Chris J S Cairns; Suzanne M Lloyd; Colin Lang

2011-01-01

61

Inadvertent Puncture of the Thoracic Duct During Attempted Central Venous Catheter Placement  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of puncture of the thoracic duct during left subclavian vein catheterization on the intensive care unit. Computed tomography and measurement of the triglyceride levels in the aspirated fluid proved the inadvertent penetration of the guidewire into the thoracic duct. Early recognition of central line misplacement avoided serious complications. Inadvertent central venous catheter placement into the thoracic duct may have the potential complications of infusion mediastinum and chylothorax.

Teichgraber, Ulf K.M. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu, Berlin, Augusten berger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.de; Nibbe, Lutz [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin, Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard; Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Universitaet zu, Berlin, Augusten berger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2003-11-15

62

Central venous catheter-related infection in a prospective and observational study of 2,595 catheters  

PubMed Central

Introduction Central venous catheterization is commonly used in critically ill patients and may cause different complications, including infection. Although there are many studies about CVC-related infection, very few have analyzed it in detail. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of catheter-related local infection (CRLI) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) with central venous catheters (CVCs) according to different access sites. Methods This is a prospective and observational study, conducted in a 24-bed medical surgical intensive care unit of a 650-bed university hospital. All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU during 3 years (1 May 2000 and 30 April 2003) were included. Results The study included 2,018 patients. The number of CVCs and days of catheterization duration were: global, 2,595 and 18,999; subclavian, 917 and 8,239; jugular, 1,390 and 8,361; femoral, 288 and 2,399. CRLI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (15.83 versus 7.65, p < 0.001) and subclavian (15.83 versus 1.57, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (7.65 versus 1.57, p < 0.001). CRBSI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (8.34 versus 2.99, p = 0.002) and subclavian (8.34 versus 0.97, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (2.99 versus 0.97, p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results suggest that the order for punction, to minimize the CVC-related infection risk, should be subclavian (first order), jugular (second order) and femoral vein (third order). PMID:16280064

Lorente, Leonardo; Henry, Christophe; Martin, Maria M; Jimenez, Alejandro; Mora, Maria L

2005-01-01

63

Skin versus hub cultures to predict colonization and infection of central venous catheter in intensive care patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Central venous catheters (CVC) are an important source of nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The unnecessary removal of CVC suspected to be infected can probably be minimized. In order to test the accuracy of non-invasive methods for predicting catheter colonization, we prospectively compared the results of 50 consecutive CVC tip cultures, with cultures of the CVC hub and

B. Guidet; J. M. Gabillet; E. Snoey; G. Offenstadt; I. Nicola; V. Barakett; J. C. Petit

1994-01-01

64

Preventing biofilm formation and associated occlusion by biomimetic glycocalyxlike polymer in central venous catheters.  

PubMed

The use of catheters and other implanted devices is constantly increasing in modern medicine. Although catheters improve patients' healthcare, the hydrophobic nature of their surface material promotes protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Catheters are therefore prone to complications, such as colonization by bacterial and fungal biofilms, associated infections, and thrombosis. Here we describe the in vivo efficacy of biologically inspired glycocalyxlike antiadhesive coatings to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization on commercial totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) in a clinically relevant rat model of biofilm infection. Although noncoated TIVAPs implanted in rats were heavily colonized by the 2 biofilm-forming pathogens with a high percentage of occlusion, coating TIVAPs reduced their initial adherence and subsequently led to 4-log reduction in biofilm formation and reduced occlusion. Our antiadhesive approach is a simple and generalizable strategy that could be used to minimize clinical complications associated with the use of implantable medical devices. PMID:24795479

Chauhan, Ashwini; Bernardin, Aude; Mussard, Windy; Kriegel, Irène; Estève, Marc; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe; Semetey, Vincent

2014-11-01

65

Approach to prophylactic measures for central venous catheter-related infections in hemodialysis: a critical review.  

PubMed

Vascular access is the major risk factor for bacteremia, hospitalization, and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The type of vascular access most associated with bloodstream infection is central venous catheter (CVC). The incidence of catheter-related bacteremia ranges between 0.6 and 6.5 episodes per 1000 catheter days and increases linearly with the duration of catheter use. Given the high prevalence of CVC use and its direct association with catheter-related bacteremia, which adversely impacts morbidity and mortality rates and costs among HD patients, several prevention measures aimed at reducing the rates of CVC-related infections have been proposed and implemented. As a result, a large number of clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have been conducted in order to assess the effectiveness, clinical applicability, and long-term adverse effects of such measures. In the following article, prophylactic measures against CVC-related infections in HD patients and their possible advantages and limitations will be discussed, and the more recent literature on clinical experience with prophylactic antimicrobial lock therapy in HD CVCs will be reviewed. PMID:23944971

Silva, Tricya N V; de Marchi, Daniel; Mendes, Marcela L; Barretti, Pasqual; Ponce, Daniela

2014-01-01

66

Severe Liver Injury while Using Umbilical Venous Catheter: Case Series and Literature Review.  

PubMed

Objective?Proper position of umbilical venous catheter (UVC) is of importance to avoid severe complications. We review clinical presentations of neonates with UVC who developed catheter-associated liver injury. Study Design?We reviewed institutional intensive care database (2008-2013) and identified neonates with UVCs who developed severe hepatic injury. We recorded admission diagnosis, gestational age, birth weight, number of days the umbilical catheter was in place, its radiological position at insertion and at the time of injury, presenting clinical signs, and outcomes. Results?Of 1,081 neonates, 9 (0.8% [95% exact binomial confidence interval, 0.4-1.6%]) with UVC developed severe hepatic injury. All had the UVC malpositioned within the liver circulation. All presentations were life threatening, with acute abdominal distension (hepatomegaly) being the most consistent sign. Two neonates died from complications which were unrelated to catheter-associated liver injury. Conclusions : In all neonates with liver injury, UVC was malpositioned within the portal circulation. Despite the fact that our report provides only circumstantial evidence for the mechanism of injury, it supports reports which suggest that "low" UVC position increases potential for this type of complication. Acute onset of abdominal distension in a neonate with UVC should prompt ultrasonographic evaluation of position of the catheter tip. PMID:24590868

Grizelj, Ruza; Vukovic, Jurica; Bojanic, Katarina; Loncarevic, Damir; Stern-Padovan, Ranka; Filipovic-Grcic, Boris; Weingarten, Toby N; Sprung, Juraj

2014-11-01

67

Evaluation Central Venous Catheter Associated Blood Stream Infections: Microbiological Observational Study 7 Vinay Khanna Chiranjay Mukhopadhayay Vandana K E Murlidhar Verma and Partha Dabke  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for Evaluation Central Venous Catheter Associated Blood Stream Infections: Microbiological Observational Study 7 Vinay Khanna Chiranjay Mukhopadhayay Vandana K E Murlidhar Verma and Partha Dabke ?

68

Air Embolism after Central Venous Catheter Removal: Fibrin Sheath as the Portal of Persistent Air Entry  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheterization is of common practice in intensive care units; despite representing an essential device in various clinical circumstances, it represents a source of complications, sometimes even fatal, related to its management. We report the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) that had been wrongly positioned through left internal jugular vein. The vein presented complete thrombosis at vascular ultrasonography. An echocardiogram performed 24 hours after CVC removal showed the presence, apparently unjustified, of microbubbles in right chambers of the heart. A neck-thorax CT scan showed the presence of air bubbles within the left internal jugular vein, left innominate vein, and left subclavian vein. A vascular ultrasonography, focused on venous catheter insertion site, disclosed the presence of a vein-to-dermis fistula, as portal of air entry. Only after air occlusive dressing, we documented echographic disappearance of air bubbles within the right cardiac cavity. This report emphasizes possible air entry even many hours after CVC removal, making it mandatory to perform 24–72-hour air occlusive dressing or, when inadequate, to perform a purse string. PMID:24829822

Marco, Meggiolaro; Roman-Pognuz, Erik; Anna, Baritussio; Alessio, Scatto

2013-01-01

69

How long should umbilical venous catheters remain in place in neonates who require long-term (?5-7 days) central venous access?  

PubMed

In this evidenced-based review, we examine the current available literature to help answer the question 'In neonates requiring long-term central access [patient], does removal of the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) on days 5-7 and replacement with a peripherally inserted central catheter line [intervention] compared with leaving the UVC in situ [comparison] reduce rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections [outcome]?' PMID:25080979

Keir, Amy; Giesinger, Regan; Dunn, Michael

2014-08-01

70

Are central venous catheter tip cultures reliable after 6-day refrigeration?  

PubMed

Present guidelines recommend culturing only central venous catheter (CVC) tips from patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, a high proportion of these suspicions are not confirmed. Moreover, CVC tip culture increases laboratory workload, and reports of colonization may be meaningless or misleading for the clinician. Our working hypothesis was that CVC tips should be refrigerated and cultured only in patients with positive blood cultures. We evaluated the effect of 6-day refrigeration of 215 CVC tips. We selected all the catheters with a significant count according to the Maki's roll-plate technique and randomly assigned them to 2 groups. In group A, the catheters were recultured after 24 h of refrigeration, and in group B, the catheters were recultured after 6 days more of refrigeration, so that the refrigeration time evaluated would be of 6 days. The yield of refrigerated CVC tips that grow significant colony counts of primary culture in group B was compared with the yield of refrigerated catheter tips in group A. The difference showed that 6-day refrigeration reduced the number of significant CVCs by 15.2%. Only 61 CVCs were obtained from patients with CR-BSI, and in most of them, blood cultures were already positive before CVC culture, so only 0.91% of the CR-BSI episodes would have been misdiagnosed as culture negative after refrigeration. Refrigeration of CVC tips sent for culture and culturing only those from patients with positive blood cultures reduce the workload in the microbiology laboratory without misdiagnosing CR-BSI. PMID:19501790

Bouza, Emilio; Guembe, Maria; Gómez, Haydee; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Rivera, Marisa; Alcalá, Luis

2009-07-01

71

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated microorganisms from central venous catheters in ICU patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The abundance of infections associated with intensive care unit (ICU) is increasing due to the increased use of aggressive medical equipments like the central venous catheter (CVC). This study was designed and performed in 2010-2011 at Alzahra hospital, which is a referral center. This study aimed at determining the relative abundance and microbial sensitivity of organisms, which were creating contamination with CVCs in hospitalized patients in the ICUs of Alzahra hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed on 71 patients who were hospitalized in the Alzahra hospital ICU and had CVCs during 2010-2011. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS version 20 software and descriptive statistical approaches and chi-square and t-test trials. Results: In the sample culture obtained from the patients’ catheter in 19 cases (26/8%), no microorganism was grown and in 52 cases (73.3%) at least one type of microorganism including bacteria or fungus was grown. In this study, average hospitalization time in patients who got positive results from their catheter culture was significantly more compared with patients who did not grow any kinds of microorganism in their sample cultures. Conclusion: In this study, CVCs microbial contamination has a high prevalence, which is a major cause of prolonged patients staying in ICUs, and therefore, it is essential to take precaution and discharge the patient early for decreasing the catheter contamination and preventing the hospital infections incidence in the ICU patients. PMID:24800191

Khorvash, Farzin; Abbasi, Saeed; Meidani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Mehrnoosh

2014-01-01

72

Low Cardiac Output Secondary to a Malpositioned Umbilical Venous Catheter: Value of Targeted Neonatal Echocardiography  

PubMed Central

Systemic hypotension is common in very low birthweight preterm infants but the nature of the precipitating cause may be unclear. Targeted neonatal echocardiography (TnEcho) is being increasingly used to support hemodynamic decisions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), including identifying impairments in the transitional circulation of preterm infants, providing timely re-evaluation after institution of therapies and evaluating the placement of indwelling catheters. We present a case of a preterm infant with systemic hypotension and low cardiac output secondary to a large transatrial shunt induced by a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter. Repositioning of the line led to resolution of the hemodynamic disturbance and clinical instability, highlighting the utility of TnEcho in the NICU. PMID:25032055

Weisz, Dany E.; Poon, Wei Bing; James, Andrew; McNamara, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

73

Congenital Systemic-Pulmonary Collateral Vein Unexpectedly Noticed after Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

PubMed Central

Congenital systemic-pulmonary collateral vein (i.e. levoatriocardinal vein) is an uncommon cardiac anomaly. We report a rare case of congenital systemic-pulmonary collateral vein incidentally noticed after accidental migration of a central venous catheter. Cardiac CT showed the vertical vein connected to the left upper pulmonary vein (LUPV) and another thin abnormal vessel was shown running caudally from the LUPV, connecting to the coronary sinus. Furthermore, the normal connection between the LUPV and the left atrium remained. There were two levoatriocardinal veins from the LUPV without atrial egress failure. To our knowledge, this might be the first report of such a case. PMID:23555514

Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

2012-01-01

74

Clinical significance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus central venous catheter tip cultures.  

PubMed

This retrospective cohort study examined the clinical significance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus central venous catheter (CVC) tip cultures (i.e., positive tip cultures without concomitant positive blood cultures). Subsequent S. aureus bacteraemia was found in nine (12%) of 77 patients at a median time of 4 days after CVC removal. A high co-morbidity score and no effective antibiotic treatment within 48 h of CVC removal were independent risk-factors for septic complications following multivariate analysis. A matched case-control study that compared the above cohort with patients with CVC tip cultures negative for S. aureus supported the significance of these findings. PMID:16882304

Ruhe, J J; Menon, A

2006-09-01

75

Case Report Central venous catheter infection associated with Pseudozyma aphidis in a child with short gut syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudozyma aphidis is a heterobasidiomycetous yeast related to the smut fungi in the genus Ustilago. Pseudozyma species are usually isolated from plants and rarely from clinical specimens. We report what is believed to be the first paediatric case of central venous catheter (CVC)-related fungaemia associated with P. aphidis. Prompt removal of the CVC in conjunction with anti-fungal therapy resulted in

Shau-Shau Lin; Thomas Pranikoff; Shani F. Smith; Mary E. Brandt; Kemery Gilbert; Elizabeth L. Palavecino; Avinash K. Shetty

2008-01-01

76

Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these

R. Murga; J. M. Miller; R. M. Donlan

2001-01-01

77

Duration and Adverse Events of Non-cuffed Catheter in Patients With Hemodialysis  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Renal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis; Central Venous Catheterization; Inadequate Hemodialysis Blood Flow; Venous Stenosis; Venous Thrombosis; Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter; Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis

2014-10-09

78

Needleless Closed System Does Not Reduce Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

The needleless closed system (NCS) has been disseminated in several clinical fields to prevent central venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (CVC-RBSI), in place of the conventional Luer cap system (LCS). The purpose of this study is to examine whether NCS is really superior to conventional LCS for prevention of CVC-RBSI. Between May 2002 and December 2008, 1767 patients received CVC in our department. The time interval from insertion to development of CVC-RBSI was compared retrospectively between selected patients who were treated using the conventional LCS (group 1, n = 89, before June 2006) and the NCS (group 2, n = 406, June 2006 and after). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no significant difference in the time interval from insertion to development of CVC-RBSI between the two groups. NCS does not reduce CVC-RBSI in adult colorectal cancer patients who undergo CVC insertion. PMID:23438283

Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Nagata, Hitoshi; Takagi, Kazutoshi; Kubota, Keiichi

2013-01-01

79

Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?  

PubMed

Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation. PMID:24347530

Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

2014-02-01

80

A cross-sectional study to compare two blood collection methods: direct venous puncture and peripheral venous catheter  

PubMed Central

Objectives To demonstrate the equivalence between blood collection methods using direct venous puncture (DVP) and a peripheral venous catheter or cannula (PVC). Design and setting A cross-sectional study of simple crossover design with within-subject measures carried out between October 2011 and May 2012 at a regional hospital in Spain. Participants 272 patients aged 18 or older hospitalised or admitted to the short-stay unit (SSU) who required laboratory testing and PVC to administer saline solution, intravenous fluid therapy and/or intravenous medication. Excluded were those with PVC collection time exceeding 20?s, difficulty of venoclysis, or who presented with arteriovenous fistula, language difficulties, in critical condition or altered consciousness with no family to consent. Primary and secondary outcome measures 18 variables were recorded for DVP and PVC, along with age, sex, diagnosis, vein location for DVP, location of the PVC, PVC calibre, saline syringe, intravenous fluid therapy, medication, haemolysis and clotted blood during DVP or PVC collection. Univariate analysis, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc) and Bland-Altman's 95% agreement interval were provided. Results Included in the study were 272 patients, primarily aged 65 or older (80.9%), males (52.6%) and receiving intermittent medication (43.4%). Values obtained with both methods showed a positive linear association, being moderate for pO2 (r=0.405) and very high for all others (r>0.86). Levels were concordant (rc?0.9), except for calcium (rc=0.860), pH (rc=0.853), pCO2 (rc=0.843) and pO2 (rc=0.336) and equivalent for all determinations except pCO2 and pO2, where clinically significant differences were found in more than 9% of cases (21.2%, 95% CI 16.6% to 26.5% and 73.1%, 95% CI 67.4% to 78.1%). Conclusions Blood collection methods using DVP and PVC can be used interchangeably for most routine laboratory tests. PMID:24578539

Ortells-Abuye, Nativitat; Busquets-Puigdevall, Teresa; Díaz-Bergara, Maribel; Paguina-Marcos, Marta; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma

2014-01-01

81

Catheter Related Bloodstream Infection (CR-BSI) in ICU Patients: Making the Decision to Remove or Not to Remove the Central Venous Catheter  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 150 million central venous catheters (CVC) are used each year in the United States. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are one of the most important complications of the central venous catheters (CVCs). Our objective was to compare the in-hospital mortality when the catheter is removed or not removed in patients with CR-BSI. Methods We reviewed all episodes of CR-BSI that occurred in our intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2000 to December 2008. The standard method was defined as a patient with a CVC and at least one positive blood culture obtained from a peripheral vein and a positive semi quantitative (>15 CFU) culture of a catheter segment from where the same organism was isolated. The conservative method was defined as a patient with a CVC and at least one positive blood culture obtained from a peripheral vein and one of the following: (1) differential time period of CVC culture versus peripheral culture positivity of more than 2 hours, or (2) simultaneous quantitative blood culture with 5?1 ratio (CVC versus peripheral). Results 53 CR-BSI (37 diagnosed by the standard method and 16 by the conservative method) were diagnosed during the study period. There was a no statistically significant difference in the in-hospital mortality for the standard versus the conservative method (57% vs. 75%, p?=?0.208) in ICU patients. Conclusion In our study there was a no statistically significant difference between the standard and conservative methods in-hospital mortality. PMID:22403696

Deliberato, Rodrigo Octavio; Marra, Alexandre R.; Correa, Thiago Domingos; Martino, Marines Dalla Vale; Correa, Luci; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavao; Edmond, Michael B.

2012-01-01

82

Use of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter as a Conduit for Central Venous Access Across Thrombosed Great Veins  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

Guntur Ramkumar, Prasad, E-mail: prasad.guntur@nhs.net; Chakraverty, Sam, E-mail: schakraverty@nhs.net; Zealley, Ian, E-mail: ian.zealley@nhs.ne [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, NHS Tayside (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

83

Adverse events and technical complaints related to central venous catheters marketed in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Aim The objective of this study was to critically analyze data of the National Notification System for Adverse Events and Technical Complaints (Notivisa) related to central venous catheters, through an evaluation of the description of notifications recorded between 2006 and 2009. Methods Notifications were categorized and evaluated to: (i) determine the number of adverse events and technical complaints, (ii) verify compliance with the classification criteria defined by the legislation, (iii) reclassify notifications, when necessary, in order for them to fit in with the legal definitions, (iv) verify registered companies in Brazil, (v) quantify the notifications according to the registered company and product lot, and (vi) identify the country of original of the notified product. Microsoft Excel(r) 2010 was used to categorize and systematize the data. Results Some conceptual errors and incomplete records were found. Altogether, 228 notifications of technical complaints and 119 of adverse events were identified. Some notifications on guidewires and broken catheters were reported which led to the necessity of duplicating some medical procedures and to the occurrence of lesions/lacerations of vessels and tissue injury. Forty-seven percent of companies presented at least one notification in Notivisa and in all, 38 product lots had more than one notification. Conclusion These data support a necessity for cooperation between all entities of the National Health Surveillance System to check compliance of this type of product and to properly report adverse events and technical complaints. It is also important to incorporate minimum standards for the management of technologies in health services, including in the acquisition of products and training of staff. PMID:23904810

Morais, Luciene de Oliveira; Friedrich, Karen; Melchior, Stela Candioto; Silva, Michele Feitoza; Gemal, Andre Luis; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes

2013-01-01

84

Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal) and internal (luminal) side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods improves the detection of microorganisms involved in central catheter-related infections. The importance of these microorganisms needs to be investigated further, also in relation to contamination risk from improper catheter handling, as only in vivo contaminants are of interest. This information can be used for development of fast and more reliable diagnostic tools, which can be used in combination with traditional methods. PMID:18954471

Larsen, Mette KS; Thomsen, Trine R; Moser, Claus; H?iby, Niels; Nielsen, Per H

2008-01-01

85

Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging  

PubMed Central

The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC), indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins) yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi. PMID:23935636

Colombo, Alberto; Maccari, Giuseppe; Congiu, Terenzio; Basso, Petra; Baj, Andreina; Toniolo, Antonio

2013-01-01

86

Molecular investigation of bacterial communities on the inner and outer surfaces of peripheral venous catheters.  

PubMed

Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are some of the most widely used medical devices in hospitals worldwide. PVC-related infections increase morbidity and treatment costs. The inner surfaces of PVCs are rarely examined for the population structure of bacteria, as it is generally believed that bacteria at this niche are similar to those on the external surface of PVCs. We primarily test this hypothesis and also study the effect of antibiotic treatment on bacterial communities from PVC surfaces. The inner and outer surfaces of PVCs from 15 patients were examined by 454 GS FLX Titanium 16S rRNA sequencing and the culture method. None of the PVCs were colonised according to the culture method and none of the patients had a bacteraemia. From a total of 127,536 high-quality sequence reads, 14 bacterial phyla and 268 diverse bacterial genera were detected. The number of operational taxonomic units for each sample was in the range of 86-157, even though 60 % of patients had received antibiotic treatment. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the predominant bacterial species in all the examined PVC samples. There were noticeable but not statistically significant differences between the inner and outer surfaces of PVCs in terms of the distribution of the taxonomic groups. In addition, the bacterial communities on PVCs from antibiotic-treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients. In conclusion, the surfaces of PVCs display complex bacterial communities. Although their significance has yet to be determined, these findings alter our perception of PVC-related infections. PMID:23529345

Zhang, L; Morrison, M; Nimmo, G R; Sriprakash, K S; Mondot, S; Gowardman, J R; George, N; Marsh, N; Rickard, C M

2013-08-01

87

On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

2014-08-28

88

Continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement using a fibre optic catheter in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe the range of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) values in stable newborn infants breathing room air; to examine the correlation between ScvO2 and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2); to describe fractional oxygen extraction; and the shunt index, an estimate of the venous admixture. METHODS: A prospective clinical observational study was made of 10 preterm infants breathing room air after the acute phase of respiratory distress syndrome, and with an umbilical venous catheter in situ. A fibre optic catheter remained in the right atrium for continuous measurement of oxygen saturation. RESULTS: ScvO2, SaO2, blood pressure and heart rate were registered every 15 minutes. Fractional oxygen extraction and shunt index were calculated. SaO2 and ScvO2 were 93.4 (SD 3.7)% and 73.56 (5.25)%, respectively. In seven patients ScvO2 values correlated significantly with SaO2. Fractional oxygen extraction was 0.21 (0.04) and was significantly correlated with ScvO2. The shunt index was 24% (12) and was significantly correlated with SaO2. CONCLUSIONS: Stable preterm infants breathing room air had an ScvO2 ranging from 65% to 82% (5th and 95th percentile), which corresponded to SaO2 > or = 86%. ScvO2 values were significantly correlated with SaO2 in most patients. PMID:8777680

van der Hoeven, M. A.; Maertzdorf, W. J.; Blanco, C. E.

1996-01-01

89

A prospective observational study of the outcome of central venous catheterization in 100 patients  

PubMed Central

Context: To Study the outcome following central vein catheterization in patients receiving chemotherapy. Aims: To Study the outcome of central venous catheterization in terms of difficulty during insertion, duration, incidence of infections and other complications and reasons for removal. Settings and Designs: Prospective observational study conducted in 100 patients attending to Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute. Materials and Methods: Both onco-medical and onco-surgical patients who required insertion of central venous catheters were enrolled after ethical approval from June 2008 to November 2010. The study comprised 100 patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and percentage. Results: Mean duration of the indwelling catheter was 109 days for Hickman catheter, 39 days for cavafix and 59 days for certofix. Difficulty in insertion and arrhythmias were common complications. There were no incidences of major life threatening complications. Catheter related infection was 30%. The commonest reason for catheter removal was treatment completion 72%. The next frequent cause was catheter infection 14% and patient death 6%. Conclusions: Even though central venous catheterization is associated with acceptable complications, they serve a useful aid in management of patients on chemotherapy.

Kumar, Arun H. D.; Srinivasan, Nataraj M.; Thakkar, Jayashree M.; Mathew, Shaji

2013-01-01

90

Detection of viable but non-culturable staphylococci in biofilms from central venous catheters negative on standard microbiological assays.  

PubMed

Viable bacteria were sought in 44 Maki-negative biofilms from central venous catheters (CVCs) using epifluorescence microscopy after live/dead staining. Thirty (77%) samples contained viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells; the majority were positive on real-time PCR specific for Staphylococcus epidermidis (one also for Staphylococcus aureus). Viable cells were significantly (p<0.01) associated with CVCs from febrile patients, three of whom showed S. epidermidis-positive blood cultures, suggesting that CVC-associated biofilms can be reservoirs for staphylococci in the VBNC state. The possible role of VBNC staphylococci in persistent infections related to medical devices requires further investigation. PMID:22578149

Zandri, G; Pasquaroli, S; Vignaroli, C; Talevi, S; Manso, E; Donelli, G; Biavasco, F

2012-07-01

91

Evaluation of Central Venous Catheter Associated Blood Stream Infections: A Microbiological Observational Study  

PubMed Central

There are substantial morbidity and mortality associated with vascular catheter use among crictically ill patients. The attributable mortality is 10% to 25% which is associated with bacteremia among those who are hospitalized. This study was undertaken to identify catheter related blood stream infections, to isolate pathogenic microorganisms present in intravascular catheter related local infections, exit site infections, and to determine the predisposing factors for the development of such infections and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolated organisms in tertiary care hospital. PMID:23936657

Khanna, Vinay; Mukhopadhayay, Chiranjay; K. E., Vandana; Verma, Murlidhar; Dabke, Partha

2013-01-01

92

Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Venous and Synthetic Bypass-Graft Occlusions With a Mechanical Rotational Catheter  

SciTech Connect

PurposePercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) is now established as an alternative treatment of acute arterial occlusions in addition to fibrinolysis and surgical thrombectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was the investigation of a rotational atherothrombectomy catheter in terms of safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions.Materials and MethodsForty-two patients (average age 65.8 {+-} 9.1 years) with acute (<14 days [n = 31]) and subacute (14-42 days [n = 11]) femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated consecutively with a rotational debulking and removal catheter (Straub Rotarex). The average occlusion length was 28.4 {+-} 2.9 (24-34) cm. Thirty-four (81 %) patients underwent venous bypass, and 8 (19 %) patients underwent polytetrafluoroethylene bypass.ResultsThe technical success rate was 97.6 % (41 of 42). In 1 patient, blood flow could not be restored despite the use of the atherothrombectomy system. The average catheter intervention time was 6.9 {+-} 2.1 (4-9) min. Ankle-brachial index increased from 0.39 {+-} 0.13 to 0.83 {+-} 0.11 at discharge and to 0.82 {+-} 0.17 after 1 month (p < 0.05). There were a total of 2 (4.8 %) peri-interventional complications: One patient developed a distal embolism, which was successfully treated with local lysis, and another patient had a small perforation at the distal anastomosis, which was successfully treated with a stent.ConclusionPMT with the Rotarex atherothrombectomy catheter represents a safe and effective option in the treatment of acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions because it can quickly restore blood flow.

Wissgott, Christian, E-mail: cwissgott@wkk-hei.de; Kamusella, Peter; Andresen, Reimer [Westkuestenklinikum Heide-Academic Teaching Hospital of the Universities of Kiel, Luebeck and Hamburg, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany)

2013-08-01

93

Massive Liver Mass and Parenteral Nutrition Extravasation Secondary to Umbilical Venous Catheter Complications  

PubMed Central

Umbilical vein catheters (UVC) are widely used in neonatal medicine. Serious complications from UVC placement are uncommon but do exist, including infection, thrombosis, arrhythmias, and hemorrhage. Although rare, hepatic complications, in particular, have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correct positioning of the catheter prior to starting infusion of hyperosmolar solutions and early recognition of UVC-related complications are crucial in minimizing iatrogenic injury. We report the case of a neonate who was found at 10 days of age to have large pleural and peritoneal effusions and a massive fluid collection in the liver due to malposition of a UVC.

Yeh, Joanna; Vargas, Jorge H; Wozniak, Laura J; Smith, Jeffrey B; Boechat, M Ines; Touma, Marlin

2014-01-01

94

Massive liver mass and parenteral nutrition extravasation secondary to umbilical venous catheter complications.  

PubMed

Umbilical vein catheters (UVC) are widely used in neonatal medicine. Serious complications from UVC placement are uncommon but do exist, including infection, thrombosis, arrhythmias, and hemorrhage. Although rare, hepatic complications, in particular, have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correct positioning of the catheter prior to starting infusion of hyperosmolar solutions and early recognition of UVC-related complications are crucial in minimizing iatrogenic injury. We report the case of a neonate who was found at 10 days of age to have large pleural and peritoneal effusions and a massive fluid collection in the liver due to malposition of a UVC. PMID:25337502

Yeh, Joanna; Vargas, Jorge H; Wozniak, Laura J; Smith, Jeffrey B; Boechat, M Ines; Touma, Marlin

2014-07-01

95

Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk  

E-print Network

and influence of polyurethane type Gentile et al. Gentile et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R103 http-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type Ariane Gentile1 to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods: Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Bilateral Pneumothoraces in a Pediatric Patient Undergoing Hickman Catheter Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

se of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA; Laryn- geal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, UK) in adults and children is widespread in the field of anesthesia. LMA provides an excellent airway in individuals not requiring the placement of a tracheal tube. Complications arising from the use of the LMA are typically mild and correctable, although more se- rious complications have been described.

G. Brent Shulman; Neil Roy Connelly

2002-01-01

97

Staphylococcus Aureus Prophylaxis in Hemodialysis Patients Using Central Venous Catheter: Effect of Mupirocin Ointment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheterization is a common tech- nique to establish rapid and temporary access for hemodialysis. However, it is a known risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection and bacteremia. Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic with high in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity. A randomized pro- spective trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of mupirocin ointment in the prevention of Staphylococcus au-

RICARDO SESSO; DULCE BARBOSA; IVANI L. LEME; MARIA E. CANZIANI; SILVIA MANFREDI; SERGIO DRAIBE; ANTONIO C. PIGNATARIt

1998-01-01

98

Coiling of central venous catheter in the left subclavian vein, a rare complication  

PubMed Central

Invasive monitoring is the need of the hour in today's scenario in intensive care units and perioperatively in hemodynamically unstable patients. Despite careful placement using proper landmarks and USG guided methods central venous canuulation (CVC) is associated sometimes with unforeseen complications. We report a rare complication of coiling of CVC in the left subclavian vein. PMID:24678154

Goyal, Vipin; Sahu, Sandeep

2014-01-01

99

Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients: factors associated with catheter removal and recurrence.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to analyze the factors associated with antibiotic failure leading to tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) removal during catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) and with recurrence and reinfection in children with cancer. All cases of CABSI in patients attending the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between November 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed. A total of 207 episodes of CABSI, including multiple episodes involving the same catheter, were identified in 146 of 410 tunneled CVCs (167 Hickman, 243 implantable ports). The most common organism isolated was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS). The CVC was removed in 96 (46%) episodes. Hypotension, persistent bacteremia, previous stem cell transplantation, multiple CABSIs in the same CVC, exit-site infection, inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, and Candida infection were all significantly associated with increased risk of catheter removal (P < 0.05, odds ratios 7.81, 1.14, 2.22, 1.93, 3.04, 2.04 and 24.53, respectively). There were 12 episodes of recurrent infection, all except 1 caused by CONS (odds ratio 20.5, P = 0.006). Inappropriate empiric therapy, especially in implantable ports, was the only mutable risk factor for antibiotic failure. Because CONS was the predominant isolate in these devices, adding glycopeptides to the empiric therapy for suspected implantable-port CABSI might decrease the removal rate. This issue should be explored in future controlled trials. PMID:16394888

Adler, Amos; Yaniv, Isaac; Solter, Ester; Freud, Enrique; Samra, Zmira; Stein, Jerry; Fisher, Salvador; Levy, Itzhak

2006-01-01

100

On-line blood viscosity monitoring in vivo with a central venous catheter, using electrical impedance technique.  

PubMed

Blood viscosity is an important determinant of microvascular hemodynamics and also reflects systemic inflammation. Viscosity of blood strongly depends on the shear rate and can be characterized by a two parameter power-law model. Other major determinants of blood viscosity are hematocrit, level of inflammatory proteins and temperature. In-vitro studies have shown that these major parameters are related to the electrical impedance of blood. A special central venous catheter was developed to measure electrical impedance of blood in-vivo in the right atrium. Considering that blood viscosity plays an important role in cerebral blood flow, we investigated the feasibility to monitor blood viscosity by electrical bioimpedance in 10 patients during the first 3 days after successful resuscitation from a cardiac arrest. The blood viscosity-shear rate relationship was obtained from arterial blood samples analyzed using a standard viscosity meter. Non-linear regression analysis resulted in the following equation to estimate in-vivo blood viscosity (Viscosity(imp)) from plasma resistance (R(p)), intracellular resistance (R(i)) and blood temperature (T) as obtained from right atrium impedance measurements: Viscosity(imp)=(-15.574+15.576R(p)T)SR ((-.138RpT-.290Ri)). This model explains 89.2% (R(2)=.892) of the blood viscosity-shear rate relationship. The explained variance was similar for the non-linear regression model estimating blood viscosity from its major determinants hematocrit and the level of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (R(2)=.884). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias between the in-vitro viscosity measurement and the in-vivo impedance model of .04 mPa s at a shear rate of 5.5s(-1) with limits of agreement between -1.69 mPa s and 1.78 mPa s. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the proof of principle to monitor blood viscosity continuously in the human right atrium by a dedicated central venous catheter equipped with an impedance measuring device. No safety problems occurred and there was good agreement with in-vitro measurements of blood viscosity. PMID:23089327

Pop, Gheorghe A M; Bisschops, Laurens L A; Iliev, Blagoy; Struijk, Pieter C; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W E

2013-03-15

101

Linezolid Compared with Eperezolid, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin in an In Vitro Model of Antimicrobial Lock Therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis Central Venous Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified

John Curtin; Martin Cormican; Gerard Fleming; John Keelehan; Emer Colleran

2003-01-01

102

Microbial biofilms on needleless connectors for central venous catheters: comparison of standard and silver-coated devices collected from patients in an acute care hospital.  

PubMed

Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P=0.11). There were no significant associations (P>0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P=0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P=0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M Ryan; Donlan, Rodney M

2014-03-01

103

Microbial Biofilms on Needleless Connectors for Central Venous Catheters: Comparison of Standard and Silver-Coated Devices Collected from Patients in an Acute Care Hospital  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P = 0.11). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P = 0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P = 0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T.; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P.; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan

2014-01-01

104

Using lateral radiographs to determine umbilical venous catheter tip position in neonates.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess the difference in measurement of the distance of the UVC tip from the diaphragm between (Anteroposterior) AP and lateral radiographs and to determine the reliability of the measurement of UVC tip distance from the diaphragm between the two views. A retrospective review of paired AP and lateral radiographs taken to assess UVC tip position was carried out in 25 infants was conducted and reliability analysis was carried out. There was a significant difference in the mean (SD) distance of the UVC catheter above the diaphragm between the AP and lateral radiographs: 8.7 (7.8) mm versus 11.6 (7.3) mm (p = 0.003) respectively. Measurements using lateral radiographs were more reliable (Intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.99 vs. 0.93). Inter-observer reliability analysis yielded similar results. Lateral radiographs are more reliable in measurement of UVC tip position and should be performed in conjunction with AP films to aid in determining UVC position. PMID:25282975

Butler, G C; Al-Assaf, N; Tarrant, A; Ryan, S; El-Khuffash, A

2014-09-01

105

The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of suspected central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis by guide wire exchange (GWX) is not recommended. However, GWX for new antimicrobial surface treated (AST) triple lumen CVCs has never been studied. We aimed to compare the microbiological outcome of triple lumen AST CVCs inserted by GWX (GWX-CVCs) with newly inserted triple lumen AST CVCs (NI-CVCs). Methods We studied a cohort of 145 consecutive patients with GWX-CVCs and contemporaneous site-matched control cohort of 163 patients with NI-CVCs in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Results GWX-CVC and NI-CVC patients were similar for mean age (58.7 vs. 62.2 years), gender (88 (60.7%) vs. 98 (60.5%) male) and illness severity on admission (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III: 71.3 vs. 72.2). However, GWX patients had longer median ICU lengths of stay (12.2 vs. 4.4 days; P < 0.001) and median hospital lengths of stay (30.7 vs. 18.0 days; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the number of CVC tips with bacterial or fungal pathogen colonization among GWX-CVCs vs. NI-CVCs (5 (2.5%) vs. 6 (7.4%); P = 0.90). Catheter-associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) occurred in 2 (1.4%) GWX patients compared with 3 (1.8%) NI-CVC patients (P = 0.75). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (35 (24.1%) vs. 48 (29.4%); P = 0.29). Conclusions GWX-CVCs and NI-CVCs had similar rates of tip colonization at removal, CA-BSI and mortality. If the CVC removed by GWX is colonized, a new CVC must then be inserted at another site. In selected ICU patients at higher central vein puncture risk receiving AST CVCs GWX may be an acceptable initial approach to line insertion. PMID:24004883

2013-01-01

106

Wound healing and catheter thrombosis after implantable venous access device placement in 266 breast cancers treated with bevacizumab therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine, in a population with metastatic breast cancer treated with bevacizumab therapy, the incidence of wound dehiscence after placement of an implantable venous access device (VAD) and to study the risk of catheter thrombosis. This study enrolled all VADs placed by 14 anesthetists between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009: 273 VADs in patients treated with bevacizumab therapy and 4196 VADs in patients not treated with bevacizumab therapy. In the bevacizumab therapy group, 13 cases of wound dehiscence occurred in 12 patients requiring removal of the VAD (4.76%). All cases of dehiscence occurred when bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement. Bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement in 150 cases (13 of 150: 8.6%). The risk of dehiscence was the same from 0 to 7 days. In parallel, the VAD wound dehiscence rate in patients not receiving bevacizumab therapy was eight of 4197 cases (0.19%) (Fisher's test significant, P<0.001). No risk factors of dehiscence were identified: anesthetists, learning curves, and irradiated patients. VAD thrombosis occurred in four patients (1.5%). In parallel, VAD thrombosis occurred in 51 of 4197 patients (1.2%) not receiving bevacizumab therapy (Fisher's test not significant; P=0.43). Bevacizumab therapy was permanently discontinued in five patients related to wound dehiscence and in one patient due to extensive skin necrosis. These data suggest the need to observe an interval of at least 7 days between VAD placement and initiation of bevacizumab therapy to avoid the risk of a wound dehiscence requiring chest wall port explant. The risk of VAD thrombosis does not require any particular primary prevention. PMID:21970853

Kriegel, Irène; Cottu, Paul H; Fourchotte, Virginie; Sanchez, Sebastian; Fromantin, Isabelle; Kirov, Krassen; Guillaume, Alain; Pelloquin, Anne; Esteve, Marc; Salmon, Remy J

2011-11-01

107

Impact of Postplacement Adjustment of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters on the Risk of Bloodstream Infection and Venous Thrombus Formation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital. PATIENTS Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007. METHODS The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records. RESULTS There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P < .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT. PMID:23838218

Baxi, Sanjiv M.; Shuman, Emily K.; Scipione, Christy A.; Chen, Benrong; Sharma, Aditi; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.; Chenoweth, Carol E.

2014-01-01

108

Discovering the barriers to spread the usage of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in the neonatal intensive care units: A qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background: By increasing the survival of immature newborns, intravenous access methods, used to provide intravenous therapy, became more important. More attention has been recently paid on peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns, although it is yet unknown in Iran. In this study, we tried to discover the barriers to spread the usage of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) in the neonatal intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive explorative qualitative research, conducted from December 2011 to April 2012 with purposeful sampling and snowball method, participants were selected from nurses and residents of neonatology and neonatal specialists working in Alzahra, Shahid Beheshty, and Amin hospitals, until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed with thematic analysis proposed by Broun and Clarke in 2006. Results: Data analysis yielded 175 initial codes, 12 sub-themes, and 3 main themes. The main themes included barriers related to procedure and maintenance, barriers related to persons providing care, and barriers related to management and planning. Conclusions: One of the major problems in premature newborns during hospitalization is long-term and safe intravascular access; therefore, more use of PICC is needed. A complete planning is also needed to eliminate barriers and to provide required catheters. Educating the personnel is also necessary. PMID:24403919

Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Mahdavi-Lenji, Zahra; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Sadeghnia, Alireza

2013-01-01

109

Efficacy of 1.0% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol compared with 10% povidone-iodine for long-term central venous catheter care in hematology departments: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The efficacy of 1% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol and 10% povidone-iodine for skin antisepsis of central venous catheter (CVC) sites were compared among hematology patients. The CVC site colonization rates of those groups were 11.9% and 29.2%, respectively, and the catheter-associated blood stream infections were 0.75 and 3.62 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. One percent chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol was superior to povidone-iodine to reduce skin colonizers at CVC sites even when catheters were used for long duration. PMID:24655901

Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kimura, Hideo; Misao, Hanako; Matsumoto, Hayato; Imafuku, Yuji; Watanabe, Akemi; Mori, Hiroko; Yoshida, Akiko; Miura, Saori; Abe, Yoshinobu; Toba, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kanemitsu, Keiji

2014-05-01

110

Utilization Patterns and Outcomes Associated with the Central Venous Catheter in Septic Shock: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2001 a randomized trial showed decreased mortality with early, goal-directed therapy in septic shock, a strategy later recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) is necessary to administer goal-directed therapy. We sought to evaluate nationwide trends in: 1) CVC utilization and 2) the association between early CVC insertion and mortality in patients with septic shock. Design We retrospectively analyzed the proportion of septic shock cases receiving an early (day of admission) CVC and the odds of hospital mortality associated with receiving early CVC from years 1998-2001 compared with 2002-2009. Setting Non-federal acute care hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2009. Interventions None Patients 203,481 (population estimate: 999,545) cases admitted through an emergency department with principal diagnosis of septicemia and secondary diagnosis of shock. Measurements and Main Results From 1998-2009 population-adjusted rates of septic shock increased from 12.6 cases per 100,000 US adults to 78 cases per 100,000. During this time age-adjusted hospital mortality associated with septic shock declined from 40.4% to 31.4%. Early CVC insertion increased from 5.7% (95% CI 5.1-6.3%) to 19.2% (95% CI 18.7-19.5%) cases with septic shock, with an increased rate of early CVC placement identified after 2007. The rate of decline in age-adjusted hospital mortality was significantly greater for patients who received an early CVC (-4.2% per year, 95% CI -3.2, -4.2%) as compared with no CVC (-2.9% per year, 95% CI -2.3, -3.5%), p=0.016. Hospital mortality associated with early CVC insertion significantly decreased from a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI 1.14-1.45) prior to 2001 to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.90) after 2001. Conclusions Placement of a CVC early in septic shock has increased 3-fold since 1998. The mortality associated with early CVC insertion decreased after publication of evidence-based instructions for CVC use. PMID:23507718

Walkey, Allan J.; Soylemez-Wiener, Renda; Lindenauer, Peter K.

2013-01-01

111

Colonization and Bloodstream Infection with Single Versus Multi-Lumen Central Venous Catheters: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

21 days with multi-lumen catheters and 9 to 24 days with single-lumen catheters. In 4 trials, 23 of 176 (13.1%) multi-lumen and 26 of 177 (14.7%) single-lumen cathe- ters were colonized (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.49 -1.72). In 5 trials, bloodstream infection occurred with 23 of 275 (8.4%) multi-lumen and with 8 of 255 (3.1%) single- lumen catheters (OR, 2.58;

JUKKA TAKALA; Mathias Zurcher; Martin R. Tramer; Bernhard Walder

112

A venous pulse Doppler catheter-tip flowmeter for measuring arterial blood velocity, flow, and diameter in deep arteries.  

PubMed

Numerous schemes have been used for measuring hemodynamic properties of deeply lying arteries; however, all have their limitations. This paper describes a new relatively nontraumatic intravenous approach that uses a catheter in connection with a pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocity meter (PUDVM) and an echo track. The catheter was initially tested in a hydraulic model system for calibration of velocity and flow parameters. Lately, the catheter has permittted measurements of local instantaneous blood velocity, flow, and wall motion characteristics in adult Beagle dogs in the abdominal aorta and iliac artery. Evaluation studies have been conducted to compare the catheter-tip recordings with an independent method for measuring blood flow and wall motion. Coupling of this catheter-tip device with the PUDVM and echo track provides chronic measurements of hemodynamic parameters in these deep vessels which were virtually impossible to obtain previously. This technique may prove useful in monitoring vessel pathology longitudinally as well as in basic experimental situations requiring flow and arterial wall mechanical properties. PMID:133084

Nealeigh, R C; Miller, C W

1976-01-01

113

C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters  

SciTech Connect

C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

Tam, Alda, E-mail: alda.tam@di.mdacc.tmc.ed [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. (United States); Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, AX Division (Germany); Wallace, Michael J. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)

2009-07-15

114

Central venous catheter insertion in peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell sibling donors: the SIdEM (Italian Society of Hemapheresis and Cell Manipulation) point of view.  

PubMed

Collection of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) is the practice of choice for graft procurement in both autologous and allogeneic setting. The success of this procedure depends on the use of adequate vascular accesses. Well-sized peripheral veins are the first option in autologous and allogeneic donations. In autologous setting, in case of lack of adequate veins, central venous catheters (CVC) may be used for collection. In the allogeneic setting, although available data have shown the safety of the use of CVC, there are still some controversies about the possible insertion of a CVC in donors. A specific policy from competent registries is usually applied in the different countries to regulate the use of CVC in unrelated donors. In siblings, the question is still undefined due both to the lack of shared guidelines and to the specific characteristics of this donation. In fact, in not so rare cases, larger stem cell doses for specific cell manipulations (e.g., T/B cell depletion in the haploidentical setting) are needed. The lack of international rules or standard that forbid the use of a CVC in siblings and published data that document the safety of this procedure, allowed the Società Italiana di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIdEM) national Board to identify a possible, shared, operational approach to address this issue by a case-specific risk-benefit assessment. PMID:24569005

Vacca, Michele; Perseghin, Paolo; Accorsi, Patrizia; Pierelli, Luca

2014-04-01

115

Reduction in catheter-related infections after switching from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine for the exit-site care of tunneled central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have investigated the optimal exit site management of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) in pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine solutions and a 5% povidone-iodine solution on the incidence of CVC-related infections in children on HD. The incidence of exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection (TI), and bloodstream infection (BSI) was assessed in two groups of tunneled CVCs. The iodopovidone group consisted of 14 CVCs used between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2012 in 10 children, whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 11.8 years (range 1.2-19.2): 5% povidone-iodine was used for CVC exit-site care. From 1 August 2012 to 31 January 2014, 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol was used for the exit site, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol spray for the hub in 13 CVCs was used in 10 patients (chlorhexidine group), whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 10 years (range 1.2-19.2). Ten episodes of ESI were diagnosed in the iodopovidone group (incidence 3.4/1000 CVC days), and only one in the chlorhexidine group (incidence 0.36/1000 CVC days, P?=?0.008). One TI was observed in the iodopovidone group (0.34/1000 CVC days), and none in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of BSIs decreased from 1.7/1000 CVC days (5 cases) to 0.36/1000 CVC days (1 case, P?=?0.06) after switching to chlorhexidine. Two CVCs were lost due to CVC-related infections in the iodopovidone group, whereas no CVC was lost due to infections in the chlorhexidine group. In comparison with 5% povidone-iodine, the use of chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of ESI, TI, and BSI in children on HD. PMID:25330826

Paglialonga, Fabio; Consolo, Silvia; Biasuzzi, Antonietta; Assomou, Jolanda; Gattarello, Elisabetta; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Alberto; Chidini, Giovanna; Napolitano, Luisa; Edefonti, Alberto

2014-10-01

116

Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for CRBSI. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey in reducing bacterial skin colonization at insertion sites. Methods A prospective, single-center, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed at the ICU of a university hospital in The Netherlands to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey to reduce skin colonization of insertion sites. Medical-grade honey was applied in addition to standard CVC-site dressing and disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Skin colonization was assessed on a daily basis before CVC-site disinfection. The primary end point was colonization of insertion sites with >100 colony-forming units at the last sampling before removal of the CVC or transfer of the patient from the ICU. Secondary end points were quantitative levels of colonization of the insertion sites and colonization of insertion sites stratified for CVC location. Results Colonization of insertion sites was not affected by the use of medical-grade honey, as 44 (34%) of 129 and 36 (34%) of 106 patients in the honey and standard care groups, respectively, had a positive skin culture (P = 0.98). Median levels of skin colonization at the last sampling were 1 (0 to 2.84) and 1 (0 to 2.70) log colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for the honey and control groups, respectively (P = 0.94). Gender, days of CVC placement, CVC location, and CVC type were predictive for a positive skin culture. Correction for these variables did not change the effect of honey on skin-culture positivity. Conclusions Medical-grade honey does not affect colonization of the skin at CVC insertion sites in ICU patients when applied in addition to standard disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Registry, NTR1652. PMID:23111148

2012-01-01

117

Empiric antibiotic, mechanical ventilation, and central venous catheter duration as potential factors mediating the effect of a checklist prompting intervention on mortality: an exploratory analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Checklists are clinical decision support tools that improve process of care and patient outcomes. We previously demonstrated that prompting critical care physicians to address issues on a daily rounding checklist that were being overlooked reduced utilization of empiric antibiotics and mechanical ventilation, and reduced risk-adjusted mortality and length of stay. We sought to examine the degree to which these process of care improvements explained the observed difference in hospital mortality between the group that received prompting and an unprompted control group. Methods In the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care hospital, we conducted face-to-face prompting of critical care physicians if processes of care on a checklist were being overlooked. A control MICU team used the checklist without prompting. We performed exploratory analyses of the mediating effect of empiric antibiotic, mechanical ventilation, and central venous catheter (CVC)duration on risk-adjusted mortality. Results One hundred forty prompted group and 125 control group patients were included. One hundred eighty-three patients were exposed to at least one day of empiric antibiotics during MICU admission. Hospital mortality increased as empiric antibiotic duration increased (P<0.001). Prompting was associated with shorter empiric antibiotic duration and lower risk-adjusted mortality in patients receiving empiric antibiotics (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.92, P=0.032). When empiric antibiotic duration was added to mortality models, the adjusted OR for the intervention was attenuated from 0.41 to 0.50, suggesting that shorter duration of empiric antibiotics explained 15.2% of the overall benefit of prompting. Evaluation of mechanical ventilation was limited by study size. Accounting for CVC duration changed the intervention effect slightly. Conclusions In this analysis, some improvement in mortality associated with prompting was explained by shorter empiric antibiotic duration. However, most of the mortality benefit of prompting was unexplained. PMID:22794349

2012-01-01

118

New technologies to prevent intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections.  

PubMed Central

Most intravascular catheter-related infections are associated with central venous catheters. Technologic advances shown to reduce the risk for these infections include a catheter hub containing an iodinated alcohol solution, short-term chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine- impregnated catheters, minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters, and chlorhexidine- impregnated sponge dressings. Nontechnologic strategies for reducing risk include maximal barrier precautions during catheter insertion, specialized nursing teams, continuing quality improvement programs, and tunneling of short-term internal jugular catheters. PMID:11294705

Mermel, L. A.

2001-01-01

119

The anterior jugular venous system: variability and clinical impact.  

PubMed

The anterior jugular venous system, with its interconnections to the subclavian and deep jugular veins, provides a collateral venous network across the midline of the neck area, which is especially important in unilateral occlusion of an innominate vein. We illustrate the variability of this system and its clinical impact on catheterization by three cases of landmark-guided central venous cannulation. Case 1: Cannulation of the left internal jugular vein with a central venous catheter and of the left innominate vein (LIV) with a pulmonary artery catheter resulted in correctly positioned catheter tips. However, these catheters were actually not placed in the innominate vein but coursed through the jugular venous arch. Case 2: Cannulation of the left subclavian vein was complicated by resistance of guidewire advancement at 13 cm. Occlusion of the LIV and enlargement of the jugular venous arch were present. Case 3: Insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and a central venous catheter through the LIV. The pulmonary artery catheter was correctly placed. The tip of the central venous catheter was mistakenly positioned in the left anterior jugular vein. We describe the normal anatomy of the anterior jugular venous system and its role as a major collateral. Correct placement of central venous catheters may be possible via the anterior jugular venous system. Conversely, central venous catheters malpositioned in the anterior jugular vein can increase the risk for complications and should be removed. PMID:15562044

Schummer, Wolfram; Schummer, Claudia; Bredle, Don; Fröber, Rosemarie

2004-12-01

120

'Matching Michigan': a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England  

PubMed Central

Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438?887 (404?252 adult and 34?635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20?months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20?months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (? 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

2013-01-01

121

Risk of infection due to medical interventions via central venous catheters or implantable venous access port systems at the middle port of a three-way cock: luer lock cap vs. luer access split septum system (Q-Syte)  

PubMed Central

Background Many cancer patients receive a central venous catheter or port system prior to therapy to assure correct drug administration. Even appropriate hygienic intervention maintenance carries the risk of contaminating the middle port (C-port) of a three-way cock (TWC), a risk that increases with the number of medical interventions. Because of the complexity of the cleaning procedure with disconnection and reconnection of the standard luer lock cap (referred as “intervention”), we compared luer lock caps with a “closed access system” consisting of a luer access split septum system with regard to process optimization (work simplification, process time), efficiency (costs) and hygiene (patient safety). Methods For determination of process optimization the workflow of an intervention according to the usual practice and risks was depicted in a process diagram. For determining the actual process costs, we analyzed use of material and time parameters per intervention and used the process parameters for programming the process into a simulation run (n = 1000) to determine the process costs as well as their differences (ACTUAL vs. NOMINAL) within the framework of a discrete event simulation. Additionally cultures were carried out at the TWC C-ports to evaluate possible contamination. Results With the closed access system, the mean working time of 5.5 minutes could be reduced to 2.97 minutes. The results for average process costs (labour and material costs per use) were 3.92 € for luer lock caps and 2.55 € for the closed access system. The hypothesis test (2-sample t-test, CI 0.95, p-value<0.05) confirmed the significance of the result. In 50 reviewed samples (TWC’s), the contamination rate for the luer lock cap was 8% (4 out of 50 samples were positive), the contamination rate of the 50 samples with the closed access system was 0%. Possible hygienic risks (related to material, surroundings, staff handling) could be reduced by 65.38%. Conclusions In the present research, the closed access system with a divided split septum was superior to conventional luer lock caps. The advantage of the closed access system lies in the simplified handling for staff, which results in a reduced risk of patient infection due to improved clinical hygiene. PMID:24460652

2014-01-01

122

Concentrated Sodium Citrate (23%) for Catheter Lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

For chronic central venous dialysis catheters, the standard method for maintaining catheter patency between treatments is to instill (lock) catheters with 5000 _ 10 000 units of heparin in each lumen. Sodium citrate (citrate) is an anticoagulant with intrinsic antibacterial activity (at 20% concentration or higher). Citrate has only transient anticoagulant effects if accidentally infused to the patient. Prior studies

Stephen R. Ash; Rita A. Mankus; James M. Sutton; Ruth E. Criswell; Carol C. Crull; Katherine A. Velasquez; Brian D. Smeltzer; Todd S. Ing

123

Antimicrobial Impregnated Catheters in the Prevention of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Catheter-related bloodstream infections have a significant impact on increasing health care costs and morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Many technologies have been created in an attempt to decrease the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection. One of these is the impregnation of central venous catheters with antiseptics (e.g., chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine) or antibiotics (e.g., minocycline and rifampin). While studies evaluating the efficacy of impregnated catheters have been conducted, the data are limited and their use remains variable across institutions. This paper will discuss catheter-related factors that predispose patients to catheter-related bloodstream infection, the types of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in use today, studies evaluating their efficacy, and common concerns associated with the use of these catheters. Issues related to the cost-effectiveness of impregnated catheters and future directions for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection will also be presented. PMID:23055845

Wassil, Sarah K.; Crill, Catherine M.; Phelps, Stephanie J.

2007-01-01

124

Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation  

E-print Network

A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

2009-01-01

125

Epidemiology and impact of a multifaceted approach in controlling central venous catheter associated blood stream infections outside the intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Background Outside ICUs, CVC-ABSIs epidemiology and the results of strategies for their prevention are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and the impact of a multifaceted “bundle” approach in controlling CVC-ABSIs outside ICU. Methods From 1991 we performed prevalence studies of device and parenteral nutrition use, and prospective surveillance of all episodes of CVC-ABSIs in a 350-bed teaching hospital. CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 inpatient-days was calculated. An estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 catheter-days was calculated based on the prevalence rates of catheter use and the total number of inpatient-days in each year. On november 2008, an education programme was instituted for care of catheter lines: reinforcing instructions in aseptic insertion technique, after care and hand-washing; in order to assess the adherence to these measures the quantity of alcohol-based hand-rub consumption/1,000 patient-days was quoted in litres. From January 2009, a checklist intervention for CVC insertion in ICU was started: hand hygiene, using full barrier precautions, cleaning the skin with alcoholic chlorhexidine, avoiding femoral access and removing unnecessary catheters. Compliance with the central line insertion checklist was measured by real-time audits and was achieved in 80% of cases. Results Prevalence of use of CVC and parenteral nutrition was similar throughout the study. We followed-up 309 CVC-ABSIs cases. Estimated CVC-ABSIs rate progressively increased to 15.1/1,000 catheter-days in 2008 (0.36/1,000 inpatient-days). After the intervention, the alcohol-based hand-rub consumption increased slightly and estimated CVC-ABSIs rate fell to 10.1 /1,000 catheter-days in last three years (0.19/1,000 inpatient-days), showing a 32.9% decrease. The infection rates achieved were lower in Internal Medicine wards: decreased from 14.1/1,000 catheter-days (0.17/patient-days) in 2008 to 5.2/1,000 catheter-days (0.05/1,000 inpatient-days) in last three years, showing a 63.1% decrease. In 2009, the estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence rate was significantly lower in the Internal Medicine ward compared to the Surgery ward: rate ratio (RR) = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.03-0.60), and within the Internal Medicine ward, the estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence rate was significantly lower in 2009 compared to 2008 (RR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.04-0.91). Conclusion The rate of CVC-ABSIs increased outside-ICU, and the implementation of multifaceted infection control programme decreased their clinical impact. PMID:24063563

2013-01-01

126

Daily Catheter-directed Single Dosing of t-PA in Treatment of Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

The strong fibrin affinity of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) theoretically obviates continuous infusion or replacement of t-PA after direct intrathrombic injection. This hypothesis led the authors to evaluate single daily catheter-directed injection of rt-PA as a thrombolytic treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Once-daily injection of rt-PA was performed in large thrombosed veins (popliteal or larger) with use of pulse-spray catheters and in small thrombosed veins in patients' calves with use of 3?4-F coaxial catheters. Patients received only full systemic anticoagulation on his/her patient care unit. This dosing regimen has been tested in 10 patients (12 legs) with a maximum dose of 50 mg per leg per day. Extensive thrombolysis was achieved in nine patients and partial thrombolysis was achieved in one patient, at an average total dose of 106 mg of rt-PA per leg. Minor bleeding was seen in three patients and no transfusions were needed. Our technique and the rationale for this pilot study is the focus of this article. PMID:11265890

Chang, Richard; Cannon, Richard O.; Chen, Clara C.; Doppman, John L.; Shawker, Thomas H.; Mayo, Donna Jo; Wood, Bradford; Horne, McDonald K.

2008-01-01

127

In-vivo evaluation of simultaneous administration of incompatible drugs in a central venous catheter with a decreased port to port distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Multilumen catheters are commonly used in critically ill children.Their use, however, is associated with significant morbidity.\\u000a We studied thesimultaneous administration of incompatible drugs using a new triple-lumencatheter with decreased length and\\u000a port to port distances.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten domestic swine, 10–20 kg in weight, were divided into twogroups of five. Total parenteral nutrition was administered through\\u000a the distalport and phenytoin was administered

Gerardo Reyes; Gurpreet S Mander; Tarek S Husayni; Rabi F Sulayman; David G Jaimovich

1999-01-01

128

Catheter lock solutions influence staphylococcal biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Microbial biofilms form on central venous catheters and may be associated with systemic infections as well as decreased dialysis efficiency due to catheter thrombosis. The most widely used anticoagulant catheter lock solution in the US is sodium heparin. We have previously shown that sodium heparin in clinically relevant concentrations enhances Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. In the present study, we

Robert M. Q. Shanks; Jennifer L. Sargent; Raquel M. Martinez; Martha L. Graber; George A. O'Toole

2006-01-01

129

Catheter-related bloodstream infections  

PubMed Central

Central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Consequences depend on associated organisms, underlying pre-morbid conditions, timeliness, and appropriateness of the treatment/interventions received. We have summarized risk factors, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and management of CRBSI in this review. PMID:25024944

Gahlot, Rupam; Nigam, Chaitanya; Kumar, Vikas; Yadav, Ghanshyam; Anupurba, Shampa

2014-01-01

130

Evaluation of the impact of a new synthetic vitamin E-bonded membrane on anemia and rHuEPO requirement in ESRD patients with central venous catheters: a pilot study.  

PubMed

In the last years, the number of hemodialysis (HD) patients with erythropoietin (rHuEPO) resistance is increasing. Probably, central venous catheters (CVCs) contribute to this resistance by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. This study was aimed to compare vitamin E-bonded dialyzer (PSVE) versus polyethersulfone membrane. Sixteen subjects with CVCs were included in a prospective two-arm crossover 12-month study. The primary endpoints were the rHuEPO requirement and the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) index, which was defined by the ratio between weekly EPO dosage (IU/kg/week) and Hb levels (g/dl). The mean dosages of rHuEPO to maintain hemoglobin between 10.5 and 12 g/dl were 135 ± 59 and 101 ± 57 IU/kg/week with polysulfone and PSVE, respectively (P = 0.14). The ESA indexes were 12.1 ± 5.2 and 8.7 ± 5.2 (P < 0.0001) with polysulfone and PSVE, respectively. A trend towards consensual changes in protein glycoxidation, antioxidant, and inflammatory markers was observed. In conclusion, the study suggests a role for PSVE in the reduction of ESA index in HD patients with CVCs. PMID:21960369

Mandolfo, S; Corradi, B; Bucci, R; Farina, M; Pilolli, F; Galli, F

2012-10-01

131

A Rat Model of Central Venous Catheter to Study Establishment of Long-Term Bacterial Biofilm and Related Acute and Chronic Infections  

PubMed Central

Formation of resilient biofilms on medical devices colonized by pathogenic microorganisms is a major cause of health-care associated infection. While in vitro biofilm analyses led to promising anti-biofilm approaches, little is known about their translation to in vivo situations and on host contribution to the in vivo dynamics of infections on medical devices. Here we have developed an in vivo model of long-term bacterial biofilm infections in a pediatric totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) surgically placed in adult rats. Using non-invasive and quantitative bioluminescence, we studied TIVAP contamination by clinically relevant pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and we demonstrated that TIVAP bacterial populations display typical biofilm phenotypes. In our study, we showed that immunocompetent rats were able to control the colonization and clear the bloodstream infection except for up to 30% that suffered systemic infection and death whereas none of the immunosuppressed rats survived the infection. Besides, we mimicked some clinically relevant TIVAP associated complications such as port-pocket infection and hematogenous route of colonization. Finally, by assessing an optimized antibiotic lock therapy, we established that our in vivo model enables to assess innovative therapeutic strategies against bacterial biofilm infections. PMID:22615964

Chauhan, Ashwini; Lebeaux, David; Decante, Benoit; Kriegel, Irene; Escande, Marie-Christine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

2012-01-01

132

Prevention of catheter lumen occlusion with rT-PA versus heparin (Pre-CLOT): study protocol of a randomized trial [ISRCTN35253449  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many patients with end-stage renal disease use a central venous catheter for hemodialysis access. A large majority of these catheters malfunction within one year of insertion, with up to two-thirds due to thrombosis. The optimal solution for locking the catheter between hemodialysis sessions, to decrease the risk of thrombosis and catheter malfunction, is unknown. The Prevention of Catheter Lumen

Brenda R Hemmelgarn; Louise Moist; Rachel M Pilkey; Charmaine Lok; Marc Dorval; Paul YW Tam; Murray J Berall; Martine LeBlanc; Edwin B Toffelmire; Braden J Manns; Nairne Scott-Douglas

2006-01-01

133

Central vascular catheters and infections.  

PubMed

Newborn infants in critical conditions require a permanent intra-venous line to allow for the administration of fluids, parenteral nutrition and drugs. The use of central venous catheters, however, is associated with an increased risk of infections, leading to prolongation of length of stay and higher hospitalization costs, particularly in extremely preterm infants. Dwell time is a significant factor for complications, with a predicted risk of catheter related infections of about 4 per 1000 catheter-days. To reduce the incidence of complications, several requirements must be met, including adequate staff and resources to provide education, training, and quality improvement programs, within a culture of communication and teamwork. Rigorous reporting schedule on line care and the implementation of unique bundle elements, the use of health care failure mode and effect analysis, the judicious use of antibiotics through an antimicrobial stewardship strategy, the application of specific antifungal prophylaxis are among the most effective interventions, while the addition of heparin to parenteral solution, or the use of antibiotic plus heparin lock therapy are under evaluation. Nursing assistance plays a fundamental role in managing central venous lines and in reducing or preventing the incidence of infection, by the application of several complex professional strategies. PMID:24709460

Dioni, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Renata; Marzollo, Roberto; Oprandi, Daniela; Chirico, Gaetano

2014-03-01

134

How much is catheter flow influenced by the use of closed luer lock access devices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. To reduce infection risks in patients on hemodialysis with a long term central venous catheter, different types of closed luer lock access devices are used on the arterial and venous catheter hub. Although those connectors create a mechanically and micro- biologically closed system in between two dialysis sessions, no data are available on the resistance those connectors exert on

Sunny Eloot; Jean-Yves De Vos; Remi Hombrouckx; Pascal Verdonck

2007-01-01

135

Staff training: a key factor in reducing intravascular catheter sepsis.  

PubMed Central

A children's hospital nutritional care team prospectively monitored the frequency of sepsis in central venous catheters used for administering parenteral nutrition. During an initial study period of 12 months, 26/58 (45%) of catheters were removed because of proved sepsis. The possible causes of this alarmingly high rate were examined, with catheter care techniques on the wards coming under particular scrutiny. As a result protocols were modified and an intensive staff training programme implemented throughout the hospital, led by the nutritional care sister. Subsequently, the catheter sepsis rate was significantly reduced with only 9/107 (8%) of consecutive catheters becoming infected. These findings emphasise the key role that education of staff plays in controlling central venous catheter sepsis and the importance and cost effectiveness of special nursing staff in implementing such measures. PMID:1902650

Puntis, J W; Holden, C E; Smallman, S; Finkel, Y; George, R H; Booth, I W

1991-01-01

136

Something's missing: peripheral intravenous catheter fracture.  

PubMed

We describe a case of peripheral intravenous catheter fracture occurring during a routine training exercise. The supervising instructor immediately placed a venous tourniquet proximal to the insertion site and urgently transported the patient to the hospital. The missing catheter segment was identified within the median cubital vein under ultrasonography and was removed by venous cutdown under local anesthesia. An investigation determined that reinsertion of the needle into the advanced catheter likely caused the fracture and that application of a tourniquet may have prevented embolism of the fractured segment. Our literature review suggested that peripheral intravenous catheter fracture is likely vastly underreported, with only one prior case identified in the English literature. Action was taken following the event to educate all Israeli Defense Force medical providers regarding both proper preventive measures and recognition and treatment of catheter fracture should it occur. This case highlights the importance of health care providers being aware of the possibility of catheter fracture, as well as steps to take to prevent and mitigate its occurrence. PMID:24204079

Glassberg, Elon; Lending, Gadi; Abbou, Benyamine; Lipsky, Ari M

2013-01-01

137

Transcutaneous intravascular transposition of a permanent dialysis catheter  

PubMed Central

Permanent catheters are used to provide long-lasting access for long-term dialysis therapy in certain patients when creating an arteriovenous fistula between their own vessels is not possible, when there are contraindications for fistula creation or when the expected lifetime of the patient is short. We present the case of a patient with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis for 5 years. Due to post-thrombotic changes and venous stenosis resulting from long-term cannulation with dialysis catheters, the replacement catheter was inserted through the previously used canal and transcutaneous intravascular catheter transposition was performed. PMID:25337180

Piecuch, Jerzy; Jachec, Wojciech; Szrot, Monika; Krzak, Albert

2014-01-01

138

Value of superficial cultures for prediction of catheter-related bloodstream infection in long-term catheters: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Cultures taken from the skin and from the hubs of short-term central venous catheters can help us to predict catheter-related bloodstream infections (C-RBSIs). The value of these cultures for such predictions has not been assessed in long-term catheters. Our objective was to assess the value of superficial cultures for the prediction of C-RBSI among patients with long-term catheters. Over a 2-year period, we prospectively obtained cultures from the skin overlying reservoir ports (group A) and from the skin insertion site and hubs of all tunneled catheters (group B). This routine was performed by vascular and interventional radiologists immediately before catheter removal (irrespective of the reason for withdrawal). Swabs were processed semiquantitatively. Catheter tips from both groups were cultured using Maki's semiquantitative technique and sonication. We also performed cultures of the reservoir ports at different sites. C-RBSI was defined as the isolation of the same species of microorganism(s) both in the colonized catheter and in at least 1 peripheral blood culture. We included 372 catheters (group A, 223; group B, 149) during the study period. The catheter colonization rate was 23.4% (87/372), and 28 patients had C-RBSI. Validity index values for the capacity of surface cultures to predict C-RBSI in groups A and B were, respectively, as follows: sensitivity, 23.5% and 45.5%; specificity, 59.7% and 63.0%; positive predictive value, 4.6% and 8.9%; and negative predictive value, 90.4% and 93.5%. Superficial cultures of patients with long-term catheters could help us to rule out the catheter as the portal of entry of bloodstream infections. Superficial cultures (from skin and hubs) proved to be a useful conservative diagnostic tool for ruling out C-RBSI among patients with long-term tunneled catheters and totally implantable venous access ports. PMID:23850957

Guembe, M; Martín-Rabadán, P; Echenagusia, A; Camúñez, F; Rodríguez-Rosales, G; Simó, G; Echenagusia, M; Bouza, E

2013-09-01

139

Single catheter approach for occlusion of a patent arterial duct with a Rashkind double umbrella.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the benefits of using a single venous catheter and a single angiogram during catheter occlusion of a patient arterial duct with the Rashkind double umbrella compared with those of venous and arterial catheters and multiple angiograms. DESIGN--Retrospective review of case notes. PATIENTS--103 consecutive patients. The long sheath could not be advanced adequately in two patients. 101 patients had 104 implantations. Median (range) age was 35 (7-549) months and median (range) weight 13 (7-62) kg. Fifty four implantations were performed using the venous and arterial method and 50 using the venous only method. RESULTS--Median procedure times (70 v 90 min), number of angiograms (one v four), and angiographic dye volume used (2 v 7 ml/kg) were significantly reduced using the venous only method compared with those of the venous and arterial method. There was no significant difference in fluoroscopy time (venous only 9 v venous and arterial 10 min). CONCLUSIONS--Considerable improvements can be made in the technique of catheter closure of patent arterial ducts using the Rashkind double umbrella without compromising outcome using venous cannulation alone and a single angiogram, rather than venous and arterial cannulation and multiple angiograms. reduced risk to arteries from cannulation, The benefits are reduced radiation exposure, reduced risk to arteries from cannulation, shorter procedures, and lower equipment costs. PMID:7547027

Abrams, S. E.; Walsh, K. P.; McDonald, E. A.; Boothroyd, A. E.

1995-01-01

140

Cardiac arrhythmias associated with umbilical venous catheterisation in neonates  

PubMed Central

Umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in the management of severely ill neonates. Several life-threatening complications have been described, including catheter-related infections, myocardial perforation, pericardial effusion and cardiac arrhythmias. This report describe two neonates with cardiac arrhythmias due to umbilical venous catheterisation. One neonate had a supraventricular tachycardia requiring treatment with intravenous adenosine administration. Another neonate had an atrial flutter and was managed successfully with synchronised cardioversion. The primary cause of cardiac arrhythmias after umbilical venous catheterisation is inappropriate position of the UVC within the heart and the first step to treat them should be to pull back or even remove the catheter. Cardiac arrhythmia is a rare but potentially severe complication of umbilical venous catheterisation in neonates. PMID:21691401

Verheij, Gerdina; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne; Rozendaal, Lieke; Blom, Nico; Walther, Frans; Lopriore, Enrico

2009-01-01

141

Catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units  

PubMed Central

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are regularly used in intensive care units, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in preterm infants. Increased survival rate of extremely-low-birth-weight infants can be partly attributed to routine practice of CVC placement. The most common types of CVCs used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) include umbilical venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, and tunneled catheters. CRBSI is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI) with either a positive catheter tip culture or a positive blood culture drawn from the CVC. BSIs most frequently result from pathogens such as gram-positive cocci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and sometimes gram-negative organisms. CRBSIs are usually associated with several risk factors, including prolonged catheter placement, femoral access, low birth weight, and young gestational age. Most NICUs have a strategy for catheter insertion and maintenance designed to decrease CRBSIs. Specific interventions slightly differ between NICUs, particularly with regard to the types of disinfectants used for hand hygiene and appropriate skin care for the infant. In conclusion, infection rates can be reduced by the application of strict protocols for the placement and maintenance of CVCs and the education of NICU physicians and nurses. PMID:22232628

2011-01-01

142

The Swan-Ganz catheter: a review.  

PubMed

Right heart catheterization, first reported in 1905, is now used for bedside assessment and management of the critically ill patient. A Swan-Ganz catheter and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring are the tools employed. In spite of the complications cited, the occurrence of hazard to the patient is infrequent. The catheter is particularly valuable in the hemodynamic evaluation of cardiac function. Right and left heart pump performance can be assessed by pressure measurements. The ability of the left heart to provide an adequate cardiac output can be numerically calculated, and its adequacy at a cellular level can be evaluated by determining arterial-venous oxygen saturation difference. One of the more important and newest uses of the Swan-Ganz catheter is the preventive function it plays in anesthesia administration. Implications of the Swan-Ganz catheter for nursing practice are: (1) explanation and support to patient and family; (2) technical understanding and knowledge of set-up; (3) care and maintenance of the catheter after insertion; (4) the understanding of physiologic principles underlying the use of the catheter; and, most important, (5) ability to correlate clinical observations and physiologic changes occurring in the patient with pressure measurements. PMID:250012

Hathaway, R

1978-09-01

143

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances  

PubMed Central

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-01-01

144

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances.  

PubMed

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control 'bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-11-01

145

Total parenteral alimentation via indwelling umbilical catheters in the newborn period.  

PubMed Central

Total parenteral alimentation (TPA) was delivered to 80 infants via indwelling umbilical artery and to 9 via indwelling umbilical venous catheters. The primary indication for catheter placement and maintenance was monitoring of arterial blood gases (umbilical venous catheter tip in left atrium) in a group of sick neonates requiring increased inspired oxygen or assisted ventilation. Results were compared with those from 23 infants who had tunnelled jugular catheters for a variety of chronic medical and surgical problems preventing gastric or intestinal feeding. A mean weight gain was achieved in both groups. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar in both groups. The most common complications were infection and thrombotic phenomena. Metabolic complications were few. It is concluded that infusing TPA solutions via indwelling umbilical catheters presents no greater risk than infusion via tunnelled jugular catheters, and provides a method for supplying adequate caloric intake for growth during the acute stage of illness. PMID:827978

Hall, R T; Rhodes, P G

1976-01-01

146

Intravascular catheter related infections in children admitted on the paediatric wards of Mulago hospital, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Worldwide use of intravascular catheters (IVC) has been associated with both local and systemic infections. No studies have been done in the sub-Saharan region on IVC related infections. Objective: To determine the prevalence, causative organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the factors associated with infections related to short term peripheral venous catheters in children admitted to the general

Patricia Nahirya; Justus Byarugaba; Sarah Kiguli; Deogratias Kaddu-Mulindwa

147

Venous thromboembolism in pediatric nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

Childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common pediatric kidney diseases, with an incidence of 2-7 per 100,000. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and occurs in ?3 % of children with NS, though incidence approaches 25 % in high-risk groups. VTE etiology is multifactorial, with disease-associated coagulopathy thought to be a significant contributor. Other risks include age, disease severity, and treatment-related hazards, such as the presence of central venous catheters. Non-pharmacologic preventive measures such as ambulation and compression stockings are recommended for patients with identified VTE risks. Central venous catheters should be avoided whenever possible. Symptoms of VTE include venous catheter dysfunction, unilateral extremity symptoms, respiratory compromise, flank pain, and gross hematuria. When VTE is suspected, confirmatory imaging studies should be obtained, followed by appropriate laboratory evaluation and treatment. Therapeutic goals include limiting thrombus growth, extension, and embolization by early institution of anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulation is recommended for a minimum of 3 months, but should be continued until NS remission is achieved. Further studies are necessary to identify VTE-risk biomarkers and optimal therapeutic regimens. Observational cohort studies are needed to identify VTE-risk groups who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis and to define disease-specific treatment algorithms. PMID:23812352

Kerlin, Bryce A; Haworth, Kellie; Smoyer, William E

2014-06-01

148

Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation  

PubMed Central

Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

2011-01-01

149

Venous Port Salvage Utilizing Low Dose tPA  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low dose tPA for catheter salvage in cases of fibrin sheath formation in patients with venous access ports. Prospective evaluation was accomplished in patients who had venous ports with catheter malfunction. There were a total of 50 patients and 56 occlusive events.Each patient had a catheter injection documenting a fibrin sheath.Patient population included 45 for chemotherapy and 5 for antibiotics.A low dose tPA regimen was instilled into the port and upon successful return of function, a completion venogram was accomplished. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study with the average time between placement and dysfunction of 99 days. Five patients had a second occlusive event (38.5 days) and one had a third event (27 days). All patients had a venogram confirming a fibrin sheath as the cause of catheter malfunction. The average dose of tPA was 2.29 mg (range 1 mg-4 mg). Success was achieved in 52 of the 56 occlusive events(92.9%). There were no bleeding complications. Catheter occlusion is a common complication of long-term venous access ports. Aggressive therapy with low-dose tPA can salvage function. It provides safe and effective therapy for venous port malfunction secondary to fibrin sheath.

Whigham, Cliff J.; Lindsey, Jason I.; Goodman, Chad J.; Fisher, Richard G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department ofRadiology, One Baylor Plaza-MS 360, Houston, Texas77030-3487 (United States)

2002-12-15

150

Prospective study on central venous line associated bloodstream infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo prospectively assess the incidence rates and characteristics of central venous line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in one institution.MethodsAll patients with indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 were enrolled. The medical records of patients were reviewed and information on relevant characteristics entered into a standardised questionnaire. Central laboratory records were regularly checked for

Mine Wagner; Jan Bonhoeffer; Thomas O Erb; René Glanzmann; Frank Martin Häcker; Michael Paulussen; Daniel Weibel; Ulrich Heininger

2011-01-01

151

Is External Jugular Venous Pressure a Good Predictor of Volume Status in Kidney Graft Recipients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure appropriate function of the transplanted organ, it is necessary to adequately maintain vascular volume during the kidney transplantation procedure. For this purpose, central venous pressure (CVP) is monitored through a catheter inserted into the superior vena cava (SVC). Central venous cannulation is associated with a risk of serious complications. An objective of this study was to investigate whether

J. Trzebicki; E. Flakiewicz; P. Nowakowski; M. Kosieradzki; W. Lisik; A. Chmura

2009-01-01

152

Venous oxygen measurements in the inferior vena cava in neonates with respiratory failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of venous oxygen measurements in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via a catheter through the umbilical vein. This may serve as a proxy for mixed venous oxygenation and the complications of right atrial cannulation can be avoided at the same time. It has the added advantage of not being affected

Frans B Plötz; Richard A van Lingen; Albert P Bos

1998-01-01

153

American Venous Forum  

MedlinePLUS

... venous disorders Find a vein doctor American Venous Forum 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100 Milwaukee, WI ... 3349 E: info@veinforum.org © 2014 American Venous Forum. Contact Us | Legal/Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

154

Catheter-Associated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Fungemia in an Immunocompetent Host  

PubMed Central

Rhodotorula species live in the environment, but can also colonize human epithelium, as well as respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection, especially in the past 2 decades, have noted increasing numbers of Rhodotorula infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, leading it to be considered emerging opportunistic pathogen. The major risk factors for infection were prolonged use of central venous catheters in patients with hematological and solid malignancies who are taking corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we report a case of catheter-associated fungemia due to R. mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent host. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. After 10 days, the patient developed new-onset fever confirmed to be a result of catheter-associated blood-stream infection by R. mucilaginosa. It was successfully treated by catheter removal and intravenous amphotericin B. PMID:24396637

Kim, Hyun Ah; Hyun, Miri

2013-01-01

155

The permanent catheter.  

PubMed

An elderly woman receiving hemodialysis via a right brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula presented to the clinic for elective removal of a tunneled hemodialysis catheter inserted 5 years ago. The catheter had not been removed earlier at the patient's request. Removal was now unsuccessful in the clinic. Exploration in the operating room revealed the innominate vein had fibrosed around the length of the catheter. The procedure was abandoned, catheter cut short and the remnant left in situ. This case serves as a reminder to exercise caution if there is difficulty in removing the catheter even after the cuff is dissected free, and to remove them once a working fistula or graft is available. Failing which, the patient bears an unnecessary risk of line infection, or as in this case, the catheter may unintentionally end up what its common misnomer "perm-cath" alludes to--becoming truly "permanent." PMID:24164973

Tan, Ek Khoon; Tan, Seck Guan

2014-04-01

156

Bismuth coating of non-tunneled haemodialysis catheters reduces bacterial colonization: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Haemodialysis (HD) catheter-related blood stream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. Methods. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blinded trial investigating the clinical value of bismuth-coated non-tunneled HD catheters in patients in need of temporary short-term vascular access. A standard catheter (SC) was compared to a surface-modified, bismuth-film-coated catheter (FCC). After removal of the catheter for any reason, both arterial and venous lumina were rinsed and the fluid cultured for detection of bacterial colony-forming units (CFU). The catheter tip was placed in a tube containing sterile saline, sonicated and shortly centrifuged to remove debris (3 min at 1000 g). The supernatant was cultured and assayed for DNA content. Results. Seventy-seven patients in three HD units were randomized. Thirteen patients suffered from acute renal failure, 60 patients from chronic renal failure, and four patients without renal insufficiency were treated with plasma exchange. The time to catheter removal was not significantly different between groups, with a mean of 18.5 ± 2 days for SC and 15.1 ± 2 days for FCC. In most cases, the reasons for catheter removal were related to no further need for extracorporeal therapy or establishment of a permanent vascular access. Six catheters for SC and four catheters for FCC were removed because of presumed infection. Bacterial colonization was significantly lower for coated catheters compared to standard catheters, both for cultured catheter tips as well as for CFU in rinse fluids (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Surface modification with bismuth film reduces bacterial colonization of temporary non-tunneled HD catheters in a clinical trial. Larger trials with these modified catheters are justified to further investigate the effect on catheter-related infections, complications and costs. PMID:20237055

Schindler, Ralf; Heemann, Uwe; Haug, Ulrike; Stoelck, Benjamin; Karatas, Aysun; Pohle, Cosima; Deppisch, Reinhold; Beck, Werner; Hollenbeck, Markus

2010-01-01

157

Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications  

SciTech Connect

The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

Walser, Eric M., E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

2012-08-15

158

Atrial fibrillation: Catheter ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved dramatically over the last several years. The initial efforts in the catheter-based management of AF targeted the atrial substrate in an effort to mimic the maze procedure. After the pulmonary veins (PV) were shown to be critical in the initiation and perpetuation of AF, the focus then shifted to a trigger approach

Aman Chugh; Fred Morady

2006-01-01

159

[Venous ecology].  

PubMed

The purpose of venous ecology is to study the effect of the environment on the peripheral vessels. It is very extensive but still little explored subject in need of multidisciplinary study. The author reviews some of the major problems of ecophlebology: --pollution and harmful effects of urban life (atmospheric pollution, stress and influence of noise on the vessels); --the influence of habitat (furniture, ergonomics, urbanism, sociological studies and under-floor heating); --the cites new research on terrestrial electro-magnettism, meteoropathology, biological clocks and the influence of the mass media. In conclusion he hopes that ecophlebology will be the object of research which will permit a better understanding, and hence better control, of the pathological mechanisms resulting from the environment. PMID:928510

Reinharez, D

1977-01-01

160

Venous flaps.  

PubMed

One of the earliest postulates concerning the physiological basis of flap survival is attributed to Sushruta, who, in his inimitable style, very succinctly noted in Sanskrit verse the following words: "through continuity survives." Sanskrit being a very telegraphic language, what derives from these words is as follows: Through (the flap's) continuity (with its original location) (it) survives. The principle of continuity has survived through the ages, though continuity has come to imply vascular continuity based on the Harvesian model of circulation. No matter how we classify flaps, i.e., random or axial, the Harvesian model of circulation is the key to the mechanism of survival. Lately, however, a new category of flaps, that is, "venous flaps," have been reported by a number of investigators where the classical Harvesian model is not in evidence, at least apparently. The following effort is directed toward presenting the existing data on this subject for future guidance in research and clinical applications. PMID:8446733

Thatte, M R; Thatte, R L

1993-04-01

161

[Catheter rupture at the site of implantation: a rare accident? Apropos of 2 observations].  

PubMed

Seventy three venous access ports of the same type have been implanted recently in our hospital. We have observed two cases of catheter's rupture. Both accidents show a lot of similarities: material of the same trade mark; same way of implantation: right subclavian vein; rupture before one year; rupture at the point of entry of the subclavian vein; migration of the distal part of catheter; withdrawal of this part by right femoral vein's catheterism. Both broken catheters and another not broken (implanted during more than one year) were tested. It appears that those catheters were weakened, especially around the rupture. The reason is the long-standing compression of the catheter at the narrow space between clavicle and first rib. Then, the rupture of this weakened catheter could have been produced by the high pressure due to injection with small syringes. PMID:1369548

Pecquenard, L; Le Priol, C; Combe, M; Vigue, J P; Almeras, M

1991-11-01

162

Fibrin Sheath Angioplasty: A Technique to Prevent Superior Vena Cava Stenosis Secondary to Dialysis Catheters  

PubMed Central

Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8?×?4 or 10?×?4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters. PMID:23997555

Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

163

Is it feasible to diagnose catheter-related candidemia without catheter withdrawal?  

PubMed

Many bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) are not catheter-related (CR). Assessment of catheter involvement without catheter withdrawal has not been studied in candidemia. We assessed the value of conservative techniques to evaluate catheters as the origin of candidemia in patients with CVC in a prospective cohort study (superficial Gram stain and culture, Kite technique (Gram stain and culture of the first 1 cm blood drawn from the CVC), proportion of positive blood cultures (PPBCs), differential time to positivity (DTP), and minimal time to positivity (MTP)). All catheters were cultured at withdrawal. From June 2008 to January 2012, 22 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CR-candidemia (CRC) was confirmed in 10. Validity values for predicting CRC were: superficial Gram stain (S, 30%; Sp, 81.83%; PPV, 60%; NPV, 56.3%; Ac, 57.1%), superficial cultures (S, 40%; Sp, 75%; PPV, 57.1%; NPV, 60%; Ac, 59.1%), Kite Gram stain (S, 33.3%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 50%; NPV, 50%; Ac, 50%), Kite culture (S, 80%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 80%; Ac, 72.7%), PPBC (S, 50%; Sp, 41.7%; PPV, 41.7%; NPV, 50.0%; Ac, 45.5%), DTP (S, 100%; Sp, 33.3%; PPV, 55.6%; NPV, 100%; Ac, 63.6%), and MTTP (S, 70%; Sp, 58.3%; PPV, 58.3%; NPV, 70%; Ac, 63.6%). While combinations of two tests improved sensitivity and NPV, more than two tests did not improve validity values. Classic tests to assess CR-BSI caused by bacteria cannot be reliably used to diagnose CRC. Combinations of tests could be useful, but more and larger studies are required. PMID:24847039

Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Suárez-Salas, Marisol; Rojas-Wettig, Loreto; Pérez, María Jesús; Guinea, Jesús; Guembe, María; Peláez, Teresa; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio

2014-07-01

164

Persistent Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria rhizophila Related to a Damaged Central Catheter  

PubMed Central

A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung's disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair. PMID:22259211

Becker, Karsten; Mérens, Audrey; Ferroni, Agnès; Dubern, Béatrice; Vu-Thien, Hoang

2012-01-01

165

Thrombotic complications of subclavian apheresis catheters in cancer patients: prevention with heparin infusion.  

PubMed

Twenty-two silicone rubber apheresis catheters were placed into the subclavian veins of 18 cancer patients to allow serial leukapheresis for collection of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The tips of the catheters were placed in the innominate vein to avoid reinfusion of citrate into the right atrium and the resulting tendency to cardiac arrhythmias. Sixteen catheters were placed without prophylactic anticoagulation. Anticoagulation was prematurely discontinued in one patient because of the inconvenience of the portable heparin infusion pump. Six of these 17 catheters developed venographically proven thrombotic complications and five others had presumed thrombosis-related access failure or caused symptoms of venous obstruction, but confirmation of the presence of a thrombus with venography was not obtained. Three catheters spontaneously withdrew from the vein, one during urokinase infusion for thrombosis. Only three catheters had uncomplicated apheresis courses. Prophylactic heparin infusions via portable infusion pumps were given after placement of six catheters. As long as the heparin infusions were continued all patients had uncomplicated apheresis courses. One patient's heparin was prematurely discontinued. Within 3 days of its discontinuance, radiographically proven thrombotic catheter occlusion occurred. Patients given heparin were less likely to develop complications (P less than 0.001). No unexpected complications of apheresis were encountered as a result of the use of these catheters. Silicone rubber subclavian catheters can be used for peripheral stem cell collection but have a high frequency of thrombotic complications. Systemic anticoagulation with heparin can minimize the likelihood of these complications. PMID:2228997

Haire, W D; Edney, J A; Landmark, J D; Kessinger, A

1990-01-01

166

Urinary Catheter Management  

PubMed Central

After colorectal resection surgery, early urinary catheter removal has been promoted as a part of the national Surgical Care Improvement Project. However, the decrease in urinary tract infection expected with this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk for urinary retention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to summarize the evidence for and against early postoperative urinary catheter removal. For nonpelvic colorectal resection, the evidence supports removal of the catheter on postoperative day 1 for patients who are not at high risk for urinary retention, including patients with thoracic epidurals. For mid-to-low rectal surgery, the risk of urinary retention is increased, and catheter removal on day 3 to day 6 is recommended; however, the exact timing of removal cannot be recommended based on current studies. PMID:24436671

Hendren, Samantha

2013-01-01

167

[Urinary catheter biofilm infections].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

Holá, V; R?zicka, F

2008-04-01

168

Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

2013-01-01

169

Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava  

SciTech Connect

Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

Saettele, Megan R., E-mail: SaetteleM@umkc.edu [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital (United States); Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C. [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)] [University of Missouri, Kansas City, Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Luke's Hospital (United States)

2013-12-15

170

Clinical review: New technologies for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections  

PubMed Central

Intravascular catheters have become essential devices for the management of critically and chronically ill patients. However, their use is often associated with serious infectious complications, mostly catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), resulting in significant morbidity, increased duration of hospitalization, and additional medical costs. The majority of CRBSIs are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs), and the relative risk for CRBSI is significantly greater with CVCs than with peripheral venous catheters. However, most CVC-related infections are preventable, and different measures have been implemented to reduce the risk for CRBSI, including maximal barrier precautions during catheter insertion, catheter site maintenance, and hub handling. The focus of the present review is on new technologies for preventing infections that are directed at CVCs. New preventive strategies that have been shown to be effective in reducing risk for CRBSI, including the use of catheters and dressings impregnated with antiseptics or antibiotics, the use of new hub models, and the use of antibiotic lock solutions, are briefly described. PMID:15153233

Cicalini, Stefania; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Petrosillo, Nicola

2004-01-01

171

Multielectrode Venous Catheter Mapping as a High Quality Constraint for  

E-print Network

problem in terms of epicardial potentials or activation wavefronts, the problem is physically ill of computed inverse solutions. Results suggest that combining various information sources provides valuable. The National Institutes of Health NCRR Center for Bioelectric Field Modeling, Simulation, and Visualization

Utah, University of

172

Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes  

MedlinePLUS

... Bibliographies Meetings and Education Best of SIR 2014 Web Series LEARN 2014 Education & MOC Certificates Doctor Finder Select a State: Advanced Search Membership Directory Video: People Are Talking People Are Talking: Know Your Treatment Options! Social Media Connect With SIR SIR Blog SIR on ...

173

Nanostructuring carbon fibre probes for use in central venous catheters.  

PubMed

A carbon fibre probe is described which utilises the oxidation of an endogenous biomarker to provide diagnostic information on the condition of intravascular access lines. The probe surface was modified through anodic oxidation to provide a high selectivity towards urate which was used as a redox probe through which the pH could be determined. A Nernstian response (-60 mV/pH) was obtained which was free from the interference of other redox species common to biofluids. The electroanalytical performance of the probe has been optimised and the applicability of the approach demonstrated through testing the responses in whole blood. PMID:24491756

Li, Meixian; Phair, Jolene; Cardosi, Marco F; Davis, James

2014-02-17

174

[Experiences with the Port-A-Cath system, a fully implantable central venous access system, in children].  

PubMed

The Port-A-Cath-system is a totally implantable catheter system for central venous access. It consists of a subcutaneous injection port, fixed on the pectoral fascia, and a silicone catheter, positioned via a jugular vein into the right atrium. This system was utilised in 14 children (between 10 weeks and 14 years of age) for administration of chemotherapy, total parenteral nutrition, delivery of drugs or blood products, and venous blood sampling over a 15 months period. The device presents only few problems in respect of biocompatibility. Three complications occurred: one case of sepsis, one of catheter dislocation and one of catheter occlusion. The advantage of the total implantability of the system and the low complication rate are attractive alternatives to other methods of prolonged central venous access. PMID:3551382

Hager, J; Margreiter, R; Ausserer, B

1987-02-01

175

Management of venous ulcers.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux, as well as venous obstruction. The most severe clinical manifestation of CVI is venous leg ulceration that can result in significant morbidity, including venous gangrene and amputation, albeit rare. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous hypertension. Diuretic therapy, although widely used, only provides short-term improvement of the edema but provides no long-term benefit. Compression therapy is the cornerstone in the management of CVI. Compression can be achieved using compression bandaging, compression pumps, or graduated compression stockings. Topical steroid creams may reduce inflammation, venous eczema, and pain in the short term, but they can be detrimental in the long run. Apligraf (a living, bilayered, cell-based product) in conjunction with compression therapy was noted to be more effective in healing venous leg ulcerations, when compared with treatment with compression therapy and zinc paste. Endovascular and surgical techniques that minimize valvular reflux and relieve venous obstruction improve venous hemodynamics, promoting wound healing. PMID:24840970

Kolluri, Raghu

2014-06-01

176

CATHETER SURFACE INTERACTIONS WITH HUMAN  

E-print Network

infection. #12;Catheter Materials Low density Polyurethane "PU" ** Latex Rubber Teflon Silicone Hydrophilic of Polyurethane Catheter (uncoated) Polyurethane coated with Poly (MCP-co- BMA) polymer Test enviroments: Vacuum

Müftü, Sinan

177

Central venous injuries of the subclavian-jugular and innominate-caval confluences.  

PubMed Central

Injuries to the central venous system can result from penetrating trauma or iatrogenic causes. Injuries to major venous confluences can be particularly problematic, because the clavicle and sternum seriously limit exposure of the injury site. We report our institution's experience with central venous injuries of the subclavian-jugular and innominate-caval venous confluences. Significant injuries of the subclavian-jugular venous confluence frequently result from penetrating trauma, while injuries to the innominate-caval confluence are usually catheter-related. Median sternotomy provides adequate exposure of the innominate-caval confluence, while exposure of the subclavian-jugular venous confluence requires extension of the median sternotomy incision into the neck and resection of the clavicle. The literature is reviewed. PMID:10524738

Baumgartner, F J; Rayhanabad, J; Bongard, F S; Milliken, J C; Donayre, C; Klein, S R

1999-01-01

178

Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula, using Scepter C Balloon Catheter: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report our experience using Onyx for embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) under dual lumen balloon catheter flow arrest. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed a superior sagittal sinus (SSS) DAVF that was supplied via multiple branches of the external carotid arteries, the right anterior cerebral arteries, and the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery. There was no anterograde venous drainage through the SSS, and venous drainage was almost retrograde through the medullary and cortical veins. Under general anesthesia, a transvenous approach was utilized to place the microcatheter close to the fistula site. After intravenous embolization with various coils, DAVF was partially occluded; Balloon catheter gained access to the DAVF via the right middle meningeal artery. We injected Onyx through the Scepter C catheter, after which DAVF was nearly completely occluded. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization is a feasible and effective approach for the management of DAVF. PMID:24024076

Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jeonghwa

2013-01-01

179

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

180

Identification and characterization of catheter-related bloodstream infections due to viridans group streptococci in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Viridans group streptococci (VGS), a leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in cancer patients, are thought to arise from the gastrointestinal tract. We sought to determine whether central venous catheters may serve as the source of VGS BSI, and to compare the ability of the newly proposed mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed BSI definition to assign a VGS BSI source compared with the catheter-related BSI definition. PMID:25278410

Shelburne, Samuel A; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Jamal, Mohamed; Al Wohoush, Iba; Jiang, Ying; Abughazaleh, Shaadi; Cairo, Javier; Raad, Sammy; Debiane, Labib; Raad, Issam

2014-10-01

181

Infectious complications of percutaneous central venous catheterization in pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Analysis of infectious complications and risk factors in percutaneous central venous catheters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  One-year observational, prospective, multicenter study (1998–1999).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Twenty Spanish pediatric intensive care units.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Eight hundred thirty-two children aged 0–14 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intervention  None.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements and main results  One thousand ninety-two catheters were analyzed. Seventy-four (6.81%) catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) were\\u000a found. The CRBSI rate was 6.4 per 1,000 CVC days (95% CI 5.0–8.0).

M. Ángeles García-Teresa; Juan Casado-Flores; M. Ángel Delgado Domínguez; Jorge Roqueta-Mas; Francisco Cambra-Lasaosa; Andrés Concha-Torre; Cristina Fernández-Pérez

2007-01-01

182

Catheter associated urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

2014-01-01

183

Use of central venous oxygen saturation to guide therapy.  

PubMed

The use of pulmonary artery catheters has diminished, so that other technologies are emerging. Central venous oxygen saturation measurement (ScvO?) as a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation measurement (SvO?) is simple and clinically accessible. To maximize the clinical utility of ScvO? (or SvO?) measurement, it is useful to review what the measurement means in a physiologic context,how the measurement is made, important limitations, and how this measurement may be helpful in common clinical scenarios. Compared with cardiac output measurement, SvO? is more directly related to tissue oxygenation. Furthermore,when tissue oxygenation is a clinical concern, SvO? is less prone to error compared with cardiac output, where small measurement errors may lead to larger errors in interpreting adequacy of oxygen delivery. ScvO? should be measured from the tip of a central venous catheter placed close to, or within, the right atrium to reduce measurement error. Correct clinical interpretation of SvO?, or its properly measured ScvO? surrogate, can be used to (1) estimate cardiac output using the Fick equation, (2) better understand whether a patient's oxygen delivery is adequate to meet their oxygen demands, (3) help guide clinical practice, particularly when resuscitating patients using validated early goal directed therapy treatment protocols, (4) understand and treat arterial hypoxemia, and (5) rapidly estimate shunt fraction (venous admixture). PMID:21177882

Walley, Keith R

2011-09-01

184

Feasibility and Safety of Endovascular Stripping of Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous stripping of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) in case of catheter-related sleeve and to report a technique to free the catheter tip from vessel wall adherence. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 stripping procedures in 35 patients (14 men, 40%, and 21 women, 60%, mean age 53 {+-} 14 years) were reviewed. Totally implantable venous access devices were implanted because of malignancy in most cases (85.7%). Catheter-related sleeve was confirmed as cause of persistent catheter dysfunction despite instillation of thrombolytics. A technique to mobilize the catheter tip from the vessel wall was used when stripping with the snare catheter was impossible. Technical success, complication rate, and outcome were noted. Results: A total of 55.9% (n = 19) of the 34 technically successful procedures (91.9%) could be done with the snare catheter. In 15 cases (44.1%), additional maneuvers to free the TIVAD's tip from the vessel wall were needed. Success rate was not significantly lower before (72.4%) than after (96.7%) implementation of the new technique (P = 0.09). No complications were observed. Follow-up was available in 67.6% of cases. Recurrent catheter dysfunction was found in 17 TIVADs (78.3%) at a mean of 137.7 days and a median of 105 days. Conclusions: Stripping of TIVADs is technically feasible and safe, with an overall success rate of 91.9%. Additional endovascular techniques to mobilize the distal catheter tip from the wall of the superior vena cava or right atrium to allow encircling the TIVAD tip with the snare catheter may be needed in 44.1% of cases.

Heye, Sam, E-mail: sam.heye@uzleuven.be; Maleux, Geert [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Goossens, G. A. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Surgical Oncology (Belgium); Vaninbroukx, Johan [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Jerome, M.; Stas, M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Surgical Oncology (Belgium)

2012-06-15

185

Recanalization of Aged Venous Thrombotic Occlusions with the Aid of a Rheolytic System: An Experimental Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The suitability of a rheolytic system for recanalization of aged venous thrombotic occlusions was tested in an animal experiment. Methods: The system consists of a flush-suction catheter and a high-pressure liquid pump. Thrombosis was experimentally induced in 13 venous segments of 10 adult goats. Results: After a mean period of 12 days, a complete thrombectomy using the flush-suction system was achieved in 12 cases. No complications such as perforation or dissection were observed. Conclusion: This system seems to be an appropriate device for percutaneous transluminal venous thrombectomy, even in older occlusions.

Vicol, Calin; Dalichau, Harald [Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37075 Goettingen (Germany)

1996-04-15

186

REPAIR OF CHRONIC PERITONEAL DIALYSIS CATHETER  

Microsoft Academic Search

.Background: Damage to the peritoneal dialysis catheter may be due to wear from long-term use, exposure to antibacterial agents (strong oxidants), and accidental injury from sharp objects. Repair of such catheter, if not associated with subsequent complications, would extend catheter life and reduce costs and patient inconvenience related to catheter replacement. .Objective and Design: Retrospective analysis of seven peritoneal catheters

Kumari Usha; Leonor Ponferrada; Barbara F. Prowant; Zbylut J. Twardowski

187

Simple external manual manoeuvres to pass the radiofrequency catheter through a bending segment of a saphenous vein.  

PubMed

Smooth passage of a catheter through a varicose saphenous vein during radiofrequency ablation may prove a challenging task. Various types of venous bending in the transverse and sagittal planes and their combinations within the saphenous compartment may be pretty well appreciated by ultrasound examination. Several simple manual manoeuvres like stretching, pushing or lifting along with limb re-positioning may often help the surgeon to advance the catheter through the segments by temporarily changing their special configuration. In this way the number of patients otherwise considered unsuitable for endovascular catheter procedures like radiofrequency or laser ablation may be considerably reduced. PMID:22490723

Schuller-Petrovi?, S; Adamic, M; Pavlovi?, M D

2013-06-01

188

A rare cause of venous thrombosis: Congenital absence (agenesis) of the inferior vena cava  

PubMed Central

Deep vein thrombosis is a frequent finding in otherwise healthy, young adults who are diagnosed with congenital absence (agenesis) of the inferior vena cava – a rare anomaly. This condition is best diagnosed by computed tomography angiography with venous phase imaging, and is managed using anticoagulation, percutaneous catheter-directed mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis. To illustrate this phenomenon, a case is presented. PMID:22477618

Singh, Kuldeep; Poliquin, James; Syversten, Guy; Kohler, Douglas O

2010-01-01

189

BRIEFCASE | SEARCH | EMAIL THIS EVENT | LOGIN RSNA 2004 > Cadaveric Central and Peripheral Venous Access Using ...  

E-print Network

Grafts and Catheters) Cadaveric Central and Peripheral Venous Access Using the Sonic Flashlight, a Novel, and patient into the same field of view, making procedures more intuitive to the novice user, in contrast to conventional US (CUS) guided procedures, where hand-eye coordination is displaced, forcing the operator to look

Stetten, George

190

Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): The so-called venous angioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Following a review of the literature it is possible to demonstrate the “normality” of the so called venous angiomas. They should be named Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA). They illustrate in their two extreme types (superfical and deep) the hemodynamic equilibrium of the transcortical venous drainage in the periependymal zones. Venous ectasias and varices which can be encountered, associated with

Pierre Lasjaunias; Patricia Burrows; Chantal Planet

1986-01-01

191

Leclercia adecarboxylata and catheter-related bacteraemia: review of the literature and outcome with regard to catheters and patients.  

PubMed

Infection is a common complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter (CVC) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Leclercia adecarboxylata is an unusual but emerging pathogen in healthy and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of L. adecarboxylata bacteraemia in a patient with a haemodialysis tunnelled CVC. In accordance with the susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials, a long-course treatment with intravenous gentamicin plus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin-lock therapy was adopted. The patient had a full recovery and the catheter was not removed. We also performed a systematic PubMed/Medline and Scopus review of peer-reviewed English papers on L. adecarboxylata infections, focusing on bacteraemia in patients with different types of CVCs. Moreover, we suggest a treatment algorithm to preserve the patient and maintain the CVC. PMID:23882033

De Mauri, Andreana; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Andreoni, Stefano; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Conti, Novella; De Leo, Martino

2013-10-01

192

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-11-01

193

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-01-01

194

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... sterile sheet. • Clean the patient’s skin with an antiseptic cleanser before putting in the catheter. • Clean their ... gloves, and clean the catheter opening with an antiseptic solution before using the catheter to draw blood ...

195

The etiology of venous ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous ulceration is caused by the disorganization of the microcirculation that is induced by prolonged venous hypertension. The most common cause of calf pump inefficiency that permits superficial venous hypertension during exercise is deep vein thrombosis. Venous hypertension causes venular dilatation and an increased capillary permeability. Fibrin is deposited around the capillaries and not removed because of a vein wall

N. L. Browse

1986-01-01

196

Symptomatic Central Venous Stenosis in a Hemodialysis Patient Leading to Loss of Arteriovenous Access: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Central venous stenosis is a well-described sequel to the placement of hemodialysis catheters in the central venous system. The presence of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula or graft often leads to severe venous dilatation, arm edema and recurrent infections. Vascular access thrombosis, compromised blood flow and inadequate dialysis delivery are dreaded complications that eventually render the access unusable. We report the case of a 58-year-old male hemodialysis patient who developed symptomatic central venous stenosis to illustrate the problem and review the pertinent literature. This patient developed severe enlargement of upper extremity veins due to central venous stenosis. The symptoms were refractory to multiple endovascular interventions and eventually necessitated ligation of his arteriovenous fistula. Central venous stenosis remains a pervasive problem despite advances in our understanding of its etiology and recognition of the enormity of its consequences. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, prevention is better than cure. PMID:24803921

Tatapudi, Vasishta S.; Spinowitz, Noam; Goldfarb, David S.

2014-01-01

197

Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

Doyle, D. Lynn

1992-01-01

198

Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion.  

PubMed

Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting.First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access.In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is preferred because it is noninvasive, does not require contrast agent, carries no exposure to ionizing radiation, and is highly accurate and reproducible. Apart from catheter-directed thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy has proven to be a quick and safe treatment modality by enabling the recanalization of thrombotic occlusions in conjunction with minimal invasiveness and a low bleeding risk. Mechanical thrombectomy devices should only be used in conjunction with a temporary cava filter.Contrast-enhanced CT is at present considered the examination of choice for acute mesenteric vein occlusion which has mortality rates as high as 80%. Patients with proven acute mesenteric venous occlusion and contraindications to surgical therapy and no identified bleeding disposition without looming bowel ischemia or infarction are possible contenders to the less invasive percutaneous approach either by (in)direct thrombolysis or mechanical means. Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of upper extremity thrombosis. Computed tomography and MRI are in addition helpful in diagnosing central chest vein occlusions. The interventionalist is rarely involved in the treatment of this entity. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is known to improve lysis rates. Together with balloon angioplasty good results have been obtained. If stenosis or thrombus remains after thrombolysis and angioplasty, stent placement should follow. Within the first two weeks, thrombosed dural sinus and cerebral venous vessels are typically hyperdense on CT compared with brain parenchyma; after the course of 2 weeks, the thrombus will become isodense. In MRI an axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence, an axial diffusion-weighted MRI, coronal T1-weighted spin-echo and T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequences, a coronal gradient-echo and a 3D phase-contrast venous angiogram should be performed. Local thrombolysis is needed only when patients have an exacerbation of clinical symptoms or imaging signs of worsening disease despite sufficient anticoagulation therapy. Acute occlusions of dia

Haage, Patrick; Krings, Timo; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

2002-11-01

199

Peripherally Placed Totally Implantable Venous-access Port Systems of the Forearm: Clinical Experience in 763 Consecutive Patients  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneously placed totally implantable venous-access ports (TIVAPs) of the forearm. Between January 2006 and October 2008, peripheral TIVAPs were implanted in 763 consecutive patients by ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. All catheters were implanted under local anesthesia and were tunneled subcutaneously. Indication, technical success, and complications were retrospectively analyzed according to Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) criteria. Presence of antibiotic prophylaxis, periprocedurally administered drugs (e.g., sedation), and laboratory results at the time of implantation were analyzed. Maintenance during the service interval was evaluated. In total, 327,499 catheter-days were analyzed. Technical success rate was 99.3%. Reasons for initial failure of implantation were either unexpected thrombosis of the subclavian vein, expanding tumor mass of the mediastinum, or failure of peripheral venous access due to fragile vessels. Mean follow-up was 430 days. There were 115 complications observed (15.1%, 0.03 per 100 catheter-days), of which 33 (4.3%) were classified as early (within 30 days from implantation) and 82 (10.7%) as late. Catheter-related venous thrombosis was found in 65 (8.5%) of 763 (0.02 per 100 catheter-days) TIVAPs. Infections were observed in 41 (5.4%) of 763 (0.01 per 100 catheter-days) devices. Other complications observed included dislocation of the catheter tip (0.8%), occlusion (0.1%), or rupture (0.1%) of the port catheter. Dislocated catheters were corrected during a second interventional procedure. In conclusion, implantation of percutaneously placed peripheral TIVAPs shows a high technical success rate and low risk of early complications when ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance are used. Late complications are observed three times as often as early complications.

Goltz, Jan P., E-mail: Goltz@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de; Scholl, Anne; Ritter, Christian O. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Wittenberg, Guenther [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bielefeld Gilead, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany)

2010-12-15

200

Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty  

SciTech Connect

The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

Angelini, P.

1987-01-01

201

Laboratory diagnosis of intravascular catheter associated sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different methods have been employed to aid in the laboratory diagnosis of intravascular catheter associated infection. However, because of differences in patient populations, the definition of catheter sepsis and types of catheters, comparison of these studies is difficult. Of even more fundamental importance, the question of the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter associated sepsis (i.e. whether the microorganisms migrate to

P. J. Collignon; R. Munro

1989-01-01

202

[The venous aneurysm].  

PubMed

Venous aneurysms are rare: only 311 cases of venous aneurysms and 56 cases of aneurysms in vein transplants have been reported since 1939 to date. 62% of the patients suffering from venous aneurysms were less than 40 years of age. The most frequently involved vessels were the internal jugular vein (n = 56), the portal vein (n = 28), the v. saphena magna (n = 30) the popliteal vein (n = 23), the azygos vein (n = 22) and the vena cava superior (n = 20). The diameters of the aneurysms were between 1 and 16 cm. Symptoms, if at all noticeable, depend on the localisation of the aneurysm, but they are unspecific in the majority of cases. The most frequent finding was the space- occupying growth seen in 190 patients (52%). Pulmonary embolisms originating from venous aneurysms were seen in 19/311 (6.1%), a rupture of an aneurysm in 4/311 (1.2%) of the venous aneurysms and 5/56 (8.9%) of the aneurysms in transplant veins, respectively. and were fatal in 1 (0.3%) and 2 (3.6%) of the cases, respectively. Of the 205 patients who were operated on, 3 (1.5%) died from intraoperative complications. PMID:1571374

Schild, H; Berg, S; Weber, W; Schmied, W; Steegmüller, K W

1992-03-01

203

Measuring the efficacy of antimicrobial catheters.  

PubMed

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are a major cause of morbidity in hospitals worldwide. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances such as silver alloy and nitrofurazone were introduced to reduce CAUTI. A previous Cochrane review reported that antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters may reduce the number of asymptomatic bacteriuria present but it was uncertain whether they reduced CAUTI. The Catheter Trial compared these and standard catheters for short-term use in NHS hospitals. Results showed silver alloy-coated catheters did not reduce symptomatic CAUTI compared with standard catheters; nitrofurazone-impregnated catheters had borderline clinical benefit in reducing symptomatic CAUTI. The findings do not support the routine use of antimicrobial-coated or impregnated catheters for patients in hospital who need short-term catheters. Instead, health professionals should focus on simple preventive strategies and reducing the need for catheterisation. PMID:24371878

Makuta, Gladys; Chrysafis, Manolis; Lam, Thomas

204

Comparative Efficacies of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Linezolid, Vancomycin, and Ciprofloxacin in Treatment, Using the Antibiotic-Lock Technique, of Experimental Catheter-Related Infection Due to Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed in vitro studies to elucidate the bactericidal activity of the antibiotics in an adherent-cell biofilm model. Efficacy studies were performed in a staphylococcal central venous catheter (CVC) infection rat model. Silastic catheters were implanted into the superior cava. Via the CVC the rats were challenged with 1.0 106 CFU of a live Staphylococcus aureus strain. Twenty-four hours later,

Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Fiorenza Orlando; Federico Mocchegiani; Carmela Silvestri; Alberto Licci; Matteo De Fusco; Mauro Provinciali; Vittorio Saba; Giorgio Scalise

2005-01-01

205

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

206

Totally implantable central venous access devices in pediatric oncology--our experience in 46 patients.  

PubMed

Between 1986 and 1990, 50 venous access devices have been implanted in 45 children with various types of cancer and in one patient with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Twenty-five devices were of the so-called "pediatric" type (Port-A-Cath: 24, Vascuport: 1) and 25 were "adult" ports (Port-A-Cath: 8, Vascuport: 6, Infuse-A-Port: 6, Theraport: 5). The catheters (in silicone elastomer or polyurethane) were inserted percutaneously or surgically. Cumulative total venous access was 15024 patient-days (mean: 290 days per patient, range 2-900 days). Occlusion of the system, the most frequent complication, was encountered in 5 patients (11%). Rarer complications were catheter-related infection (2 pts), pneumothorax (1 pt), skin necrosis (1 pt), catheter leakage (1 pt) and port-catheter disconnection (1 pt). No serious complication ever occurred in 35 patients (76%). Seven of the 11 complications, including all 3 port occlusions, were encountered with "pediatric" systems. All the adult access devices tested were safe and allowed long-standing access to the central venous system in this series of pediatric cancer patients. With proper placement technique and adequate nursing care, they represent a definite improvement in child cancer therapy. PMID:8323914

De Backer, A; Vanhulle, A; Otten, J; Deconinck, P

1993-04-01

207

The venous anatomy of the abdominal wall for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Despite improving outcomes, venous problems in the harvest of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps remain the more common vascular complications. However, it is apparent that the venous anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall has not been described to the same extent as the arterial anatomy. Cadaveric dissection studies of venous anatomy frequently lack the detail of their arterial counterparts. Venous valves complicate retrograde injection, resulting in poor quality studies with limited anatomical information. Methods The current manuscript comprises a review of the literature, highlighting key features of the anatomy of the venous drainage of the abdominal wall integument, with particular pertinence to DIEP flaps. Both cadaveric and clinical studies are included in this review. Our own cadaveric and in-vivo studies were undertaken and included in detail in this manuscript, with the cadaveric component utilizing direct catheter venography and the in-vivo studies were undertaken using preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA), mapping in-vivo venous flow. Results Several key features of the venous anatomy of the abdominal wall render it different to other regions, and are of particular importance to DIEP flap transfer. Conclusions The cause of venous compromise is multi-factorial, with perforator diameter, midline crossover, and deep-superficial venous communications all important. Venous cadaveric studies as well as clinical CTA preoperatively can identify these anomalies. PMID:25083432

Ashton, Mark W

2012-01-01

208

Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

2013-01-01

209

Non-deflating Foley catheter.  

PubMed

The different methods of removal of a non-deflating ureteral catheter were compared with the stylet technique. Two hundred and sixty randomly selected catheters were tested. Overdistention of the balloon with water or air and chemically induced rupture of the balloon produced fragments of various sizes in almost 100%. Our stylet technique failed to demonstrate any of the complications reported in the literature i.e., chemical or mechanical injury to the bladder or retained rubber fragments causing stone formation. PMID:965211

Eickenberg, H U; Amin, M; Clark, J

1976-01-01

210

Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A. [Sheffield Vascular Institute, Firth 4, Northern General Hospital, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

2002-12-15

211

Intrahepatic venous collaterals  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Background: The aim of this study was to reevaluate the causes and sites of intrahepatic venous collaterals and to determine the role\\u000a of color Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of this relatively rare vascular abnormality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Real-time color Doppler sonography was used to study 21 patients with intrahepatic venous collaterals. The cause, distribution,\\u000a and clinical manifestations of collaterals were

H. Naganuma; H. Ishida; K. Konno; T. Komatsuda; Y. Hamashima; J. Ishida; O. Masamune

1998-01-01

212

Interventional radiology with venous port (chemotherapy and infusional support).  

PubMed

A completely portable permanent central venous access, consisting of a steel capsule sealed with a silicone membrane and connected to a silicone catheter (Port-a-Cath), was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 36 patients, most of whom no longer had accessible peripheral veins and needed to continue chemotherapy or undergo total parenteral nutrition. The access vessel was mostly the subclavian vein and the capsule was sutured to the pectoral fascia. Total subcutaneous implantation seems to afford optimum safety from infection and freedom for personal hygiene, produced no noteworthy complications and proved relatively simple to maintain. PMID:3095116

Damascelli, B; Bonalumi, M G; Terno, G; Pupa, A; Preda, F; Spreafico, C; Tagliabue, L

1986-08-01

213

Central venous catheterisation in very low birthweight infants.  

PubMed

Forty two premature babies (mean birth weight 980 g, mean gestation 27.6 weeks) had central venous lines inserted at a mean age of 10 days through the internal jugular vein because of poor peripheral venous access and for purposes of parenteral feeding and minimal handling. Eight babies died from complications of prematurity and four from septicaemia with a central line in situ, but the other 30 babies had lines in place for a mean of 20 days. A mean weight gain of 17.5 g/kg/day was recorded. Eight babies showed signs of infection at a mean of 22 days after insertion of the line. The other complications were thrombosis related to the catheter (three cases), embolisation (two), and hydrocephalus related to superior vena caval thrombosis (one). The policy of management is outlined, and the risks and benefits of the technique are analysed. PMID:3087297

Mactier, H; Alroomi, L G; Young, D G; Raine, P A

1986-05-01

214

Central venous catheterisation in very low birthweight infants.  

PubMed Central

Forty two premature babies (mean birth weight 980 g, mean gestation 27.6 weeks) had central venous lines inserted at a mean age of 10 days through the internal jugular vein because of poor peripheral venous access and for purposes of parenteral feeding and minimal handling. Eight babies died from complications of prematurity and four from septicaemia with a central line in situ, but the other 30 babies had lines in place for a mean of 20 days. A mean weight gain of 17.5 g/kg/day was recorded. Eight babies showed signs of infection at a mean of 22 days after insertion of the line. The other complications were thrombosis related to the catheter (three cases), embolisation (two), and hydrocephalus related to superior vena caval thrombosis (one). The policy of management is outlined, and the risks and benefits of the technique are analysed. PMID:3087297

Mactier, H; Alroomi, L G; Young, D G; Raine, P A

1986-01-01

215

Stenting of the vertical vein in obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return as rescue procedure in a neonate.  

PubMed

A newborn girl with progressive respiratory distress and cyanosis was found to have severely obstructed supracardiac total pulmonary venous return (TAPVR). Stenting of the stenosis provided immediate and effective relief of the obstruction until corrective surgery was performed. Catheter intervention should be considered in high-risk infants with obstructed supracardiac TAPVR as part of the strategy for preoperative cardiovascular stabilization. PMID:16575922

Lo-A-Njoe, Shirley M; Blom, Nico A; Bökenkamp, Regina; Ottenkamp, Jaap

2006-05-01

216

Protected Iliofemoral Venous Thrombectomy  

PubMed Central

Although thromboembolism is uncommon during pregnancy and the postpartum period, physicians should be alert to the possibility because the complications, such as pulmonary embolism, are often life threatening. Pregnant women who present with thromboembolic occlusion are particularly difficult to treat because thrombolysis is hazardous to the fetus and surgical intervention by any of several approaches is controversial. A 22-year-old woman, in her 11th week of gestation, experienced an episode of pulmonary embolism and severe ischemic venous thrombosis of the left lower extremity. The cause was determined to be a severe protein S deficiency in combination with compression of the left iliac vein by the enlarged uterus. The patient underwent emergency insertion of a retrievable vena cava filter and surgical iliofemoral venous thrombectomy with concomitant creation of a temporary femoral arteriovenous fistula. The inferior vena cava filter was inserted before the venous thrombectomy to prevent pulmonary embolism from clots dislodged during thrombectomy. When the filter was removed, medium-sized clots were found trapped in its coils, indicating the effectiveness of this approach. The operation resolved the severe ischemic venous thrombosis of the left leg, and the patency of the iliac vein was maintained throughout the pregnancy without embolic recurrence. At full term, the woman spontaneously delivered an 8-lb, 6-oz, healthy male infant. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:130–2) PMID:12075871

Neri, Eugenio; Civeli, Letizia; Benvenuti, Antonio; Toscano, Thomas; Miraldi, Fabio; Capannini, Gianni; Muzzi, Luigi; Sassi, Carlo

2002-01-01

217

What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency  

PubMed Central

In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (‘CCSVI'). The diagnosis of ‘CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of ‘CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the ‘CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the ‘CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat ‘CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research. PMID:23443168

Valdueza, Jose M; Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J; van Oosten, Bob W; Schmierer, Klaus; Paul, Friedemann; Wattjes, Mike P

2013-01-01

218

Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope.  

PubMed

We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743

Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

2014-06-01

219

Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-06-01

220

Management of obstructed balloon catheters.  

PubMed Central

Failure of a balloon catheter to deflate is not uncommon and prevents its removal. Methods of overcoming the problem include traction, bursting the balloon by overinflation, dissolving it with solvents, puncturing it percutaneously with a needle, or puncturing it with a wire stylet passed through the catheter. All except the last technique have major disadvantages and are of questionable safety. Transcatheter puncture of the balloon was used in 16 patients to remove obstructed balloon catheters without any technical difficulty, distress to the patient, or complication. The procedure is safe, simple, and does not require an anaesthetic. If necessary it could be performed safely by nursing or paramedical staff without the patient having to be admitted to hospital. It is the method of choice for the management of this problem. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6428691

Browning, G G; Barr, L; Horsburgh, A G

1984-01-01

221

Management of obstructed balloon catheters.  

PubMed

Failure of a balloon catheter to deflate is not uncommon and prevents its removal. Methods of overcoming the problem include traction, bursting the balloon by overinflation, dissolving it with solvents, puncturing it percutaneously with a needle, or puncturing it with a wire stylet passed through the catheter. All except the last technique have major disadvantages and are of questionable safety. Transcatheter puncture of the balloon was used in 16 patients to remove obstructed balloon catheters without any technical difficulty, distress to the patient, or complication. The procedure is safe, simple, and does not require an anaesthetic. If necessary it could be performed safely by nursing or paramedical staff without the patient having to be admitted to hospital. It is the method of choice for the management of this problem. PMID:6428691

Browning, G G; Barr, L; Horsburgh, A G

1984-07-14

222

Cannulation of the lateral saphenous vein--a rapid method to gain access to the venous circulation in anaesthetized guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Previously published methods of venous puncture in guinea pigs did not provide reliable venous access for more than a few minutes, and therefore surgical intervention was necessary to cannulate the femoral or external jugular vein or the vena cava. In the present report cannulation of the Vena saphena lateralis via the Vena plantaris lateralis or of the Vena saphena medialis is described by inserting a 22 gauge teflon catheter. These catheters are commercial products. The method is timesaving and inexpensive. Successful cannulation was accomplished in 34 of 35 guinea pigs. No lethal incidents occurred. PMID:8437431

Nau, R; Schunck, O

1993-01-01

223

Subcutaneous infusion ports for administration of parenteral nutrition at home.  

PubMed

We evaluated 15 adult patients in whom subcutaneous infusion ports (SIP) were implanted exclusively for the administration of parenteral nutrition at home (HPN). The SIP were in place for a total of 4,939 days, with a mean of 259 days, and used for delivery of HPN 2,534 times. The devices were implanted on the anterior part of the wall of the chest and the catheters introduced percutaneously through the subclavian vein into the superior vena cava under fluoroscopic guidance. There were two episodes of sepsis related to insertion of catheters (1.0 per 6.8 catheter years) and six mechanical complications. Three patients with multiple previous episodes of sepsis associated with Hickman catheters (long term Silastic [silicone rubber] central venous catheter) had no further infections after conversion to SIP. All eight patients with previous Hickman catheters preferred the SIP. The SIP compare favorably with Hickman catheters with respect to the incidence of sepsis related to the catheters and mechanical complications. SIP are our current choice for cyclic administration of HPN because of optimal acceptance by patients and a low rate of major complications. PMID:2506656

Pomp, A; Caldwell, M D; Albina, J E

1989-10-01

224

A Modified Metallic Coil Embolization Technique for Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Using Coil Anchors and Occlusion Balloon Catheters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a modified metallic coil embolization technique for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters. Methods. Five consecutive female patients with 6 PAVMs were included in the present study. One of the 6 PAVMs was of the complex type with four feeding arteries. An occlusion balloon catheter was inserted into the feeding artery as close to the venous sac as possible. The coil anchor, which was a simple W-shaped bent stainless steel wire with two markers at each end, was deployed prior to embolization to prevent the systemic migration of embolic materials. Then, metallic coils were deployed around the coil anchors under inflow stoppage using the inflated occlusion balloon catheter. In the complex-type PAVM, the main feeder was occluded by this technique and the other three small feeders were embolized with metallic coils only. Results. In all 5 cases, occlusion balloon catheters could be inserted into the feeding arteries just proximal to the venous sacs, coil anchors were easily deployed, and complete occlusion was achieved without any migration of metallic coils or paradoxical embolism during the procedure. Conclusions. The modified metallic coil embolization technique with coil anchors and occlusion balloon catheters was feasible and considered to be useful in preventing procedure-related complications.

Mori, Kensaku [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shiigai, Masanari [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Saida, Tsukasa; Anno, Izumi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Wada, Mitsuyoshi [Seinan Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Minami, Manabu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

2008-05-15

225

Management of retained Foley catheters.  

PubMed

Failure to deflate Foley catheters is a rare problem in clinical practice. There are various methods to overcome this problem. This is an experimental study of the commonly used methods. The balloons should never be inflated until rupture to prevent leaving loose fragments. A ureteric catheter or its stylet can be used to deflate the balloon. The balloon can be ruptured with fine needle under ultrasound guidance but it should not have been inflated to more than 50% of its volume to prevent leaving loose fragments in the bladder. PMID:8523300

Hamdi, J T

1995-10-01

226

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... What can patients do to help prevent a CAUTI? Resources for healthcare professionals What is a urinary ... What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs ...

227

Assessing the role of the biomaterial Aquavene in patient reactions to Landmark midline catheters.  

PubMed

Landmark midline catheters (Menlo Care, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) provide peripheral venous access for the infusion of medications or fluids. They are constructed of an inner layer of polyurethane and an outer layer of the biomaterial Aquavene, a blend of polyurethane and polyethylene oxide to which butylated hyroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and triallyl-s-triazine trione (TTT) are added. Once inside the vein, the Aquavene material becomes hydrated and the catheter swells resulting in minimal trauma to the vein. It is well recognized that some patients experience reactions to catheterization. Recent reports of hypersensitivity-like reactions in some patients catheterized with Landmark catheters have prompted the manufacturer to reexamine biocompatibility data and clinical data to assess whether Aquavene was the source of the patient responses. None of the biocompatibility studies provided by Menlo Care in support of U.S. registration and marketing of Aquavene-based catheters demonstrated any tendency for Aquavene or material extracted from Aquavene to invoke an immunological or toxicological response. Examination of potential catheter residuals revealed that significant amounts of BHA and BHT were unlikely to be released from the catheters during expected use. The amounts of polyethylene oxide and TTT expected to be released during the first few minutes after catheter insertion (when most of the patient reactions were reported) are almost 92,500 and 270,000 times lower, respectively, than nontoxic animal exposures. These analyses do not support chemically mediated toxicity as an explanation for the adverse events experienced by some patients. A review of the postmarket surveillance data on Aquavene-based catheters revealed that the reported events were not consistent with a hypersensitivity (immunogenic) response to the biomaterial. The rare reported adverse events tend to occur quickly, most often after flushing of the catheter, and resolve quickly, even when the catheter remains in place. Determining the frequency and severity of adverse events reported in association with the use of Landmark catheters will ultimately require a controlled prospective study, preferably one with a concurrent control group using alternative products. PMID:9056501

Silverstein, B; Witkin, K M; Frankos, V H; Terr, A I

1997-02-01

228

Uptake of drugs by catheters: the influence of the drug molecule on sorption by polyurethane catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of drugs by indwelling intravenous catheters may have clinical consequences both by alteration of the dose received by the patient and by physically affecting the catheter materials themselves which may lead to changes in mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Studies of drug sorption to new catheter materials are therefore important. PellethaneTM, a polyurethane increasingly used in vascular access catheters,

Juliet C. Smith; Martyn C. Davies; Colin D. Melia; Stephen P. Denyer; Max R. Derrick

1996-01-01

229

Rectal expulsion of a hepatic artery catheter.  

PubMed

The outlook for patients with colorectal liver metastases remains poor, survival in our hospital being only 6 months. The results of conventional treatment are disappointing. With the advent of implantable silicone catheters and small portable pumps, regional chemotherapy is more frequently administered, although complications relating to the catheter do occur. We describe a patient who expelled his hepatic artery catheter rectally, following removal of the catheter port for sepsis. PMID:8772078

Doughty, J C; Gallagher, H; Kane, E; McArdle, C S

1996-08-01

230

Urethral response to latex and Silastic catheters.  

PubMed Central

The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1000441

Bruce, A. W.; Plumpton, K. J.; Willett, W. S.; Chadwick, P.

1976-01-01

231

Radiofrequency Guide Wire Recanalization of Venous Occlusions in Patients with Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Fibrotic central venous occlusions in patients with thoracic malignancy and prior radiotherapy can be impassable with standard catheters and wires, including the trailing or stiff end of a hydrophilic wire. We report two patients with superior vena cava syndrome in whom we successfully utilized a radiofrequency guide wire (PowerWire, Baylis Medical, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) to perforate through the occlusion and recanalize the occluded segment to alleviate symptoms.

Davis, Robert M.; David, Elizabeth; Pugash, Robyn A.; Annamalai, Ganesan, E-mail: ganesan.annamalai@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Interventional Radiology (Canada)

2012-06-15

232

Minimally Invasive Catheter Procedures to Assist Complicated Pacemaker Lead Extraction and Implantation in the Operating Room  

SciTech Connect

We report on percutaneous catheter procedures in the operating room (OR) to assist complicated manual extraction or insertion of pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads. We retrospectively reviewed complicated PM revisions and implantations performed between 2004 and 2009 that required percutaneous catheter procedures performed in the OR. The type of interventional procedure, catheter and retrieval system used, venous access, success rates, and procedural complications were analyzed. In 41 (12 female and 29 male [mean age 62 {+-} 17 years]) of 3021 (1.4%) patients, standard manual retrieval of old leads or insertion of new leads was not achievable and thus required percutaneous catheter intervention for retrieval of misplaced leads and/or recanalisation of occluded central veins. Thirteen of 18 (72.2%) catheter-guided retrieval procedures for misplaced (right atrium [RA] or ventricle [RV; n = 3], superior vena cava [n = 2], brachiocephalic vein [n = 5], and subclavian vein [n = 3]) lead fragments in 16 patients were successful. Percutaneous catheter retrieval failed in five patients because there were extremely fixed or adhered lead fragments. Percutaneous transluminal angiography (PTA) of central veins for occlusion or high-grade stenosis was performed in 25 patients. In 22 of 25 patients (88%), recanalization of central veins was successful, thus enabling subsequent lead replacement. Major periprocedural complications were not observed. In the case of complicated manual PM lead implantation or revision, percutaneous catheter-guided extraction of misplaced lead fragments or recanalisation of central veins can be performed safely in the OR, thus enabling subsequent implantation or revision of PM systems in the majority of patients.

Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S., E-mail: rotemshlomo@yahoo.de; Miese, Falk R.; Blondin, Dirk [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany); Winter, Joachim [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Scherer, Axel; Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2011-04-15

233

Cytometric Catheter for Neurosurgical Applications  

SciTech Connect

Implantation of neural progenitor cells into the central nervous system has attracted strong interest for treatment of a variety of pathologies. For example, the replacement of dopamine-producing (DA) neural cells in the brain appears promising for the treatment of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Previous studies of cell-replacement strategies have shown that less than 90% of implanted cells survive longer than 24 - 48 hours following the implantation procedure. However, it is unknown if these cells were viable upon delivery, or if they were affected by other factors such as brain pathology or an immune response. An instrumented cell-delivery catheter has been developed to assist in answering these questions by facilitating quantification and monitoring of the viability of the cells delivered. The catheter uses a fiber optic probe to perform flourescence-based cytometric measurments on cells exiting the port at the catheter tip. The current implementation of this design is on a 3.2 mm diameter catheter with 245 micrometer diameter optical fibers. Results of fluorescence testing data are presented and show that the device can characterize the quantity of cell densities ranging from 60,000 cells/ml to 600,000 cells/ml with a coefficient of determination of 0.93.

Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Fillmore, Helen [ORNL; Broaddus, William C [ORNL; Dyer, Rachel L [ORNL; Gillies, George [ORNL

2010-01-01

234

Non-invasive estimation of jugular venous oxygen saturation: a comparison between near infrared spectroscopy and transcutaneous venous oximetry.  

PubMed

The ability of practitioners to assess the adequacy of global oxygen delivery is dependent on an accurate measurement of central venous saturation. Traditional techniques require the placement of invasive central venous access devices. This study aimed to compare two non-invasive technologies for the estimation of regional venous saturation (reflectance plethysmography and near infrared spectroscopy [NIRS]), using venous blood gas analysis as gold standard. Forty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were recruited in two groups. In the first group a reflectance pulse oximeter probe was placed on the skin overlying the internal jugular vein. In the second group, a Somanetics INVOS oximeter patch was placed on the skin overlying the internal jugular vein and overlying the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. Central venous catheters were placed in all patients. Oxygen saturation estimates from both groups were compared with measured saturation from venous blood. Twenty patients participated in each group.Data were analyzed by the limits of agreement technique suggested by Bland and Altman and by linear regression analysis. In the reflectance plethysmography group, the mean bias was 4.27% and the limits of agreement were 58.3 to -49.8% (r(2) = 0.00, p = 0.98). In the NIRS group the mean biases were 10.8% and 2.0% for the sensors attached over the cerebral hemisphere and over the internal jugular vein, respectively, and the limits of agreement were 33.1 to -11.4 and 19.5 to -15.5% (r(2) = 0.22, 0.28;p = 0.04, 0.03) for the cerebral hemisphere and internal jugular sites, respectively. While transcutaneous regional oximetry and NIRS have both been used to estimate venous and tissue oxygen saturation non-invasively, the correlation between estimates of ScvO(2) and SxvO(2) were statistically significant for near infrared spectroscopy, but not for transcutaneous regional oximetry. Placement of cerebral oximetry patches directly over the internal jugular vein (as opposed to on the forehead) appeared to approximate internal jugular venous saturation better (lower mean bias and tighter limits of agreement), which suggests this modality may with refinement offer the practitioner additional clinically useful information regarding global cerebral oxygen supply and demand matching. PMID:22290065

Colquhoun, Douglas A; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Durieux, Marcel E; Thiele, Robert H

2012-04-01

235

Catheters for arterial pressure monitoring in pediatrics.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy of an underdamped catheter transducer recorder used to measure arterial blood pressure, natural frequency and damping ratio were determined by transient testing with two types of 22-ga and 24-ga catheters. Damping coefficients were considerably higher and resonant frequencies lower with the 24-ga catheters. The difference between waveforms of known pressure and HR and the output waveforms produced by the catheter transducer systems was determined by using a BP systems calibrator. Catheter size did not affect the difference in recorded pressures. PMID:4006499

Fiser, D H; Graves, S A; van der Aa, J

1985-07-01

236

Comparison of four skin preparation strategies to prevent catheter-related infection in intensive care unit (CLEAN trial): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Catheter-related infection is the third cause of infections in intensive care units (ICU), increasing the length of stay in ICU and hospital, mortality, and costs. Skin antisepsis is one of the most prevalent preventive measures. In this respect, it would appear preferable to recommend the use of alcoholic povidone iodine or chlorhexidine rather than aqueous povidone iodine. However, the data comparing chlorhexidine to povidone-iodine, both of them in alcoholic solutions, remain limited. Moreover, the benefits of enhanced cleaning prior to disinfection of skin that is not visibly soiled have yet to be confirmed in a randomized study. Methods A prospective multicenter, 2×2 factorial, randomized-controlled, assessor-blind trial will be conducted in 11 intensive care units in six French hospitals. All adult patients aged over 18 years requiring the insertion of at least one peripheral arterial catheter and/or a non-tunneled central venous catheter and/or a hemodialysis catheter and/or an arterial pulmonary catheter will be randomly assigned to have all their catheters cared with one of four skin preparation strategies (2% chlorhexidine/70% isopropyl alcohol or 5% povidone iodine/69% ethanol with or without prior skin scrubbing). At catheter removal, catheter tips will be quantitatively cultured. Sets of aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures will be routinely obtained when a patient has fever, hypothermia, or other indications. In case of suspected catheter-related infection the patient’s form will be reviewed by an independent adjudication committee. We plan to enroll 2,400 patients (4,800 catheters). The main objective is to demonstrate that use of 2% alcoholic chlorhexidine compared to 5% alcoholic povidone iodine in skin preparation lowers the rate of catheter-related infection. The second endpoint is to demonstrate that enhanced skin cleaning prior to disinfection of skin that is not visibly soiled does not reduce catheter colonization. Other outcomes include comparison of skin colonization at catheter insertion site, comparison of catheter colonization and catheter-related bacteremia taking place during implementation of the four strategies of skin preparation, and cutaneous tolerance, length of hospitalization, mortality, and costs. Discussion This study will help to update recommendations on the choice of an antiseptic agent to use in skin preparation prior to insertion of a vascular catheter and, by extension, of an epidural catheter and it will likewise help to update recommendations on the usefulness of skin scrubbing prior to disinfection when the skin is not visibly soiled. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT01629550 PMID:23782845

2013-01-01

237

Venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, self-help (advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, advice to modify diet, advice to stop smoking, advice to reduce weight), and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative-pressure recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:19445798

2008-01-01

238

Catheter-directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis for symptomatic lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis: review of current interventional treatment strategies.  

PubMed

Deep vein thromboses (DVT) along with its clinical sequelae represent a major health care challenge in our society. An acute massive DVT can result in pulmonary embolism resulting in sudden death. Although oral or systemic anticoagulation therapy may minimize thrombus propagation, it remains ineffective in removing thrombus burden and consequently does not prevent postthrombotic syndrome. Recent advances in catheter-based interventions have led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive endovascular strategies to remove venous thrombi. These technologies use various principles, including catheter-directed thrombolytic infusion, rheolytic thrombectomy, mechanical fragmentation, or ultrasound energy to remove intraluminal thrombi. This article reviews the current advances in this technology and discusses the techniques of percutaneous treatment strategies of venous thrombotic conditions using various devices, including the AngioJet Power Pulse system, Trellis, and ultrasound-accelerated EkoSonic system. Finally, the authors' institutional experiences using these interventional treatment strategies in patients with acute and chronic DVT are discussed. PMID:21098496

Lin, Peter H; Ochoa, Lyssa N; Duffy, Patrick

2010-09-01

239

[Deep venous thrombosis complications during infections in pediatric patients: Analysis of a series of 24 cases].  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism disease (VTE) is rare in children (5.3 of 10,000 hospitalized children). However, morbidity and mortality are high, especially when the child is already suffering from severe sepsis. We report an analytical study of 24 cases of deep venous thrombosis occurring in children during infection, recorded at the Montpellier University Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Many parameters were studied in each population (age, sex, familial and personal history of thrombosis, history of thrombophilia, the presence of a venous catheter, a causative organism, time to onset of thrombus, topography of lesions, acquired abnormalities of hemostasis, and thrombosis prophylaxis). The children were aged from 1 day of life to 16 years. Thromboses occurred in two clinical contexts: "contact" thrombosis (which appeared near the infection) and disseminated thrombosis. This is an early complication because in most of the cases, it appeared in the first 10 days of sepsis. Infection and coagulation appear to be closely related and the states of latent or decompensated disseminated intravascular coagulation are common. Nevertheless, it is not possible to predict the occurence of a thrombotic event. The presence of risk factors (venous catheters, acquired thrombophilia, or constitutional thrombophilia) may increase the thrombogenic potential of the infection. VTE should always be suspected and sought in case of an unfavorable clinical course, and routine prophylaxis of thrombosis during sepsis should be discussed. PMID:24938919

Nou, M; Rodière, M; Schved, J-F; Laroche, J-P; Quéré, I; Dauzat, M; Jeziorski, E

2014-07-01

240

Oral Clonidine Pretreatment Prior to Venous Cannulation  

PubMed Central

Clonidine is a preferential alpha-2 agonist drug that has been used for over 35 years to treat hypertension. Recently, it has also been used as a preoperative medication and as a sedative/anxiolytic drug. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial characterized the effects of oral clonidine pretreatment on intravenous catheter placement in 13 patients. Parameters measured included the bispectral index (BIS), Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), frontal temporal electromyogram (EMG), 30-Second Blink Count (Blink), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), fingertip versus forearm skin temperatures, and multiple questionnaires. Oral clonidine significantly decreased SAI scores, OAA/S, EMG, and Blink, but did not cause statistically significant BIS or DSST reductions. Subjects preferred oral clonidine pretreatment prior to venipuncture compared to placebo. Questionnaires also indicated that clonidine provided minimal sedation, considerable anxiolysis, and some analgesia. Fingertip versus forearm skin temperature differentials were decreased. Reduced fingertip versus forearm temperature differentials suggest increased peripheral cutaneous blood flow prior to venous cannulation. Oral clonidine pretreatment not only helped control patient anxiety and pain but also provided cardiovascular stability. PMID:16863391

Hall, David L; Rezvan, Ehsan; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Walters, John D

2006-01-01

241

Matthew J. Hickman BJS Statistician  

E-print Network

of race or ethnicity data in 2001. In addition to traffic patrol units, 12 of the 29 State agencies) (table 2). Mandate for data collection In some cases State law enforcement agencies have been mandated, and 1 (Rhode Island) collected data in response to both a State law or Executive Order and a court

Hemmers, Oliver

242

Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... flowing toward the heart—against the force of gravity. When the valves do not perform their function, ... the vein, an interventional radiologist inserts a thin tube known as a catheter, about the size of ...

243

Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taurolidin\\/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates) in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or\\/Broviac-\\/Hickman-catheter type). METHODS: In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy

Arne Simon; Roland A Ammann; Gertrud Wiszniewsky; Udo Bode; Gudrun Fleischhack; Mette M Besuden

2008-01-01

244

Volatile N-nitrosamines in urinary catheters.  

PubMed

Levels of volatile N-nitrosamines were measured in 10 brands of latex and 2 brands of silicone catheters using high performance liquid chromatography. The cytotoxicity of catheters from identical batches was determined by measuring the inhibitory effect of catheter extracts on the uptake of 3H-labelled thymidine into L-929 fibroblasts in culture (IC50). The most frequently encountered nitrosamines were N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine. Total N-nitrosamine levels in excess of 100 ng/g were found in 6 of the 16 catheters tested. When compared with the cytotoxicity of the catheters a significant correlation was found, with increasing nitrosamine content being associated with greater cytotoxicity. In view of the reported toxic and carcinogenic effects of these compounds it is suggested that the nitrosamine content of catheters be routinely monitored and safe regulatory limits be imposed. PMID:2920265

Heenan, M P; Nacey, J N; Delahunt, B; Ferguson, A F; Dickson, S J

1989-01-01

245

Proteus mirabilis biofilms and the encrustation of urethral catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms were observed on 69 of 75 catheters taken from patients undergoing long-term bladder management. Ten catheters were colonized by pure cultures of Proteus mirabilis. In each of these cases the bacteria formed layers on the catheter surface, underlying encrustations of struvite and hydroxyapatite which partially or completely occluded the catheter lumen. Encrustation was also apparent on catheters colonized

D. Stickler; L. Ganderton; J. King; J. Nettleton; C. Winters

1993-01-01

246

Venous angiomas and epilepsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of epilepsy associated with cerebral venous angiomas (VA). We examined epileptic patients in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed VA. The characteristics of epilepsy and its relationships to VA were studied. Out of 1020 epileptic patients submitted to MRI in a 10-year period, 4 presented with VA. All had partial seizures, most frequently complex partial, with secondary generalizations in 3. Drug resistance was observed in 2. One patient had a small area of cortical dysplasia near the VA; another had a cutaneous angioma. In 2 patients, there was no topographic concordance between the VA and the focus on electroencephalography. Our study reveals that VA are rarely found in epileptic patients, differently from other vascular malformations, in particular cavernomas. Topographic and/or etiological relationships between VA and epilepsy are still undefined. PMID:11076003

Striano, S; Nocerino, C; Striano, P; Boccella, P; Meo, R; Bilo, L; Cirillo, S

2000-06-01

247

Heparin compared with normal saline to maintain patency of permanent double lumen hemodialysis catheters: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Heparin has long been used to prevent thrombosis in the permanent central venous hemodialysis catheters (PermCath). Other alternatives for heparin with fewer side-effects have recently been considered. We compared normal saline (0.9%) with heparin for flushing PermCath with regards to catheter patency and prevention of heparin complications. Materials and Methods: Chronic kidney disease patients who were candidate of PermCath placement were randomly assigned into two groups of heparin and saline. In the heparin group, the PermCath was flushed with heparin (1000 IU), and in the saline group, it was flushed with saline 0.9%. Patients were followed for 24 hours, and outcomes included catheter thrombosis, maneuver needed to maintain catheter patency, and bleeding from catheter site. Results: Ninety six patients were included (age = 63.1 ± 11.2 years, 54.2% male). No one experienced catheter thrombosis. Two patient (4.2%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group required catheter manipulation (P = 0.520). Four patients (8.5%) in the heparin and three ones (6.1%) in the saline group experienced bleeding (P = 0.476); differences between heparin and saline groups in the amount of bleeding (225.0 ± 62.4 vs. 200.0 ± 113.5 cc, P = 0.721) and bleeding time (6.5 ± 1.2 vs. 5.3 ± 1.5 min, P = 0.322) were not significant. In the heparin group, no significant increase was observed in PTT over time; baseline 30.9 ± 3.4, 12 h 31.8 ± 3.4, 24 h 31.2 ± 6.6 (P = 0.628). Conclusions: Flushing PermCath with normal saline 0.9% is as effective as heparin in maintaining patency of the catheter, while it may reduce the risks associated with heparin. PMID:24949292

Beigi, Ali Akbar; HadiZadeh, Mirhadi Seyed; Salimi, Fereshteh; Ghaheri, Hafez

2014-01-01

248

An Organoselenium Compound Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms on Hemodialysis Catheters In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus. PMID:22123688

Tran, Phat L.; Lowry, Nathan; Campbell, Thomas; Reid, Ted W.; Webster, Daniel R.; Tobin, Eric; Aslani, Arash; Mosley, Thomas; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.

2012-01-01

249

Utility of duplex ultrasound in the diagnosis of asymptomatic catheter-induced subclavian vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic thrombosis of the subclavian vein is common after placement of indwelling catheters. The sequelae of these thrombi are not known. Investigation is hampered by the requirement for venography for diagnosis; consequently, a noninvasive method of diagnosis would be welcome in this context. We have studied prospectively 32 subclavian catheters to determine the usefulness of duplex ultrasound in diagnosing asymptomatic thrombosis. Sixteen arm venograms were normal and all gave normal duplex scans. No false-positive scans were obtained. Eleven venograms demonstrated nonocclusive mural thrombi. Only three of these were seen with duplex ultrasound. Five totally occlusive thrombi were seen on venography, of which only two were detected with duplex sonography. The three thrombi not found with duplex ultrasound were short proximal venous occlusions. The insensitivity of this technique to asymptomatic subclavian thrombi limits its usefulness as a screening tool. PMID:1920590

Haire, W D; Lynch, T G; Lieberman, R P; Lund, G B; Edney, J A

1991-09-01

250

Hemodialysis catheter outcomes pilot study: no dressing coverage with prescribed showering.  

PubMed

This six-month prospective, multi-site study incorporated no dressing coverage over hemodialysis central venous catheter exit sites and compared the outcomes of two groups of patients receiving incenter hemodialysis: a shower group and a non-shower group. Outcomes included exit site infection rates, tunnel infection rates, and catheter-related bloodstream infection rates. The study enrolled 40 patients--31 patients in the shower group and nine patients in the non-shower group. The study was initially designed as a randomized controlled study, but after a month of enrolling patients, most patients insisted on being in the shower group. Results for both groups demonstrated infection rates that were not statistically different and were below levels reported in other studies. The qualitative satisfaction in ability to shower by patients in this study was an additional important finding. PMID:24689265

Evans, Elizabeth C; Hain, Debra; Kear, Tamara M; Dork, Leslie A; Schrauf, Christine

2014-01-01

251

Smart central venous port for early detection of bacterial biofilm related infections.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of bloodstream infections must be performed promptly so that adequate antimicrobial therapy can be started and patient outcome improved. An ideal diagnostic technology would identify the infecting organism(s) in a timely manner, so that appropriate pathogen-driven therapy could begin promptly. Unfortunately, despite the essential information it provides, blood culture, the gold standard, largely fails in this purpose because time is lost waiting for bacterial or fungal growth. This work presents a new design of a venous access port that allows the monitoring of the inner reservoir surface by means of an impedimetric biosensor. An ad-hoc electronic system was designed to manage the sensor and to allow communication with the external receiver. Historic data recorded and stored in the device was used as the reference value for the detection of bacterial biofilm. The RF communication system sends an alarm signal to the external receiver when a microbial colonization of the port occurs. The successful in vitro analysis of the biosensor, the electronics and the antenna of the new indwelling device prototype are shown. The experimental conditions were selected in each case as the closest to the clinical working conditions for the smart central venous catheter (SCVC) testing. The results of this work allow a new generation of this kind of device that could potentially provide more efficient treatments for catheter-related infections. PMID:24515846

Paredes, J; Alonso-Arce, M; Schmidt, C; Valderas, D; Sedano, B; Legarda, J; Arizti, F; Gómez, E; Aguinaga, A; Del Pozo, J L; Arana, S

2014-06-01

252

Venous thrombosis: the history of knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous thrombosis is a frequent disease. It is surpris- ing, therefore, that no case truly compatible with a diag- nosis of venous thrombosis was apparently reported in the antiquity. There is no case that could be reasonably attributed to a venous thrombus in the writings of Hippocrates, Galenus, Celius Aurelianus, Ibn an-Nafiz, Avicenna and others. Venous thrombosis is not among

P. M. Mannucci

2002-01-01

253

Leg ulceration in venous disease.  

PubMed Central

We have given a brief summary of the scale of the problem caused by venous ulceration in the UK, and have then reviewed the various theories of causation, including a historical survey, and presented the evidence for and against the two main current theories of fibrin cuffs and white cell trapping. We also outline previous hypotheses of the aetiology of venous ulceration, including arteriovenous microanastomoses, stasis and oedema. The contribution of superficial venous incompetence in the pathogenesis of ulceration is also examined. PMID:1461849

Shami, S. K.; Shields, D. A.; Scurr, J. H.; Smith, P. D.

1992-01-01

254

Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration  

PubMed Central

Objective: Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. Methods: This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. Conclusion: The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance. PMID:25097505

Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

2014-01-01

255

Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.  

PubMed

The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

Gulati, Om P

2014-03-01

256

Scheme for Creating a Subcutaneous Tunnel to Place an Indwelling Implantable Central Venous Access System in the Forearm  

SciTech Connect

We report a method that we have devised in which a secure subcutaneous tunnel is prepared during the placement of an indwelling central venous reservoir in the forearm. Subjects included 69 cases in which a procedure for implanting an indwelling reservoir in the forearm was performed between June 2006 and May 2007. For the subcutaneous tunnel, a 22-G Cathelin needle was advanced from the puncture site, turning toward the subcutaneous pocket side to the deep subcutaneous area. A 14-G Surflo IV catheter was then advanced along the 22-G Cathelin needle from the subcutaneous pocket. With the tip of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter emerging above the skin at the puncture site, the inner needle of the 14-G Surflo IV catheter and the 22-G Cathelin needle were removed. The catheter was passed through the outer 14-G Surflo IV catheter to emerge on the subcutaneous pocket site, then the outer needle of the Surflo catheter was also removed, and a connection to the port was made to create the subcutaneous tunnel. In all 69 cases, the subcutaneous tunnel in the forearm of the nondominant arm was successfully created within a short period of time (100% success rate). No problems were observed due to slack in the catheter until removal of the sutures 1 week later and for 3 months after treatment. With this method, we believe that a subcutaneous tunnel can be prepared in which the contained catheter has minimal freedom of movement, and which minimizes any damage induced by slack in the catheter within the subcutaneous tunnel.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: rad043@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Tanikake, Masato; Arimoto, Hiroshi; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15

257

21 CFR 870.1200 - Diagnostic intravascular catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others. (b)...

2010-04-01

258

What is a catheter-associated bloodstream infection?  

E-print Network

sheet. � Clean the patient's skin with an antiseptic cleanser before putting in the catheter. � Clean their hands, wear gloves, and clean the catheter opening with an antiseptic solution before using the catheter

Kim, Duck O.

259

Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull , PhD ; Julia A. Harris , ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

260

Varicose veins and venous insufficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Freischlag JA, Heller JA. Venous disease. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 65. Goldman MP, ...

261

Venous ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... treat a venous ulcer, you want to improve blood flow to your legs. Wear compression stockings or bandages ... or exercise every day. Being active helps improve blood flow. Take medications as directed to help with healing. ...

262

Heritability of chronic venous disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced\\u000a chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role\\u000a in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon\\u000a CVD risk by estimating

Andreas Fiebig; Petra Krusche; Andreas Wolf; Michael Krawczak; Birgitt Timm; Susanna Nikolaus; Norbert Frings; Stefan Schreiber

2010-01-01

263

Successful retrieval of an irretrievable jugular tesio catheter using a fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter.  

PubMed

Long life expectancy and wide development of therapies have increased the number of patients under artificial treatment for lost kidney function or dialysis. Different options for vascular access are suitable for receiving this therapy. The use of tunneled catheters has consequently increased complications related to its use. A difficult retrieval of catheters caused by a hard fibrin sheath along its trajectory is a common drawback. Herein, we report a woman with suspicion of hemodialysis catheter infection and an irretrievable Tesio catheter. A novel technique using a Fogarty arterial catheter allowed a successful retrieval and avoided an aggressive management. PMID:24407507

Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Gutiérrez-Diez, Francisco; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Arnáiz, Javier; Expósito, Víctor; Nistal, Juan Francisco; Rodríquez-Entem, Felipe; Olalla, Juan José; López-Rodríguez, Javier; González-Santos, José María

2014-05-01

264

Urinary catheter sterilization with microwave oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted utilizing a home microwave oven to sterilize catheters commonly used for intermittent self-catherization. Red rubber urinary catheters were inoculated with common clinical uropathogens and were placed in sealed brown paper bags or Ziploc plastic freezer bags and microwaved at full power for various timed intervals. Differences were noted in killing time for some strains or species of

C. J. Lian; R. B. Bracken

1991-01-01

265

Robust pigtail catheter tip detection in fluoroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pigtail catheter is a type of catheter inserted into the human body during interventional surgeries such as the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The catheter is characterized by a tightly curled end in order to remain attached to a valve pocket during the intervention, and it is used to inject contrast agent for the visualization of the vessel in fluoroscopy. Image-based detection of this catheter is used during TAVI, in order to overlay a model of the aorta and enhance visibility during the surgery. Due to the different possible projection angles in fluoroscopy, the pigtail tip can appear in a variety of different shapes spanning from pure circular to ellipsoid or even line. Furthermore, the appearance of the catheter tip is radically altered when the contrast agent is injected during the intervention or when it is occluded by other devices. All these factors make the robust real-time detection and tracking of the pigtail catheter a challenging task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a new tree-structured, hierarchical detection scheme, based on a shape categorization of the pigtail catheter tip, and a combination of novel Haar features. The proposed framework demonstrates improved detection performance, through a validation on a data set consisting of 272 sequences with more than 20,000 images. The detection framework presented in this paper is not limited to pigtail catheter detection, but it can also be applied successfully to any other shape-varying object with similar characteristics.

Tzoumas, Stratis; Wang, Peng; Zheng, Yefeng; John, Matthias; Comaniciu, Dorin

2012-02-01

266

Automated Pointing of Cardiac Imaging Catheters  

PubMed Central

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheters enable high-quality ultrasound imaging within the heart, but their use in guiding procedures is limited due to the difficulty of manually pointing them at structures of interest. This paper presents the design and testing of a catheter steering model for robotic control of commercial ICE catheters. The four actuated degrees of freedom (4-DOF) are two catheter handle knobs to produce bi-directional bending in combination with rotation and translation of the handle. An extra degree of freedom in the system allows the imaging plane (dependent on orientation) to be directed at an object of interest. A closed form solution for forward and inverse kinematics enables control of the catheter tip position and the imaging plane orientation. The proposed algorithms were validated with a robotic test bed using electromagnetic sensor tracking of the catheter tip. The ability to automatically acquire imaging targets in the heart may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of intracardiac catheter interventions by allowing visualization of soft tissue structures that are not visible using standard fluoroscopic guidance. Although the system has been developed and tested for manipulating ICE catheters, the methods described here are applicable to any long thin tendon-driven tool (with single or bi-directional bending) requiring accurate tip position and orientation control. PMID:24683501

Loschak, Paul M.; Brattain, Laura J.; Howe, Robert D.

2013-01-01

267

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or...

2010-04-01

269

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

...Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or...

2014-04-01

270

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or...

2012-04-01

271

21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to introduce or...

2011-04-01

272

Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

1991-01-01

273

Glyceryl Trinitrate Complements Citrate and Ethanol in a Novel Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution To Eradicate Biofilm Organisms  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization. GTN has a long history of intravenous use as a hypotensive agent. It is potentially attractive as a component of a catheter lock solution because its physiologic half-life is quite short and its metabolic pathways are known. A lock containing 7% citrate and 20% ethanol required 0.01% GTN to fully eradicate biofilms of all test organisms within 2 h in the model. This GTN concentration is below the levels where clinically significant hypotensive effects are expected. PMID:23669393

Reitzel, Ruth; Dvorak, Tanya; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray Y.; Raad, Issam I.

2013-01-01

274

Glyceryl trinitrate complements citrate and ethanol in a novel antimicrobial catheter lock solution to eradicate biofilm organisms.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization. GTN has a long history of intravenous use as a hypotensive agent. It is potentially attractive as a component of a catheter lock solution because its physiologic half-life is quite short and its metabolic pathways are known. A lock containing 7% citrate and 20% ethanol required 0.01% GTN to fully eradicate biofilms of all test organisms within 2 h in the model. This GTN concentration is below the levels where clinically significant hypotensive effects are expected. PMID:23669393

Rosenblatt, Joel; Reitzel, Ruth; Dvorak, Tanya; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray Y; Raad, Issam I

2013-08-01

275

[Duplexsonography investigation in patients with venous ulcer].  

PubMed

Venous hypertension due to venous insufficiency causes venous ulcers. Duplexsonography is a widely accepted non invasive method to assess venous insufficiency with venous reflux measurements. Retrograde venous flow is defined as venous reflux. The testing of venous reflux is reliable if transvalvular pressure is sufficiently high and transvalvular flow velocity exceeds 30 cm/s. Reflux testing in the proximal leg veins (V. femoralis communis, V. femoralis, V. saphena magna) is done using a standardised Valsalva Manoeuvre (exspiration into a tube up to a pressure of 30 mmHg, pressure established within 0.5 seconds, pressure hold for 3 seconds). Distal leg vein testing (V. poplitea, V. tibialis posterior, V. saphena parva) is recommended with a two handed - compression distally to the tested veins. The most important parameter is venous reflux time, a cut off of > 2 seconds is recommended. PMID:21360458

Jeanneret-Gris, Christina

2011-03-01

276

Is the pH of vancomycin an indication for central venous access?  

PubMed

All vascular access devices (VADs) have associated risks and benefits. Therefore, the decision to place a particular VAD rests on the assumption that the benefits of that device will outweigh the risks and allow for effective delivery of the treatment plan. The study by Caparas and colleagues, in the present issue of JVA, challenges the pH restrictions presented in the Standards. Caparas and her team have reconfirmed the previously reported findings that peripheral venous administration of vancomycin carries a low risk of phlebitis and extravasation and an even lower risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Central venous administration of vancomycin, on the other hand, carries the greater risk of central line associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In light of these findings and a lack of evidence to the contrary, the decision to place a central venous access device based solely on the pH of the intended therapy, vancomycin in particular, is not supported by the evidence and findings of this study. From a risk-benefit perspective, based on Caparas's study evidence, midline catheters are a safe option for patients for the administration of vancomycin, under specific concentrations, and for many other indicated medications and solutions. PMID:24811587

Moureau, Nancy L

2014-01-01

277

Low Infection Rates and Prolonged Survival Times of Hemodialysis Catheters in Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis (HD) catheter-related complications are regarded as the main cause of HD failure in infants and children with ESRD. In this study, we determined HD catheter infection rates and survival times in children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiologic data on all infants and children with ESRD who received HD therapy through a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) in our Pediatric Dialysis Unit between January 2001 and December 2009. Our strict care of HD-CVCs makes no use of any kind of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Results Twenty-nine children with ESRD (median age, 10 years) received HD through a CVC, for a total of 22,892 days during the study period. Eleven (38%) children were infants (<1 year of age) who received HD for a cumulative 3779 days (16% of total). Fifty-nine CVCs were inserted, of which 13 (22%) were in infants. There were 12 episodes of CVC infection—a rate of 0.52/1000 CVC days. Four (33%) episodes occurred in infants—a rate of 1.06/1000 CVC days. Only three (5%) of the CVCs were removed because of infection. Median catheter survival time for all children was 310 days and for infants was 211 days. Conclusions Very low CVC infection rates (one infection per 5 CVC years) and prolonged CVC survival times (around 1 year) are achievable in infants and children with ESRD receiving HD therapy by adhering to a strict catheter management protocol and without using prophylactic antibiotic therapy. PMID:21127138

Eisenstein, Israel; Tarabeih, Mahdi; Magen, Daniella; Pollack, Shirley; Kassis, Imad; Ofer, Amos; Engel, Ahuva

2011-01-01

278

Characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infections in children with intestinal failure: implications for clinical management.  

PubMed

Catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intestinal-failure population. This study reports characteristics of CRBSI with implications for clinical management in parenteral nutrition-dependent children with intestinal failure. The researchers report the rate of central catheter infections, and the causative organisms, as well as identify risk factors in our intestinal-failure patients that would be amenable to preventive measures.The study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 101 patients with intestinal failure (IF), seen in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Clinic at Children's Medical Center of Dallas from May 2005 to March 2007. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) were categorized as nosocomial or community-acquired. Data collected for each episode include microorganisms isolated from blood and potential risk factors. Z test was done to compare the infection rates.There were 92 episodes of CRBSIs in 45 parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent patients with central venous catheters (CVC) in place for a total of 13,978 days. Eighty-three percent (n = 76) of CRBSIs developed in the community at a rate of 7.0 per 1,000 days. Seventeen percent (n = 16) nosocomial CRBSIs were observed at a rate of 5.5 per 1,000 catheter days. CRBSI rate was not statistically different between the two groups (7.0 vs. 5.5, p = .378).CRBSI in the intestinal-failure population is due to a wide variety of organisms with numerous risk factors. Education of CVC management with the practice of consistent guidelines may reduce CRBSI incidence, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality in the intestinal-failure patients. PMID:20010229

Drews, Barbara B; Sanghavi, Rinarani; Siegel, Jane D; Metcalf, Pat; Mittal, Naveen K

2009-01-01

279

Impact of Different Vein Catheter Sizes for Mechanical Power Injection in CT: In Vitro Evaluation with Use of a Circulation Phantom  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different peripheral vein catheter sizes on the injection pressure, flow rate, injection duration, and intravascular contrast enhancement. A flow phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used. High-iodine-concentration contrast medium (370 mg iodine/ml; Ultravist 370) was administered in the venous compartment through peripheral vein catheters of different sizes (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 G) using a double-head power injector with a pressure limit of 325 psi. The flow rate was set to 5 ml/s, with a total iodine load of 36 g for all protocols. Serial CT scans at the level of the pulmonary artery and the ascending and the descending aorta replica were obtained. The true injection flow rate, injection pressure, injection duration, true contrast material volume, and pressure in the phantom during and after injection were continuously monitored. Time enhancement curves were computed and both pulmonary and aortic peak time and peak enhancement were determined. Using peripheral vein catheters with sizes of 14-20 G, flow rates of approximately 5 ml/s were obtained. During injection through a 22-G catheter the pressure limit was reached and the flow rate was decreased, with a consecutive decreased pulmonary and aortic contrast enhancement compared to the 14- to 20-G catheters. Injection through a 24-G peripheral vein catheter was not possible because of disconnection of the canula due to the high flow rate and pressure. In summary, intravenous catheters with sizes of 14-20 G are suitable for CT angiography using an injection protocol with a high flow rate and a high-iodine-concentration contrast medium.

Behrendt, Florian F., E-mail: behrendt@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Bruners, Philipp; Keil, Sebastian; Plumhans, Cedric; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Stanzel, Sven [University Hospital (RWTH) Aachen, Institute of Medical Statistics (Germany); Das, Marco; Guenther, Rolf W.; Muehlenbruch, Georg [University Hospital (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2009-01-15

280

Use of the Tego needlefree connector is associated with reduced incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are common in hemodialysis patients using central venous catheters, and catheter occlusion also occurs frequently. The Tego needlefree connector was developed to reduce the incidence of these complications; however, existing studies of its effectiveness and safety are limited. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis compared outcomes among patients of a large dialysis organization receiving in-center hemodialysis using a central venous catheter with either the Tego connector or standard catheter caps between October 1 and June 30, 2013. Incidence rates for intravenous (IV) antibiotic starts, receipt of an IV antibiotic course, positive blood cultures, mortality, and missed dialysis treatments were calculated, and incidence-rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Utilization of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and thrombolytics was described for each patient-month and compared using mixed linear models. Models were run without adjustment, adjusted for covariates that were imbalanced between cohorts, or fully adjusted for all potential confounders. Results The analysis comprised 10,652 Tego patients and 6,493 controls. Tego use was independently associated with decreased risk of CRBSI, defined by initiation of IV antibiotics (adjusted IRR 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.97) or initiation of IV antibiotic course (adjusted IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.95). Tego use was independently associated with decreased rate of missed dialysis treatments (adjusted IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–1.00); no significant difference between Tego and control cohorts was observed with respect to mortality. Tego use was associated with decreased likelihood of thrombolytic use (adjusted per-month probability of 5.6% versus 6.2% for controls) and lower utilization of ESAs in study months 7–9. Conclusion Use of the Tego connector may reduce the risk of CRBSI and result in lower utilization of thrombolytics, antibiotics, and ESAs, as well as fewer missed dialysis treatments. PMID:24729725

Brunelli, Steven M; Njord, Levi; Hunt, Abigail E; Sibbel, Scott P

2014-01-01

281

ATLS: Catheter and tube placement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specific objectives of this experiment are: to evaluate the rack mounted equipment and medical supplies necessary for medical procedures; to evaluate the attachments, mounting points, and inner drawer assemblies for the medical supplies; and to evaluate the procedures for performing medical scenarios. The resources available in the HMF miniracks to accomplish medical scenarios and/or procedures include: medical equipment mounted in the racks; a patch panel with places to attach tubing and catheters; self contained drawers full of critical care medical supplies; and an ALS 'backpack' for deploying supplies. The attachment lines, tubing and associated medical supplies will be deployed and used with the equipment and a patient mannequin. Data collection is provided by direct observations by the inflight experimenters, and analysis of still and video photography.

Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.; Pepper, L.; Orsak, Debra

1991-01-01

282

Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?  

PubMed

In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton. PMID:17336540

Corno, Antonio F

2007-06-01

283

Double-lumen arterial balloon catheter technique for Onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas: initial experience  

PubMed Central

Background Dural arteriovenous fistulas are vascular malformations with variable clinical symptoms that range in severity from completely asymptomatic to seizures, dementia, loss of vision and intracranial hemorrhage. Historically, surgical obliteration was the treatment of choice but, more recently, endovascular embolization has become the first-line treatment. The liquid embolic agent Onyx (ethyl vinyl copolymer) has become the agent of choice, but problems with reflux around the delivery microcatheter and inadvertent venous penetration have arisen. Methods and results We present six cases in which the double-lumen balloon microcatheter was used to transarterially embolize dural arteriovenous fistulas via injection of Onyx through the wire lumen. Depending on the individual pathology a venous balloon was also used in some cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of these devices are discussed. Conclusions We consider that the use of the double-lumen balloon technique for fistula embolization has the potential for reducing overall procedural times, procedural failures and catheter retention in certain situations. In such cases we would advocate this as a first-line technique. When lower profile, more navigable balloon catheters become available, this may become the standard of care. PMID:23749795

Chiu, Albert Ho Yuen; Aw, Grace; Wenderoth, Jason David

2014-01-01

284

[Spiral x-ray computed tomography in the diagnosis of central venous catheterization complications].  

PubMed

In this work we report our initial experience on the utilisation of the spiral tomodensitometry in the study of the vascular complications due to the catheterization of the internal jugular vein. We present the results of a systematic search of vascular lesions after removal of an indwelling catheter in a group of 18 patients and describe a few cases of acute complications where the use of TDMS has been very useful in the diagnostic workout. The results confirm the risks associated with the catheterization of the internal jugular vein, showing a frequency of lesions of various degree in about 50% of the cases. Moreover, we discuss some aspects of the thrombotic complications in the patients carrying a central venous catheter and the advantages of the diagnostic application of the spiral tomodensitometry. PMID:11811017

Forneris, G; Quarello, F; Pozzato, M; Vaudano, G P

2001-01-01

285

Transfemoral contralateral technique to retrieve knotted coronary artery catheter using Amplatz Goose Neck snare catheter  

PubMed Central

Performing coronary angiography in very older patients can prove a challenge due to vessels calcification and torturousity. Manipulation of coronary catheters to engage the artery ostium may result in over twisting and can result in complications ranging from a minor ‘kink’ to a complex ‘knot’. The authors describe a novel method to retrieve the complex twisted coronary catheter using snare technique, after usual steps to remove the coronary catheter failed. PMID:22798519

Rafie, Ihsan M; Viswanathan, Girish; Penny, William J

2010-01-01

286

Transfemoral contralateral technique to retrieve knotted coronary artery catheter using Amplatz Goose Neck snare catheter.  

PubMed

Performing coronary angiography in very older patients can prove a challenge due to vessels calcification and torturousity. Manipulation of coronary catheters to engage the artery ostium may result in over twisting and can result in complications ranging from a minor 'kink' to a complex 'knot'. The authors describe a novel method to retrieve the complex twisted coronary catheter using snare technique, after usual steps to remove the coronary catheter failed. PMID:22798519

Rafie, Ihsan M; Viswanathan, Girish; Penny, William J

2010-01-01

287

Catheter systems for intrathecal drug delivery.  

PubMed

A prospective study of intrathecal catheter reliability was performed at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. All 102 patients who had baclofen administered chronically for spasticity via an implanted drug pump were included. Sixty percent of the patients had no catheter complications; the remaining patients had one to five complications over their course of treatment. Survival analysis demonstrated a steady rate of malfunction up to 80 months, with the mean time to first failure recorded at 20 months. Kinks, holes, breaks, dislodgments, and disconnections were the most common complications. On the basis of their research the authors conclude that the thin-walled silastic catheter does not perform well and that larger, thick-walled catheters should be used. PMID:7616263

Penn, R D; York, M M; Paice, J A

1995-08-01

288

Drug-Coated Balloon Catheter Approved  

MedlinePLUS

... Roberts Monday, October 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Medical Device Safety Peripheral Arterial Disease MONDAY, Oct. 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The first drug-coated balloon catheter designed to clear narrowed or blocked arteries ...

289

Intravascular Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Intravascular catheters required for the care of many hospitalized patients can give rise to bloodstream infection, a complication of care that has occurred most frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) has guided development of effective diagnostic, management, and prevention strategies. When CRBSIs occur in the ICU, physicians must be prepared to recognize and treat them. Prevention of these infections requires careful attention to optimal catheter selection, insertion and maintenance, and to removal of catheters when they are no longer needed. This review provides a succinct summary of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of CRBSIs and a review of current guidance for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these infections. PMID:24167648

Shah, Harshal; Bosch, Wendelyn; Thompson, Kristine M.; Hellinger, Walter C.

2013-01-01

290

Reduction of bloodstream infections associated with catheters in paediatric intensive care unit: stepwise approach  

PubMed Central

Problem Bloodstream infections associated with catheters were the most common nosocomial infections in one paediatric intensive care unit in 1994-7, with rates well above the national average. Design Clinical data were collected prospectively to assess the rates of infection from 1994 onwards. The high rates in 1994-7 led to the stepwise introduction of interventions over a five year period. At quarterly intervals, prospective data continued to be collected during this period and an additional three year follow-up period. Setting A 292 bed tertiary care children's hospital. Key measures for improvement We aimed to reduce our infection rates to below the national mean rates for similar units by 2000 (a 25% reduction). Strategies for change A stepwise introduction of interventions designed to reduce infection rates, including maximal barrier precautions, transition to antibiotic impregnated central venous catheters, annual handwashing campaigns, and changing the skin disinfectant from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine. Effects of change Significant decreases in rates of infection occurred over the intervention period. These were sustained over the three year follow-up. Annual rates decreased from 9.7/1000 days with a central venous catheter in 1997 to 3.0/1000 days in 2005, which translates to a relative risk reduction of 75% (95% confidence interval 35% to 126%), an absolute risk reduction of 6% (2% to 10%), and a number needed to treat of 16 (10 to 35). Lessons learnt A stepwise introduction of interventions leading to a greater than threefold reduction in nosocomial infections can be implemented successfully. This requires a multidisciplinary team, support from hospital leadership, ongoing data collection, shared data interpretation, and introduction of evidence based interventions. PMID:17303886

Gilliam, Craig; Honeycutt, Michele; Schexnayder, Stephen; Green, Jerril; Moss, Michele; Anand, K J S

2007-01-01

291

Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area. The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body) relative to an applied displacement of the proximal end (outside body); (2) torquability -- the amount of rotation of the distal end relative to an applied rotation of the proximal end; and (3) trackability -- the extent to which the catheter tracks along the guide wire without displacing it.

Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L; Hilken, D; Kluiwstra, J U; Lee, A P; London, R; Miles, R; Schumann, D; Seward, K; Wang, A

2001-07-20

292

Does prophylactic anticoagulation prevent PICC-related upper extremity venous thrombosis? A case-control study.  

PubMed

The evidence regarding the value of prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent peripherally inserted central catheter-related upper extremity venous thrombosis (PRUEVT) is inconsistent. The authors reviewed 3 years of data, identifying all cases of PRUEVT at a facility in Texas, and individually matched each for risk factors with 2 controls. Not being on any form of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent was associated with a modestly increased risk of PRUEVT (odds ratio 1.93, P = .036, 95% confidence interval, 1.025-3.602). Each approach to thrombosis prevention showed a trend toward a protective effect, but none reached statistical significance individually. PMID:25191821

Wilson, James D; Alred, Steven C

2014-01-01

293

Robotic catheter navigation within the left ventricle.  

PubMed

Robotic navigation systems aim to improve ablation catheter maneuverability, tissue contact, and stability. These attributes suggest that such systems could enhance outcomes in the ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). To date, however, ablation has been confined to the atria. We present a case in which robotic catheter navigation alongside three-dimensional anatomical mapping enabled successful ablation of VT within the left ventricle. PMID:20663076

Duncan, Edward; Johns, Neville; Schilling, Richard J; Sporton, Simon

2011-11-01

294

Tamm-Horsfall protein facilitates catheter associated urinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary catheters are associated, commonly with bacteriuria and frequently with urinary tract infection. Tamm-Horsfall Protein (THP) is urine's most abundant protein and is known to bind to uropathogenic bacteria. The role of THP in the pathogenesis of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is not clear. We examined the role of THP in facilitating bacterial binding to urinary catheters in vivo and in vitro. Findings Twenty one urinary catheters were obtained from 20 hospitalized patients. THP was eluted from the catheter surface and catheter segments were cultured. Additional studies were performed in vitro on unused silicone and latex catheters to determine the binding of THP, and the effect of THP on the binding of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), to the catheter surface. On catheters obtained from patients, the THP deposition was significantly more on culture positive catheters than on culture negative catheters. In the in vitro studies, THP bound to both silicone and latex catheters, and THP enhanced the adherence of E. coli and P. aeruginosa to both types of catheters. Conclusion THP binds to urinary catheters and facilitates the binding of uropathogenic bacteria to catheters. PMID:23009031

2012-01-01

295

Venous aneurysm in a horse.  

PubMed

Venous aneurysm was diagnosed in a 3-year-old horse, using contrast radiography and acid-base analysis of blood samples taken simultaneously from the right jugular vein and a swelling in the right mandibular angle. Attempted surgical correction was followed by rupture of the right maxillary vein. Hemorrhagic shock developed, and the horse died. PMID:1158779

Hilbert, B J; Rendano, V T

1975-09-01

296

Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage  

SciTech Connect

Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

Stockland, Andrew H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Willingham, Darrin L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Grewal, Hani P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); McKinney, J. Mark [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Hughes, Christopher B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation (United States); Walser, Eric M., E-mail: Walser.eric@mayo.ed [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

2009-03-15

297

Development and Characterization of an In Vivo Central Venous Catheter Candida albicans Biofilm Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms represent a niche for microorganisms where they are protected from both the host immune system and antimicrobial therapies. Biofilm growth serves as an increasing source of clinical infections. Candida infections are difficult to manage due to their persistent nature and associated drug resistance. Observations made in biofilm research have generally been limited to in vitro models. Using a rat

D. Andes; J. Nett; P. Oschel; R. Albrecht; K. Marchillo; A. Pitula

2004-01-01

298

Undersampled Projection Reconstruction for Active Catheter Imaging With Adaptable Temporal Resolution and Catheter-Only Views  

PubMed Central

In this study undersampled projection reconstruction (PR) was used for rapid catheter imaging in the heart, employing steady-state free precession (SSFP) contrast. Active catheters and phased-array coils were used for combined imaging of anatomy and catheter position in swine. Real-time imaging of catheter position was performed with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, providing 2 × 2 × 8 mm spatial resolution and four to eight frames per second. Two interactive features were introduced. The number of projections (Np) was adjusted interactively to trade off imaging speed and artifact reduction, allowing acquisition of high-quality or high-frame-rate images. Thin-slice imaging was performed, with interactive requests for thick-slab projection images of the signal received solely from the active catheter. Briefly toggling on catheter-only projection images was valuable for verifying that the catheter tip was contained within the selected slice, or for locating the catheter when part of it was outside the selected slice. PMID:12541240

Peters, Dana C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Dick, Alexander J.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Guttman, Michael A.; Derbyshire, J. Andrew; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

299

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: new aspects of novel urinary catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial urinary tract infection is the most common infection acquired both in hospitals and nursing homes and is usually associated with catheterisation. These catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) have been reported to increase mortality and have a considerable economic impact. To date, the sole effective preventative strategy is the use of a closed drainage system and removal of the catheter

U-Syn Ha; Yong-Hyun Cho

2006-01-01

300

Short-term augmentation of venous drainage with extra-corporeal shunt and simultaneous auto-transfusion, for salvaging a congested free flap  

PubMed Central

Adequate drainage of venous blood is the most critical part of successful free tissue transfer. We report a case of anterolateral thigh flap used for covering open communited tibial fracture. The flap was salvaged with short term augmentation of venous drainage with external shunt. The drainage was continued for six days. It was confirmed that there is no more congestion after blocking the catheter and then the drainage was discontinued on seventh day. The flap was successfully salvaged. This method has potential applications in multiple situations for successful salvage of free tissue transfer. PMID:24459352

Patil, Rahul K.; Jayaprasad, Kiran; Sharma, Saurabh; Sharma, Mohit; Mathew, Jimmy

2013-01-01

301

The level of C-reactive protein in chronic hemodialysis patients: a comparative study between patients with noninfected catheters and arteriovenous fistula in two large Gulf hemodialysis centers.  

PubMed

Hemodialysis (HD) patients have greater morbidity and mortality when they have a central venous catheter (CVC) rather than an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) access. Inflammation associated with dialysis catheter use and resultant higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels could have an independent adverse effect on patient outcomes. In this prospective study, we investigated whether HD catheters induce inflammation independent of infection. We compared the mean levels of the inflammatory marker (CRP) in 67 patients on maintenance HD using noninfected catheters with 86 HD patients using AVFs at Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases, Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Jahra Hospital, Kuwait, who met our inclusion criteria. C-reactive protein levels were measured every 2 months over a period of 6 months using immunoturbidimetric assay. One hundred fifty-three patients on maintenance HD for more than 6 months were included in the study, with mean age of 52.19?±?16.06 years; 66% were males and 34% were females. Serial levels of mean CRP were statistically and significantly higher in group with noninfected catheters (1.33, 1.24, and 1.10?mg/dL) compared to those with AVFs (0.65, 0.59, and 0.68?mg/dL) with P value of 0.000. In our study, we found no relation between CRP level and age, sex, hemoglobin, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, and iPTH level in both groups. Hemodialysis patients with a catheter have a heightened state of inflammation independent of infection, and thus our study supports the avoidance of catheters and a timely conversion to AVFs with catheter removal. PMID:24467342

Sabry, Alaa A; Elshafey, Eid M; Alsaran, Khalid; Shalaby, Medhat; Alsherbeiny, Sherrine; Abdelkader, Mohamed

2014-07-01

302

Bench-to-bedside review: Challenges of diagnosis, care and prevention of central catheter-related bloodstream infections in children.  

PubMed

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may be difficult. Technology such as CVC impregnation or catheter locking with antimicrobial substances has been shown less effective than anticipated. Despite encouraging results in CRBSI prevention among adults, the goal of zero infection in children is still not in range. More high-quality research is needed in the field of prevention, accurate and reliable diagnostic measures and effective treatment of CRBSI in children. PMID:24041298

Janum, Susanne; Zingg, Walter; Classen, Volker; Afshari, Arash

2013-01-01

303

Newborn extracorporeal lung assist using a novel double lumen catheter and a heparin-bonded membrane lung.  

PubMed

We report the clinical application of a novel double lumen catheter for veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) and the use of a heparin-bonded hollow fiber membrane lung, in the treatment of newborn respiratory failure. The outer lumen of the double lumen catheter was 14 Fr and was used for blood drainage; while the inner 8 Fr catheter was used for blood return. The double lumen catheter was made of spiral wire reinforced polyurethane, with a wall thickness of 0.25 mm. The hollow fiber membrane was made of non-microporous polyolefin, and was not permeable to water or plasma. We used this system to treat a newborn patient with meconium aspiration syndrome. Heparin was infused continuously at a rate of 18-25 units/kg/h, equal to 1/3 of the usual amount when a non-heparin bonded ECLA system was used and maintaining the activated clotting time near 120 s. Bleeding from cutdown sites was negligible. Only the right internal jugular vein was sacrificed. The patient was successfully weaned from ECLA and appears normal one year following discharge. PMID:8486871

Tsuno, K; Terasaki, H; Otsu, T; Okamoto, T; Sakanashi, Y; Morioka, T

1993-01-01

304

Endovascular technique using a snare and suture for retrieving a migrated peripherally inserted central catheter in the left pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare with a suture for retrieving a migrated broken peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in a chemotherapy patient. A 62-year-old male received monthly chemotherapy through a central venous port implanted into his right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 1 mo ago; however, he experienced pain in the right subclavian area during his last chemotherapy session. Computed tomography on that day showed migration of a broken PICC in his left pulmonary artery, for which the patient was admitted to our hospital. We attempted to retrieve the ectopic PICC through the right jugular vein using a gooseneck snare, but were unsuccessful because the catheter was lodged in the pulmonary artery wall. Therefore, a second attempt was made through the right femoral vein using a snare with triple loops, but we could not grasp the migrated PICC. Finally, a string was tied to the top of the snare, allowing us to curve the snare toward the pulmonary artery by pulling the string. Finally, the catheter body was grasped and retrieved. The endovascular suture technique is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters. PMID:24109502

Teragawa, Hiroki; Sueda, Takashi; Fujii, Yuichi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Toyota, Yasushi; Nomura, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Keigo

2013-01-01

305

Endovascular technique using a snare and suture for retrieving a migrated peripherally inserted central catheter in the left pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare with a suture for retrieving a migrated broken peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in a chemotherapy patient. A 62-year-old male received monthly chemotherapy through a central venous port implanted into his right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 1 mo ago; however, he experienced pain in the right subclavian area during his last chemotherapy session. Computed tomography on that day showed migration of a broken PICC in his left pulmonary artery, for which the patient was admitted to our hospital. We attempted to retrieve the ectopic PICC through the right jugular vein using a gooseneck snare, but were unsuccessful because the catheter was lodged in the pulmonary artery wall. Therefore, a second attempt was made through the right femoral vein using a snare with triple loops, but we could not grasp the migrated PICC. Finally, a string was tied to the top of the snare, allowing us to curve the snare toward the pulmonary artery by pulling the string. Finally, the catheter body was grasped and retrieved. The endovascular suture technique is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters. PMID:24109502

Teragawa, Hiroki; Sueda, Takashi; Fujii, Yuichi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Toyota, Yasushi; Nomura, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Keigo

2013-09-26

306

Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

Izaki, Kenta, E-mail: izaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

2011-06-15

307

Conversion of Non-Tunneled to Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the safety and efficacy of conversion of non-tunneled (temporary) catheters to tunneled catheters in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of 112 consecutive conversions in 111 patients was performed over a period of 4 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 97 patients had clinical follow-up. Temporary catheters were converted to tunneled catheters utilizing the same internal jugular venotomy sites and a modified over-the-wire technique with use of a peel-away sheath . Follow-up clinical data were reviewed. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 112 procedures. None of the 97 patients with follow-up suffered early infection within 30 days. The total number of follow-up catheter days was 13,659 (range 2-790). Cases of confirmed and suspected bacteremia requiring catheter removal occurred at a frequency of 0.10 per 100 catheter days. Suspected catheter infection treated with antibiotics but not requiring catheter intervention occurred at a frequency of 0.04 per 100 catheter days. Frequency of all suspected or confirmed infections was 0.14 per 100 catheter days. Catheter interventions as a result of poor blood flow, inadvertent removal, catheter fracture, or kinking occurred at a rate of 0.18 per 100 catheter days. Life table analysis revealed primary patency rates of 86%, 64%, and 39% at 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days, respectively. Conclusion. Conversion of temporary catheters to tunneled catheters using the pre-existing venotomy sites is safe and has low rates of infection and malfunction. These rates are comparable to previously published rates for tunneled catheters placed de novo and tunneled catheter exchanges.

Ha, Thuong G. Van, E-mail: tgvanha@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Fimmen, Derek [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Han, Laura [University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (United States); Funaki, Brian S.; Santeler, Scott; Lorenz, Jonathan [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

2007-04-15

308

[Swan Ganz catheter. Experts opinion].  

PubMed

Investigators have raised doubts as to the safety of the Swan Ganz catheter (SGC). In order to define the point of view of cardiologists in our country, the Argentine Society of Cardiology's Emergency Council organized a meeting to analyze their views in different settings (non-cardiac surgery, cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndromes and heart failure) using the RAND-UCLA appropriateness method. A detailed review with the scientific evidence was sent to the experts in cardiology prior to the meeting in the SAC auditorium where the panellists selected the clinical variables create the specific situations. These hypothetic situations were resent to the panellists at a second stage for their individual evaluation, rating the benefit-to-harm ratio of the procedure on a scale of 1 to 9 (1 meant that the expected harms greatly outweighed the expected benefits, and 9 that the expected benefits greatly outweighed the expected harms, 5 could mean either that the harms and benefits were roughly equal). Two experts analyzed the results, describing the agreement/disagreement ratio. Finally, each indication was classified as "appropriate" "uncertain" or "inappropriate" ,for the procedure in accordance with the panelists' median score: median scores in the 1-3 range were classified as inappropriate, those in the 4-6 range as uncertain, and those in the 7-9 range as appropriate. We observed high disagreement rates in SGC indications between cardiologists. However, the panelists were in favor of SGC use when situations included shock and myocardial dysfunction, especially in the presence of organic dysfunction. There were some situations when panelists considered SGC not useful, in patients without organ failure. PMID:25188663

Cohen Arazi, Hernán; Nani, Sebastián; Giorgi, Mariano; Guardiani, Fernando; Caturla, Nicolás; Benzadón, Mariano

2014-01-01

309

A Case-Control Study to Identify Risk Factors for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port-Related Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 1,642 patients with solid cancer received an implantable central venous port for delivery of chemotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011 in a single center. CVP-BSI was diagnosed in 66 patients (4%). We selected a control group of 130 patients, who were individually matched with respect to age, sex, and catheter insertion time. Results CVP-BSI occurred most frequently between September and November (37.9%). The most common pathogen was gram-positive cocci (n=35, 53.0%), followed by fungus (n=14, 21.2%). Multivariate analysis identified monthly catheter-stay as a risk factor for CVP-BSI (p=0.000), however, its risk was lower in primary gastrointestinal cancer than in other cancer (p=0.002). Initial metastatic disease and long catheter-stay were statistically significant factors affecting catheter life span (p=0.005 and p=0.000). Results of multivariate analysis showed that recent transfusion was a risk factor for mortality in patients with CVP-BSI (p=0.047). Conclusion In analysis of the results with respect to risk factors, prolonged catheter-stay should be avoided as much as possible. It is necessary to be cautious of CVP-BSI in metastatic solid cancer, especially non-gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, avoidance of unnecessary transfusion is essential in order to reduce the mortality of CVP-BSI. Finally, considering the fact that confounding factors may have affected the results, conduct of a well-designed prospective controlled study is warranted. PMID:25038760

Lee, Guk Jin; Hong, Sook Hee; Roh, Sang Young; Park, Sa Rah; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Hong, Young Seon; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk

2014-01-01

310

Vascular access team collaboration to decrease catheter rates in patients on hemodialysis: utilization of Kotter's change process.  

PubMed

Long-term central venous catheter (CVC) use among patients on hemodialysis increases the risk of infection, morbidity, and mortality. This article describes the use of Kotter's process of change to establish a multidisciplinary vascular access team to facilitate the replacement of CVCs with long-term accesses. Through the implementation of vascular access teams and the execution of Kotter's eight-step process for leading change, hemodialysis clinics will have the tools needed to reduce CVC utilization rates and improve patient healthcare outcomes. PMID:25065062

Mbamalu, Genevieve; Whiteman, Kimberly

2014-01-01

311

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a 13-Day-Old Neonate and Review of Literature  

SciTech Connect

Complete inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVC) in neonates is uncommon, but may cause significant morbidity. A 13-day-old neonate suffered IVC thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III deficiency, possibly contributed to by a mutation in the methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, Alteplase) was used successfully to treat extensive venous thrombosis in this neonate without complications. We also review the literature on CDT for treatment of IVC thrombosis in critically ill neonates and infants.

Khan, Jawad U. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Takemoto, Clifford M.; Casella, James F. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (United States); Streiff, Michael B. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (United States); Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.ed [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

2008-07-15

312

Management strategy for facial venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular malformations, caused by abnormalities in the development of the veins. Venous malformations vary in size and location within the body. When the skin or tissues just under the skin are affected, they appear as slightly blue-colored skin stains or swellings. These can vary in size from time to time because of swelling within the malformation. As these are vascular malformations, they are present at birth and grow proportionately with the child. Venous malformations can be very small to large in size, and sometimes, can involve a significant area within the body, When the venous malformation is well localized, this may cause localized swelling, however, when the venous malformation is more extensive, there may be more widespread swelling of the affected body part. Some patients with venous malformations have abnormal blood clotting within the malformation. Most venous malformations cause no life-threatening problems for patients. Some venous malformations cause repeated pain due to intermittent swelling and congestion of the malformation or due to the formation of blood clots within the malformation. Rarely, venous malformations may be part of a syndrome (an association of several clinically recognizable features) or be linked to an underlying genetic abnormality. We present 12 cases of venous malformations of the head and neck area, which have been managed at our hospital.

Kumar, Shailendra; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Surender

2014-01-01

313

Venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukemia: incidence, risk factors, and effect on survival  

PubMed Central

A population-based cohort was used to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among Californians diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1993 to 1999. Principal outcomes were deep vein thrombosis in both the lower and upper extremities, pulmonary embolism, and mortality. Among 5394 cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE was 281 (5.2%). Sixty-four percent of the VTE events occurred within 3 months of AML diagnosis. In AML patients, female sex, older age, number of chronic comorbidities, and presence of a catheter were significant predictors of development of VTE within 1 year. A diagnosis of VTE was not associated with reduced survival in AML patients. Among 2482 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the 2-year incidence of VTE in ALL was 4.5%. Risk factors for VTE were presence of a central venous catheter, older age, and number of chronic comorbidities. In the patients with ALL, development of VTE was associated with a 40% increase in the risk of dying within 1 year. The incidence of VTE in acute leukemia is appreciable, and is comparable with the incidence in many solid tumors. PMID:19088376

Ku, Grace H.; White, Richard H.; Chew, Helen K.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Zhou, Hong

2009-01-01

314

Persistent Catheter-Related Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia after Catheter Removal and Initiation of Antimicrobial Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CRSAB) occasionally persists despite catheter removal and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of persistent CRSAB after catheter removal and initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with CRSAB were prospectively included from over a 41-month period. We compared the clinical features, 40 bacterial virulence genes, and outcomes between patients with persistent CRSAB (i.e., bacteremia for >3 days after catheter removal and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy) and non-persistent CRSAB. Results Among the 220 episodes of CRSAB, the catheter was kept in place in 17 (6%) and removed in 203 (94%) cases. In 43 (21%) of the 203 episodes, bacteremia persisted for >3 days after catheter removal and initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Methicillin resistance (Odds ratio [OR], 9.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05–26.61; P<0.001), non-catheter prosthetic devices (OR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.62–17.80; P?=?0.006), and renal failure (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.48–7.08; P?=?0.003) were independently associated with persistent CRSAB. Patients with persistent CRSAB were more like to experience complication than were those with non-persistent CRSAB (72% vs. 15%; P<0.001). Among all episodes due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, persistent CRSAB isolates were associated with accessory gene regulator (agr) group II (P?=?.04), but presence of other bacterial virulence genes, distribution of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration distribution, and frequency of vancomycin heteroresistance did not differ between the groups. Conclusions In patients with CRSAB, bacteremia persisted in 21% of cases despite catheter removal and initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Methicillin resistance, renal failure, and non-catheter prosthetic devices were independent risk factors for persistent CRSAB, which was associated with a higher rate of complications. PMID:23115627

Park, Ki-Ho; Lee, Yu-Mi; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Kim, Tark; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Youn; Moon, Song Mi; Chong, Yong Pil; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Mi-Na; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo

2012-01-01

315

Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2014-03-01

316

The venous system of the lower limbs.  

PubMed

The venous system anatomy of the lower limbs and especially its functionality still presents half-lighted areas, fact easily qualified as incredible for the third millennium. Our dissections on fresh amputation segments, methylene blue injected in superficial veins or in deeper veins pointed out that venous circulation is much more complex than it seemed, that there are subdermal collectors connected to the saphene trunks which permit bidirectional transfer of blood mass to saphene venous roots or to derm. The dermal plexus has also a complex connection with the deep venous system by Delater perforators, by perforators, which drain saphene systems after having previously received dermal affluents, and by Delater equivalences (submillimetric perforators) that provide blood mass transfer from deep to surface under the conditions of a moderate and temporary venous hypertension. High- and long-term venous hypertension determines the valvular device deterioration of classical perforators making possible a pathological bi-directional flow. PMID:18060185

Calot?, F; Mogoant?, S; Intorcaciu, M; Pa?alega, M; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Vasile, I; Me?in?, C

2007-01-01

317

Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction  

PubMed Central

Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM) or developmental venous anomaly (DVA). However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Digital substraction angiography (DSA) revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ). Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 × 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM) of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion. PMID:24575317

Aggarwal, Ashish; Salunke, Pravin; Futane, Sameer; Mathuriya, S. N.; Kumar, Ajay; Mukherjee, K. K.; Radotra, B. D.

2014-01-01

318

21 CFR 870.1210 - Continuous flush catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...continuous flush catheter is an attachment to a catheter-transducer system that permits continuous intravascular flushing at a slow infusion rate for the purpose of eliminating clotting, back-leakage, and waveform damping. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

319

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

MedlinePLUS

FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, ...

320

Multi-turn, tension-stiffening catheter navigation system  

E-print Network

In poorly constrained extra-vascular environments such as hollow viscera, current catheter navigation techniques are restricted to simple paths and therefore limit a doctor's ability to position the catheter. This paper ...

Gupta, Rajiv

321

Biofilm: the microbial “bunker” for intravascular catheter-related infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-related infection in cancer patients remains an important health-care problem with major financial implications. During the last few years a better understanding of the pathogenesis of catheter-related infections and the interaction between microorganisms and catheter surfaces has emerged. Recently the influence of biofilm formation in catheter-related infections has been established. The development of biofilm by the colonizing microbes permits attachment

Manuel Morales; Sebastián Méndez-Alvarez; Juana-Victoria Martín-López; Carmen Marrero; César O. Freytes

2004-01-01

322

Cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring during hyperventilation in healthy volunteers with a novel optoacoustic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation is useful to facilitate management of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prompt recognition of low cerebral venous oxygenation is a key to avoiding secondary brain injury associated with brain hypoxia. In specialized clinical research centers, jugular venous bulb catheters have been used for cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring and have demonstrated that oxygen saturation < 50% (normal range is 55-75%) correlates with poor clinical outcome. We developed an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation. Recently, we designed and built a novel, medical grade optoacoustic system operating in the near-infrared spectral range for continuous, real-time oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. In this work, we designed and built a novel SSS optoacoustic probe and developed a new algorithm for SSS oxygenation measurement. The SSS signals were measured in healthy volunteers during voluntary hyperventilation, which induced changes in SSS oxygenation. Simultaneously, we measured exhaled carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO2) using capnography. Good temporal correlation between decreases in optoacoustically measured SSS oxygenation and decreases in EtCO2 was obtained. Decreases in EtCO2 from normal values (35-45 mmHg) to 20-25 mmHg resulted in SSS oxygenation decreases by 3-10%. Intersubject variability of the responses may relate to nonspecific brain activation associated with voluntary hyperventilation. The obtained data demonstrate the capability of the optoacoustic system to detect in real time minor changes in the SSS blood oxygenation.

Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Deyo, Donald J.; Henkel, Sheryl N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2013-03-01

323

21 CFR 880.5210 - Intravascular catheter securement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intravascular catheter securement device is a device with an adhesive backing that is placed over a needle or catheter and is used to keep the hub of the needle or the catheter flat and securely anchored to the skin. (b) Classification....

2010-04-01

324

[Trapped epidural catheter: reconstruction of computed tomography images].  

PubMed

A trapped epidural catheter without a knot is a rare complication. During placement of an epidural catheter for analgesia during labor, resistance made it impossible to position the catheter within the epidural space. A second catheter was inserted to provide the required analgesia. When the second catheter was removed, computed tomography (CT) revealed that the tip of the first catheter was close to the the right facet joint space. A second attempt to extract the catheter failed. In light of this situation, the patient was seated with the spine slightly bent to one side, a guidewire was inserted through the catheter lumen, and the catheter and guidewire were gently pulled; the catheter was extracted without causing the tip to break up. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction allowed the catheter tip and characteristics of the joint surfaces to be observed. We discuss protcols and alternative strategies that can be followed when an epidural catheter is difficult to remove, including the most appropriate images to use for guidance. PMID:19177867

Román, J A; Reina, M A; López, A; De Luis, E; Fernández, M S; Escobar, J M

2008-12-01

325

Strategies for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections is critically dependent on an accurate knowledge of the two main routes by which intravascular devices become contaminated: the extraluminal (skin-related) and the intraluminal (hub-related) routes. Extraluminal catheter seeding results from infection of the catheter entry site by microorganisms and leads to bacteremia most often during the week following catheter placement. The main ways of preventing it are appropriate skin disinfection and the adoption of maximal antiseptic barriers at the time of catheter insertion. Avoiding the internal jugular and the femoral veins, whenever possible, will reduce the likelihood of bacteremia. Intraluminal contamination is the consequence of improper handling of the catheter hub at the time of connection and disconnection of the administration set. It is the most common origin of catheter infections after the first week of catheter placement. Multiple-lumen catheters, side-ports and multipurpose catheters particularly increase the risk of endoluminal contamination. To prevent it, strict asepsis should be observed in hub handling and hubs should be protected against environmental soiling with an antiseptic impregnated gauze at all times. New technology is available for prevention of catheter infections: antibiotic and antiseptic-coated catheters, antiseptic hubs, disinfecting caps and flushing solutions are currently undergoing scientific assessment. PMID:10541980

Sitges-Serra, A

1999-11-01

326

Technical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for  

E-print Network

Technical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for Enhancing Ultrasound) were customized by adhering in place two piezoelectric actuators. These created 1­8 kHz vibrations when of the needle or catheter tip would be helpful. We describe a piezoelectric needle and catheter design

Smith, Stephen

327

CASE REPORT Open Access Sacroiliitis secondary to catheter-related  

E-print Network

CASE REPORT Open Access Sacroiliitis secondary to catheter-related bacteremia due to Mycobacterium Godreuil1,6,8* Abstract We describe a case of sacroiliitis secondary to catheter-related bacteremia due molecular epidemiological links among complex M. abscessus isolates. Keywords: Sacroiliitis, Catheter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Research Journal Highlights Embedding sensors on balloon catheters  

E-print Network

3 Research Journal Highlights Embedding sensors on balloon catheters Nature Materials, March 7 into the thin membranes of balloon catheters -- used in heart surgery to eliminate blockage in blood vessels -- is presented in a study in rats published online this week in Nature Materials. These balloon catheters could

Rogers, John A.

329

Small diameter active catheter using shape memory alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of active catheters whose outside diameters are less than 2 mm were fabricated. One uses polymer links, the other two are linkless active catheters using adhesive. Distributed shape memory alloy (SMA) coil were used as actuators for the active motion. There are endoskeletal type and exoskeletal type in the linkless active catheters. We have applied the endoskeletal type

Y. Hagal; Y. Tanahashi; M. Esashi

1998-01-01

330

Queckenstedt's Test Affects More than Jugular Venous Congestion in Rat  

PubMed Central

Jugular venous compression by the Queckenstedt's test (Q-test) increases the intracranial pressure, but the effects of isolated jugular venous congestion are not well known. Intraventricular pressure (IVP) was compared during direct obstruction of the common jugular veins (bilateral CJV clipping) and during external compression of bilateral CJV flows (Q-test) in a rat model. Intracerebroventricular catheters were inserted into the right lateral ventricle of nine male Sprague-Dawley rats (371.1±44.8 g, 82.2±12.0 days old). The initial mean IVP, arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse rate were 2.8±1.3 mmHg, 88.8±12.7 mmHg, and 348.3±69.1 beats/min, respectively. The mean IVP increment and MAP decrement were 6.5±2.5 and 13.5±5.7 mmHg, respectively, during the Q-test, compared to 2.3±1.5 and 7.3±3.8 mmHg, respectively, during bilateral CJV clipping (all p?=?0.008). The IVP increment and MAP decrement were greater during the Q-test than during bilateral CJV clipping (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.038). Although the Q-test and bilateral CJV clipping showed similar effects, the response with the Q-test was greater. Thus, the Q-test appears to obstruct other collateral cerebral veins in addition to bilateral CJV flows. Since this model revealed significant differences between the manual Q-test and bilateral CJV clipping, the finding should be taken into account in future studies on the Q-test in SD rats. PMID:23516633

Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Doong, Ming-Luen; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

2013-01-01

331

Subcutaneous Venous Port Implantation in Patients with Bilateral Breast Surgery  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of subcutaneous venous ports implanted in patients with bilateral mastectomies. We retrospectively reviewed the hospital charts and the electronic database of 17 patients with bilateral mastectomies whom had venous port implantation in our interventional radiology suit. A total of 17 ports were implanted to the paramedian (n = 3) and anterolateral (standard; n = 12) chest wall, on the trapezius muscle (n = 1), and to the antecubital fossa (n = 1). The mean age was 48.29 years (range: 35-60 years). The mean time interval from time of surgery to port implantation was 34 months (range: 1-84 months). The mean follow-up time was 15 months (range: 7-39 months). Follow-up parameters and classification of the complications was defined according to the SIR guidelines. No procedure-related complication occurred. A single case of mild late infection was noted and the infection rate was 0.19/1000 catheter days. Infusion chemotherapy administration was still going on in eight patients. Two patients died during the follow-up and four patients were lost after 6 months. Port removal was performed in three patients at follow-up because of the end of treatment. One trapezius port and one paramedian port weres among the removed ports without any problem. Although we have a limited number of patients, port placement to the anterior chest wall, either paramedian or anterolateral, on the trapezius muscle or to the antecubital fossa depending on the extent of the bilateral breast surgeries that can be performed with low complication rates by a careful patient and anatomical location selection by involving the patients in the decision-making process. We believe that patient education and knowledge of possible complications have high importance in follow-up.

Peynircioglu, Bora, E-mail: borapeynir@gmail.com; Arslan, E. Bengi; Cil, Barbaros E.; Geyik, Serdar; Hazirolan, Tuncay [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Konan, Ali [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery (Turkey); Balkanci, Ferhun [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-06-15

332

Measurement of Cardiac Index by Transpulmonary Thermodilution Using an Implanted Central Venous Access Port: A Prospective Study in Patients Scheduled for Oncologic High-Risk Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Transpulmonary thermodilution allows the measurement of cardiac index for high risk surgical patients. Oncologic patients often have a central venous access (port-a-catheter) for chronic treatment. The validity of the measurement by a port-a-catheter of the absolute cardiac index and the detection of changes in cardiac index induced by fluid challenge are unknown. Methods We conducted a monocentric prospective study. 27 patients were enrolled. 250 ml colloid volume expansions for fluid challenge were performed during ovarian cytoreductive surgery. The volume expansion-induced changes in cardiac index measured by transpulmonary thermodilution by a central venous access (CIcvc) and by a port-a-catheter (CIport) were recorded. Results 23 patients were analyzed with 123 pairs of measurements. Using a Bland and Altman for repeated measurements, the bias (lower and upper limits of agreement) between CIport and CIcvc was 0.14 (?0.59 to 0.88) L/min/m2. The percentage error was 22%. The concordance between the changes in CIport and CIcvc observed during volume expansion was 92% with an r?=?0.7 (with exclusion zone). No complications (included sepsis) were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions The transpulmonary thermodilution by a port-a-catheter is reliable for absolute values estimation of cardiac index and for measurement of the variation after fluid challenge. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02063009 PMID:25136951

Suria, Stephanie; Wyniecki, Anne; Eghiaian, Alexandre; Monnet, Xavier; Weil, Gregoire

2014-01-01

333

Clinical evaluation of a side entry access port: a novel dual-lumen venous access device.  

PubMed

The initial clinical experience with a low-profile side entry access (SEA) dual-lumen implantable venous access port for cancer chemotherapy administration is summarized in this report. The catheter material is polyurethane. The overall experience in 35 patients in this study was a total of 6,224 patient days, with a mean of 178 days per patient. A variety of chemotherapeutic agents, biologic response modifiers, and antibiotics were administered. In 26% of the patients, the device chambers were in simultaneous use during the treatment period. A 6% incidence of clinical subclavian vein thrombosis was noted. There was no infectious complications. Inconsistencies in blood withdrawal and temporary catheter dysfunction were comparable to other access ports in clinical use. The novel design of this side entry port and the catheter material of low thrombogenicity make this device a good option in patients requiring a low-profile system and dual access. Nursing staff should be made aware of the side entry design and that in-service training for accessing the septum is required in centers where such devices are not routinely used. PMID:2230876

Ravikumar, T S; Hollingshead, J

1990-11-01

334

Retrieval of embolized tip of port catheter from branch of right pulmonary artery using a macro snare catheter  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the silicon port catheter is a relatively rare complication. Ruptured part usually embolizes; therefore, removal of foreign body may be difficult. These ports usually migrate to right-sided chambers, main pulmonary arteries, and pulmonary subbranches. Different devices such as snares, basket catheters, and ablation catheters are utilized for retrieval. Hereby, we report successful extraction of an embolized 10-cm tip of a vascular access port using a macro snare catheter. PMID:24936312

Durakoglugil, Murtaza Emre; Satiroglu, Omer; Erdivanli, Basar; Tufan, Gulnihal

2014-01-01

335

21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

2010-04-01

336

Preventing Catheter Associated UrinaryTract  

E-print Network

Approach Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI's) are hospital acquired infections (HAI's) to adopt and abide by guidelines that prevent CAUTI's, however, little research and standardization of practice is in place for prevention of CAUTI's in the pediatric population. In October 2012, Judy Ascenzi

Connor, Ed

337

Acidovorax oryzae Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection.  

PubMed

Acidovorax oryzae is a bacterium that has never before been reported as pathogenic in human subjects. Here we describe the first case of a successfully treated A. oryzae catheter-associated bloodstream infection in an immunocompetent patient prior to heart transplantation. PMID:25275006

Orsborne, Christopher; Hardy, Alison; Isalska, Barbara; Williams, Simon G; Muldoon, Eavan G

2014-12-01

338

[Complication due to intraperitoneal dialysis catheter insertion].  

PubMed

During the last 6 years 300 stylet and Tenckhoff catheters were inserted into the peritoneal cavity. In 5 cases an abdominal viscus has been perforated or injured. The complications were twice a perforation of bowel, twice a perforation of bladder and once an injury of aorta. The authors discussed the therapeutic procedure (conservative or operative) and the late consequences of those complications. PMID:8756747

Majdan, M; Or?owska-Kowalik, G; Jaroszy?ski, A; Ksiazek, A

1996-02-01

339

[Factors influencing prolonged hospital stays by elderly patients: problems in medical management including use of urethral catheters].  

PubMed

Fifty-nine elderly patients who had been hospitalized more than six months in five hospitals in the city of Mino in Osaka Prefecture, were studied to clarify the factors influencing prolonged hospital stays by the elderly. Their mean age was 82.2 years, and women accounted for 86% of the patients. One-third had suffered a stroke. As for ADL, 44% were completely dependent when walking, eating, bathing and dressing. Moreover, 36% had severe dementia, 19% suffered from decubitus ulcers, 66% were undergoing rehabilitation, 58% were receiving venous infusion therapy, 36% used a urethral catheter, and 10% were receiving tube feeding. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the likelihood of discharge assessed by the doctors in charge: one group consisted of 27 patients who might be discharged and the other of 32 patients with an ongoing need for inpatient care. Multivariate analyses using Hayashi's quantification method II indicated that use of a urethral catheter and not undergoing rehabilitation were the main factors associated with the need for inpatient care, while being a woman, being of advanced age and not having one's own room at home were the non-medical factors which made it difficult for the patients to be discharged from the hospital. As use of a urethral catheter was the factor most strongly related to prolonged hospital stay, multivariate analyses were applied to the 45 patients with urinary incontinence, who were divided into one group of 21 patients with, and one of 24 without a urethral catheter. The factors associated with use of a urethral catheter were then investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1464952

Kuroda, K; Tatara, K; Zhao, L; Takatorige, T; Shinsho, F

1992-10-01

340

Catheter microwave ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias.  

PubMed

This article describes three microwave catheter antennas for percutaneous cardiac ablation. A particular design feature of these antennas is that there is no reflected microwave current from the antenna flowing up the transmission line. Thus, it minimizes heating of the coaxial cable. The power reflection coefficients are very low (4% or less) in phantom equivalent materials. These antennas can also serve as bipolar electrodes for sensing endocardiac electrograms. Our studies in dogs, during both cardiopulmonary bypass and closed-chest operations via the femoral vein, have shown microwave energy greater than 200 joules (J) delivered to the heart through a split-tip dipole catheter antenna can produce irreversible block of the heart rhythms. This energy was achieved either by increasing the delivered power from 20 to 40 watts or by increasing the treatment duration from 7 to 11 s (210 to 330 J per application). It produced an endocardium temperature of about 65 degrees C. We found that the percutaneous, transcatheter microwave system is capable of inducing AV blocks consistently in dogs using the flexible, curved tip, split-tip catheter antenna. In addition, our studies have shown that the width and height of SAR distributions for cap-choke and split-tip catheter antennas are similar for the same antenna length. The cap-slot design had a much longer SAR distribution compared to the others. Moreover, a longer (4 mm) split-tip antenna can also induce larger lesions. These results suggest that it could be possible to ablate a ventricular tachycardia focus using the 4 mm split-tip as well as the cap-slot microwave catheter antennas. PMID:10334721

Lin, J C

1999-01-01

341

Long catheter sign: a reliable bedside sign of incorrect positioning of foley catheter in male spinal cord injury patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Indwelling urethral catheter is often used in male spinal cord injury patients to provide drainage to neuropathic bladder. If the balloon of a Foley catheter is inflated in urethra or, when a properly inserted Foley catheter is later pulled and thereby, the Foley balloon comes to lie in urethra, an excessive length of catheter will remain outside the penis. This sign is termed "long catheter sign". Long catheter sign will also be positive when Foley catheter slips out of urinary bladder in situations where Foley balloon is ruptured by a spiky vesical calculus or deflated due to a defective valve. Case Presentation A fifty-year-old Caucasian male with paraplegia at T-5 level had been managing neuropathic bladder by long-term indwelling urethral catheter. During his stay in spinal unit, the patient felt that there had been a tug on the drainage tube when he was being turned during night as part of the routine care for relief of pressure. Next morning, a health professional noticed that a long segment of catheter was lying outside penis. There was no bleeding from urethral meatus. Catheter continued to drain urine, which was yellowish in colour. Urine output was satisfactory. This patient did not develop any clinical feature of autonomic dysreflexia nor was he feeling unwell. In view of positive long catheter sign, radiological studies were performed to check the position of Foley catheter, which confirmed the clinical impression of incorrectly positioned Foley catheter. The catheter was removed; flexible cystoscopy was performed. A 16 Fr, 20 ml balloon Foley catheter was inserted over a 0.032" guide wire. Following this procedure, a considerably shorter length of Foley catheter remained outside the penis. Conclusion Positive long catheter sign indicates that the Foley catheter is placed incorrectly and needs repositioning urgently. Prompt recognition of long catheter sign and immediate repositioning of Foley catheter will help to prevent complications such as chronic distension of urinary bladder, urine infection, and pressure necrosis of urethra especially if Foley balloon remains inflated within urethra for a long period. In this patient, use of a Foley catheter with 20 ml balloon, and securing the drainage tube to thigh with two straps, helped to prevent inadvertent pull of Foley balloon into the urethra. PMID:18637181

Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Oo, Tun; Soni, Bakul M

2008-01-01

342

Causes of venous ulceration: a new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous hypotheses about the causes of venous ulceration are inconsistent with recently published data. In patients with chronic venous insufficiency the number of functioning capillary loops visible in the skin on microscopy fell after the legs had been dependent for 30 minutes. Another study had shown that leucocytes became trapped in the circulation in dependent legs. A new hypothesis linking

P D Coleridge Smith; P Thomas; J H Scurr; J A Dormandy

1988-01-01

343

Thrombophilia in children with venous thromboembolic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in children are usually associated with underlying clinical conditions such as central venous line, cancer and cardiac diseases. The objective of this review is to present the importance of thrombophilia to the occurrence of childhood VTE. The reported prevalence of thrombophilia in children with VTE varies extremely between 10% and 78% in different registries. The variation

Shoshana Revel-Vilk; Gili Kenet

2006-01-01

344

Arterial and venous compromise by an osteochondroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 9.5-year-old girl had popliteal arterial and venous compression by a distal femoral osteochondroma. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the relation of the vessels to the osteochondroma and a three-phase bone scintigram showed asymmetry of arterial perfusion and evidence of venous stasis.

R. M. Shore; A. K. Poznanski; E. C. Anandappa; L. S. Dias

1994-01-01

345

Cerebral Venous Sinuses: Anatomical Variants or Thrombosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical variations of the posterosuperior dural venous sinuses and, in particular, the absence or hypoplasia of one of them has been described in several studies. However, no recent detailed analysis on the subject exists. Cerebral venous thrombosis is quite often evoked, although rarely confirmed, when the physician is faced with patients having various neurological problems. In fact, for a number

A. Zouaoui; G. Hidden

1988-01-01

346

[Pulmonary edema due to venous air embolism during craniotomy: a case report].  

PubMed

We present a 35-year-old healthy male patient who developed pulmonary edema (PE) probably due to venous air embolism during craniotomy in the semi-sitting position for arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide, propofol and fentanyl. During craniotomy, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure decreased suddenly from 26 to 9 mmHg. Concurrently, a decrease in oxygen saturation from 99% to 91% occurred. There were no serious changes in blood pressure and heart rate. A "mill-wheel murmur" was confirmed. PE due to venous air embolism was suspected. The operation was discontinued and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. In the post-operative period, the patient developed PE and made a full recovery within a week. Four months later, the patient was scheduled again for surgical excision of AVM in the semi-sitting position in the same way as the first time. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, air, propofol and fentanyl. Transoesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheter were used. Saline was filled at the surgical site to prevent aspiration of air bubbles and surgical procedure was performed carefully without large vein injury and uneventfully. During neurosurgical intervention in the sitting position, special attention should be paid to entry of air bubbles into the venous system which may lead to PE. PMID:18975544

Ishida, Kumiko; Hishinuma, Miwako; Miyazawa, Mikiko; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Iwasawa, Ken; Kitoh, Takeshi

2008-10-01

347

Heritability of chronic venous disease  

PubMed Central

Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon CVD risk by estimating the heritability of the disease in 4,033 nuclear families, comprising 16,434 individuals from all over Germany. Upon clinical examination, patients were classified according to the CEAP guidelines as either C2 (simple varicose veins), C3 (oedema), C4 (skin changes without ulceration), C5 (healed ulceration), or C6 (active ulcers). The narrow-sense heritability (h2) of CVD equals 17.3% (standard error 2.5%, likelihood ratio test P = 1.4 × 10?13). The proportion of disease risk attributable to age (at ascertainment) and sex, the two main risk factors for CVD, was estimated as 10.7% (Kullback–Leibler deviance R2). The heritability of CVD is high, thereby suggesting a notable genetic component in the aetiology of the disease. Systematic population-based searches for CVD susceptibility genes are therefore warranted. PMID:20354728

Krusche, Petra; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Timm, Birgitt; Nikolaus, Susanna; Frings, Norbert; Schreiber, Stefan

2010-01-01

348

[A study of complications of hepatic arterial infusion catheter].  

PubMed

We studied complications of the infusion catheter, which were implanted in the hepatic artery under laparotomy, and then connected with an implantable infuser port in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 32) and metastatic liver tumor (n = 11). Infuse-A-Port catheter was used for 31 cases (A group), and Anthron P-U catheter for 12 cases (B group). In B group, the cannulation method was changed; the catheter was placed in the hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery, which was ligated and cut to prevent kinks in the catheter. In the A group, 17 cases (54.8%) showed complications such as dislocation of the catheter tip (7 cases) including penetrating duodenal ulcer (2 cases), arterial occlusion (6 cases), injury of catheter (2 cases) and occlusion of the infuser port (2 cases). One case, however, having a fistula between the hepatic artery and the duodenum, died of sudden massive bleeding. In the B group, 3 cases (25.0%) showed complications such as dislocation of the catheter tip (1 case) and arterial occlusion (2 cases). The catheter in B group lasted longer than that in A group. Thus, our cannulation technique using Anthron P-U catheter may decrease the catheter complications. PMID:1530312

Tsurumi, M; Oka, M; Hazama, S; Yano, K; Uchiyama, T; Suzuki, T

1992-08-01

349

GAVeCeLT* consensus statement on the correct use of totally implantable venous access devices for diagnostic radiology procedures.  

PubMed

The use of totally implantable venous access devices in radiology may be associated with complications such as occlusion of the system (because of the high density of some contrast), infection (if the port is not handled in aseptic conditions, using proper barrier protections), and mechanical complications due to the high-pressure administration of contrast by automatic injectors (so-called power injector), including extravasation of contrast media into the soft tissues, subintimal venous or myocardial injection, or serious damage to the device itself (breakage of the external connections, dislocation of the non-coring needle, or breakage of the catheter). The last problem - i.e., the damage of the device from a power injection - is not an unjustified fear, but a reality. A warning by the US Food and Drug Administration of July 2004 reports around 250 complications of this kind, referring to both port and central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheter systems, which occurred over a period of several years; in all cases, the damage occurred during the injection of contrast material by means of power injectors for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Though the risk associated with the use of ports in radiodiagnostics is thus clear, it has been suggested that administration of the contrast material via the port may have some advantage in terms of image quality, increased comfort for the patient, and maybe more accurate reproducibility of the patient's own follow-up exams. This contention needs to be supported by evidence. Also, since many cancer patients who need frequent computed tomography studies already have totally implantable systems, it would seem reasonable to try to define how and when such systems may safely be used. The purpose of this consensus statement is to define recommendations based on the best available evidence, for the safe use of implantable ports in radiodiagnostics. PMID:21534233

Bonciarelli, Giorgio; Batacchi, Stefano; Biffi, Roberto; Buononato, Massimo; Damascelli, Bruno; Ghibaudo, Flavio; Orsi, Franco; Pittiruti, Mauro; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Verzè, Alessia; Borasi, Guido; De Cicco, Marcello; Dosio, Roberto; Gazzo, Paolo; Maso, Renzo; Roman, Alessandro; Ticha, Vladimira; Venier, Giacomo; Blackburn, Paul; Goossens, Godelieve A; Bowen Santolucito, Jamie; Stas, Marguerite; Van Boxtel, Ton; Vesely, Thomas M; de Lutio, Enrico

2011-01-01

350

Simultaneous subcutaneous implantation of two osmotic minipumps connected to a jugular vein catheter in the rat.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous osmotic pump implantation connected to a venous catheter is a well-established method for delivering compounds intravenously for an intermediate duration (approximately two weeks). When prolonged release is desired (approximately four weeks) reduced flow rate is needed with a similar pump volume. With a fixed intra-pump compound concentration, reduced flow rate results in unwanted reduced bioavailability of the compound. Prolonged intravenous delivery would therefore need a pump replacement, resulting in increased discomfort and confounding effects on experimental outcome. To overcome this, we describe a method to double the compound infusion rate for four weeks by implanting two low-flow rate osmotic pumps (2.5 µL/h for 28 days) connected to a jugular vein catheter in a single rat. Rats implanted with a single high-flow rate pump (5 µL/h for 14 days) served as controls. Double pump-implanted rats displayed similar post-operative weight gain and physical activity indicating similar levels of discomfort when compared with single pump-implanted rats. Double pump-implanted rats had an increased risk of pump-related complications (four delivery failures [double pump] versus one delivery failure [single pump]). Our data show that double pump implantation is a feasible alternative to changing pumps or the use of extracorporeal pump systems connected via a long wire to partly restrained animals. PMID:25002205

Wedel, Johannes; Weij, Michel; Oosten, Annemieke Smit-van; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

2014-10-01

351

Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.  

PubMed

Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this surrogate outcome measure translates into clinical benefit remains unknown, but support stockings are likely to be more effective and have less adverse effects than the use of aspirin. PMID:15706480

Gallus, Alexander S

2005-02-01

352

Bending stiffness of catheters and guide wires.  

PubMed

An important property of catheters and guide wires to assess their pushability behavior is their bending stiffness. To measure bending stiffness, a new bending module with a new clamping device was developed. This module can easily be mounted in commercially available tensile testing equipment, where bending force and deflection due to the bending force can be measured. To achieve high accuracy for the bending stiffness, the bending distance has to be measured with even higher accuracy by using a laser-scan micrometer. Measurement results of angiographic catheters and guide wires were presented and discussed. The bending stiffness shows a significant dependence on the angle of the test specimen's rotation around its length axis. PMID:12451800

Wünsche, P; Werner, C; Bloss, P

2002-01-01

353

Can CT angiography replace catheter coronary angiography?  

PubMed

After a decade of rapid technological development cardiac CT has evolved into a valuable non-invasive coronary imaging technique, which raises the question whether this new diagnostic modality is ready to replace diagnostic catheter angiography. CT coronary angiography may not yet match the spatial and temporal resolution of selective X-ray angiography, it surpasses invasive angiography in terms of three-dimensional orientation, imaging of plaque and ostial abnormalities. For the moment invasive angiography combined with stress testing will remain the preferred approach in patients with a high probability of coronary disease and anticipated percutaneous intervention. However, for many patients with a low to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease, CT can be a reliably non-invasive alternative to catheter angiography. PMID:20542832

Nieman, Koen

2010-05-01

354

Live volumetric imaging (LVI) intracardiac ultrasound catheter.  

PubMed

The Live Volumetric Imaging (LVI) catheter is capable of real-time 3D intracardiac echo (ICE) imaging, uniquely providing full volume sectors with deep penetration depth and high volume frame rate. The key enabling technology in this catheter is an integrated piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT), a novel matrix phased array transducer fabricated using semiconductor microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing techniques. This technology innovation may enable better image guidance to improve accuracy, reduce risk, and reduce procedure time for transcatheter intracardiac therapies which are currently done with limited direct visualization of the endocardial tissue. Envisioned applications for LVI include intraprocedural image guidance of cardiac ablation therapies as well as transcatheter mitral and aortic valve repair. PMID:23773496

Dausch, David E; Castellucci, John B; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Carlson, James B; Hall, Stephen D; von Ramm, Olaf T

2013-01-01

355

[Venous thromboembolism in the elderly].  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease and has a high impact on morbidity, mortality, and costs of care. The majority of patients with VTE are aged > or = 65 years, making VTE essentially a disease of the elderly. Despite its high prevalence and the fact that VTE has a less favourable outcome in elderly patients (e.g., higher rate of mortality, major bleeding, and post-thrombotic syndrome), older patients are underrepresented in prospective studies of VTE. Moreover, little is known about patient factors that determine medical outcomes, quality of life, and costs of care in elderly patients with VTE. The goal of this article is to review the existing evidence regarding VTE in the elderly. A prospective multicenter Swiss cohort study will examine medical outcomes, quality of life, and medical resource utilization in elderly patients with VTE. PMID:19968026

Méan, M; Aujesky, D

2009-10-28

356

Venous thromboembolism in malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

Summary Malignant gliomas are associated with a very high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While many clinical risk factors have previously been described in brain tumor patients, the risk of VTE associated with newer anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab in these patients remains unclear. When VTE occurs in this patient population, concern regarding the potential for intracranial hemorrhage complicates management decisions regarding anticoagulation, and these patients have a worse prognosis than their VTE-free counterparts. Risk stratification models identifying patients at high risk of developing VTE along with predictive plasma biomarkers may guide the selection of eligible patients for primary prevention with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Recent studies exploring disordered coagulation, such as increased expression of tissue factor (TF), and tumorigenic molecular signaling may help to explain the increased risk of VTE in patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:19912518

JENKINS, E. O.; SCHIFF, D.; MACKMAN, N.; KEY, N. S.

2010-01-01

357

Soft robotic concepts in catheter design: an on-demand fouling-release urinary catheter.  

PubMed

Infectious biofilms are problematic in many healthcare-related devices and are especially challenging and ubiquitous in urinary catheters. This report presents an on-demand fouling-release methodology to mechanically disrupt and remove biofilms, and proposes this method for the active removal of infectious biofilms from the previously inaccessible main drainage lumen of urinary catheters. Mature Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms detach from silicone elastomer substrates upon application of strain to the substrate, and increasing the strain rate increases biofilm detachment. The study presents a quantitative relationship between applied strain rate and biofilm debonding through an analysis of biofilm segment length and the driving force for debonding. Based on this mechanism, hydraulic and pneumatic elastomer actuation is used to achieve surface strain selectively within the lumen of prototypes of sections of a fouling-release urinary catheter. Proof-of-concept prototypes of sections of active, fouling-release catheters are constructed using techniques typical to soft robotics including 3D printing and replica molding, and those prototypes demonstrate release of mature P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms (e.g., ?90%) from strained surfaces. These results provide a basis for the development of a new urinary catheter technology in which infectious biofilms are effectively managed through new methods that are entirely complementary to existing approaches. PMID:24668920

Levering, Vrad; Wang, Qiming; Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Zhao, Xuanhe; López, Gabriel P

2014-10-01

358

Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

2014-01-01

359

Aspiration catheter for percutaneous thrombectomy: clinical results.  

PubMed

The clinical application of an aspiration thrombectomy system is presented. The system consists of a 7-F Teflon catheter with a rotating coaxial propeller-tipped wire. Thrombectomy was successful in treating occlusion of two femoropopliteal arteries and one hemodialysis implant but was not completely successful in a draining shunt vein. Preliminary results are encouraging; mechanical thrombectomy may offer an alternative to local lysis therapy. PMID:2315493

Guenther, R W; Vorwerk, D

1990-04-01

360

Alternate energy sources for catheter ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the limitations of conventional radiofrequency ablation in creating large or linear lesions, alternative energy\\u000a sources have been used as possible methods of catheter ablation. Modified radiofrequency energy, cryoablation, and microwave,\\u000a laser, and ultrasound technologies may be able to create longer, deeper, and more controlled lesions and may be particularly\\u000a suited for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias and for

Paul J. Wang; Munther K. Homoud; Mark S. Link; N. A. Mark Estes

1999-01-01

361

a Subminiature Scintillation Detector for Catheter Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of a subminiature scintillation detector to be inserted in a catheter for lesion localization in nuclear medicine SPECT has been studied. Measurements on a simple laboratory setup have been performed and compared with Monte Carlo results. Further simulations, at 30keV and 140keV, concerning a configuration reproducing severe clinical conditions have shown poor lesion detectability. Several factors affecting the response have to be investigated to improve the capability of lesion localization characterizing such detector.

Scafè, R.; Montani, L.; Burgio, N.; Iurlaro, G.; Santagata, A.; Ciavola, C.; Alonge, G.

2006-04-01

362

Antibiotics and prevention of microbial colonization of catheters.  

PubMed Central

Slime-producing staphylococci frequently colonize catheters, and when they are embedded in biofilm, they become resistant to various antibiotics. In the study that is described, the comparative efficacies of vancomycin, clindamycin, novobiocin, and minocycline, alone or in combination with rifampin, were tested in an in vitro model of colonization. The model consisted of the modified Robbins device with antibiotic-impregnated cement filling the lumen of catheter segments. The synergistic combination of minocycline and rifampin was the most efficacious in preventing bacterial colonization of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to catheter surfaces. A similar trend was observed when the inhibitory activities of polyurethane catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin were compared with the inhibitory activities of catheters coated with other antimicrobial agents. The inhibitory activities of catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis strains, for example, were significantly better than those of catheters coated with vancomycin (P < 0.05). The inhibitory activities of catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin against gram-negative bacilli and Candida albicans were comparable to those of catheters coated with ceftazidime and amphotericin B, respectively. We found that the combination of minocycline and rifampin is unique and highly effective in preventing the colonization of catheters with slime-producing staphylococci and that it also displays a broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against gram-negative bacteria and yeast cells. PMID:8585715

Raad, I; Darouiche, R; Hachem, R; Sacilowski, M; Bodey, G P

1995-01-01

363

Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is relatively unimportant. Low calf venous compliance probably results from stiffer venous, skeletal muscle, and connective tissues, and better-developed local and central neural controls of venous distensibility. This research establishes that upper-to-lower body reduction of venous compliance can explain headward positioning of the hydrostatic indifference level in humans.

Watenpaugh, Donald E.

1996-01-01

364

Measurement of venous compliance (8-IML-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.

Thirsk, R. B.

1992-01-01

365

Asian venous thromboembolism guidelines: prevention of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is under-utilized in Asia because of the misconception that its incidence is lower in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. The available data on VTE in Asia is limited due to the lack of well-designed multicenter randomized controlled trials as well as non-standardized research designs, making data comparison difficult. Emerging data indicates that the VTE incidence is not low in Asia, and is comparable to that reported in the Western literature in some instances. There is also a trend towards increasing incidence of VTE, as demonstrated by a number of hospital-based studies in Asia. This could be attributed to lifestyle changes, ageing population, increasing awareness of VTE and wider availability of Duplex ultrasound. The risk of VTE in hospitalized patients remain the same in Asians and Caucasians, even though there may be factors that are inherent to patients in Asia that influence the slight variation in incidence. The utilization rate of VTE prophylaxis remains suboptimal in Asia. The Asian Venous Thrombosis Forum (AVTF) comprises participants from various countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and experts from Australia and Europe. The forum evaluated the available data on VTE from the Asian region and formulated guidelines tailored to meet the needs of the region. We recommend that serious considerations are given to VTE prophylaxis especially in the at-risk group and a formal hospital policy be established to facilitate the implementation. On admission to the hospital, we recommend assessing the patients for both VTE and bleeding risk. We recommend mechanical prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of bleeding and utilizing it as an adjunctive measure in combination with pharmacological prophylaxis in patients with high risk of VTE. For patients undergoing general or gynecological surgery and with moderate risk for VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with one of the following: low dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For the same group of patients at high risk of VTE, we recommend pharmacological or combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgeries like total hip replacement, total knee replacement and proximal hip fracture surgery, we recommend using one of the following: LMWH, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran, warfarin or aspirin with IPC. For patients admitted to the hospital with acute medical illness and has moderate risk of VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with LDUH, LMWH or Fondaparinux. For the same group at high risk of VTE, we recommend combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. PMID:23222928

Liew, N C; Chang, Y H; Choi, G; Chu, P H; Gao, X; Gibbs, H; Ho, C O; Ibrahim, H; Kim, T K; Kritpracha, B; Lee, L H; Lee, L; Lee, W Y; Li, Y J; Nicolaides, A N; Oh, D; Pratama, D; Ramakrishnan, N; Robless, P A; Villarama-Alemany, G; Wong, R

2012-12-01

366

[Sepsis due to multiple-lumen catheters in bone marrow transplantation with total parenteral nutrition. The effect of the type of isolation].  

PubMed

The use of catheters for total parenteral nutrition frequently leads to infectious complications which are more common and virulent in patients with marrow aplasia. The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence in the development of catheter-induced sepsis of the place where it was introduced (in the theatre or hospitalization unit), the type of isolation (laminar flux unit or conventional room), and its relation to the period of isolation and of the total parenteral nutrition. Forty-one bone-marrow transplant patients were studied, 18 of them autologous and 23 allogenic, who were administered total parenteral nutrition with a two-way central venous polyurethane catheter. Of the 41 catheters applied, 16 were introduced in the operating theater and 25 in the hospitalization unit: of these, 7 and 11 respectively were infected. Isolation was as follows: 21 in standard rooms and 20 in a laminar flux unit, with 11 and 7 infections respectively. We believe that the lower level of infections in laminar flux isolation was not significant, this being a reduced number of case studies. The duration of the catheter and total parenteral nutrition for the 18 patients with sepsis was 36.5 +/- 15.1 and 23.7 +/- 8.4 days respectively: this was greater--albeit possibly not significantly so because of the special characteristics of these patients--than the 29.1 +/- 12.9 and 19.5 +/- 10.9 days for non-septic cases. This reveals a catheter sepsis rate of 43.9%, in 88% of cases caused by skin flora micro-organisms (66.6% coagulase-negative staphylococcus).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8443272

Olóriz, M R; Gándara, M J; Bárcena, M J; Varela, M R; Fuente, E

1993-01-01

367

Numerical model of deep venous thrombosis detection using venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain gauge plethysmography (SGP) is a non-invasive method used in the detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The technique\\u000a is based on the measurement of calf volume changes in response to venous occlusion by a thigh cuff, the volume changes reflecting\\u000a the rates of arterial inflow and venous outflow. A numerical model of the blood circulation within the limb and

I. C. Turner; M. A. McNally; B. M. O'Connell; E. A. Cooke; W. G. Kernohan; R. A. B. Mollan

2000-01-01

368

Trends in the incidence of venous stasis syndrome and venous ulcer: A 25-year population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence rates of venous stasis syndrome and venous ulcer are uncertain, and trends in incidence are unknown. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the complete (inpatient and outpatient) medical records of a community population (Olmsted County, Minnesota) to estimate the incidence of venous stasis syndrome and venous ulcer during the 25-year period, 1966 to 1990, and to

John A. Heit; Thom W. Rooke; Marc D. Silverstein; David N. Mohr; Christine M. Lohse; Tanya M. Petterson; W. Michael O'Fallon; L. Joseph Melton

2001-01-01

369

Spontaneous thrombosis of developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with venous infarct and acute cerebellar ataxia.  

PubMed

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), formally known as venous angioma, is a congenital anatomic variant of the venous drainage of the brain. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report a unique case of spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly with cerebellar infarct in a 61-year-old man who presented with acute onset cerebellar ataxia. DVA thrombosis was well-depicted on CT and MR studies. Patient was put on anticoagulant therapy and complete recanalization was seen on follow-up imaging. PMID:24676737

Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Kalapos, Paul; Vijay, Kanupriya

2014-08-01

370

Thoracoscopic removal of retained thoracoamniotic shunt catheters in newborns.  

PubMed

Abstract Fetal hydrothorax is associated with significant mortality. However, the development of fetal thoracoamniotic shunting has reduced the mortality rate. Fetal thoracoamniotic shunting can be characterized by significant complications, such as intrathoracic dislodgement of the catheter. The ideal management of dislodged catheters postnatally is not known. We report two newborns with a prenatal diagnosis of fetal hydrothorax who underwent thoracoamniotic shunting complicated by intrathoracic dislodgement of the catheters requiring thoracoscopic removal of the shunts in the neonatal period. PMID:25264592

Macchini, Francesco; Gentilino, Valerio; Morandi, Anna; Leva, Ernesto

2014-11-01

371

Open Access Catheter Ablation of Parahisian Premature Ventricular Complex  

E-print Network

Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man. (Korean Circ J 2011;41:766-769) KEY WORDS: Premature ventricular complexes; Bundle of His; Catheter ablation.

unknown authors

372

Respecting shape memory to optimize peritoneal dialysis catheter outcomes.  

PubMed

Disruption of the shape memory of a peritoneal dialysis catheter at the time of insertion may be a factor responsible for tip migration and catheter dysfunction. The use of postimplantation radiology to confirm the preservation of both the swan neck angle and the inclination angle may have a role in standardizing insertion technique with the potential to reduce the impact of operator variation on catheter outcomes. PMID:25360492

Briggs, Victoria R; Shrestha, Badri M; Wilkie, Martin E

2014-11-01

373

Vena cava air embolism after traumatic Foley catheter placement.  

PubMed

We report a case of traumatic Foley catheter placement and manipulation that resulted in a large, symptomatic, vena cava air embolism confirmed on computed tomography. To the best of our knowledge, our report represents the first case of a large, symptomatic, vena cava air embolism as a direct result of Foley catheter trauma. The included computed tomography images are unique in that they simultaneously show an improperly positioned Foley catheter and a large vena cava air embolism. PMID:19118872

Chavez, Anthony H; Reilly, T Philip; Bird, Erin T

2009-04-01

374

Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... problems, and preventing and treating ulcers. (See "Medical management of lower extremity chronic venous disease" .) Leg elevation — Simply elevating the legs above heart level for 30 minutes three or four times per ...

375

Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

1991-01-01

376

Magnetic Catheter Manipulation in the Interventional MRI Environment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate deflection capability of a prototype endovascular catheter, which is remotely magnetically steerable, for use in the interventional MRI environment. Materials and Methods Copper coils were mounted on the tips of commercially available 2.3 – 3.0 Fr microcatheters. The coils were fabricated in a novel manner by plasma vapor deposition of a copper layer followed by laser lithography of the layer into coils. Orthogonal helical (solenoid) and saddle-shaped (Helmholtz) coils were mounted on a single catheter tip. Microcatheters were tested in water bath phantoms in a 1.5T clinical MRI scanner, with variable simultaneous currents applied to the coils. Catheter tip deflection was imaged in the axial plane utilizing a “real-time” steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRI sequence. Degree of deflection and catheter tip orientation were measured for each current application. Results The catheter tip was clearly visible in the longitudinal and axial planes. Magnetic field artifacts were visible when the orthogonal coils at the catheter tip were energized. Variable amounts of current applied to a single coil demonstrated consistent catheter deflection in all water bath experiments. Changing current polarity reversed the observed direction of deflection, whereas current applied to two different coils resulted in deflection represented by the composite vector of individual coil activations. Microcatheter navigation through the vascular phantom was successful through control of applied current to one or more coils. Conclusion Controlled catheter deflection is possible with laser lithographed multi-axis coil tipped catheters in the MRI environment. PMID:23707097

Wilson, Mark W.; Martin, Alastair B.; Lillaney, Prasheel; Losey, Aaron D.; Yee, Erin J.; Bernhardt, Anthony; Malba, Vincent; Evans, Lee; Sincic, Ryan; Saeed, Maythem; Arenson, Ronald L.; Hetts, Steven W.

2013-01-01

377

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

378

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

379

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

380

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

381

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

382

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

383

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

384

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

385

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

386

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

387

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

388

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

389

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

390

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

391

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

392

Patient specific optimal catheter selection for right coronary artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During coronary artery angiography, a catheter is used to inject a contrast dye into the coronary arteries. Due to the anatomical variation of the aorta and the coronary arteries in different humans, one common catheter cannot be used for all patients. The cardiologists test different catheters for a patient and select the best catheter according to the patient's anatomy. This procedure is time consuming and there is a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. To overcome these problems, we propose a computer aided catheter selection procedure. In this paper we present our approach for the angiography of the Right Coronary Artery (RCA). Our approach involves segmentation of the aorta and coronary arteries, finding the centerline and computing the Curve Angle (CA) and Curve Length (CL) between the aorta and the coronary arteries. We then compute CA and CL of catheters and suggest a catheter with the closest CA and CL with respect to the aorta's and coronary arteries' CA and CL. This solution avoids testing of many catheters during catheterization. The cardiologist already gets the recommendation about the optimal catheter for the patient prior to the intervention.

Rahman, Sami u.; Wesarg, Stefan; Völker, Wolfram

2011-03-01

393

Tissue adhesion to bioactive glass-coated silicone tubing in a rat model of peritoneal dialysis catheters and catheter tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue adhesion to bioactive glass-coated silicone tubing in a rat model of peritoneal dialysis catheters and catheter tunnels.BackgroundSilicone peritoneal dialysis catheters do not develop tissue ingrowth, lack a mechanical barrier to periluminal bacterial migration and need cuffs for anchorage. We hypothesized that a bioactive glass coating composed of silicon, calcium, sodium and phosphorous oxides would cause a beneficial tissue reaction

Edward A Ross; Christopher D Batich; William L Clapp; Judith E Sallustio; Nadeen C Lee

2003-01-01

394

Addition of sodium metabisulphite to left atrial catheter infusates as a means of preventing bacterial colonisation of the catheter tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium metabisulphite (SMBS) was added at a concentration of 0.05% to the dextrose-heparin solution used to flush left atrial catheters in one group of open-heart surgery patients. Two other groups of patients had left atrial catheters flushed with dextrose-heparin alone. Comparison of the isolation rate of organisms from the tips of the catheters in the three groups showed that the

R Freeman; M P Holden; R Lyon; N Hjersing

1982-01-01

395

HIV-Associated Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

HIV infection has been recognized as a prothrombotic condition and this association has now been proven by a large number of studies with a reported VTE frequency among HIV-infected patients ranging from 0.19% to 7,63 %/year. HIV infection is associated with a two to tenfold increased risk of venous thrombosis in comparison with a general population of the same age. Some risk factors demonstrated a strongest association with VTE such as, low CD4+ cell count especially in the presence of clinical AIDS, protein S deficiency, and protein C deficiency. Whereas other risk factors are still controversial like protease inhibitor therapy, presence of active opportunistic infections and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, including anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Physicians caring for HIV positive patients should be able to recognize and treat not only the well-known opportunistic infections and malignancies associated with this chronic disease, but also be alert to the less well-known complications such as thromboses. Pulmonary embolism should be included in the differential diagnosis when patients with HIV/AIDS have unexplained dyspnea or hypoxemia. In younger individuals with VTE, especially men, without other identifiable risk factors for VTE, HIV should be considered. Because interactions between warfarin and antiretrovirals is possible, health care providers should also be alert to the potential of dangerously high or low INRs when they are giving anticoagulants to patients with HIV infection who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21869916

Bibas, Michele; Biava, Gianluigi; Antinori., Andrea

2011-01-01

396

Dabigatran etexilate in venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa) is the orally available prodrug of dabigatran, a potent compound belonging to the new class of nonpeptide direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs). Following oral administration, dabigatran etexilate reached peak plasma concentrations within 2 hours, showed linear pharmacokinetics across a wide dose range, a linear relationship between ecarin clotting time (ECT) and international normalized ratio (INR), and no significant food or drug interactions. Dabigatran etexilate at once-daily doses of 150 mg and 220 mg has demonstrated non-inferiority to once-daily enoxaparin 40 mg for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement surgery in two large, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. The safety profile of dabigatran etexilate was similar to that of enoxaparin with comparable rates of major bleeding, liver enzyme elevation and acute coronary events. Oral availability of dabigatran etexilate, together with a rapid onset and offset of action and predictable anticoagulation response, makes this compound an attractive alternative to traditional anticoagulant therapies for the prevention of VTE. PMID:20069135

Ferrer, Elisa

2009-10-01

397

Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report.  

PubMed

We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented. PMID:25097742

Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik

2014-07-01

398

Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented. PMID:25097742

Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Kim, Keon Sik

2014-01-01

399

Successful Venous Angioplasty of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome after Heart Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. For patients with terminal heart failure, heart transplantation (HTX) has become an established therapy. Before transplantation there are many repeated measurements with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) via the superior vena cava (SVC) necessary. After transplantation, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is recommended for routine surveillance of heart transplant rejection again through the SVC. Case Presentation. In this report, we present a HTX patient who developed a SVC syndrome as a possible complication of all these procedures via the SVC. This 35-year-old Caucasian male could be successfully treated by balloon dilatation/angioplasty. Conclusion. The SVC syndrome can lead to pressure increase in the venous system such as edema in the head and the upper part of the body and further serious complications like cerebral bleeding and ischemia, or respiratory problems. Balloon angioplasty and stent implantation are valid methods to treat stenoses of the SVC successfully. PMID:25161772

Strecker, Thomas; Zimmermann, Iris; Heinz, Marco; Rosch, Johannes; Agaimy, Abbas; Weyand, Michael

2014-01-01

400

21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. 880.5965 Section...Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification...subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter is a device...

2010-04-01

401

Next generation catheters for excimer laser coronary angioplasty.  

PubMed

In response to the need for maximising debulking in complex lesions, three new excimer laser coronary angioplasty catheter designs have been introduced. The eccentric laser catheter features a fibreoptic bundle disposed opposite the guide-wire lumen at the catheter tip and a torque mechanism that allows the user to rotate the fibre bundle toward the lesion mass. Residual lumens 50% larger than the catheter tip diameter have been obtained when multiple passes were made, with each pass performed using a different tip rotation. A recent case series utilising this catheter in restenosed stents resulted in larger lumens and lower 6-month restenosis rates. The optimal spaced (OS) laser catheter features a fibre bundle placed concentrically around the guide-wire lumen. The 61 microm diameter core fibres are spaced at a nominal centre-to-centre distance of 90 microm, resulting in a 40% increase in ablative area as compared to previous concentric catheter designs. In vitro testing and clinical evaluation demonstrated OS catheters routinely achieve an ablated area > or =90% of the catheter tip size. The 0.9 mm catheter features a high-density fibre pack composed of 65 fibres. Peripheral dead space has been minimised to maximise penetration of calcified plaque. When combined with laser parameters of up to 80 mJ/mm2, and 80 Hz pulse repetition rate, the catheter demonstrated improved hard tissue and calcified tissue penetration in vitro. Clinical evaluation in Canada revealed a 94% lesion recanalisation rate in high-grade stenoses with angiographic evidence of calcification, chronic total occlusions, and lesions which have failed balloon angioplasty. PMID:11484755

Taylor, K; Reiser, C

2001-01-01

402

Fixed low-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis followed by routine stenting of residual stenosis for acute ilio-femoral deep-vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Patients with ilio-femoral deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) are at high risk of developing the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). In comparison to anticoagulation therapy alone, extended venography-guided catheter-directed thrombolysis without routine stenting of venous stenosis in patients with ilio-femoral DVT is associated with an increased risk of bleeding and a moderate reduction of PTS. We performed a prospective single-centre study to investigate safety, patency and incidence of PTS in patients with acute ilio-femoral DVT treated with fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT; 20 mg rt-PA during 15 hours) followed by routing stenting of venous stenosis, defined as residual luminal narrowing >50%, absent antegrade flow, or presence of collateral flow at the site of suspected stenosis. A total of 87 patients (age 46 ± 21 years, 60% women) were included. At 15 hours, thrombolysis success ?50% was achieved in 67 (77%) patients. Venous stenting (mean 1.9 ± 1.3 stents) was performed in 70 (80%) patients, with the common iliac vein as the most frequent stenting site (83%). One major (1%; 95% CI, 0-6%) and 6 minor bleedings (7%; 95%CI, 3-14%) occurred. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 87% (95% CI, 74-94%) and 96% (95% CI, 88-99%), respectively. At three months, 88% (95% CI, 78-94%) of patients were free from PTS according to the Villalta scale, with a similar rate at one year (94%, 95% CI, 81-99%). In conclusion, a fixed-dose USAT regimen followed by routine stenting of underlying venous stenosis in patients with ilio-femoral DVT was associated with a low bleeding rate, high patency rates, and a low incidence of PTS. PMID:24477468

Engelberger, Rolf P; Fahrni, Jennifer; Willenberg, Torsten; Baumann, Frederic; Spirk, David; Diehm, Nicolas; Do, Dai-Do; Baumgartner, Iris; Kucher, Nils

2014-06-01

403

Photoacoustic active ultrasound element for catheter tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various methods have been developed to improve ultrasound based interventional tool tracking. However, none of them has yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. Our previous work has demonstrated a new active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS), which integrates active ultrasound transducers with the interventional tool, actively monitors the beacon signals and transmits ultrasound pulses back to the US probe with the correct timing. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments have proved that AUSPIS greatly improved tool visualization, and provided tool-tip localization accuracy of less than 300 ?m. In the previous work, the active elements were made of piezoelectric materials. However, in some applications the high driving voltage of the piezoelectric element raises safety concerns. In addition, the metallic electrical wires connecting the piezoelectric element may also cause artifacts in CT and MR imaging. This work explicitly focuses on an all-optical active ultrasound element approach to overcome these problems. In this approach, the active ultrasound element is composed of two optical fibers - one for transmission and one for reception. The transmission fiber delivers a laser beam from a pulsed laser diode and excites a photoacoustic target to generate ultrasound pulses. The reception fiber is a Fabry-Pérot hydrophone. We have made a prototype catheter and performed phantom experiments. Catheter tip localization, mid-plan detection and arbitrary pattern injection functions have been demonstrated using the all-optical AUSPIS.

Guo, Xiaoyu; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kang, Jin U.; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

404

Catheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects.  

PubMed Central

Catheter occlusion of atrial septal defects has its roots in the 1950s, with early devices being implanted during closed-heart surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass. For the past 20 years, various catheter-delivered devices have undergone testing and refinement. Designs have included single- and double-disk prostheses, with a variety of materials, delivery systems, and techniques. In this monograph, the history of atrial septal defect occluders and their evaluation, results, and prognoses will be outlined. The early work of King and Mills has been advanced in the forms of the Rashkind and Lock-USCI Clamshell occluders (USCI; Billerica, Mass), the "buttoned" device (custom made by E.B. Sideris), the Babic atrial septal defect occlusion system (Osypka, GmbH; Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany), the Das-Angel Wings atrial septal defect occlusion device (Microvena Corporation; White Bear Lake, Minn), and others. The future holds promise for approved devices in the treatment of selected secundum atrial septal defects. Images PMID:9456481

O'Laughlin, M P

1997-01-01

405

Black hole on film following catheter insertion.  

PubMed

Vascular accesses both permanent and temporary play an essential role in the procedure of hemodialysis (HD). The double lumen catheter (DLC) is one form of temporal vascular access which may produce different complications based on where the DLC is inserted. Here, we report a case of a cirrhotic patient receiving HD. The DLC was inserted through the left femoral vein. Later on, an unusual catheter position, mimicking a perforation in the iliac vessel, was noted in the incidental image finding. After venography, we concluded that this DLC had entered the dilated left gonadal vein, and was working well. This condition may be explained by portal hypertension leading to increased frequency of collateral branches and easy dilatation of the left gonadal vein. This condition may develop in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension, but there is no harm to a patient. However, this condition leads to an interesting computed tomography image, which may result in misinterpretation of the imaging reports and a clinical misdiagnosis. PMID:22304472

Chen, Hsuan-Wei; Chen, Jin-Shuen

2012-07-01

406

Pulmonary Vein Stenosis After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—This report describes the complication of pulmonary vein stenosis with resultant severe pulmonary hypertension that developed in 2 patients after successful catheter ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results—Three months after successful catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, both patients developed progressive dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension. Both were found to have severe stenosis of all 4 pulmonary veins near the

Ivan M. Robbins; Edward V. Colvin; Thomas P. Doyle; W. Evans Kemp; James E. Loyd; William S. McMahon; G. Neal Kay

407

Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

408

Replacement of a Malpositioned Tracheoesophageal Catheter in the Radiology Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This article describes a safe and easy method to position a tracheoesophageal catheter correctly. The procedure is carried out under fluoroscopic guidance and requires neither general nor local anesthesia. The only modification necessary was removal of the tip of the hollow rubber catheter, to create an opening through which the guide wire could be passed.

Jane L. Weissman; Gerald A. Niedzwiecki; David E. Eibling

409

Neurologic Complications of 405 Consecutive Continuous Axillary Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous axillary brachial plexus block may theoret- ically increase the risk of neurologic complications be- cause of catheter-induced mechanical trauma or local anesthetic toxicity. In this study, we retrospectively re- viewed the frequency of complications using current techniques and applications. There were 405 continu- ous axillary catheters in 368 patients. A preexisting neurologic condition was present in 41 (10.1%) patients,

Bradley D. Bergman; James R. Hebl; Jay Kent; Terese T. Horlocker

2003-01-01

410

What is the evidence for intraluminal colonization of hemodialysis catheters?  

PubMed

Hemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections are potentially devastating, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Prospective studies published over the past 15 years shed light on the pathogenesis of these infections. The data suggest that the intraluminal microbial colonization of hemodialysis catheters often precedes bloodstream infection. This finding supports strategies aimed at preventing or eradicating intraluminal colonization. PMID:24402089

Mermel, Leonard A

2014-07-01

411

Chronic kidney disease: haemodialysis catheter care in practice.  

PubMed

A new haemodialysis catheter-care procedure has been reported, including exit-site disinfection with chlorhexidine gluconate that results in a sustained reduction in bacteraemia rates, new intravenous antibiotic starts and sepsis-associated and access-associated hospitalization rates compared with standard care. These findings have potential implications for the prevention of haemodialysis catheter-associated infections. PMID:24445741

Badve, Sunil V; Johnson, David W

2014-03-01

412

Bacterial biofilms in patients with indwelling urinary catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have a basic survival strategy: to colonize surfaces and grow as biofilm communities embedded in a gel-like polysaccharide matrix. The catheterized urinary tract provides ideal conditions for the development of enormous biofilm populations. Many bacterial species colonize indwelling catheters as biofilms, inducing complications in patients' care. The most troublesome complications are the crystalline biofilms that can occlude the catheter

David J Stickler

2008-01-01

413

Catheter migration after fracture is not always in right cavities.  

PubMed

Catheter fracture and cardiac migration are rare but known complications. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of catheter migration into the coronary sinus. The broken fragment was successfully retrieved using helical basket, whereas biplane fluoroscopy was helpful in the heart chambers because of a difficult spatial orientation. No complications were noted during or after this procedure. PMID:23065411

Arnould, Marc-Antoine; Blanchard, Didier

2013-01-01

414

Early Experience with a Computerized Robotically Controlled Catheter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, the use of robotic assisted surgery has been utilized in cardiac surgical procedures. The use of robotics may offer benefits in precision, stability and control of instruments remotely. We report early experience with a novel remote robotic catheter control system (CCS).Methods: We used a computerized robotically controlled catheter system that enables the user to remotely manipulate the tip

Amin Al-Ahmad; Jessica D. Grossman; Paul J. Wang

2005-01-01

415

Sidewinder catheter for conversion of retrograde into antegrade catheterization  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of retrograde into antegrade catheterization is accomplished through the use of a sidewinder catheter with a reformed loop that is subsequently lost during advancement of the catheter tip. This technique was used to perform eight percutaneous dilatations (PTD) in seven patients (one had bilateral disease). Other applications for antegrade catheterization are considered.

Shenoy, S.S.

1983-06-01

416

Colonization of Yankauer suction catheters with pathogenic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral suction devices may be fomites for nosocomial infections. This study was designed to evaluate the rate of contamination of Yankauer suction catheters. Among the 20 catheters tested, 16 (80%) yielded cultures for pathogens. Seven (35%) were colonized with multiple pathogens. Among the organisms encountered included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). These devices should be handled and

Melissa Brown; David Willms

417

Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.  

PubMed

Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096

Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

1991-03-21

418

Surgical treatment for venous malformation.  

PubMed

Sclerotherapy is generally the preferred treatment for venous malformation (VM) with surgery usually playing an adjunctive role. This study presents our experience with surgical treatment of VMs. Consecutive patients were identified from our vascular anomalies database 1996-2011 and patient demographics, location of the lesion, type of tissue(s) affected and symptoms were analysed. The patients completed a questionnaire to assess the impact of surgery on the severity of symptoms, appearance, function and overall quality of life (QoL), using a visual analogue scale of 0 (no symptom) to 10 (maximal symptom). They also rated their overall satisfaction of treatment using a scale of 0 (complete dissatisfaction) to 10 (complete satisfaction). Fifty patients with VM underwent a total of 58 procedures. Complication occurred in six patients (9.7% of operations), including transient sensory loss (n=3) and permanent frontal branch palsy (n=1), haematoma formation (n=1) and minor wound dehiscence (n=1). At least 50% improvement in symptoms of background pain, acute episodic pain, contour deformity and skin discolouration occurred in 88.9%, 92.3%, 83.3% and 75.0% of patients, respectively. At least 50% improvement in the appearance, function and overall QoL occurred in 54.3%, 71.4% and 70.4% of patients, respectively. The mean overall patient satisfaction with the treatment was 8.9 (range, 1-10). Surgery remains an important treatment modality for selected patients with VM having low complication rates and high patient satisfaction. It improves the appearance, function and overall QoL for the majority of the patients by reducing the severity of pain, contour deformity and skin discolouration. PMID:24012651

Steiner, Frederica; FitzJohn, Trevor; Tan, Swee T

2013-12-01

419

Veno-venous extracorporeal CO2 removal for the treatment of severe respiratory acidosis: pathophysiological and technical considerations  

PubMed Central

Introduction While non-invasive ventilation aimed at avoiding intubation has become the modality of choice to treat mild to moderate acute respiratory acidosis, many severely acidotic patients (pH <7.20) still need intubation. Extracorporeal veno-venous CO2 removal (ECCO2R) could prove to be an alternative. The present animal study tested in a systematic fashion technical requirements for successful ECCO2R in terms of cannula size, blood and sweep gas flow. Methods ECCO2R with a 0.98 m2 surface oxygenator was performed in six acidotic (pH <7.20) pigs using either a 14.5 French (Fr) or a 19Fr catheter, with sweep gas flow rates of 8 and 16 L/minute, respectively. During each experiment the blood flow was incrementally increased to a maximum of 400 mL/minute (14.5Fr catheter) and 1000 mL/minute (19Fr catheter). Results Amelioration of severe respiratory acidosis was only feasible when blood flow rates of 750 to 1000 mL/minute (19Fr catheter) were used. Maximal CO2-elimination was 146.1?±?22.6 mL/minute, while pH increased from 7.13?±?0.08 to 7.41?±?0.07 (blood flow of 1000 mL/minute; sweep gas flow 16 L/minute). Accordingly, a sweep gas flow of 8 L/minute resulted in a maximal CO2-elimination rate of 138.0?±?16.9 mL/minute. The 14.5Fr catheter allowed a maximum CO2 elimination rate of 77.9 mL/minute, which did not result in the normalization of pH. Conclusions Veno-venous ECCO2R may serve as a treatment option for severe respiratory acidosis. In this porcine model, ECCO2R was most effective when using blood flow rates ranging between 750 and 1000 mL/minute, while an increase in sweep gas flow from 8 to 16 L/minute had less impact on ECCO2R in this setting. PMID:24942014

2014-01-01