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Sample records for ventilation perfusion imbalance

  1. EFFECT OF VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IMBALANCE ON INERT GAS REBREATHING VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of ventilation-to-perfusion (Va/Qc) maldistribution within the lungs on measured multiple gas rebreathing variables were studied in 14 dogs. The rebreathing method (using He, C18C, and C2H2) allows for measurements of pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc), diffusing cap...

  2. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas ... blood flows through the lungs. The perfusion scan measures the blood supply through the lungs. A ventilation ...

  3. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  4. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  5. Ventilation-perfusion matching during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    In normal subjects, exercise widens the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (P[A-a]O2) despite a more uniform topographic distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios. While part of the increase in P(A-a)O2 (especially during heavy exercise) is due to diffusion limitation, a considerable amount is caused by an increase in VA/Q mismatch as detected by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Why this occurs is unknown, but circumstantial evidence suggests it may be related to interstitial pulmonary edema rather than to factors dependent on ventilation, airway gas mixing, airway muscle tone, or pulmonary vascular tone. In patients with lung disease, the gas exchange consequences of exercise are variable. Thus, arterial PO2 may increase, remain the same, or fall. In general, patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or interstitial fibrosis who exercise show a fall in PO2. This is usually not due to worsening VA/Q relationships but mostly to the well-known fall in mixed venous PO2, which itself results from a relatively smaller increase in cardiac output than VO2. However, in interstitial fibrosis (but not COPD), there is good evidence that a part of the fall in PO2 on exercise is caused by alveolar-capillary diffusion limitation of O2 transport; in COPD (but not interstitial fibrosis), a frequent additional contributing factor to the hypoxemia of exercise is an inadequate ventilatory response, such that minute ventilation does not rise as much as does CO2 production or O2 uptake, causing arterial PCO2 to increase and PO2 to fall.

  6. Distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zwijnenburg, A; Alberts, C; Jansen, H M; Roos, C M; Marcuse, H R

    1987-09-01

    In 14 patients with advanced stage pulmonary sarcoidosis the distribution of regional ventilation-perfusion ratios (V/Q) was obtained by quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the lungs. In 6 patients normal V/Q distributions were found with a decreased DLCO in only one of them. In 8 patients abnormal distributions of V/Q ratios were found. Six of these patients also had a decrease in diffusing capacity for CO (DLCO). It is suggested that the decrease in DLCO in these patients is partly a result of uneven distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3659614

  7. Teaching Ventilation/Perfusion Relationships in the Lung

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Robb W.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review is meant to serve as a refresher for faculty teaching respiratory physiology to medical students. The concepts of ventilation and perfusion matching are some of the most challenging ideas to learn and teach. Some strategies to consider in teaching these concepts are, first, to build from simple to more complex by starting with a

  8. Postresection bronchopleural fistula: detection by regional ventilation-perfusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, C.; Ali, M.K.; Atallah, M.R.; Ewer, M.S.

    1983-04-01

    In three patients, bronchopleural fistula developed after right pneumonectomy for bronchogenic carcinoma. In each instance, radiologic and clinical evidence was inconclusive. Xenon 133 regional ventilation-perfusion studies confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchopleural fistula in both the immediate and late postoperative periods.

  9. Teaching Ventilation/Perfusion Relationships in the Lung

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Robb W.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review is meant to serve as a refresher for faculty teaching respiratory physiology to medical students. The concepts of ventilation and perfusion matching are some of the most challenging ideas to learn and teach. Some strategies to consider in teaching these concepts are, first, to build from simple to more complex by starting with a…

  10. Topographic distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Amis, T.C.; Pascoe, J.R.; Hornof, W.

    1984-08-01

    The regional distribution of ventilation to perfusion ratios (VA/Q) in the lungs of 8 healthy standing Thoroughbred geldings (4.4 +/- 1.5 years, 465.7 +/- 46.6 kg) was studied, using steady-state inhalation and IV infusion of the radioactive gas krypton-81m. The VA/Q was uniformly distributed within a vertical lung strip centered over the 9th rib on the right side. Ventilation per unit of alveolar volume (V/VA) assessed from the clearance of inhaled radioactive gas in 5 horses increased from 0.49 +/- 0.13 (arbitrary units) in nondependent lung zones to 1.45 +/- 0.16 in dependent lung zones. Seemingly, a vertical gradient of pulmonary ventilation exists in the horse that is matched by a similar gradient of perfusion.

  11. Ventilation-perfusion matching in long-term microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbandt, Y.; Wantier, M.; Prisk, G. K.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We studied the ventilation-perfusion matching pattern in normal gravity (1 G) and short- and long-duration microgravity (microG) using the cardiogenic oscillations in the sulfur hexaflouride (SF(6)) and CO(2) concentration signals during the phase III portion of vital capacity single-breath washout experiments. The signal power of the cardiogenic concentration variations was assessed by spectral analysis, and the phase angle between the oscillations of the two simultaneously expired gases was obtained through cross-correlation. For CO(2), a significant reduction of cardiogenic power was observed in microG, with respect to 1 G, but the reduction was smaller and more variable in the case of SF(6). A shift from an in-phase condition in 1 G to an out-of-phase condition was found for both short- and long-duration microG. We conclude that, although the distribution of ventilation and perfusion becomes more homogeneous in microG, significant inhomogeneities persist and that areas of high perfusion become associated with areas of relatively lower ventilation. In addition, these modifications seem to remain constant during long-term exposure to microG.

  12. Changes in distribution of lung perfusion and ventilation at rest and during maximal exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenifar, Z.; Ross, M.D.; Waxman, A.; Goldbach, P.; Koerner, S.K.

    1985-03-01

    A new method for evaluation of changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation during exercise was applied to normal male volunteers. Ventilation and perfusion scans were done with the subjects seated on a bicycle ergometer. The resting studies utilized krypton 81 (/sup 81m/Kr) for ventilation and technetium /sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc) macroaggregate albumin intravenously for perfusion. Exercise studies were done when 80 percent of maximum predicted heart rate was maintained for five minutes and utilized /sup 81m/Kr for ventilation and a tenfold dose of /sup 99m/Tc for perfusion. Higher dose of /sup 99m/Tc would minimize the effect of radioactivity left over from the resting study. This method allowed us to assess changes in ventilation and perfusion in normal subjects induced by exercise, but may also be applicable in a variety of cardiopulmonary conditions that affect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion or both.

  13. Ventilation-perfusion studies and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, B.J.

    1980-04-01

    Various diagnostic strategies for the assessment of pulmonary embolism were developed using the results of scintigraphic examinations in 169 patients who had both scintigraphic studies and pulmonary angiography. Likelihood ratios for several perfusion and ventilation-perfusion patterns were first obtained, and Bayes' Theorem was then applied using a range of prior probabilities for pulmonary embolism. Resulting posterior probabilities ranged from under 10% to over 90%. The former values held for patients with small perfusion defects and no ventilation study, regardless of their prior probabilities for pulmonary embolism. The latter values held for patients with average to high prior probabilities and ventilation-perfusion mismatches.

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A rare cause of scintigraphic ventilation-perfusion mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Pochis, W.T.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Collier, B.D.; Mewissen, M.W.; Almagro, U.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T. )

    1990-05-01

    A case of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with multiple areas of mismatch on ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in the absence of pulmonary embolism is presented. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the few nonembolic diseases producing a pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In this condition, chest radiographs may not detect the full extent of disease, and xenon-133 ventilation imaging may be relatively insensitive to morbid changes in small airways. Thus, when examining patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, one should be aware that abnormal perfusion imaging patterns without matching ventilation abnormalities are not always due to embolism. In this setting, contrast pulmonary angiography is often needed for accurate differential diagnosis.

  15. Teaching ventilation/perfusion relationships in the lung.

    PubMed

    Glenny, Robb W

    2008-09-01

    This brief review is meant to serve as a refresher for faculty teaching respiratory physiology to medical students. The concepts of ventilation and perfusion matching are some of the most challenging ideas to learn and teach. Some strategies to consider in teaching these concepts are, first, to build from simple to more complex by starting with a single lung unit and then adding additional units representing shunting, mismatch, and deadspace. Second, use simplified analogies, such as a bathtub, to help students conceptualize new ideas. Third, introduce the concept of alveolar to arterial O(2) differences and the mechanisms for increasing differences as additional lung units are added. Fourth, use the consistent thread of causes of hypoxemia through the lecture to maintain continuity and provide clinical relevance. Finally, use clinically relevant examples at each step and solidify new concepts by discussing differential diagnoses at the end of the lecture(s). PMID:18794239

  16. Ventilation-perfusion scan in the acutely ill patient with unilateral hyperlucent lung

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with a unilateral hyperlucent lung with acute respiratory complaints is presented. A ventilation-perfusion scan was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. The perfusion scan ( (/sup 99m/TC)MAA) showed peripheral perfusion defects in the hyperlucent lung. The ventilation study (/sup 133/Xe) demonstrated peripheral ventilatory defects on the single breath image in the hyperlucent lung, the filling in of these on the equilibrium view, and diffusely delayed washout in the affected lung. These findings were suggestive of the Swyer-James syndrome and critical in excluding the numerous other causes of unilateral hyperlucent lung, which are discussed. The importance of the ventilation-perfusion study (and particularly the ventilation scan) in the patient with unilateral hyperlucent lung and acute respiratory symptoms is stressed. In addition, a discussion of the Swyer-James syndrome is included.

  17. Standing prone positioning in establishing causality between matched ventilation-perfusion defects and pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Fotos, Joseph S; Tulchinsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is routinely performed in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. Pleural effusions in such patients are common and can cause matched ventilation-perfusion defects. This is especially true of the posterior projections in the supine patient. Prone positioning has been described as a useful technique to redistribute pleural fluid anteriorly, exposing perfusion in posterior lung fields; however, some patients have a concurrent condition that renders prone positioning difficult. This report discusses a modified technique that allows patients to be imaged in a standing prone position with excellent results. PMID:25247271

  18. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed on a regional level. Our study presents an important step for the integration of 4DCT-ventilation into thoracic clinical practice.

  19. Effect of Endobronchial Valve Therapy on Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Essler, Markus; Tuleta, Izabela; Fimmers, Rolf; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) is an emerging therapy for emphysematous COPD. However, any resulting changes in lung perfusion and ventilation remain undetermined. Here, we report ELVR-mediated adaptations in lung perfusion and ventilation, as investigated by means of pulmonary scintigraphy. Methods In this observational study, we enrolled 26 patients (64.99.4 yrs, 57.7% male) with COPD heterogeneous emphysema undergoing ELVR with endobronchial valves (Zephyr, Pulmonx, Inc.). Mean baseline FEV1 and RV were 32.9% and 253.8% predicted, respectively. Lung scintigraphy was conducted prior to ELVR and eight weeks thereafter. Analyses of perfusion and ventilation shifts were performed and complemented by correlation analyses between paired zones. Results After ELVR, target zone perfusion showed a mean relative reduction of 43.32% (p<0.001), which was associated with a significant decrease in target zone ventilation (p<0.001). Perfusion of the contralateral untreated zone and of the contralateral total lung exhibited significant increases post-ELVR (p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively); both correlated significantly with the corresponding target zone perfusion adaptations. Likewise, changes in target zone ventilation correlated significantly with ventilatory changes in the contralateral untreated zone and the total contralateral lung (Pearsons r: ?0.42, p = 0.04 and Pearsons r: ?0.42, p = 0.03, respectively). These effects were observed in case of clinical responsiveness to ELVR, as assessed by changes in the six-minute walk test distance. Discussion ELVR induces a relevant decrease in perfusion and ventilation of the treated zone with compensatory perfusional and ventilatory redistribution to the contralateral lung, primarily to the non-concordant, contralateral zone. PMID:25822624

  20. Bronchogenic cyst causing a unilateral ventilation-perfusion defect on lung scan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, K.A.; Fleischman, J.K.; Smith, R.L.

    1988-06-01

    A 37-year-old woman had pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, and normal findings on chest roentgenogram. Lung scan showed markedly diminished perfusion to the right lung with a matched ventilatory defect. Further evaluation revealed a bronchogenic cyst. After resection, the lung scan was normal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bronchogenic cyst causing a reversible, unilateral ventilation-perfusion defect on lung scan.

  1. Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

    1987-11-01

    A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

  2. Bilateral basal Xe-133 retention and ventilation/perfusion patterns in mild and subclinical congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Skarzynski, J.J.; Spadaro, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The Xe-133 ventilation pattern in congestive heart failure (CHF) was assessed using 24 inpatient ventilation/perfusion studies performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. Patients with histories of CHF, myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiomyopathy were included in the study. Frank pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, and other known lung diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, tumor, and pneumonia were excluded. Fifteen of the 24 patients had abnormal ventilation scans. Twelve of the 15 showed bilateral basal Xe-133 retention on washout; the remaining 3 showed diffuse, posterior regional retention. On perfusion scans, 14 of the 15 abnormal ventilation patients showed evidence of CHF such as inverted perfusion gradient, enlarged cardiac silhouette, or patchy perfusion, and all of them had a history of CHF or cardiac disease. Nine of the 24 patients had normal ventilation scans, including normal washout patterns. Seven of the nine had normal perfusion (p less than 0.01). Four of the nine normal ventilation patients had a history of cardiac disease or CHF but no recent acute MI. Bilateral basal regional Xe-133 retention, coupled with perfusion scan evidence of CHF such as inverted perfusion gradient, enlarged cardiac silhouette, and patchy perfusion pattern, appears to be a sensitive and characteristic ventilation/perfusion finding in mild or subclinical CHF.

  3. A General Approach to the Evaluation of Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios in Normal and Abnormal Lungs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Peter D.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines methods for manipulating multiple gas data so as to gain the greatest amount of insight into the properties of ventilation-perfusion distributions. Refers to data corresponding to normal and abnormal lungs. Uses a two-dimensional framework with the respiratory gases of oxygen and carbon dioxide. (CS)

  4. Evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in lung regions showing isolated xenon-133 ventilation washout defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Sood, K.B.; Shirazi, P.; Pal, I. )

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 washout phase imaging is often used to help determine whether the etiology of a perfusion defect is embolic or due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary blood flow patterns associated with isolated defects on xenon washout images. Scintigraphic lung studies were reviewed until 100 cases with abnormal ventilation results were obtained. Ventilation abnormalities were compared with the corresponding perfusion scan results at the same anatomic site. Of the 208 individual lung regions with xenon abnormalities, 111 showed isolated washout defects (that is, with normal washin). Ninety-four of these 111 sites showed either normal perfusion or a small, nonsegmental corresponding perfusion defect. Three segmental perfusion defects were noted in association with isolated xenon retention. In each of these cases, however, the patient was felt actually to have pulmonary embolism. Thus, it is recommended that, for interpretation of scintigraphic images in the assessment of pulmonary embolism, lung pathology associated with isolated xenon retention not be considered a potential cause for large or segmental perfusion defects.

  5. Myocardial perfusion as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy during the discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in ventilator-dependent patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hurford, W.E.; Lynch, K.E.; Strauss, H.W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Patients who cannot be separated from mechanical ventilation (MV) after an episode of acute respiratory failure often have coexisting coronary artery disease. The authors hypothesized that increased left ventricular (LV) wall stress during periods of spontaneous ventilation (SV) could alter myocardial perfusion in these patients. Using thallium-201 (201TI) myocardial scintigraphy, the authors studied the occurrence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities during periods of SV in 15 MV-dependent patients (nine women, six men; aged 71 {plus minus} 7 yr, mean {plus minus} SD). Fourteen of these patients were studied once with 201TI myocardial scintigraphy during intermittent mechanical ventilation (IMV) and again on another day, after at least 10 min of SV through a T-piece. One patient was studied during SV only. Thirteen of 14 of the patients (93%) studied during MV had abnormal patterns of initial myocardial 201TI uptake, but only 1 patient demonstrated redistribution of 201TI on delayed images. The remainder of the abnormalities observed during MV were fixed defects. SV produced significant alterations of myocardial 201TI distribution or transient LV dilation, or both, in 7 of the 15 patients (47%). Four patients demonstrated new regional decreases of LV myocardial thallium concentration with redistribution of the isotope on delayed images. The patient studied only during SV also had myocardial 201TI defects with redistribution. Five patients (3 also having areas of 201TI redistribution) had transient LV dilation during SV.

  6. Computation of ventilation-perfusion ratio with Kr-81m in pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Simonneau, G.; Oliveira, L.; Harf, A.; Cinotti, L.; Cavellier, J.F.; Duroux, P.; Ansquer, J.C.; Galle, P.

    1984-02-01

    Diagnostic difficulties occur in pulmonary embolism (PE) during visual analysis of ventilation-perfusion images in matched defects or in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). In 44 patients with angiographically confirmed PE and in 40 patients with COPD, the regional ventilation-perfusion ratios (V/Q) were therefore computed using krypton-81m for each perfusion defect, and were displayed in a functional image. In patients with PE and mismatched defects, a high V/Q (1.96) was observed. A V/Q > 1.25 was also found in nine of 11 patients having PE and indeterminate studies (studies with perfusion abnormalities matched by radiographic abnormalities). COPD was characterized by matched defects and low V/Q. The percentage of patients correctly classified as having PE or COPD increased from 56% when considering the match or mismatched character to 88% when based on a V/Q of 1.25 in the region of the perfusion defect. This quantitative analysis, therefore, seems useful in classifying patients with scintigraphic suspicion of PE.

  7. Distribution of ventilation and perfusion: a teaching model.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M F

    1986-01-01

    Models can be used as teaching tools to study complex phenomena. This model uses simplifications of blood gas subroutines to provide fast execution of the effect of the distribution of ventilation and blood flow in the lung on arterial blood gases. Assumptions are made that introduce only small errors but that avoid the use of iterations which would slow down execution. The use of Turbo-Pascal as the programming language allows for not only speed in development and execution but also portability to a variety of computers including CP/M systems and IBM-PCs. PMID:3098496

  8. Ventilation/Perfusion Positron Emission Tomography—Based Assessment of Radiation Injury to Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Siva, Shankar; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Kron, Tomas; Bressel, Mathias; Callahan, Jason; MacManus, Michael P.; Shaw, Mark; Plumridge, Nikki; Hicks, Rodney J.; Steinfort, Daniel; Ball, David L.; Hofman, Michael S.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 68}Ga-ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as a novel imaging modality for assessment of perfusion, ventilation, and lung density changes in the context of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: In a prospective clinical trial, 20 patients underwent 4-dimensional (4D)-V/Q PET/CT before, midway through, and 3 months after definitive lung RT. Eligible patients were prescribed 60 Gy in 30 fractions with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Functional images were registered to the RT planning 4D-CT, and isodose volumes were averaged into 10-Gy bins. Within each dose bin, relative loss in standardized uptake value (SUV) was recorded for ventilation and perfusion, and loss in air-filled fraction was recorded to assess RT-induced lung fibrosis. A dose-effect relationship was described using both linear and 2-parameter logistic fit models, and goodness of fit was assessed with Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results: A total of 179 imaging datasets were available for analysis (1 scan was unrecoverable). An almost perfectly linear negative dose-response relationship was observed for perfusion and air-filled fraction (r{sup 2}=0.99, P<.01), with ventilation strongly negatively linear (r{sup 2}=0.95, P<.01). Logistic models did not provide a better fit as evaluated by AIC. Perfusion, ventilation, and the air-filled fraction decreased 0.75 ± 0.03%, 0.71 ± 0.06%, and 0.49 ± 0.02%/Gy, respectively. Within high-dose regions, higher baseline perfusion SUV was associated with greater rate of loss. At 50 Gy and 60 Gy, the rate of loss was 1.35% (P=.07) and 1.73% (P=.05) per SUV, respectively. Of 8/20 patients with peritumoral reperfusion/reventilation during treatment, 7/8 did not sustain this effect after treatment. Conclusions: Radiation-induced regional lung functional deficits occur in a dose-dependent manner and can be estimated by simple linear models with 4D-V/Q PET/CT imaging. These findings may inform future studies of functional lung avoidance using V/Q PET/CT.

  9. Radiographic parenchymal opacity, matching perfusion defect, and normal ventilation: a sign of pulmonary embolism. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, E.B.; Sostman, H.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1987-05-01

    By conventional criteria, perfusion defects that correspond to radiographic parenchymal opacities of similar size have less diagnostic significance for pulmonary embolism (PE) than perfusion defects in areas that are radiographically clear, regardless of the findings on ventilation scan. It was proposed that the demonstration of normal ventilation in areas with matched radiographic opacity and perfusion defects does support the diagnosis of PE. To test this hypothesis, a retrospective review was done of selected cases from a consecutive series of 85 pulmonary angiography studies. Cases were reviewed if the following criteria were met: chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and angiography of the relevant regions had all been performed within 24 hours of one another, and there was a radiographic opacity corresponding to the perfusion defect. Sixteen cases fulfilled these criteria. Six patients had normal ventilation in the regions of the radiographic infiltrate and perfusion defect, and all had PE. No patient had an area of opacity and perfusion defect and normal ventilation without PE.

  10. Ventilation-perfusion scanning and pulmonary angiography: correlation in clinical high-probability pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, S.D.; Newman, G.E.; Ford, K.; Miller, G.A.; Coleman, R.E.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-11-01

    During a 3-year period, 173 clinically selected patients underwent pulmonary angiography to confirm or exclude acute pulmonary embolism. All patients had undergone ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning (167 patients) or perfusion scanning alone (six) before angiography. Angiography was done because the results of the V/Q scanning did not satisfy the clinician's needs for certainty. The results of the V/Q and studies were compared to determine the relative accuracy of V/Q scanning in this clinical setting. Pulmonary embolism was found in seven (15%) of 47 patients with low-probability scans, 11 (32%) of 34 patients with intermediate-probability scans, 22 (39%) of 57 patients with indeterminate scans, and 23 (66%) of 35 patients with high-probability scans. In this clinically selected population, low-probability scans were more accurate in excluding pulmonary embolism than were high-probability scans in establishing that diagnosis.

  11. Ventilation-perfusion scanning and pulmonary angiography: correlation in clinical high-probability pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, S.D.; Newman, G.E.; Ford, K.; Miller, G.A.; Coleman, R.E.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-11-01

    During a 3-year period, 173 clinically selected patients underwent pulmonary angiography to confirm or exclude acute pulmonary embolism. All patients had undergone ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning (167 patients) or perfusion scanning alone (six) before angiography. Angiography was done because the results of the V/Q scanning did not satisfy the clinician's needs for certainty. The results of the V/Q and angiographic studies were compared to determine the relative accuracy of V/Q scanning in this clinical setting. Pulmonary embolism was found in seven (15%) of 47 patients with low-probability scans, 11 (32%) of 34 patients with intermediate-probability scans, 22 (39%) of 57 patients with indeterminate scans, and 23 (66%) of 35 patients with high-probability scans. In this clinically selected population, low-probability scans were more accurate in excluding pulmonary embolism than were high-probability scans in establishing that diagnosis.

  12. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in an adult with congenital unilateral hyperlucent lung

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, W.A.; Velchik, M.G. )

    1990-10-01

    A variety of congenital and acquired etiologies can give rise to the radiographic finding of a unilateral hyperlucent lung. An unusual case of congenital lobar emphysema diagnosed in a young adult following the initial discovery of a hyperexpanded, hyperlucent lung is reported. Although subsequent bronchoscopy and radiologic studies detailed extensive anatomic abnormalities, functional imaging also played an important role in arriving at this rare diagnosis. In particular, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy identified the small contralateral lung as the functional lung and helped narrow the differential diagnosis to etiologies involving obstructive airway disorders.

  13. A rare combination of cardiopulmonary anomalies demonstrated on ventilation-perfusion scan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameer; Dunn, Joel; Ariff, Ben; Juli, Christoph; Karunanithy, Narayan; Strickland, Nicole; Al-Nahhas, Adil

    2008-01-01

    In this case report we describe an unusual appearance seen on a ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan in a woman with pulmonary hypertension. Although the pulmonary hypertension was not caused by pulmonary emboli, the V/Q scan suggested several cardiac anomalies which may lead to pulmonary hypertension. Most of the cardiac anomalies, including right-sided aortic arch and right-to-left shunt, can be deduced from careful examination of the V/Q scan. A subsequent cardiac MRI scan confirmed the anomalies. PMID:19173188

  14. Ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung during head-out water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derion, Toniann; Guy, Harold J. B.; Tsukimoto, Koichi; Schaffartzik, Walter; Prediletto, Renato; Poole, David C.; Knight, Douglas R.; Wagner, Peter D.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of altered pulmonary gas exchange during water immersion were studied in 12 normal males: 6 young (aged 20-29) and 6 older (aged 40-45). It is concluded that, in young subjects with closing volume (CV) less than expiratory reserve volume (ERV), gas exchange was enhanced during immersion, because normal ventilation-perfusion relations were preserved, and by mass balance, the ventilation/O2 uptake changes elevated arterial P(O2). In older males with CV greater than ERV and 52 percent of tidal volume below CV, immersion-induced airways closure during tidal breathing was associated with minimally increased shunt that did not significantly impair gas exchange. It is suggested that airways closure of this degree is of little importance to gas exchange.

  15. Anoxic ventilation improves systemic perfusion during extracorporeal circulation with uncontrolled systemic-to-pulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Hammel, James M; Deptula, Joseph; Hunt, Peter W; Lang, Haili; Duncan, Kim F

    2007-01-01

    Uncontrolled systemic-to-pulmonary shunt results in decreased systemic flow during extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Ligation of systemic-to-pulmonary shunts during ECLS is associated with poor outcome and is not always readily achieved. In ex vivo preparations, alveolar hypoxia results in pulmonary vasoconstriction despite normoxic pulmonary perfusate. We hypothesized that anoxic ventilation would result in reduced pulmonary shunting and increased systemic flow during ECLS in piglets with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt. Four piglets were placed on ECLS with right and left atrial drainage. A shunt was created between the bicarotid trunk and pulmonary artery, using 5-mm ePTFE tubing. Inspired oxygen was reduced to <1% for 10 minutes, then returned to room air; pH, hematocrit, temperature, ventilatory pressures, and total pump flow were maintained constant. Systemic arterial pressure and right atrial return volume and hemoglobin saturation were measured: All decreased significantly upon shunt unclamping. Anoxic ventilation caused increased systemic pressure (34 vs. 28 mm Hg, p < 0.05), flow (335 vs. 278 mL/min, p < 0.05), and systemic venous saturation (53% vs. 48%, p = 0.13) compared with room air ventilation. In conclusion, anoxic ventilation during normoxic ECLS in subjects with systemic-to-pulmonary shunts results in a significant and potentially clinically useful reduction in pulmonary shunting. PMID:17413566

  16. Respiratory tract exacerbations revisited: ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure (VIPS) monitoring to redefine treatment.

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Stick, Stephen M; Wild, Jim M; Ciet, Pierluigi; Parker, Geoffrey J M; Koch, Armin; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2015-10-01

    For cystic fibrosis (CF) patients older than 6 years there are convincing data that suggest respiratory tract exacerbations (RTE) play an important role in the progressive loss of functional lung tissue. There is a poor understanding of the pathobiology of RTE and whether specific treatment of RTE reduces lung damage in the long term. In addition, there are limited tools available to measure the various components of CF lung disease and responses to therapy. Therefore, in order to better understand the impact of RTE on CF lung disease we need to develop sensitive measures to characterize RTE and responses to treatment; and improve our understanding of structure-function changes during treatment of RTE. In this paper we review our current knowledge of the impact of RTE on the progression of lung disease and identify strategies to improve our understanding of the pathobiology of RTE. By improving our knowledge regarding RTE in CF we will be better positioned to develop approaches to treatment that are individualized and that can prevent permanent structural damage. We suggest the development of a ventilation, perfusion, inflammation and structure (VIPS)-MRI suite that supplies the clinician with data on ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure in one MRI session. VIPS-MRI could be an important step to better understand the factors that contribute to and limit treatment efficacy of RTE. PMID:26335955

  17. An expert system for the interpretation of radionuclide ventilation-perfusion lung scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Frank V.; Datz, Frederick L.; Christian, Paul E.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Morton, Kathryn A.

    1993-09-01

    One of the most commonly performed imaging procedures in nuclear medicine is the lung scan for suspected pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this research was to develop an expert system that interprets lung scans and gives a probability of pulmonary embolism. Three standard ventilation and eight standard perfusion images are first outlined manually. Then the images are normalized. Because lung size varies from patient to patient, each image undergoes a two-dimensional stretch onto a standard-size mask. To determine the presence of regional defects in ventilation or perfusion, images are then compared on a pixel by pixel basis with a normal database. This database consists of 21 normal studies that represent the variation in activity between subjects. Any pixel that falls more than 2.2 standard deviations below the normal file is flagged as possibly abnormal. To reduce statistical fluctuations, a clustering criteria is applied such that each pixel must have at least two continuous neighbors that are abnormal for a pixel to be flagged abnormal.

  18. Early bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome shows an abnormality of perfusion not ventilation in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Bruce R; Ellis, Matthew J; Stuart-Andrews, Christopher; Lopez, Michael; Kedarisetty, Suraj; Snell, Greg I; Prisk, G Kim

    2015-09-15

    Long-term survival of lung transplant patients is limited, principally because of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). BOS is primarily classified based on airflow obstruction however there is recent data to suggest that the rejection process can lead to a restrictive ventilatory defect with involvement of the pulmonary vasculature. This study evaluates perfusion heterogeneity in different BOS stages by measuring the relative dispersion (RD) of an arterial spin labelling MRI blood flow image. Acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin) was determined using the Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout technique. In 24 post transplant patients with a range of severity in BOS status, Sacin increased as BOS level rose from stage 0 to stage 3. In contrast, RD-perfusion was not elevated at BOS 1 and 2 combined compared to BOS 0 and becoming elevated only at BOS-3. However, RD-perfusion in BOS-0p was elevated compared to BOS-0, without an increase in Sacin. These results suggest that BOS-0p is different in nature from other BOS stages. PMID:25981891

  19. Regional ventilation-perfusion distribution is more uniform in the prone position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mure, M.; Domino, K. B.; Lindahl, S. G.; Hlastala, M. P.; Altemeier, W. A.; Glenny, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The arterial blood PO(2) is increased in the prone position in animals and humans because of an improvement in ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) matching. However, the mechanism of improved VA/Q is unknown. This experiment measured regional VA/Q heterogeneity and the correlation between VA and Q in supine and prone positions in pigs. Eight ketamine-diazepam-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs were studied in supine and prone positions in random order. Regional VA and Q were measured using fluorescent-labeled aerosols and radioactive-labeled microspheres, respectively. The lungs were dried at total lung capacity and cubed into 603-967 small ( approximately 1.7-cm(3)) pieces. In the prone position the homogeneity of the ventilation distribution increased (P = 0.030) and the correlation between VA and Q increased (correlation coefficient = 0.72 +/- 0.08 and 0.82 +/- 0.06 in supine and prone positions, respectively, P = 0.03). The homogeneity of the VA/Q distribution increased in the prone position (P = 0.028). We conclude that the improvement in VA/Q matching in the prone position is secondary to increased homogeneity of the VA distribution and increased correlation of regional VA and Q.

  20. Effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on ventilation-perfusion matching in the dog lung.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, E R; Robertson, H T; Hlastala, M P

    1993-01-01

    Lung carbonic anhydrase (CA) permits rapid pH responses when changes in regional ventilation or perfusion alter airway and alveolar PCO2. These pH changes affect airway and vascular resistances and lung compliance to optimize the balance of regional ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) in the lung. To test the hypothesis that these or other CA-dependent mechanisms contribute to VA/Q matching, we administered acetazolamide (25 mg/kg intravenously) to six anesthetized and paralyzed dogs and measured VA/Q relationships before and after CA inhibition by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Four other groups of dogs were studied to control for possible confounding effects of time under anesthesia and nonselective CA inhibition by acetazolamide: (a) saline placebo as a control for duration of anesthesia, (b) 4% CO2 inhalation to mimic systemic CO2 retention, (c) 1 mg/kg benzolamide (a selective renal CA inhibitor) or 0.5 meq/kg HCl to mimic systemic metabolic acidosis, and (d) 500 mg/kg 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (an inhibitor of red cell band 3 protein) to mimic the respiratory acidosis arising from an intracapillary block to rapid mobilization of plasma HCO3- in CO2 exchange. Acetazolamide increased VA/Q mismatch and reduced arterial PO2 measured at equilibrium but these did not occur in the control group. There was no deterioration in VA/Q matching when systemic respiratory acidosis produced either by CO2 inhalation or 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate or metabolic acidosis (benzolamide or HCl) were imposed to mimic the effects of acetazolamide apart from its inhibition of lung CA. These results support the concept that lung CA subserves VA/Q matching in the normal lung. Images PMID:8349809

  1. Validation of measurements of ventilation-to-perfusion ratio inequality in the lung from expired gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J B.; West, John B.; Reed, James W.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the gas in a single expirate has long been used to estimate the degree of ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) inequality in the lung. To further validate this estimate, we examined three measures of Va/Q inhomogeneity calculated from a single full exhalation in nine anesthetized mongrel dogs under control conditions and after exposure to aerosolized methacholine. These measurements were then compared with arterial blood gases and with measurements of Va/Q inhomogeneity obtained using the multiple inert gas elimination technique. The slope of the instantaneous respiratory exchange ratio (R slope) vs. expired volume was poorly correlated with independent measures, probably because of the curvilinear nature of the relationship due to continuing gas exchange. When R was converted to the intrabreath Va/Q (iV/Q), the best index was the slope of iV/Q vs. volume over phase III (iV/Q slope). This was strongly correlated with independent measures, especially those relating to inhomogeneity of perfusion. The correlations for iV/Q slope and R slope considerably improved when only the first half of phase III was considered. We conclude that a useful noninvasive measurement of Va/Q inhomogeneity can be derived from the intrabreath respiratory exchange ratio.

  2. Characterization of the Isolated, Ventilated, and Instrumented Mouse Lung Perfused with Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vanderpool, Rebecca R.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2011-01-01

    The isolated, ventilated and instrumented mouse lung preparation allows steady and pulsatile pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships to be measured with independent control over pulmonary arterial flow rate, flow rate waveform, airway pressure and left atrial pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance is calculated based on multi-point, steady pressure-flow curves; pulmonary vascular impedance is calculated from pulsatile pressure-flow curves obtained at a range of frequencies. As now recognized clinically, impedance is a superior measure of right ventricular afterload than resistance because it includes the effects of vascular compliance, which are not negligible, especially in the pulmonary circulation. Three important metrics of impedance - the zero hertz impedance Z0, the characteristic impedance ZC, and the index of wave reflection RW - provide insight into distal arterial cross-sectional area available for flow, proximal arterial stiffness and the upstream-downstream impedance mismatch, respectively. All results obtained in isolated, ventilated and perfused lungs are independent of sympathetic nervous system tone, volume status and the effects of anesthesia. We have used this technique to quantify the impact of pulmonary emboli and chronic hypoxia on resistance and impedance, and to differentiate between sites of action (i.e., proximal vs. distal) of vasoactive agents and disease using the pressure dependency of ZC. Furthermore, when these techniques are used with the lungs of genetically engineered strains of mice, the effects of molecular-level defects on pulmonary vascular structure and function can be determined. PMID:21559007

  3. Exercise induced arterial hypoxemia: the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality and pulmonary diffusion limitation.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Susan R

    2006-01-01

    Many apparently healthy individuals experience pulmonary gas exchange limitations during exercise, and the term "exercise induced arterial hypoxemia" (EIAH) has been used to describe the increase in alveolar-arterial difference for oxygen (AaDO2), which combined with a minimal alveolar hyperventilatory response, results in a reduction in arterial PO2. Despite more than two decades of research, the mechanisms of pulmonary gas exchange limitations during exercise are still debated. Using data in 166 healthy normal subjects collated from several previously published studies it can be shown that approximately 20% of the variation in PaO2 between individuals can be explained on the basis of variations in alveolar ventilation, whereas variations in AaDO2 explain approximately 80%. Using multiple inert gas data the relative contributions of ventilation-perfusion ("VA/Q") inequality and diffusion limitation to the AaDO2 can be assessed. During maximal exercise, both in individuals with minimal (AaDO2 < 20 Torr, x = 13 +/- 5, means +/- SD, n = 35) and moderate to severe (AaDO2= 25-40 Torr, x = 33 +/- 6, n = 20) gas exchange limitations, VA/Q inequality is an important contributor to the AaDO2. However, in subjects with minimal gas exchange impairment, VA/Q inequality accounts for virtually all of the AaDO2 (12 +/- 6 Torr), whereas in subjects with moderate to severe gas exchange impairment it accounts for less than 50% of the AaDO2 (15 +/- 6 Torr). Using this framework, the difficulties associated with unraveling the mechanisms of pulmonary gas exchange limitations during exercise are explored, and current data discussed. PMID:17089876

  4. Alveolar ventilation to perfusion heterogeneity and diffusion impairment in a mathematical model of gas exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal Melo, M. F.; Loeppky, J. A.; Caprihan, A.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a two-compartment model of pulmonary gas exchange in which alveolar ventilation to perfusion (VA/Q) heterogeneity and impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity (D) are simultaneously taken into account. The mathematical model uses as input data measurements usually obtained in the lung function laboratory. It consists of two compartments and an anatomical shunt. Each compartment receives fractions of alveolar ventilation and blood flow. Mass balance equations and integration of Fick's law of diffusion are used to compute alveolar and blood O2 and CO2 values compatible with input O2 uptake and CO2 elimination. Two applications are presented. The first is a method to partition O2 and CO2 alveolar-arterial gradients into VA/Q and D components. The technique is evaluated in data of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second is a theoretical analysis of the effects of blood flow variation in alveolar and blood O2 partial pressures. The results show the importance of simultaneous consideration of D to estimate VA/Q heterogeneity in patients with diffusion impairment. This factor plays an increasing role in gas alveolar-arterial gradients as severity of COPD increases. Association of VA/Q heterogeneity and D may produce an increase of O2 arterial pressure with decreasing QT which would not be observed if only D were considered. We conclude that the presented computer model is a useful tool for description and interpretation of data from COPD patients and for performing theoretical analysis of variables involved in the gas exchange process.

  5. Relative accuracy of two diagnostic schemes for detection of pulmonary embolism by ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.D.; Brady, T.M.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Thrall, J.H.; Greenhouse, J.B.; Biello, D.R.; Siegel, B.A.; Alderson, P.O.; Brady, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Two diagnostic schemes for detection of pulmonary embolism by ventilation-perfusion (V-P) scintigraphy were compared for relative accuracy by two groups of observers interpreting 70 V-P scintiscans. Observers in Group B, who used the criteria recently proposed by Biello et al., had a significantly smaller average number of indeterminate interpretations (41%) than did the observers in Group A (55%), who used a simpler scheme (p less than 0.05). In addition, Group B showed a slight improvement in positive predictive value without a deterioration in the negative predictive value compared with Group A. Along with this improvement in diagnostic performance, Group B achieved a significant reduction in interobserver variability compared with Group A for patients without pulmonary embolism (p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in interobserver variability between the two groups for patients with pulmonary embolism. The diagnostic scheme introduced by Biello et al. represents a useful improvement for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by V-P imaging.

  6. Krypton 81m ventilation/perfusion ratios (V/Q) measured in lateral decubitus in pulmonary embolism (P. E. )

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Cinotti, L.; Harf, A.; Oliveira, L.; Simonneau, G.

    1984-01-01

    In normal subjects lateral decubitis induces in both independent (lower) and nondependent lung (upper), major changes in perfusion, ventilation and V/Q ratios which can be studied with the short life radioisotope Krypton 81m. Regional V/Q are computed from ventilation and perfusion scans, successively obtained with a gamma camera linked to a computer by continuous inhalation or infusion of this gas during tidal breathing. They were displayed as a color coded functional image. To assess the effect of posture on V/Q in P.E. and other diseases which decrease the regional perfusion, 32 patients with unilateral lung diseases were studied in supine posture and both lateral decubitis: 8 with proved P.E., (3 out of them having radiological opacity matching the perfusion defect), 9 with bullous emphysema, 6 with bronchogenic carcinoma, 9 with acute bacterial pneumonia. V/Q were computed in the region of the perfusion defect. In P.E. the mean V/Q was high (1.92 +- 0.6 SD), and did not change whatever the posture. Conversely major changes of V/Q were induced with postural changes in bullous emphysema and lung carcinoma whatever the V/Q in patient supine. In pneumonia low V/Q were observed in supine posture (.73 +- .2). They decreased significantly when the pneumonia was dependent (.53 +- .2 p < 0.02) and increased in the controlateral decubitis (1.07 +- .3, p < 0.001). Since posture has no or little effect on regional V/Q in P.E., it can be used to discriminate P.E., even in the case of radiological opacity, from other unilateral disease inducing perfusion defect.

  7. Significance of single ventilation/perfusion mismatches in krypton-81m/technetium-99m lung scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.M.; Palestro, C.J.; Markowitz, D.; Alderson, P.O.

    1986-03-01

    The significance of a single area of ventilation/perfusion (V/P) mismatch in lung scans performed on patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) was evaluated. Ten of 20 patients with this scan finding were found to have PE. An intermediate probability of PE was found with segmental (71%) or subsegmental (45%) single V/P mismatches. Seven of 16 patients with a single V/P mismatch and without a matching radiographic opacity had PE. Three of the four patients who had a V/P mismatch and a matching radiographic opacity were found to have PE. Multiview ventilation imaging with 81mKr was found to have advantages for the evaluation of single V/P mismatches. Based on the data available at this time, a single V/P mismatch suggests an intermediate probability of PE.

  8. Impact of ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography on treatment duration of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Amela; Opanković, Emina; Čukić, Vesna; Rustempašić, Medzida; Bašić, Amila; Miniati, Massimo; Jögi, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to establish whether the duration of anticoagulant (AC) therapy can be tailored, on an objective basis, by using ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) and to assess the extent of residual perfusion defects over time. In particular, we addressed the following: (a) is the extent of perfusion recovery at 3 months of initial pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis a satisfactory criterion for deciding the duration of oral AC? (b) Is it safe to withdraw AC at 3 months if perfusion recovery is complete? Patients and methods Of 269 consecutive patients with suspected PE, 100 patients were diagnosed with PE using V/P SPECT. Sixty-seven patients with acute PE were followed up clinically and with V/P SPECT at 3 months. Sixty-four patients were subject to review and examination using V/P SPECT for a period of 6 months and 33 were followed up only clinically. Therapy was terminated after 3 months if perfusion was normalized, and patients were free of symptoms and the risk of hypercoagulability. Initial extension of PE did not have an impact on decision making. Results PE extension varied from 10 to 70% in the acute stage. After 3 months, complete resolution of PE was found in 48 patients. The treating pulmonologist decided to terminate therapy in 35 (73%) patients and to continue AC in 13 patients because of persistent risk factors. Six months later, at the second control stage, 53 patients had complete recovery of pulmonary perfusion. Eleven patients still had perfusion defects at 6 months. No recurrence was identified at 6 months in the 35 patients whose therapy was terminated after 3 months. No bleeding effects were observed in any of the patients during the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion This study shows that AC therapy can be tailored, on an objective basis, by using V/P SPECT. Normalization of perfusion at 3 months of initial PE diagnosis was a reliable indicator that AC could be safely withdrawn in patients who were without hypercoagulability risk. PMID:25321156

  9. Distribution of regional lung aeration and perfusion during conventional and noisy pressure support ventilation in experimental lung injury.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alysson R; Spieth, Peter M; Gldner, Andreas; Cuevas, Maximilano; Carvalho, Nadja C; Beda, Alessandro; Spieth, Stephanie; Stroczynski, Christian; Wiedemann, Brbel; Koch, Thea; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2011-04-01

    In acute lung injury (ALI), pressure support ventilation (PSV) may improve oxygenation compared with pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), and benefit from random variation of pressure support (noisy PSV). We investigated the effects of PCV, PSV, and noisy PSV on gas exchange as well as the distribution of lung aeration and perfusion in 12 pigs with ALI induced by saline lung lavage in supine position. After injury, animals were mechanically ventilated with PCV, PSV, and noisy PSV for 1 h/mode in random sequence. The driving pressure was set to a mean tidal volume of 6 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure to 8 cmH?O in all modes. Functional variables were measured, and the distribution of lung aeration was determined by static and dynamic computed tomography (CT), whereas the distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) was determined by intravenously administered fluorescent microspheres. PSV and noisy PSV improved oxygenation and reduced venous admixture compared with PCV. Mechanical ventilation with PSV and noisy PSV did not decrease nonaerated areas but led to a redistribution of PBF from dorsal to ventral lung regions and reduced tidal reaeration and hyperinflation compared with PCV. Noisy PSV further improved oxygenation and redistributed PBF from caudal to cranial lung regions compared with conventional PSV. We conclude that assisted ventilation with PSV and noisy PSV improves oxygenation compared with PCV through redistribution of PBF from dependent to nondependent zones without lung recruitment. Random variation of pressure support further redistributes PBF and improves oxygenation compared with conventional PSV. PMID:21270348

  10. The gravitational distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio is more uniform in prone than supine posture in the normal human lung.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A Cortney; S, Rui Carlos; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Buxton, Richard B; Prisk, G Kim; Hopkins, Susan R

    2013-08-01

    The gravitational gradient of intrapleural pressure is suggested to be less in prone posture than supine. Thus the gravitational distribution of ventilation is expected to be more uniform prone, potentially affecting regional ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) ratio. Using a novel functional lung magnetic resonance imaging technique to measure regional Va/Q ratio, the gravitational gradients in proton density, ventilation, perfusion, and Va/Q ratio were measured in prone and supine posture. Data were acquired in seven healthy subjects in a single sagittal slice of the right lung at functional residual capacity. Regional specific ventilation images quantified using specific ventilation imaging and proton density images obtained using a fast gradient-echo sequence were registered and smoothed to calculate regional alveolar ventilation. Perfusion was measured using arterial spin labeling. Ventilation (mlmin(-1)ml(-1)) images were combined on a voxel-by-voxel basis with smoothed perfusion (mlmin(-1)ml(-1)) images to obtain regional Va/Q ratio. Data were averaged for voxels within 1-cm gravitational planes, starting from the most gravitationally dependent lung. The slope of the relationship between alveolar ventilation and vertical height was less prone than supine (-0.17 0.10 mlmin(-1)ml(-1)cm(-1) supine, -0.040 0.03 prone mlmin(-1)ml(-1)cm(-1), P = 0.02) as was the slope of the perfusion-height relationship (-0.14 0.05 mlmin(-1)ml(-1)cm(-1) supine, -0.08 0.09 prone mlmin(-1)ml(-1)cm(-1), P = 0.02). There was a significant gravitational gradient in Va/Q ratio in both postures (P < 0.05) that was less in prone (0.09 0.08 cm(-1) supine, 0.04 0.03 cm(-1) prone, P = 0.04). The gravitational gradients in ventilation, perfusion, and regional Va/Q ratio were greater supine than prone, suggesting an interplay between thoracic cavity configuration, airway and vascular tree anatomy, and the effects of gravity on Va/Q matching. PMID:23620488

  11. Mixed Acid-Base Disorders, Hydroelectrolyte Imbalance and Lactate Production in Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: The Role of Noninvasive Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Terzano, Claudio; Di Stefano, Fabio; Conti, Vittoria; Di Nicola, Marta; Paone, Gregorino; Petroianni, Angelo; Ricci, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation in patients with comorbidities and multidrug therapy is complicated by mixed acid-base, hydro-electrolyte and lactate disorders. Aim of this study was to determine the relationships of these disorders with the requirement for and duration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) when treating hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods Sixty-seven consecutive patients who were hospitalized for hypercapnic COPD exacerbation had their clinical condition, respiratory function, blood chemistry, arterial blood gases, blood lactate and volemic state assessed. Heart and respiratory rates, pH, PaO2 and PaCO2 and blood lactate were checked at the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 24th hours after starting NIV. Results Nine patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. NIV was performed in 11/17 (64.7%) mixed respiratory acidosismetabolic alkalosis, 10/36 (27.8%) respiratory acidosis and 3/5 (60%) mixed respiratory-metabolic acidosis patients (p?=?0.026), with durations of 45.19.8, 36.28.9 and 53.34.1 hours, respectively (p?=?0.016). The duration of ventilation was associated with higher blood lactate (p<0.001), lower pH (p?=?0.016), lower serum sodium (p?=?0.014) and lower chloride (p?=?0.038). Hyponatremia without hypervolemic hypochloremia occurred in 11 respiratory acidosis patients. Hypovolemic hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypokalemia occurred in 10 mixed respiratory acidosismetabolic alkalosis patients, and euvolemic hypochloremia occurred in the other 7 patients with this mixed acid-base disorder. Conclusions Mixed acid-base and lactate disorders during hypercapnic COPD exacerbations predict the need for and longer duration of NIV. The combination of mixed acid-base disorders and hydro-electrolyte disturbances should be further investigated. PMID:22539963

  12. [The ventilation-perfusion ratio, with special reference to muscular exercise].

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, M; Panuccio, P; Anzalone, M; Beulcke, G; Cresci, F; Marconi, G; Rampulla, C; Viroli, L

    1975-01-01

    The values of VA/Q obtained at rest in 12 normal subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization in a supine position were between 0.63 and 1.695, with a mean of 1.142 +/- 0.295. The VA/Q values obtained in another 10 healthy subjects tested in a sitting position with a rebreathing method for calculating Q. were somewhat less scattered (between 0.77 and 1.50), and also lower (mean 0.975 +/- 0.210). A highly significant correlation was demonstrated during muscular exercise on the bicycle ergometer (sitting position), both between oxygen consumption and alveolar ventilation and between oxygen consumption and cardiac output. However, since at various submaximal work loads cardiac output increased much less than alveolar ventilation, the overall VA/Q ratio showed a progressive increment with increasing oxygen consumption. PMID:1205046

  13. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers. PMID:7792680

  14. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  15. Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism: Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-23

    To determine the sensitivities and specificities of ventilation/perfusion lung scans for acute pulmonary embolism, a random sample of 933 of 1,493 patients was studied prospectively. Nine hundred thirty-one underwent scintigraphy and 755 underwent pulmonary angiography; 251 (33%) of 755 demonstrated pulmonary embolism. Almost all patients with pulmonary embolism had abnormal scans of high, intermediate, or low probability, but so did most without pulmonary embolism. Of 116 patients with high-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 102 (88%) had pulmonary embolism, but only a minority with pulmonary embolism had high-probability scans. Of 322 with intermediate-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 105 (33%) had pulmonary embolism. Follow-up and angiography together suggest pulmonary embolism occurred among 12% of patients with low-probability scans. Clinical assessment combined with the ventilation/perfusion scan established the diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism only for a minority of patients--those with clear and concordant clinical and ventilation/perfusion scan findings.

  16. Relative accuracy of two diagnostic schemes for detection of pulmonary embolism by ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.D.; Brady, T.M; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Thrall, J.H.; Greenhouse, J.B.; Biello, D.R.; Siegel, B.A.; Alderson, P.O.; Brady, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Two diagnostic schemes for detection of pulmonary embolism by venilation-perfusion (V-P) scintigraphy were compared for relative accuracy by two groups of observers interpreting 70 V-P scintiscans. Observers in Group B, who used the criteria recently proposed by Biello et al., had a significantly smaller average number of ''indeterminate'' interpretations (41%) than did the observers in Group A (55%), who used a simpler scheme (p<0.05). In addition, Group B showed a slight improvement in positive predictive value without a deterioration in the negative predictive value compared with Group A.Along with this improvement in diagnostic performance, Group B achieved a significant reduction in interobserver variability compared with Group A for patients without pulmonary embolism (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in interobserver variability between the two groups for patients with pulmonary embolism. The diagnostic scheme introduced by Biello et al., represents a useful improvement for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by V-P imaging.

  17. Low-probability ventilation-perfusion scintigrams: clinical outcomes in 99 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.E.; Biello, D.R.; Kumar, B.; Siegel, B.A.

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate the reliability of low probability ventilation-perfursion (V-P) scintigrams in excluding pulmonary embolism (PE), the authors reviewed the clinical records of 99 consecutive patients whose V-P studies had been interpreted as indicative of a low probability of PE. None of the 99 patients were referred for pulmonary angiography. Seven of the hospitalized patients died during the index admission and seven additional hospitalized patients died 1-5 months after discharge from the hospital. None were thought clinically to have died as a result of PE, and autopsy disclosed no PE in two. Follow-up information was obtained for 69 surviving patients not treated with anticoagulants. None of these patients were thought clinically to have had PE during follow-up of a least 2 weeks duration (greater than 2 months in 93% and greater than 6 months in 75%). The results suggest that major short-term morbidity or death attributable to PE are quite infrequent in patients with low-probability V-P scintigrams.

  18. Sporadic coordinated shifts of regional ventilation and perfusion in juvenile pigs with normal gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H Thomas; Neradilek, Blazej; Polissar, Nayak L; Glenny, Robb W

    2007-09-01

    Repeated high-resolution measurements of both regional pulmonary ventilation and regional blood flow (r ) have revealed that approximately 6 to 10% of the summed spatial and temporal heterogeneity can be attributed to spontaneous temporal variability. To test the hypothesis that the spontaneous temporal shifts of r and r are coordinated, 12 anaesthetized juvenile pigs had pairs of colours of aerosol and intravenous fluorescent microspheres (FMS) administered simultaneously at 20 min intervals to mark r and r . The animals were killed, the lungs inflated, air-dried and cut into approximately 2 cm(3) cubes. The concentrations of FMS colours from each cube, representing r and r at every 20 min interval, were measured with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The correlation between per-piece temporal shifts in r and r , calculated as the mean within-piece covariance, was positive (P < 0.001) for every temporally adjacent pair of measurements in every animal, although there were large differences in the magnitude of the mean temporal covariance among animals. The individual cubes with the most positive temporal covariance across all measurement periods usually demonstrated a large single-interval coordinated shift of r and r , with average temporal covariance observed at the other intervals. The largest between-interval shifts in r and r included equal proportions of coordinated increases and coordinated decreases. High-resolution measurements of r and r acquired over 20 min intervals reveal that the overall positive correlation between temporal changes in r and r is driven by relatively infrequent large-magnitude changes within small regions of the lung. PMID:17615101

  19. Radioaerosol ventilation imaging in ventilator-dependent patients. Technical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Vezina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Vinitski, S.; King, M.; Nicholson, R.; Morgan, W.K.

    1985-11-01

    The differentiation of pulmonary embolism (PE) from regional ventilatory abnormalities accompanied by reduced perfusion requires contemporary perfusion and ventilation studies. Distinguishing these conditions in ventilator-dependent patients is aided by administering a Tc-99m aerosol to characterize regional ventilation, and by performing a conventional Tc-99m MAA perfusion study. The technique uses a simple in-house constructed apparatus. Simple photographic techniques suffice, but computer subtraction of perfusion from the combined perfusion-ventilation image renders interpretation easier if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging. Multiple defects can be examined in a single study. Excluding normal or near-normal perfusion studies, PE was thought to be present in eight of 16 patients after perfusion imaging alone, but in only one of eight after added aerosol imaging. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis in that patient. Of the eight patients who had abnormal perfusion but were thought unlikely to have PE from the perfusion study alone, two had normal ventilation, and subsequently were shown to have PE by angiography. Because angiography was only performed on patients who were thought to have a high probability of PE on sequential perfusion-ventilation imaging, the true incidence of PE may have been higher. Aerosol ventilation imaging is a useful adjunct to perfusion imaging in patients on ventilators. It requires an efficient delivery system, particularly if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging, as it does in this study.

  20. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  1. Changes in Global Function and Regional Ventilation and Perfusion on SPECT During the Course of Radiotherapy in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Shuanghu; Frey, Kirk A.; Gross, Milton D.; Hayman, James A.; Arenberg, Doug; Cai Xuwei; Ramnath, Nithya; Hassan, Khaled; Moran, Jean; Eisbruch, Avraham; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong Fengming

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to (1) examine changes in dyspnea, global pulmonary function test (PFT) results, and functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scans during the course of radiation (RT), and (2) factors associated with the changes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifty-six stage I to III NSCLC patients treated with definitive RT with or without chemotherapy were enrolled prospectively. Dyspnea was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 prior to and weekly during RT. V/Q SPECT-computed tomography (CT) and PFTs were performed prior to and during RT at approximately 45 Gy. Functions of V and Q activities were assessed using a semiquantitative scoring of SPECT images. Results: Breathing improved significantly at the third week (mean dyspnea grade, 0.8 vs. 0.6; paired t-test p = 0.011) and worsened during the later course of RT (p > 0.05). Global PFT results did not change significantly, while regional lung function on V/Q SPECT improved significantly after {approx}45 Gy. The V defect score (DS) was 4.9 pre-RT versus 4.3 during RT (p = 0.01); Q DS was 4.3 pre-RT versus 4.0 during RT (p < 0.01). Improvements in V and Q functions were seen primarily in the ipsilateral lung (V DS, 1.9 pre-RT versus 1.4 during RT, p < 0.01; Q DS, 1.7 pre-RT versus 1.5 during RT, p < 0.01). Baseline primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with pre-RT V/Q DS (p < 0.01). Patients with central lung tumors had greater interval changes in V and Q than those with more peripheral tumors (p <0.05 for both V and Q DS). Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion improved during RT at 45 Gy. This suggests that adaptive planning based on V/Q SPECT during RT may allow sparing of functionally recoverable lung tissue.

  2. An evaluation of preoperative and postoperative ventilation and perfusion lung scintigraphy in the screening for pulmonary embolism after elective orthopedic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, A.M.; Palevsky, H.I.; Steinberg, M.E.; Hartman, K.M.; Alavi, A.; Lotke, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    One hundred two patients undergoing elective knee or hip arthroplasty were studied with radionuclide ventilation scans (V) and perfusion scans (Q) preoperatively (preop) and postoperatively (postop) to assess their relative value in the diagnosis of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) after orthopedic surgery. Postop Q were read in combination with preop V and Q and postop V using prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria. Of 25 postop Q interpreted as either high or intermediate probability for PE, preop Q were judged useful in 96%; the postop V were useful in 78%; and the preop V were not helpful in any of the cases. Of 63 postop Q interpreted as low probability, preop Q were useful in 74%; the postop V were useful in only 33%; and the preop V were useful in only one case. When postop Q were read as normal (14 cases), none of the three auxiliary studies were found to be useful. Overall, postop V were more helpful than preop Q in only 2%, and preop V contributed significantly in only 1%. This experience suggests that preop Q alone is the most useful adjunct to the postop Q in the postoperative evaluation for PE. The authors conclude that to screen for asymptomatic PE after elective orthopedic surgery, preop Q should be performed in all cases, preop V are not necessary, and postop V need be performed only if a baseline preop Q is not available.

  3. Exhaled CO2 Parameters as a Tool to Assess Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching during Neonatal Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott Shang-shun; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; LaBossiere, Joseph; Lee, Tze-Fun; Cowan, Shaun; Bigam, David L.; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), partial pressure of exhaled CO2 (PECO2), and volume of expired CO2 (VCO2) can be continuously monitored non-invasively to reflect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion status. Although ETCO2 ≥14mmHg has been shown to be associated with return of an adequate heart rate in neonatal resuscitation and quantifying the PECO2 has the potential to serve as an indicator of resuscitation quality, there is little information regarding capnometric measurement of PECO2 and ETCO2 in detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survivability in asphyxiated neonates receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Seventeen newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented, and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters including ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, heart rate, cardiac output, and carotid artery flow were continuously measured and analyzed. Results There were no differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between surviving and non-surviving piglets prior to CPR. Surviving piglets had significantly higher ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, cardiac index, and carotid artery flow values during CPR compared to non-surviving piglets. Conclusion Surviving piglets had significantly better respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during resuscitation compared to non-surviving piglets. In addition to optimizing resuscitation efforts, capnometry can assist by predicting outcomes of newborns requiring chest compressions. PMID:26766424

  4. Ventilator-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kuchnicka, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of disease-affected lungs, as well as being an inadequate mode of ventilation for initially healthy lungs, can cause significant changes in their structure and function. In order to differentiate these processes, two terms are used: ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In both cases, lung injury primarily results from differences in transpulmonary pressure - a consequence of an imbalance between lung stress and strain. This paper focuses on changes in lung structure and function due to this imbalance. Moreover, in this context, barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectrauma are interpreted, and the importance of signal transduction as a process inducing local and systemic inflammatory responses (biotrauma), is determined. None of the assessed methods of reducing VALI and VILI has been found to be entirely satisfactory, yet studies evaluating oscillatory ventilation, liquid ventilation, early ECMO, super-protective ventilation or noisy ventilation and administration of certain drugs are under way. Low tidal volume ventilation and adequately adjusted PEEP appear to be the best preventive measures of mechanical ventilation in any setting, including the operating theatre. Furthermore, this paper highlights the advances in VILI/VALI prevention resulting from better understanding of pathophysiological phenomena. PMID:24092514

  5. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  6. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs. PMID:6754938

  7. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jgi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  8. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    PubMed Central

    Jgi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD IIV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  9. Administration of hydrogen sulfide via extracorporeal membrane lung ventilation in sheep with partial cardiopulmonary bypass perfusion: a proof of concept study on metabolic and vasomotor effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduces metabolism in mice, doses higher than 200 ppm of H2S were required to depress metabolism in rats. We therefore hypothesized that higher concentrations of H2S are required to reduce metabolism in larger mammals and humans. To avoid the potential pulmonary toxicity of H2S inhalation at high concentrations, we investigated whether administering H2S via ventilation of an extracorporeal membrane lung (ECML) would provide means to manipulate the metabolic rate in sheep. Methods A partial venoarterial cardiopulmonary bypass was established in anesthetized, ventilated (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.5) sheep. The ECML was alternately ventilated with air or air containing 100, 200, or 300 ppm H2S for intervals of 1 hour. Metabolic rate was estimated on the basis of total CO2 production (V?CO2) and O2 consumption (V?O2). Continuous hemodynamic monitoring was performed via indwelling femoral and pulmonary artery catheters. Results V?CO2, V?O2, and cardiac output ranged within normal physiological limits when the ECML was ventilated with air and did not change after administration of up to 300 ppm H2S. Administration of 100, 200 and 300 ppm H2S increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 46, 52 and 141 dyns/cm5, respectively (all P ? 0.05 for air vs. 100, 200 and 300 ppm H2S, respectively), and mean pulmonary artery pressure by 4 mmHg (P ? 0.05), 3 mmHg (n.s.) and 11 mmHg (P ? 0.05), respectively, without changing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or cardiac output. Exposure to 300 ppm H2S decreased systemic vascular resistance from 1,561 553 to 870 138 dyns/cm5 (P ? 0.05) and mean arterial pressure from 121 15 mmHg to 66 11 mmHg (P ? 0.05). In addition, exposure to 300 ppm H2S impaired arterial oxygenation (PaO2 114 36 mmHg with air vs. 83 23 mmHg with H2S; P ? 0.05). Conclusions Administration of up to 300 ppm H2S via ventilation of an extracorporeal membrane lung does not reduce V?CO2 and V?O2, but causes dose-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction and systemic vasodilation. These results suggest that administration of high concentrations of H2S in venoarterial cardiopulmonary bypass circulation does not reduce metabolism in anesthetized sheep but confers systemic and pulmonary vasomotor effects. PMID:21299857

  10. Anaesthesia ventilators.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  11. Earth's Energy Imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.

    2013-12-01

    'Global warming' from increased greenhouse gases really refers to a global energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). TOA measurements of radiation from space can track changes over time but lack absolute accuracy. An inventory of energy shows that over 90% of the imbalance is manifested as ocean heat content (OHC). Here we use ORAS4 ocean reanalysis data and other OHC estimates to compare the OHC rates of change with model-based estimates of TOA energy imbalance (from CCSM4), and with TOA satellite measurements for the year 2000 onwards. Most of the ocean-only OHC analyses extend to only 700 m depth, have large discrepancies among the rates of change of OHC, and do not resolve interannual variability adequately to capture ENSO and volcanic eruption effects. For the first time we show that ORAS4 OHC quantitatively agrees with the radiative forcing estimates of impacts of the 3 major volcanic eruptions since 1960 (Mt. Agung 1963, El Chichn 1982, and Mt. Pinatubo 1991). The natural variability of the energy imbalance is substantial from month-to-month associated with cloud and weather variations, and interannually mainly associated with ENSO, while the sun affects 15% of the climate change signal on decadal timescales. All estimates (OHC and TOA) show that over the past decade the energy imbalance ranges between about 0.5 and 1 W m-2. By using the full-depth ocean, there is a better overall accounting for energy, but discrepancies remain at interannual timescales between OHC and TOA radiation measurements, notably in 2008-09.

  12. Ventilator-associated lung injury during assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Saddy, Felipe; Sutherasan, Yuda; Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Assisted mechanical ventilation (MV) may be a favorable alternative to controlled MV at the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), since it requires less sedation, no paralysis and is associated with less hemodynamic deterioration, better distal organ perfusion, and lung protection, thus reducing the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). In the present review, we discuss VALI in relation to assisted MV strategies, such as volume assist-control ventilation, pressure assist-control ventilation, pressure support ventilation (PSV), airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), APRV with PSV, proportional assist ventilation (PAV), noisy ventilation, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assistance (NAVA). In summary, we suggest that assisted MV can be used in ARDS patients in the following situations: (1) Pao(2)/Fio(2) >150?mm Hg and positive end-expiratory pressure???5 cm H(2)O and (2) with modalities of pressure-targeted and time-cycled breaths including more or less spontaneous or supported breaths (A-PCV [assisted pressure-controlled ventilation] or APRV). Furthermore, during assisted MV, the following parameters should be monitored: inspiratory drive, transpulmonary pressure, and tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Further studies are required to determine the impact of novel modalities of assisted ventilation such as PAV, noisy pressure support, and NAVA on VALI. PMID:25105820

  13. Ventilation abnormalities associated with pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.

    1988-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 2035 lung images performed over approximately 5 years revealed abnormal ventilation coexisting with pulmonary embolism in 18 patients. Matching ventilation perfusion defects may be associated with pulmonary embolism without infarction. In patients with a high clinical suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism and matching V/Q abnormalities, an angiogram may be necessary to definitely exclude the diagnosis.

  14. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis < 5 cm, pelvic tilt < 20 degrees, and lumbar lordosis equal to pelvic incidence ± 9 degrees. Conclusion Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

  15. Krypton-81m ventilation scanning: acute respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.P.; Irving, H.; Armstrong, J.D. II

    1981-02-01

    From experience with 700 patients undergoing ventilation and perfusion lung scanning with krypton-81m/technetium-99m technique, 34 patients suffering from nonembolic acute respiratory disease were selected for review. In 16 patients with pneumonia, all had defects of ventilation corresponding to, or larger than, the radiologic consolidation. In 13 patients there was some preservation of perfusion in the consolidated region. In two of the three patients with matched defects, the pneumonia was of long standing. In seven patients with collapse or atelectasis and in 11 patients with acute reversible bronchial obstruction and normal volume lungs, a similar pattern or ventillation and perfusion was observed.

  16. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  17. Industrial ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    Industrial ventilation design methodology, using computers and using fluid dynamic models, is considered. It is noted that the design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. A checklist of activities concerning the methodology for the design of a ventilation system for a new facility is given. A flow diagram of the computer ventilation model shows a typical input, the initialization and iteration loop, and the output. The application of the fluid dynamic modeling techniques include external and internal flow fields, and individual sources of heat and contaminants. Major activities for a ventilation field test program are also addressed.

  18. Mine ventilation engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This book on mine ventilation covers psychometrics, airflow through roadways and ducts, natural ventilation, fans, instruments, ventilation surveys, auxiliary ventilation, air quality, and planning and economics.

  19. [Collateral ventilation].

    PubMed

    Voshaar, Th H

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of collateral ventilation is defined as ventilation of alveolar structures through passages or channels that bypass the normal airways. Such bypassing structures can be interalveolar, bronchiole-alveolar, interbronchiole, and interlobar. Collateral ventilation structures seem to be prominent in human lungs with trapped air and emphysema. In healthy human lungs normally no relevant collateral ventilation can be detected. In emphysematic lungs the ventilation through collateral channels can probably improve gas exchange mechanisms. The phenomenon of collateral ventilation explains several clinical observations in human lungs such as the absence of atalectasis following complete bronchial obstruction, e. g. after foreign body aspiration or tumour. The various results after bronchoscopic implantation of one-way endobronchial valves as a new technique for treating emphysema can also be explained by collateral ventilation. Understanding collateral ventilation is of high importance for clinicians, those working in the field of physiology of emphysema in human lungs and may be central to planning new bronchoscopic techniques for treating emphysema. The paper offers an overview of history, physiology and the relevance for lung volume reduction methods. Moreover, a new imaging technique to demonstrate collateral ventilation in vivo is described. PMID:18535980

  20. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. Yang

    1999-11-04

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.

  1. Repeat perfusion imaging may differentiate airways obstruction from pulomonary embolic disease: report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspon, L.W.; LaManna, M.M.; Dhand, S.

    1987-06-01

    Two cases are presented in which patients with obstructive lung disease were considered to have a pulmonary embolism (PE). Emergency lung perfusion scans supported the diagnosis of PE in both cases. However, rapid resolution of the symptoms and perfusion defects by repeat ventilation-perfusion scanning at 24 hr suggested that PE was unlikely. In selected cases of wheezing patients, repeat perfusion scans may obviate the need for pulmonary angiography. The authors report two cases in which repeat perfusion scans almost normalized by 24 hr. Review of the literature indicates that the rate of resolution of perfusion defects would have been much slower had pulmonary embolism occurred.

  2. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To further satisfy KTI agreements RDTME 3.01 and 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a) by providing the source documentation referred to in the KTI Letter Report, ''Effect of Forced Ventilation on Thermal-Hydrologic Conditions in the Engineered Barrier System and Near Field Environment'' (Williams 2002). Specifically to provide the results of the MULTIFLUX model which simulates the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. This portion of the model report is presented as an Alternative Conceptual Model with a numerical application, and also provides corroborative results used for model validation purposes (Section 6.3 and 6.4).

  3. Mechanical Ventilation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cared for in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU). People who need a ventilator for a longer time may be in a regular unit of a hospital, a rehabilitation facility, or cared for at home. Why are ...

  4. Functional Lung MRI in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Comparison of T1 Mapping, Oxygen-Enhanced T1 Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Anjorin, Angela; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Biederer, Jrgen; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Wielptz, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring of regional lung function in interventional COPD trials requires alternative endpoints beyond global parameters such as FEV1. T1 relaxation times of the lung might allow to draw conclusions on tissue composition, blood volume and oxygen fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of lung Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping for the assessment of COPD patients in comparison with contrast enhanced perfusion MRI. Materials and Methods 20 COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent a coronal 2-dimensional inversion recovery snapshot flash sequence (8 slices/lung) at room air and during inhalation of pure oxygen, as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion imaging. Regional distribution of T1 at room air (T1), oxygen-induced T1 shortening (?T1) and peak enhancement were rated by 2 chest radiologists in consensus using a semi-quantitative 3-point scale in a zone-based approach. Results Abnormal T1 and ?T1 were highly prevalent in the patient cohort. T1 and ?T1 correlated positively with perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.81 and r = 0.80; p&0.001), and with each other (r = 0.80; p<0.001). In GOLD stages I and II ?T1 was normal in 16/29 lung zones with mildly abnormal perfusion (15/16 with abnormal T1). The extent of T1 (r = 0.45; p<0.05), ?T1 (r = 0.52; p<0.05) and perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.52; p<0.05) showed a moderate correlation with GOLD stage. Conclusion Native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping correlated with lung perfusion deficits and severity of COPD. Under the assumption that T1 at room air correlates with the regional pulmonary blood pool and that oxygen-enhanced T1 reflects lung ventilation, both techniques in combination are principally suitable to characterize ventilation-perfusion imbalance. This appears valuable for the assessment of regional lung characteristics in COPD trials without administration of i.v. contrast. PMID:25822195

  5. Liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  6. The low specificity of postoperative perfusion lung scan defects.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, I; Aukland, P; Hirsh, J; Coates, G; Cockshott, P; Taylor, R; Hull, R

    1981-01-01

    Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 169 patients and classified blindly according to preset criteria. Perfusion lung scan abnormalities were present in 25 (15%) of the preoperative scans and 42 (25%) of the postoperative scans; 16 (38%) of the 42 abnormal postoperative scans were identical to the preoperative scans. Perfusion defects indicating a "high probability" of pulmonary embolism (lobar or segmental defects) were present in 5 preoperative scans and 10 postoperative scans; the 10 postoperative scans were classified as showing "definite" (5), "possible" (1) or "no" (4) pulmonary embolism on the basis of the preoperative scan and the ventilation scan; none of the 10 patients had clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. Venous thrombosis was present in 12 patients, including 4 of the patients whose lung scans showed definite pulmonary embolism. Thus, postoperative perfusion lung scan defects are potentially misleading even when large. PMID:7459778

  7. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Danieel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-11-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of initial state partons inside unpolarized hadrons that can arise in the presence of nonzero parton transverse momentum. Transversely polarized quarks and linearly polarized gluons produce specific azimuthal dependences of the two jets that in principle are not suppressed. Their effects cannot be isolated just by looking at the angular deviation from the back-to-back situation; rather they enter jet broadening observables. In this way they directly affect the extraction of the average transverse momentum of unpolarized partons that is thought to be extracted. We discuss appropriately weighted cross sections to isolate the additional contributions.

  8. Underground ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadik, W.A. )

    1990-05-01

    This article deals with underground ventilation in the coal mining industry and the primary issues in this field during 1989. Attention is given to one of the primary meetings held during the year and to the most important papers presented at that meeting.

  9. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  10. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jianming; Jrvi, Timo; Kiuru, Aaro; Kormano, Martti; Svedstrm, Erkki

    2003-12-01

    The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  11. Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212

  12. Dead space: the physiology of wasted ventilation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H Thomas

    2015-06-01

    An elevated physiological dead space, calculated from measurements of arterial CO2 and mixed expired CO2, has proven to be a useful clinical marker of prognosis both for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and for patients with severe heart failure. Although a frequently cited explanation for an elevated dead space measurement has been the development of alveolar regions receiving no perfusion, evidence for this mechanism is lacking in both of these disease settings. For the range of physiological abnormalities associated with an increased physiological dead space measurement, increased alveolar ventilation/perfusion ratio (V'A/Q') heterogeneity has been the most important pathophysiological mechanism. Depending on the disease condition, additional mechanisms that can contribute to an elevated physiological dead space measurement include shunt, a substantial increase in overall V'A/Q' ratio, diffusion impairment, and ventilation delivered to unperfused alveolar spaces. PMID:25395032

  13. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  14. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in sheep: effects of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and change in posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, S. M.; Domino, K. B.; Glenny, R. W.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies providing high-resolution images of pulmonary perfusion have questioned the classical zone model of pulmonary perfusion. Hence the present work was undertaken to provide detailed maps of regional pulmonary perfusion to examine the influence of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and posture. METHODS: Pulmonary perfusion was analyzed with intravenous fluorescent microspheres (15 microm) in six sheep studied in four conditions: prone and awake, prone with pentobarbital-anesthesia and breathing spontaneously, prone with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, and supine with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Lungs were air dried at total lung capacity and sectioned into approximately 1,100 pieces (about 2 cm3) per animal. The pieces were weighed and assigned spatial coordinates. Fluorescence was read on a spectrophotometer, and signals were corrected for piece weight and normalized to mean flow. Pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity was assessed using the coefficient of variation of flow data. RESULTS: Pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation did not influence perfusion heterogeneity, but heterogeneity increased when the animals were in the supine posture (P < 0.01). Gravitational flow gradients were absent in the prone position but present in the supine (P < 0.001 compared with zero). Pulmonary perfusion was distributed with a hilar-to-peripheral gradient in animals breathing spontaneously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The influence of pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation on pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity is small compared with the effect of changes in posture. Analysis of flow gradients indicate that gravity plays a small role in determining pulmonary blood flow distribution.

  15. What is Imbalance of Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Mother Nature is imbalanced at all. The Mother Nature is every moment new, never returns to previous condition. The gravity and magnetosphere are changeable and imbalanced. The Sun is changeable and imbalanced. The climate is changeable and imbalanced. The atmosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The ocean is changeable and imbalanced. The crust and deep interior are changeable and imbalanced. The cryosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The life is simultaneously as the creator and the result of the imbalance of Nature. The people society is changeable and imbalanced. All chemical, physical, social, and other phenomenons are changeable and imbalanced. It's just that each phenomenon of the Mother Nature has some personal time-scale: one change in a nanosecond, and looks like for us as instable, i.e. imbalanced; while others change over millions years and, therefore, to us looks like not changeable, i.e. balanced. The scientists who are studying the Nature have convinced that the real balance never exist in Nature. Sometimes we can see something that is stable, i.e. balanced. But on closer study it appears that we are witnessing is not eternal rest and balance, it is not eternal STOP, but it is the perpetual motion, changing, there are a lot of imbalances. The balance it can be some result of the temporary mutual compensation the imbalanced processes in opposite directions. The balance it can be also some result of the inaccurate measurement, misunderstanding of conception or even request from bosses. But if we start use more accurate measurements, improve the models and not fear the bosses, than usually we got some new details. These new details show thet under the balanced visibility in really is hiding the interaction of many imbalanced processes of different directions. The balanced logic usually answers to question: What is it? The balanced answers are approximate and it will be updated many times during the development of science and practice. The imbalanced logic usually answers to question: How and why it is happened in details? The imbalanced answers are approximate also, and they will also be updated many times during the development of science and practice. But the imbalanced logic allows us to overcome of the inertia of the balanced logic and much closer come up to understanding the essence of Nature. We try to answer the central question of humanity: How to get calm, i.e. balanced life if the everything around us is imbalanced, the people themselves are restless and not eternal? The study of the Imbalance of Nature is multi-disciplinary because Nature is one. It is our main advantage.

  16. Studies on the Regulation of Secretion in Clara Cells with Evidence for Chemical Nonautonomic Mediation of the Secretory Response to Increased Ventilation in Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Gloria D.; Amado, Ceferina; Clerch, Linda; Massaro, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Using electron microscopy and morphometric methods to assess secretion, we previously found that two times tidal volume ventilation of isolated perfused rat lung stimulates secretion by bronchiolar Clara cells; this effect is not prevented by ?-adrenergic blockade (J. Clin. Invest. 1981. 67: 345-351.). In this study we used the isolated perfused rat lung and the anesthetized mechanically ventilated rat, to further study the mechanism by which large tidal volumes stimulate secretion by Clara cells. With the perfused lung we found (a) ?-adrenergic inhibition did not block the secretory effect of ventilation at two times normal tidal volume; (b) indomethacin completely blocked the secretory action of two times tidal volume ventilation; (c) medium previously used to perfuse lungs ventilated at two times tidal volume, but not medium previously used to ventilate lungs at normal tidal volume, stimulated secretion by Clara cells when used to perfuse fresh lungs ventilated at tidal volume; (d) addition of prostacyclin to the fresh perfusate increased secretion by Clara cells of lungs ventilated at normal tidal volume. In anesthetized mechanically ventilated rats, sighs stimulated secretion by Clara cells; this increased secretion was inhibited by indomethacin but not by cholinergic blockade (bilateral vagotomy). These studies indicate that increased volume ventilation stimulates secretion by Clara cells in vivo and in vitro; they provide evidence that chemical nonadrenergic, noncholinergic mechanisms are involved in this secretion, and that prostaglandins may be the chemical messenger coupling the mechanico-secretory events. PMID:7050173

  17. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  18. Regional pulmonary perfusion following human heart-lung transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Hakim, T.S.; Dean, G.W.; Langleben, D.; Guerraty, A.; Levy, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Ventilation and perfusion scans were obtained in six subjects who had undergone heart-lung transplantation with consequent denervation of the cardiopulmonary axis. Two of the subjects had developed obliterative bronchiolitis, which is believed to be a form of chronic rejection. Their pulmonary function tests demonstrated airflow obstruction and their scintigraphic studies were abnormal. In the remaining four subjects without obstructive airways disease, ventilation and planar perfusion scans were normal. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging of pulmonary perfusion in these patients revealed a layered distribution of blood flow indistinguishable from that of normal individuals. It is concluded that neurogenic mechanisms have little influence on the pattern of local pulmonary blood flow at rest.

  19. Energy Imbalance Markets (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    The anticipated increase in variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, over the next several years has raised concerns about how system operators will maintain balance between electricity production and demand in the Western Interconnection, especially in its smaller balancing authority areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. Meanwhile, uncertainties about future load growth and challenges siting new transmission and generation resources may add additional stresses on the Western Interconnection of the future. One proposed method of addressing these challenges is an energy imbalance market (EIM). An EIM is a means of supplying and dispatching electricity to balance fluctuations in generation and load. It aggregates the variability of generation and load over multiple balancing areas (BAs).

  20. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; von Schuckmann, K.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.

    2012-04-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. We update our analysis of Earth's observed energy imbalance through 2011 and compare this with climate simulations. Observed global surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing, implying existence of a large negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We discuss implications of the trend of observed sea level rise in recent years, and its consistency with reported ice melt rates and ocean thermal expansion.

  1. Gas exchange and intrapulmonary distribution of ventilation during continuous-flow ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Vettermann, J.; Brusasco, V.; Rehder, K.

    1988-05-01

    In 12 anesthetized paralyzed dogs, pulmonary gas exchange and intrapulmonary inspired gas distribution were compared between continuous-flow ventilation (CFV) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Nine dogs were studied while they were lying supine, and three dogs were studied while they were lying prone. A single-lumen catheter for tracheal insufflation and a double-lumen catheter for bilateral endobronchial insufflation (inspired O2 fraction = 0.4; inspired minute ventilation = 1.7 +/- 0.3 (SD) 1.kg-1.min-1) were evaluated. Intrapulmonary gas distribution was assessed from regional 133Xe clearances. In dogs lying supine, CO2 elimination was more efficient with endobronchial insufflation than with tracheal insufflation, but the alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference was larger during CFV than during CMV, regardless of the type of insufflation. By contrast, endobronchial insufflation maintained both arterial PCO2 and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference at significantly lower levels in dogs lying prone than in dogs lying supine. In dogs lying supine, the dependent lung was preferentially ventilated during CMV but not during CFV. In dogs lying prone, gas distribution was uniform with both modes of ventilation. The alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference during CFV in dogs lying supine was negatively correlated with the reduced ventilation of the dependent lung, which suggests that increased ventilation-perfusion mismatching was responsible for the increase in alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference. The more efficient oxygenation during CFV in dogs lying prone suggests a more efficient matching of ventilation to perfusion, presumably because the distribution of blood flow is also nearly uniform.

  2. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2011-09-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the pipeline, and help define the reduction of climate forcing needed to stabilize climate.

  3. The surface energy imbalance problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuning, R.; van Gorsel, E.; Massman, W.

    2012-04-01

    The 'energy imbalance problem' in micrometeorology arises because at most flux measurement sites the sum of eddy fluxes of sensible latent heat (H + ?E) is 50 - 200 W m-2 less than the available energy (A) at half-hourly time scales. Thus either eddy fluxes of H and ?Eare underestimated or A is overestimated. Lack of energy closure is caused by: 1) a failure to satisfy the fundamental assumption of one-dimensional transport needed for measurements on a single tower to represent spatially-averaged fluxes to/from the underlying surface; 2) measurement errors in: i) eddy fluxes, ii) net radiation, iii) changes in energy storage in soils, air, and biomass below the measurement height. Review of the literature shows that radiometric errors are unlikely to cause significant overestimates of A at all flux measurement sites, but phase lags between H + ?E and A caused by incorrect estimates of the energy storage terms that contribute to A can explain why H + ?E systematically underestimates A at half-hourly time scales. Energy closure is observed at only 8% of flux sites in the La Thuile dataset (http://www.fluxdata.org/DataInfo/default.aspx), with a median slope of 0.75 for H + ?E versus A for half-hourly averages. Using 24h averages leads to energy closure at 45% of the La Thuile sites, and the median slope of H + ?E versus A increases to 0.90. Increasing the averaging time reduces the bias in A because energy entering the soil, air and biomass in the morning is returned in the afternoon and evening. Unrealistically large positive horizontal temperature gradients of 4 - 10 K km-1 are needed for horizontal advective flux divergences to explain the 50 - 200 W m-2 underestimate of H + ?E compared to A often observed at half-hourly time scales. Similarly, unrealistically large mean vertical velocities and temperature gradients are needed for vertical advective flux divergences to account for the 'missing' energy. Imbalances between H + ?E and A still occur in daily averages but the small residual energy imbalances are explicable by positive and negative horizontal and vertical advective flux divergences. Systematic underestimates of the vertical heat flux also occur if horizontal u'T'covariances contaminate the vertical w'T' signal due to incorrect coordinate rotations. An incorrect tilt angle of 2 will cause a 5% underestimate of H. Closure of the energy balance is possible at half-hourly time scales by careful selection of horizontally homogeneous sites to satisfy the assumptions of one-dimensional transport underpinning eddy covariance measurements on single towers , attention to all sources of measurement and data processing errors in the eddy covariance system, and by accurate measurement of net radiation and every energy storage term needed to calculate available energy.

  4. CT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Meinel, Felix G; De Cecco, Carlo N; Fuller, Stephen R; Bayer, Richard R; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. CT myocardial perfusion imaging is rapidly becoming an important adjunct to coronary CT angiography for the anatomic and functional assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality. Existing techniques for CT myocardial perfusion imaging include static techniques, which provide a snapshot of the myocardial blood pool, and dynamic techniques. CONCLUSION. This review provides a systematic overview of the presently available approaches for the assessment of myocardial perfusion at CT, including diagnostic accuracy and limitations. PMID:25714277

  5. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2011-12-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.58 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-yr period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

  6. Platelets Enhance Endothelial Adhesiveness in High Tidal Volume Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Yiming, Maimaiti T.; Lederer, David J.; Sun, Li; Huertas, Alice; Issekutz, Andrew C.; Bhattacharya, Sunita

    2008-01-01

    Although platelets induce lung inflammation, leading to acute lung injury (ALI), the extent of platelet–endothelial cell (EC) interactions remains poorly understood. Here, in a ventilation-stress model of lung inflammation, we show that platelet–EC interactions are important. We obtained freshly isolated lung endothelial cells (FLECs) from isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs exposed to ventilation at low tidal volume (LV) or stress-inducing high tidal volume (HV). Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies revealed HV-induced increases in cell-surface von Willebrand factor (vWf) expression on FLEC. This increased expression was inhibited by platelet removal from the lung perfusion and by including a P-selectin–blocking antibody in the lung perfusion. The expression was also blocked in lungs from P-selectin knockout (P sel−/−) mice perfused with autologous blood, but not with heterologous wild-type blood containing P-selectin–expressing platelets. These findings indicate that in ventilation stress, platelets transfer vWf to the EC surface and that platelet P-selectin plays a critical role in this transfer. Further evidence for such intercellular transfers was the HV-induced FLEC expressions of platelet glycoprotein 1b and of platelet P-selectin. We conclude that in ventilation stress, platelets deposit leukocyte- and platelet-binding proteins on the EC surface, thereby establishing the proinflammatory phenotype of the vascular lining. PMID:18483418

  7. Platelets enhance endothelial adhesiveness in high tidal volume ventilation.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Maimaiti T; Lederer, David J; Sun, Li; Huertas, Alice; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bhattacharya, Sunita

    2008-11-01

    Although platelets induce lung inflammation, leading to acute lung injury (ALI), the extent of platelet-endothelial cell (EC) interactions remains poorly understood. Here, in a ventilation-stress model of lung inflammation, we show that platelet-EC interactions are important. We obtained freshly isolated lung endothelial cells (FLECs) from isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs exposed to ventilation at low tidal volume (LV) or stress-inducing high tidal volume (HV). Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies revealed HV-induced increases in cell-surface von Willebrand factor (vWf) expression on FLEC. This increased expression was inhibited by platelet removal from the lung perfusion and by including a P-selectin-blocking antibody in the lung perfusion. The expression was also blocked in lungs from P-selectin knockout (P sel(-/-)) mice perfused with autologous blood, but not with heterologous wild-type blood containing P-selectin-expressing platelets. These findings indicate that in ventilation stress, platelets transfer vWf to the EC surface and that platelet P-selectin plays a critical role in this transfer. Further evidence for such intercellular transfers was the HV-induced FLEC expressions of platelet glycoprotein 1b and of platelet P-selectin. We conclude that in ventilation stress, platelets deposit leukocyte- and platelet-binding proteins on the EC surface, thereby establishing the proinflammatory phenotype of the vascular lining. PMID:18483418

  8. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  9. Single perfusion defect and pulmonary embolism: Angiographic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Catania, T.A.; Caride, V.J. )

    1990-03-01

    One hundred and thirty-three ventilation-perfusion scans (V-P) with angiographic correlation were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the frequency of pulmonary emboli (PE) in single perfusion defects (SPD), regardless of ventilation or radiographic findings. By angiography, 15 of 30 SPD cases had PE. Demographic data and clinical presentation were similar for PE and non-PE patients. However, 9 out of 15 patients with PE had recent surgery compared to none of the non-PE patients. SPD were seen in areas of ventilation and chest x-ray abnormalities in 12 of 15 PE and 11 of 19 non-PE cases. Size of the actual lesion was underestimated by scintigraphy in most cases. In 7 of 15 PE cases, the perfusion defect was larger than the corresponding ventilation abnormality. Most SPD were located at the bases. Twelve of 15 SPD in the PE group were at the posterior basilar segment. In the appropriate clinical setting, SPD carries at least a moderate probability for PE. When the clinical suspicion is high, a pulmonary angiography will be needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Age-Related Dizziness and Imbalance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Volunteer. Donate. Review. Age-related dizziness and imbalance Balance and fall prevention for seniors One of the ... 60 is falling, which is often related to balance problems. Each year, between 20 and 40 percent ...

  11. Metformin attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic patients may develop acute lung injury less often than non-diabetics; a fact that could be partially ascribed to the usage of antidiabetic drugs, including metformin. Metformin exhibits pleiotropic properties which make it potentially beneficial against lung injury. We hypothesized that pretreatment with metformin preserves alveolar capillary permeability and, thus, prevents ventilator-induced lung injury. Methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly assigned to pretreatment with metformin (250 mg/Kg body weight/day per os) or no medication for two days. Explanted lungs were perfused at constant flow rate (300 mL/min) and ventilated with injurious (peak airway pressure 23 cmH2O, tidal volume ?17 mL/Kg) or protective (peak airway pressure 11 cmH2O, tidal volume ?7 mL/Kg) settings for 1 hour. Alveolar capillary permeability was assessed by ultrafiltration coefficient, total protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in BALF. Results High-pressure ventilation of the ex-vivo lung preparation resulted in increased microvascular permeability, edema formation and microhemorrhage compared to protective ventilation. Compared to no medication, pretreatment with metformin was associated with a 2.9-fold reduction in ultrafiltration coefficient, a 2.5-fold reduction in pulmonary edema formation, lower protein concentration in BALF, lower ACE activity in BALF, and fewer histological lesions upon challenge of the lung preparation with injurious ventilation. In contrast, no differences regarding pulmonary artery pressure and BALF total cell number were noted. Administration of metformin did not impact on outcomes of lungs subjected to protective ventilation. Conclusions Pretreatment with metformin preserves alveolar capillary permeability and, thus, decreases the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury in this model. PMID:22827994

  12. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in the other, tumor was identified but the site could not be specified. The radionuclide lung scan is a technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  13. VENTILATION MODEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-31

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

  14. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  15. Utilization of the organ care system as ex-vivo lung perfusion after cold storage transportation.

    PubMed

    Mohite, P N; Maunz, O; Popov, A-F; Zych, B; Patil, N P; Simon, A R

    2015-11-01

    The Organ Care System (OCS) allows perfusion and ventilation of the donor lungs under physiological conditions. Ongoing trials to compare preservation with OCS Lung with standard cold storage do not include donor lungs with suboptimal gas exchange and donor lungs treated with OCS following cold storage transportation. We present a case of a 48-yr-old man who received such lungs after cold storage transportation treated with ex-vivo lung perfusion utilizing OCS. PMID:25662732

  16. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  17. Perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a self-assessment quiz

    SciTech Connect

    Egermayer, P.; Rutland, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    The authors present ten case reports with lung scintigrams in a format suitable for a self-assessment quiz. The first seven cases include perfusion scintigrams and the final diagnosis was established by postmortem examination. The last three studies include ventilation images (using nebulized /sup 99m/Tc tin colloid) and the final diagnosis established by nonradionuclide studies. The authors believe this quiz demonstrates the necessity for ventilation studies when using lung scintigraphy for a positive diagnosis.

  18. [Ventilation in special situations. Neonatal mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Bonillo Perales, A; Gonzlez-Ripoll Garzn, M; Lorente Acosta, M J; Dez-Delgado Rubio, J

    2003-10-01

    Severe respiratory failure is a common problem in premature neonates. We review the various ventilation modes available in the neonatal intensive care unit, as well as their indications, settings, and complications. PMID:14649225

  19. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  20. Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bedont, R.A.; Datz, F.L.

    1985-12-01

    Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects secondary to pleural effusion without other significant perfusion defects. Using pulmonary angiography, venography, analysis of pleural fluid, clinical course, and other radiographic and laboratory studies to establish the final diagnosis, only two patients had documented venous thrombotic disease: one had pulmonary emboli, the other thrombophlebitis. Lung scans having significant perfusion defects limited to pleural effusions and matching them in size have a low probability for pulmonary embolism.

  1. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  2. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To asses the impacts of moisture on the ventilation efficiency.

  3. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  4. Education in the imbalance of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are two concepts understanding of the real Nature: balanced and imbalanced. The traditional balanced concept understanding of Nature was originated in prehistoric times to calm the frightened souls of prehistoric man and manage groups of people. The balanced concept presupposes that Nature is isotropic, balanced, etc. The balanced concept of understanding of Nature gradually has moved to science and technology. The balanced concept of understanding of Nature is dominating from the prehistoric time up to today. But always parallel and opposite was exists the concept imbalanced understanding of Nature, which presupposes that Nature is anisotropy, imbalanced, etc. The balanced concept is much simpler than Imbalanced. The balanced concept has given mankind a lot of rough description of Nature which helped to solve a lot of practical problems but with sufficient accuracy, i.e. approximately, but not with an absolute precision. While people were few, and a lot of resources, person could take from Nature only what Nature gave willingly. During this period, people feared and respected Nature and Nature was able easily compensate the activity of people. The high accuracy of the description of Nature was not needed when resources were plentiful and people were few. But now the situation is completely different. The population has become a very large and growing. Traditional resources are almost run out and the lack of resources escalates. People are not afraid of Nature and bravely try to take by force what Nature does not give voluntarily. People invaded into imbalance Nature, and Nature can no longer compensate activity of people. The era of global change is started, including those that man provokes. In the conditions of global changes is insufficiently of the approximate solutions of the traditional balanced concept. The balanced concept is exhausted, and increasingly misleads people. The balanced concept cannot solve the problems that arise in the global change. The Concept imbalance of Nature is more suitable to solve problems of global change. Many thousands of scientists and practical from around the world are working already in the field of imbalance of Nature. Now is a time when the concept imbalance of Nature should be included into the training programs at universities, colleges and schools. We have experts who can teach students in imbalance of Nature. We have a list of topics for Ph.D. dissertations in field of imbalance of Nature. Now we are preparing the fundamental scientific book on all major issues imbalance of Nature. On the basis of this fundamental scientific work will be prepared the textbooks for students of different levels, non-fiction books, will organized promotion of the imbalance of Nature in the media, social networks, etc. People need to understand the real Nature as it is. This new knowledge will help humanity make the right and safer decisions in the era of global change. We invite the universities, colleges, schools, community organizations, sponsors and just responsible people of any country in the world to take part in this noble and vital issue. Humanity has no choice. Or mankind will have time to learn how to live in the era of global change or perish. The concept imbalance of Nature gives humanity the chance to survive.

  5. Vascular and perfusion imaging using encapsulated laser-polarized helium.

    PubMed

    Callot, V; Canet, E; Brochot, J; Berthezne, Y; Viallon, M; Humblot, H; Briguet, A; Tournier, H; Crmillieux, Y

    2001-03-01

    In this work, the use of hyperpolarized (HP) 3He for in vivo intravascular imaging on animal is reported. To overcome the problem of the low solubility of helium in blood, we propose an approach based on helium encapsulation in lipid-based carrier agents. The mean diameter of the 3He microbubbles, measured equal to 3.0+/-0.2 microm, makes it possible to conduct in vivo studies. In vitro spectroscopy yielded a longitudinal relaxation time T(1) equal to 90 s and an apparent transverse relaxation time T(2)(*) of 4.5 ms. Angiographic imaging (venous and cardiac cavity visualization), as well as lung perfusion imaging, were demonstrated in rats using intravenous injections of microbubble suspensions. Suitable signal and spatial resolution were achieved. The potential of this technique for lung perfusion assessment was assessed using an experimental animal embolism model. Lung perfusion defects and recovery towards a normal perfusion state were visualized. This study was completed with the demonstration of a new ventilation-perfusion lung exploration method based entirely on HP 3He. PMID:11255088

  6. Alternative ventilation strategies in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Andrea; Layon, A Joseph; Wenzel, Volker; Dorges, Volker; Idris, Ahamed H

    2002-06-01

    The introduction of the 2000 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation emphasizes a new, evidence-based approach to the science of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). New laboratory and clinical science underemphasizes the role of ventilation immediately after a dysrhythmic cardiac arrest (arrest primarily resulting from a cardiovascular event, such as ventricular defibrillation or asystole). However, the classic airway patency, breathing, and circulation (ABC) CPR sequence remains a fundamental factor for the immediate survival and neurologic outcome of patients after asphyxial cardiac arrest (cardiac arrest primarily resulting from respiratory arrest). The hidden danger of ventilation of the unprotected airway during cardiac arrest either by mouth-to-mouth or by mask can be minimized by applying ventilation techniques that decrease stomach gas insufflation. This goal can be achieved by decreasing peak inspiratory flow rate, increasing inspiratory time, and decreasing tidal volume to approximately 5 to 7 mL/kg, if oxygen is available. Laboratory and clinical evidence recently supported the important role of alternative airway devices to mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation in the chain of survival. In particular, the laryngeal mask airway and esophageal Combitube proved to be effective alternatives in providing oxygenation and ventilation to the patient in cardiac arrest in the prehospital arena in North America. Prompt recognition of supraglottic obstruction of the airway is fundamental for the management of patients in cardiac arrest when ventilation and oxygenation cannot be provided by conventional methods. "Minimally invasive" cricothyroidotomy devices are now available for the professional health care provider who is not proficient or comfortable with performing an emergency surgical tracheotomy or cricothyroidotomy. Finally, a recent device that affects the relative influence of positive pressure ventilation on the hemodynamics during cardiac arrest has been introduced, the inspiratory impedance threshold valve, with the goal of maximizing coronary and cerebral perfusion while performing CPR. Although the role of this alternative ventilatory methodology in CPR is rapidly being established, we cannot overemphasize the need for proper training to minimize complications and maximize the efficacy of these new devices. PMID:12386498

  7. Intratumoral patterns of genomic imbalance in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Nobusawa, Sumihito; Lachuer, Joel; Wierinckx, Anne; Kim, Young Ho; Huang, Jian; Legras, Catherine; Kleihues, Paul; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastomas are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous, but little is known about the regional patterns of genomic imbalance within glioblastomas. We recently established a reliable whole genome amplification (WGA) method to randomly amplify DNA from paraffin-embedded histological sections with minimum amplification bias [Huang et al (J Mol Diagn 11: 109-116, 2009)]. In this study, chromosomal imbalance was assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH; Agilent 105K, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA), using WGA-DNA from two to five separate tumor areas of 14 primary glioblastomas (total, 41 tumor areas). Chromosomal imbalances significantly differed among glioblastomas; the only alterations that were observed in > or =6 cases were loss of chromosome 10q, gain at 7p and loss of 10p. Genetic alterations common to all areas analyzed within a single tumor included gains at 1q32.1 (PIK3C2B, MDM4), 4q11-q12 (KIT, PDGFRA), 7p12.1-11.2 (EGFR), 12q13.3-12q14.1 (GLI1, CDK4) and 12q15 (MDM2), and loss at 9p21.1-24.3 (p16(INK4a)/p14(ARF)), 10p15.3-q26.3 (PTEN, etc.) and 13q12.11-q34 (SPRY2, RB1). These are likely to be causative in the pathogenesis of glioblastomas (driver mutations). In addition, there were numerous tumor area-specific genomic imbalances, which may be either nonfunctional (passenger mutations) or functional, but constitute secondary events reflecting progressive genomic instability, a hallmark of glioblastomas. PMID:20406234

  8. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

  9. Guide to Home Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Ventilation refers to the exchange of indoor and outdoor air. Without proper ventilation, an otherwise insulated and airtight house will seal in harmful pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, and moisture that can damage a house.

  10. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  11. Realtime mine ventilation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, K.H.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Windows based, interactive mine ventilation simulation software program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To enhance the operation of the underground ventilation system, Westinghouse Electric Corporation developed the program called WIPPVENT. While WIPPVENT includes most of the functions of the commercially available simulation program VNETPC and uses the same subroutine to calculate airflow distributions, the user interface has been completely rewritten as a Windows application with screen graphics. WIPPVENT is designed to interact with WIPP ventilation monitoring systems through the sitewise Central monitoring System. Data can be continuously collected from the Underground Ventilation Remote Monitoring and Control System (e.g., air quantity and differential pressure) and the Mine Weather Stations (psychrometric data). Furthermore, WIPPVENT incorporates regulator characteristic curves specific to the site. The program utilizes this data to create and continuously update a REAL-TIME ventilation model. This paper discusses the design, key features, and interactive capabilities of WIPPVENT.

  12. The Global Imbalance of the Inanimate Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargashkin, V. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The preservation laws serve is the general expression of balancing properties and stability in nature. The preservation laws, according to Noether's theorem, are displays of properties of uniformity and isotropy of space and time. So, in the most global representation, the imbalance of the Universe assumes presence of some large-scale non-uniformity in it. The scale of such non-uniformity may form the basis for balance and imbalance correlation in the nature as a whole. This heterogeneity may lead to global infringement of laws of preservation, such as laws of preservation of an impulse, the impulse and the moment of energy. So, the most global imbalance of the inanimate nature may be connected with existence of large-scale fluctuations of properties of the Universe matter. It is possible to think about existence of such imbalance with presence of the allocated areas and directions on celestial sphere. Now most of interest in a science is represented by some types of global anisotropy. First, it is spatial anisotropy of cosmic microwave background. It depends of direction on celestial sphere, including formation of the allocated directions, and also "hot" and "cold" spots. Secondly, it is anisotropy of substance's density, concerning clusters and super clusters of galaxies. It is known as a large-scale structure of the Universe. This kind of anisotropy is connected with imbalance between distributions of radiated substance and observable emptiness. The geometry of this kind of imbalance is that the shining matter forms "cellular", "sheet" or "filaments" structure, forming the cells, filled with visible "voids". Thirdly, it is the hypothetical anisotropy connected with prospective dependence of speed of expansion of the Universe with direction on celestial sphere, and also with time. The relative size for this speed is known as Hubble's parameter. The told testifies about actuality of systematization, and also revelation of an interconnection and mutual conditionality of various kinds of global anisotropy of the Universe. So, astro- and photometric characteristics of various types of remote quasi-stellar objects may be used. Modern catalogues contain more than one million quasars. If the property of quasars on the average is invariable in various directions and during the various moments of time, anisotropy of average luminosity received with the calculations is a consequence of anisotropy of properties of expansion of the Universe. For example, if in any direction average settlement luminosity of quasars is underestimated, it is necessary to considering as consequence of the raised speed of expansion of the Universe in this direction. Thus it is possible to establish both speed, and acceleration of expansion of the Universe in these directions during the various moments of time on the basis of difference in average luminosity of the quasars observed in various directions of the Universe and on various removals from the ground observer. Comparison of the allocated places and directions in the Universe which are found out by means of the analysis of luminosity of quasars, and also distributions of temperature of a cosmic microwave background and distributions of density of system of voids and filaments in large-scale structure of the Universe will allow to think about global correlation of balance and imbalance in the scale of all inanimate nature as a whole.

  13. An Algorithm to Evaluate Imbalances of Quadrature Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Arai, Michiaki

    It is essential, as bandwidths of wireless communications get wider, to evaluate the imbalances among quadrature mixer ports, in terms of carrier phase offset, IQ gain imbalance, and IQ skew. Because it is time consuming to separate skew, gain imbalance and carrier phase offset evaluation during test is often performed using a composite value, without separation of the imbalance factors. This paper describes an algorithm for enabling separation among quadrature mixer gain imbalance, carrier phase offset, and skew. Since the test time is reduced by the proposed method, it can be applied during high volume production testing.

  14. Segmental hemodynamics during partial liquid ventilation in isolated rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Angela C.; Hirsh, Emily; Wong, Andrew C.; Moore, Timothy M.; Taylor, Aubrey E.; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Younger, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) is a means of ventilatory support in which gas ventilation is carried out in a lung partially filled with a perfluorocarbon liquid capable of supporting gas exchange. Recently, this technique has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy for cardiac arrest, during which PLV with cold perfluorocarbons might rapidly cool the intrathoracic contents and promote cerebral protective hypothermia while not interfering with gas exchange. A concern during such therapy will be the effect of PLV on pulmonary hemodynamics during very low blood flow conditions. In the current study, segmental (i.e. precapillary, capillary, and postcapillary) hemodynamics were studied in the rat lung using a standard isolated lung perfusion system at a flow rate of 6 ml/min ( ~5% normal cardiac output). Lungs received either gas ventilation or 5 or 10 ml/kg PLV. Segmental pressures and vascular resistances were determined, as was transcapillary fluid flux. The relationship between individual hemodynamic parameters and PLV dose was examined using linear regression, with n = 5 in each study group. PLV at both the 5 and 10 ml/kg dose produced no detectable changes in pulmonary blood flow or in transcapillary fluid flux (all R2 values < 0.20). Conclusion: In an isolated perfused lung model of low flow conditions, normal segmental hemodynamic behavior was preserved during liquid ventilation. These data support further investigation of this technique as an adjunct to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:12668304

  15. Chronic cholinergic imbalances promote brain diffusion and transport abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Meshorer, Eran; Biton, Inbal E; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Ben-Ari, Shani; Assaf, Yaniv; Soreq, Hermona; Cohen, Yoram

    2005-06-01

    Cholinergic imbalances occur after traumatic effects and in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases, but their long-lasting effects remained largely unexplained. To address this, we used TgS transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) and presenting a complex phenotype of progressive neurodeterioration. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images appeared similar. However, diffusion-weighted MRI showed decreased baseline water apparent diffusion coefficient in the brains of TgS animals. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced MRI after gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) injection demonstrated slower recovery of normal signals in the TgS brains than with controls. Perfusion MR imaging and difference T1 maps calculated from pre- postcontrast T1-weighted MR images indicated accumulation of more Gd-DTPA molecules in the TgS brains than in the parent strain, reflecting impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) functioning in these transgenic mice. To explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these global phenotypes, we performed microarray analysis in the stress-controlling prefrontal cortex of TgS vs. strain-matched wild-type animals. Profound overexpression of numerous ion channels, transporters, and adhesion genes was confirmed by real time RT-PCR tests. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed corresponding increases in the level and cellular distributions of the chloride channel CLCN3 and the water channel AQP4, both of which contribute to BBB maintenance. Our study attributes to balanced cholinergic neurotransmission, a central role in the brain's maintenance of water diffusion and ion transport, and indicates that chronic impairments in this maintenance facilitate neurodeterioration through interference with BBB function. PMID:15923401

  16. Prevention of Ventilator-Induced Lung Edema by Inhalation of Nanoparticles Releasing Ruthenium Red

    PubMed Central

    Jurek, Samuel C.; Hirano-Kobayashi, Mariko; Chiang, Homer; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a devastating lung disease that has no cure, is exacerbated by life-supportive mechanical ventilation that worsens lung edema and inflammation through the syndrome of ventilator-induced lung injury. Recently, the membrane ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) on alveolar macrophages was shown to mediate murine lung vascular permeability induced by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to determine whether inhalation of nanoparticles (NPs) containing the TRPV4 inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) prevents ventilator-induced lung edema in mice. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs containing RR were evaluated in vitro for their ability to block TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in alveolar macrophages and capillary endothelial cells. Lungs from adult C57BL6 mice treated with nebulized NPs were then used in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments to assess the ability of the NPs to prevent high-pressure mechanical ventilationinduced lung edema. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs (300 nm) released RR for 150 hours in vitro, and blocked TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in cells up to 7 days after phagocytosis. Inhaled NPs deposited in alveoli of spontaneously breathing mice were rapidly phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, and blocked increased vascular permeability from high-pressure mechanical ventilation for 72 hours in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments. These data offer proof of principle that inhalation of NPs containing a TRPV4 inhibitor prevents ventilator damage for several days, and imply that this novel drug delivery strategy could be used to target alveolar macrophages in patients at risk of ventilator-induced lung injury before initiating mechanical ventilation. PMID:24405281

  17. Prevention of ventilator-induced lung edema by inhalation of nanoparticles releasing ruthenium red.

    PubMed

    Jurek, Samuel C; Hirano-Kobayashi, Mariko; Chiang, Homer; Kohane, Daniel S; Matthews, Benjamin D

    2014-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a devastating lung disease that has no cure, is exacerbated by life-supportive mechanical ventilation that worsens lung edema and inflammation through the syndrome of ventilator-induced lung injury. Recently, the membrane ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) on alveolar macrophages was shown to mediate murine lung vascular permeability induced by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to determine whether inhalation of nanoparticles (NPs) containing the TRPV4 inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) prevents ventilator-induced lung edema in mice. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs containing RR were evaluated in vitro for their ability to block TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in alveolar macrophages and capillary endothelial cells. Lungs from adult C57BL6 mice treated with nebulized NPs were then used in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments to assess the ability of the NPs to prevent high-pressure mechanical ventilation-induced lung edema. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs (300 nm) released RR for 150 hours in vitro, and blocked TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in cells up to 7 days after phagocytosis. Inhaled NPs deposited in alveoli of spontaneously breathing mice were rapidly phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, and blocked increased vascular permeability from high-pressure mechanical ventilation for 72 hours in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments. These data offer proof of principle that inhalation of NPs containing a TRPV4 inhibitor prevents ventilator damage for several days, and imply that this novel drug delivery strategy could be used to target alveolar macrophages in patients at risk of ventilator-induced lung injury before initiating mechanical ventilation. PMID:24405281

  18. Developments in longwall ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.F.; Aman, J.P.; Kotch, M.

    1999-07-01

    Rapid development in longwall mining technology has brought significant changes in panel layout and geometry. These changes require adaptations in the ventilation system to provide sufficient air quantities in longwall face and bleeder areas. At CONSOL, various longwall bleeder systems in the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam have been studied with detailed ventilation surveys. Computer model network simulations were conducted from these surveys to study the effects of different bleeder configurations and ventilation adjustments. This paper examines the relationships between the longwall face air quantity and the convergence in the tailgate-to-bleeder entries, number of development entries, bleeder fan pressure and the tailgate ventilation scheme. It shows that, using conventional ventilation patterns, the face air quantity may be limited if the gob caves tightly. In such cases, modification of the ventilation pattern to an internal bleeder system, combined with appropriate tailgate ventilation and higher bleeder fan pressure may be required. Experience in CONSOL's operations has proven this method successful especially in mines that changed from four-entry to three-entry longwall development.

  19. Adaptive lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Linton, D M

    2001-09-01

    Adaptive lung ventilation (ALV) is a method of closed-loop mechanical ventilation analogous to modern closed-loop technology in aviation such as the autopilot and automatic landing system. The algorithm of the controller of ALV is designed to automatically provide pressure-controlled synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (P-SIMV) and weaning as individually required in any clinical situation. The synchronized pressure limited breaths constantly adapt to the patient requirements to encourage optimal alveolar ventilation with minimal adverse physiological disturbance and timely weaning. The ease of application, efficiency, and safety of the first ALV controllers have been demonstrated in lung models, in patients with normal lungs undergoing general anesthesia, in patients requiring unusual positioning, in transition to and from one-lung anesthesia, and in long-term ventilation of patients with various lung pathologies and in weaning patients who have restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease. Prospective comparative studies of ALV versus other currently used manually selected modes of mechanical ventilation, such as the one reported in this article, should confirm the safety and identify the benefits of this form of advanced closed-loop mechanical ventilation technology. PMID:11517031

  20. Approaches to manual ventilation.

    PubMed

    Davies, John D; Costa, Brian K; Asciutto, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    Manual ventilation is a basic skill that involves airway assessment, maneuvers to open the airway, and application of simple and complex airway support devices and effective positive-pressure ventilation using a bag and mask. An important part of manual ventilation is recognizing its success and when it is difficult or impossible and a higher level of support is necessary to sustain life. Careful airway assessment will help clinicians identify what and when the next step needs to be taken. Often simple airway maneuvers such as the head tilt/chin lift and jaw thrust can achieve a patent airway. Appropriate use of airway adjuncts can further aid the clinician in situations in which airway maneuvers may not be sufficient. Bag-mask ventilation (BMV) plays a vital role in effective manual ventilation, improving both oxygenation and ventilation as well as buying time while preparations are made for endotracheal intubation. There are, however, situations in which BMV may be difficult or impossible. Anticipation and early recognition of these situations allows clinicians to quickly make adjustments to the method of BMV or to employ a more advanced intervention to avoid delays in establishing adequate oxygenation and ventilation. PMID:24891193

  1. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  2. Strip sign: a new sign for diagnosis of nonembolic defects on pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Sostman, H.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-03-01

    A total of 47 patients who underwent both lung ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary arteriography were evaluated for presence on the scintigram of perfusion defects that did not extend to the lung edge, leaving a peripheral parenchymal stripe (PPS) of perfused lung between the defect and the adjacent pleural surface. Scans were scored both with and without regard for the PPS according to probability of pulmonary embolism; these predictions were then compared with the official lung scan report given initially to the referring physician. Predictions were then verified by pulmonary arteriography. Of the 13 patients who showed one or more PPSs, four reports would have been more accurate using the revised criteria that included the stripe sign. In this study, visualization of a PPS in an area of defect on a perfusion lung scan was extremely accurate for predicting absence of pulmonary emboli in the specific area of the stripe. Further studies that would be needed to confirm this finding are discussed.

  3. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  4. Fractal ventilation enhances respiratory sinus arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Mutch, W Alan C; Graham, M Ruth; Girling, Linda G; Brewster, John F

    2005-01-01

    Background Programming a mechanical ventilator with a biologically variable or fractal breathing pattern (an example of 1/f noise) improves gas exchange and respiratory mechanics. Here we show that fractal ventilation increases respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) a mechanism known to improve ventilation/perfusion matching. Methods Pigs were anaesthetised with propofol/ketamine, paralysed with doxacurium, and ventilated in either control mode (CV) or in fractal mode (FV) at baseline and then following infusion of oleic acid to result in lung injury. Results Mean RSA and mean positive RSA were nearly double with FV, both at baseline and following oleic acid. At baseline, mean RSA = 18.6 msec with CV and 36.8 msec with FV (n = 10; p = 0.043); post oleic acid, mean RSA = 11.1 msec with CV and 21.8 msec with FV (n = 9, p = 0.028); at baseline, mean positive RSA = 20.8 msec with CV and 38.1 msec with FV (p = 0.047); post oleic acid, mean positive RSA = 13.2 msec with CV and 24.4 msec with FV (p = 0.026). Heart rate variability was also greater with FV. At baseline the coefficient of variation for heart rate was 2.2% during CV and 4.0% during FV. Following oleic acid the variation was 2.1 vs. 5.6% respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest FV enhances physiological entrainment between respiratory, brain stem and cardiac nonlinear oscillators, further supporting the concept that RSA itself reflects cardiorespiratory interaction. In addition, these results provide another mechanism whereby FV may be superior to conventional CV. PMID:15882460

  5. Weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Eskandar, Nizar; Apostolakos, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Approximately 20% of all mechanically ventilated patients fail their first attempt to wean. Prolonged mechanical ventilation increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. No single weaning parameter predicts patient ability to wean. Weaning studies suggest that daily trials of spontaneous breathing for appropriate patients assured by standing protocol and driven by respiratory care practitioners and/or nurses improve the weaning process and patient outcome. PMID:17368170

  6. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chur Hoan; Han, Ji Hyun; Jin, Joon; Yu, Ji Eun; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Min Young

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Methods In a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses. Results In patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46), 26.9% (n=21), 35.9% (n=28), 47.4% (n=37), and 23.1% (n=18), respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all P<0.05). Levels of potassium in serum were positively correlated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) levels (all P<0.05). Levels of inorganic phosphate in serum were positively correlated with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH (all P<0.05), and levels of magnesium in serum were positively correlated with delta ACTH (P<0.01). Conclusion Electrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease. PMID:26485467

  7. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Potter, Philip A.; Ramankutty, Navin

    2011-01-01

    Increased phosphorus (P) fertilizer use and livestock production has fundamentally altered the global P cycle. We calculated spatially explicit P balances for cropland soils at 0.5 resolution based on the principal agronomic P inputs and outputs associated with production of 123 crops globally for the year 2000. Although agronomic inputs of P fertilizer (14.2 Tg of Py?1) and manure (9.6 Tg of Py?1) collectively exceeded P removal by harvested crops (12.3 Tg of Py?1) at the global scale, P deficits covered almost 30% of the global cropland area. There was massive variation in the magnitudes of these P imbalances across most regions, particularly Europe and South America. High P fertilizer application relative to crop P use resulted in a greater proportion of the intense P surpluses (>13 kg of Pha?1y?1) globally than manure P application. High P fertilizer application was also typically associated with areas of relatively low P-use efficiency. Although manure was an important driver of P surpluses in some locations with high livestock densities, P deficits were common in areas producing forage crops used as livestock feed. Resolving agronomic P imbalances may be possible with more efficient use of P fertilizers and more effective recycling of manure P. Such reforms are needed to increase global agricultural productivity while maintaining or improving freshwater quality. PMID:21282605

  8. High-resolution maps of regional ventilation utilizing inhaled fluorescent microspheres.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H T; Glenny, R W; Stanford, D; McInnes, L M; Luchtel, D L; Covert, D

    1997-03-01

    The regional deposition of an inhaled aerosol of 1.0-micron diameter fluorescent microspheres (FMS) was used to produce high-resolution maps of regional ventilation. Five anesthetized, prone, mechanically ventilated pigs received two 10-min inhalations of pairs of different FMS labels, accompanied by intravenous injection of 15.0-micron radioactive microspheres. The lungs were air dried and cut into 1.9-cm3 pieces, with notation of the spatial coordinates for each piece. After measurement of radioactive energy peaks, the tissue samples were soaked in 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, and fluorescent emission peaks were recorded for the wavelengths specific to each fluorescence label. The correlation of fluorescence activity between simultaneously administered inhaled FMS ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. The mean coefficient of variation for ventilation for all 10 trials (47.9 +/- 8.1%) was similar to that for perfusion (46.2 +/- 6.3%). No physiologically significant gravitational gradient of ventilation or perfusion was present in the prone animals. The strongest predictor of the magnitude of regional ventilation among all animals was regional perfusion (r = 0.77 +/- 0.13). PMID:9074986

  9. Inverse correspondence between hippocampal perfusion and verbal memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rane, Swati; Ally, Brandon A; Hussey, Erin; Wilson, Tracy; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Gore, John C; Donahue, Manus J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding physiological changes that precede irreversible tissue damage in age-related pathology is central to optimizing treatments that may prevent, or delay, cognitive decline. Cerebral perfusion is a tightly regulated physiological property, coupled to tissue metabolism and function, and abnormal (both elevated and reduced) hippocampal perfusion has been reported in a range of cognitive disorders. However, the size and location of the hippocampus complicates perfusion quantification, as many perfusion techniques acquire data with spatial resolution on the order of or beyond the size of the hippocampus, and are thus suboptimal in this region (especially in the presence of hippocampal atrophy and reduced flow scenarios). Here, the relationship between hippocampal perfusion and atrophy as a function of memory performance was examined in cognitively normal healthy older adults (n = 20; age=67 7 yr) with varying genetic risk for dementia using a custom arterial spin labeling acquisition and analysis procedure. When controlling for hippocampal volume, it was found that hippocampal perfusion correlated inversely (P = 0.04) with memory performance despite absent hippocampal tissue atrophy or white matter disease. The hippocampal flow asymmetry (left hippocampus perfusion-right hippocampus perfusion) was significantly (P = 0.04) increased in APOE-?4 carriers relative to noncarriers. These findings demonstrate that perfusion correlates more strongly than tissue volume with memory performance in cognitively normal older adults, and furthermore that an inverse trend between these two parameters suggests that elevation of neuronal activity, possibly mediated by neuroinflammation and/or excitation/inhibition imbalance, may be closely associated with minor changes in memory performance. PMID:23109214

  10. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  11. A Resonant Synchronous Vibration Based Approach for Rotor Imbalance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Huangeng; Rodriquez, Hector; Hallman, Darren; Lewicki, David G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of detecting rotor imbalances, such as mass imbalance and crack-induced imbalance, using shaft synchronous vibrations. An iterative scheme is developed to identify parameters from measured synchronous vibration data. A detection system is integrated by using state-of-the-art commercial analysis equipment. A laboratory rotor test rig is used to verify the system integration and algorithm validation. A real engine test has been carried out and the results are reported.

  12. Respiratory dysfunction in ventilated patients: can inspiratory muscle training help?

    PubMed

    Bissett, B; Leditschke, I A; Paratz, J D; Boots, R J

    2012-03-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is associated with prolonged and difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. This dysfunction in ventilator-dependent patients is multifactorial: there is evidence that inspiratory muscle weakness is partially explained by disuse atrophy secondary to ventilation, and positive end-expiratory pressure can further reduce muscle strength by negatively shifting the length-tension curve of the diaphragm. Polyneuropathy is also likely to contribute to apparent muscle weakness in critically ill patients, and nutritional and pharmaceutical effects may further compound muscle weakness. Moreover, psychological influences, including anxiety, may contribute to difficulty in weaning. There is recent evidence that inspiratory muscle training is safe and feasible in selected ventilator-dependent patients, and that this training can reduce the weaning period and improve overall weaning success rates. Extrapolating from evidence in sports medicine, as well as the known effects of inspiratory muscle training in chronic lung disease, a theoretical model is proposed to describe how inspiratory muscle training enhances weaning and recovery from mechanical ventilation. Possible mechanisms include increased protein synthesis (both Type 1 and Type 2 muscle fibres), enhanced limb perfusion via dampening of a sympathetically-mediated metaboreflex, reduced lactate levels and modulation of the perception of exertion, resulting in less dyspnoea and enhanced exercise capacity. PMID:22417017

  13. Imaging lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    From the first measurements of the distribution of pulmonary blood flow using radioactive tracers by West and colleagues (J Clin Invest 40: 1–12, 1961) allowing gravitational differences in pulmonary blood flow to be described, the imaging of pulmonary blood flow has made considerable progress. The researcher employing modern imaging techniques now has the choice of several techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These techniques differ in several important ways: the resolution of the measurement, the type of contrast or tag used to image flow, and the amount of ionizing radiation associated with each measurement. In addition, the techniques vary in what is actually measured, whether it is capillary perfusion such as with PET and SPECT, or larger vessel information in addition to capillary perfusion such as with MRI and CT. Combined, these issues affect quantification and interpretation of data as well as the type of experiments possible using different techniques. The goal of this review is to give an overview of the techniques most commonly in use for physiological experiments along with the issues unique to each technique. PMID:22604884

  14. An imperative to monitor Earth's energy imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, K.; Palmer, M. D.; Trenberth, K. E.; Cazenave, A.; Chambers, D.; Champollion, N.; Hansen, J.; Josey, S. A.; Loeb, N.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Meyssignac, B.; Wild, M.

    2016-02-01

    The current Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) is mostly caused by human activity, and is driving global warming. The absolute value of EEI represents the most fundamental metric defining the status of global climate change, and will be more useful than using global surface temperature. EEI can best be estimated from changes in ocean heat content, complemented by radiation measurements from space. Sustained observations from the Argo array of autonomous profiling floats and further development of the ocean observing system to sample the deep ocean, marginal seas and sea ice regions are crucial to refining future estimates of EEI. Combining multiple measurements in an optimal way holds considerable promise for estimating EEI and thus assessing the status of global climate change, improving climate syntheses and models, and testing the effectiveness of mitigation actions. Progress can be achieved with a concerted international effort.

  15. Earth's energy imbalance: confirmation and implications.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Sato, Makiko; Willis, Josh; Del Genio, Anthony; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Lo, Ken; Menon, Surabi; Novakov, Tica; Perlwitz, Judith; Russell, Gary; Schmidt, Gavin A; Tausnev, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6 degrees C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system's lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise. PMID:15860591

  16. Ventilator associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J D

    2006-01-01

    Hospital acquired or nosocomial infections continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The critically ill patient is at particular risk of developing intensive care unit acquired infection, with the lungs being especially vulnerable. Nosocomial bacterial pneumonia occurring after two days of mechanical ventilation is referred to as ventilator associated pneumonia, and is the most common nosocomial infection seen in the intensive care unit. Intubation of the trachea and mechanical ventilation is associated with a 7?fold to 21?fold increase in the incidence of pneumonia and up to 28% of patients receiving mechanical ventilation will develop this complication. Its development is associated with an attributable increase in morbidity and mortality. The establishment of an accurate diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia remains problematic and as yet there is still no accepted gold standard for diagnosis. The responsible pathogens vary according to case mix, local resistance patterns, and methodology of sampling. However, there is general agreement that rapid initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves outcome. PMID:16517798

  17. Imbalance of Water as an Example of Fundamental Imbalance of Nature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechayev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is one of the main attributes of the world around us. Turning into ice or water vapor it controls a wide range of natural phenomena. It is one of the most moving substances of Earth and in it as in a mirror all imbalance of the Nature reflects. The laws that govern the water are above all the laws of classical physics, laws of motion and conservation. They determine an equilibrium state and out of it when the balance of forces, flows and energy is disturbed. Volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, hurricane or tornado formation are the extreme form of imbalance of Nature. Unfortunately they are involved in it as a genetic feature. Mass and energy flows pervade the natural world. The structure of the space makes them come into conflict. Internal stress increase, there is an imbalance resulting in the fast, catastrophic events. Whether it is possible to understand the reasons of similar imbalance and to find its critical conditions? The water in their states shows the most striking examples of imbalance of Nature. If the equilibrium of forces and flows is disturbed the nature of movement can fundamentally change. The dependence of the total flux I flowing through the structure of the pressure drop ?p causing this flow can serve as an important informative characteristic for the imbalance phenomena connected with water. This flow - forcing characteristic I(?p) qualitatively changes its form with changes of so-called bifurcation parameter. From monotonous it can become S- or N-shaped. The approach to the analysis of Nature imbalance phenomenon can be illustrated by geyser eruption mechanism which is theoretically described in (Nechayev, 2012). One-dimensional motion of water flow in the geyser conduit obeys the Navier-Stokes equation. The influx of masses of water vapor due to water boiling in an underground chamber creates increasing overpressure. Bifurcation parameter is the volume of this chamber. There is a critical value of this volume (as compared with the volume of conduit) when the acceleration of the flow becomes positive and the eruption starts. The steady-state characteristic I (?p) can become S-shaped. The process of the volcanic eruption development is probably similar. In our opinion the main driving power of volcanic eruption is a contact of deep water-bearing layers to the magmatic chamber. Thermal energy of magma is transferred to the overpressure of superheated water vapor in some porous zone which is isolated from the surface. Bifurcation parameter is the volume of this vapor area. The magnitude of this volume determines the power of eruption, the velocities of lava and pyroclastic material. For the hurricanes too it is possible to find the analogous characteristic I (?p) (Nechayev, Solovyev, 2011). It can be the dependence of a full vertical air flow of horizontal pressure drop. Bifurcation parameter is the saturation mixing ratio of the moist air in the lower troposphere. Thus, despite all complexity of natural phenomena, it is possible to propose a generalized approach to the analysis of imbalance states of Nature taking into account the integral characteristics and corresponding bifurcation parameters.

  18. The ventilator circuit and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D

    2005-06-01

    Historically, the relationship between the ventilator circuit and pulmonary infection was accepted as fact, without any scientific evidence. Hence the term, "ventilator"-associated pneumonia. Recent evidence, however, has demonstrated that the major sources of pneumonia in the ventilated patient are colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, with subsequent aspiration around the endotracheal tube cuff, and contamination by caregivers. In recent years, the relationship of respiratory care equipment to ventilator-associated pneumonia has been studied carefully. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that routine changing of the ventilator circuit fails to impact the incidence of pneumonia in the ventilated patient. Additional studies evaluating the type of humidification device, type of suctioning device, and frequency of change of the devices have resulted in conflicting evidence. This paper reviews the role of the humidifier, ventilator circuit, and airway suctioning equipment on the pathogenesis and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:15913468

  19. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  20. Ventilation flow: Submerged

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    The ventilation system on a submarine is discussed. When the submarine is submerged. The ventilation system provides a conditioned atmosphere in the ship with complete isolation from the outside. A conditioned atmosphere includes not only filtration and temperature and humidity control, but also air purification (removal of potentially harmful quantities of impurities and comtaminants) and revitalization (addition of vital life support oxygen). Carbon dioxide removal, the oxygen system, air conditioning, carbon monoxide removal, hydrogen removal, and atmosphere monitoring systems are among the topics discussed.

  1. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  2. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  3. Pulmonary effects of expiratory-assisted small-lumen ventilation during upper airway obstruction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ziebart, A; Garcia-Bardon, A; Kamuf, J; Thomas, R; Liu, T; Schad, A; Duenges, B; David, M; Hartmann, E K

    2015-10-01

    Novel devices for small-lumen ventilation may enable effective inspiration and expiratory ventilation assistance despite airway obstruction. In this study, we investigated a porcine model of complete upper airway obstruction. After ethical approval, we randomly assigned 13 anaesthetised pigs either to small-lumen ventilation following airway obstruction (n=8) for 30min, or to volume-controlled ventilation (sham setting, n=5). Small-lumen ventilation enabled adequate gas exchange over 30 min. One animal died as a result of a tension pneumothorax in this setting. Redistribution of ventilation from dorsal to central compartments and significant impairment of the distribution of ventilation/perfusion occurred. Histopathology demonstrated considerable lung injury, predominantly through differences in the dorsal dependent lung regions. Small-lumen ventilation maintained adequate gas exchange in a porcine airway obstruction model. The use of this technique for 30 min by inexperienced clinicians was associated with considerable end-expiratory collapse leading to lung injury, and may also carry the risk of severe injury. PMID:26179167

  4. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  5. What Is a Ventilator?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rest of their lives. In these cases, the machines can be used outside of the hospitalin long-term care facilities or at home. A ventilator ... National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  6. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  7. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the effectiveness, first costs and operational costs of various types of residential ventilation systems in three different climates in the U.S. The Agency, through its Energy Star Program, recommends that builders construct homes that are energy efficient ...

  8. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,

  9. Distributed Perfusion Educational Model: A Shift in Perfusion Economic Realities

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Jon W.; Evans, Edward L.; Hoerr, Harry R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: In recent years, a steady decline in the number of perfusion education programs in the United States has been noted. At the same time, there has been a parallel decline in the number of students graduated from perfusion educational programs in the United States. Also, as noted by several authors, there has been an increase in demand for perfusion graduates. The decline in programs and graduates has also been noted in anesthesia and surgical residency programs. The shift is caused by a combination of economic and clinical factors. First, decreased reimbursement has led to reallocation of hospital resources. Second, the original enthusiasm for beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery was grossly overestimated and has led to further reallocation of hospital resources and denigration of cardiopulmonary bypass. This paper describes two models of perfusion education programs: serial perfusion education model (SPEM) and the distributed perfusion education model (DPEM). Arguments are presented that the SPEM has some serious limitations and challenges for long-term economic survival. The authors feel the DPEM along with dependence on tuition funding can survive the current clinical and economic conditions and allow the profession to adapt to changes in scope of practice. PMID:16524152

  10. Redox Imbalance in Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chinta, Shankar J.; Andersen, Julie K.

    2008-01-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra (SN) along with occurrence of intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies. The majority of cases of PD are sporadic in nature with late onset (95% of patients); however a few PD cases (5%) are seen in familial clusters with generally earlier onset. Although PD has been heavily researched, so far the exact cause of the rather selective cell death is unknown. Multiple lines of evidence suggest an important role for oxidative stress. Dopaminergic neurons (DA) are particularly prone to oxidative stress due to DA metabolism and auto-oxidation combined with increased iron, decreased total glutathione levels and mitochondrial complex I inhibition-induced ROS production in the SN which can lead to cell death by exceeding the oxidative capacity of DA-containing cells in the region. Enhancing antioxidant capabilities and chelating labile iron pools in this region therefore constitutes a rational approach to prevent or slow ongoing damage of DA neurons. In this review, we summarize the various sources of reactive oxygen species that may cause redox imbalance in PD as well as potential therapeutic targets for attenuation of oxidative stress associated with PD. PMID:18358848

  11. Immunological hazards from nutritional imbalance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J; Shek, P N

    1998-01-01

    This review examines the influences of nutritional imbalance on immune function of competitive athletes, who may adopt an unusual diet in an attempt to enhance performance. A major increase in body fat can have adverse effects on immune response. In contrast, a negative energy balance and reduction of body mass are likely to impair immune function in an already thin athlete. A moderate increase in polyunsaturated fat enhances immune function, but excessive consumption can be detrimental. Since endurance exercise leads to protein catabolism, an athlete may need 2.0 g/kg protein rather than the 0.7-1.0 g/kg recommended for a sedentary individual. Both sustained exercise and overtraining reduce plasma glutamine levels, which may contribute to suppressed immune function postexercise. A large intake of carbohydrate counters glutamine depletion but may also modify immune responses by altering the secretion of glucose-regulating hormones. Vitamins are important to immune function because of their antioxidant role. However, the clinical benefits of vitamin C supplementation are not enhanced by the use of more complex vitamin mixtures, and excessive vitamin E can have negative effects. Iron, selenium, zinc, calcium, and magnesium ion all influence immune function. Supplements may be required after heavy sweating, but an excessive intake of iron facilitates bacterial growth. In making dietary recommendations to athletes, it is important to recognize that immune response can be jeopardized not only by deficiencies but also by excessive intake of certain nutrients. The goal should be a well-balanced diet. PMID:9644093

  12. Regional lung perfusion estimated by electrical impedance tomography in a piglet model of lung collapse.

    PubMed

    Borges, Joo Batista; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Bohm, Stephan H; Tusman, Gerardo; Melo, Alexandre; Maripuu, Enn; Sandstrm, Mattias; Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo L V; Hedenstierna, Gran; Amato, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the regional match between alveolar ventilation and perfusion in critically ill patients requires simultaneous measurements of both parameters. Ideally, assessment of lung perfusion should be performed in real-time with an imaging technology that provides, through fast acquisition of sequential images, information about the regional dynamics or regional kinetics of an appropriate tracer. We present a novel electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-based method that quantitatively estimates regional lung perfusion based on first-pass kinetics of a bolus of hypertonic saline contrast. Pulmonary blood flow was measured in six piglets during control and unilateral or bilateral lung collapse conditions. The first-pass kinetics method showed good agreement with the estimates obtained by single-photon-emission computerized tomography (SPECT). The mean difference (SPECT minus EIT) between fractional blood flow to lung areas suffering atelectasis was -0.6%, with a SD of 2.9%. This method outperformed the estimates of lung perfusion based on impedance pulsatility. In conclusion, we describe a novel method based on EIT for estimating regional lung perfusion at the bedside. In both healthy and injured lung conditions, the distribution of pulmonary blood flow as assessed by EIT agreed well with the one obtained by SPECT. The method proposed in this study has the potential to contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of regional perfusion under different lung and therapeutic conditions. PMID:21960654

  13. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p < 0.01). Good test-retest reliability of the method was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman plot. Our findings suggest that spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  14. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p?imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  15. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure.

  16. Alterations in expression of elastogenic and angiogenic genes by different conditions of mechanical ventilation in newborn rat lung.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Andreas A; Wang, Jinxia; Post, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Here we investigated the effects of different tidal volumes (VT) and duration of ventilation on expression of genes involved in alveolarization [tropoelastin (Eln), lysyloxidase-like 1 (Loxl1), fibulin5 (Fbln5), and tenascin-C (Tnc)] and angiogenesis [platelet derived growth factors (Pdgf) and vascular endothelial growth factors (Vegf) and their receptors] in 8-day-old rats. First, pups were ventilated for 8 h with low (LVT: 3.5 ml/kg), moderate (MVT: 8.5 ml/kg), or high (HVT: 25 ml/kg) tidal volumes. LVT and MVT decreased Tnc expression, whereas HVT increased expression of all three elastogenic genes and Tnc. PDGF ?-receptor mRNA was increased in all ventilation groups, while Pdgfb expression was decreased after MVT and HVT ventilation. Only HVT ventilation upregulated Vegf expression. Independent of VT, ventilation upregulated Vegfr1 expression, while MVT and HVT downregulated Vegfr2 expression. Next, we evaluated duration (0-24 h) of MVT ventilation on gene expression. Although expression of all elastogenic genes peaked at 12 h of ventilation, only Fbln5 was negatively affected at 24 h. Tnc expression decreased with duration of ventilation. Changes in expression of Pdgfr and Vegfr were maximal at 8 h of ventilation. Disturbed elastin fiber deposition and decrease in small vessel density was only observed after 24 h. Thus, an imbalance between Fbln5 and Eln expression may trigger dysregulated elastin fiber deposition during the first 24 h of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, ventilation-induced alterations in Pdgf and Vegf receptor expression are tidal volume dependent and may affect pulmonary vessel formation. PMID:25617376

  17. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

  18. CAD of myocardial perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Corstiaan J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2007-03-01

    Our purpose is in the automated evaluation of the physiological relevance of lesions in coronary angiograms. We aim to extract as much as possible quantitative information about the physiological condition of the heart from standard angiographic image sequences. Coronary angiography is still the gold standard for evaluating and diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. The dimensions of the stenosis can be assessed nowadays successfully with image processing based Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA) techniques. Our purpose is to assess the clinical relevance of the pertinent stenosis. We therefore analyze the myocardial perfusion as revealed in standard angiographic image sequences. In a Region-of-Interest (ROI) on the angiogram (without an overlaying major blood vessel) the contrast is measured as a function of time (the so-called time-density curve). The required hyperemic state of exercise is induced artificially by the injection of a vasodilator drug e.g. papaverine. In order to minimize motion artifacts we select based on the recorded ECG signal end-diastolic images in both a basal and a hyperemic run in the same projection to position the ROI. We present the development of the algorithms together with results of a small study of 20 patients which have been catheterized following the standard protocol.

  19. Autonomic Imbalance and Borderline States of Thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laurence

    1939-01-01

    Primary thyrotoxicosis may be regarded as having two main components—thyroid overactivity or dysfunction, and instability of the autonomic nervous system. Clinical observation suggests that the proportion of each component varies in individual cases. Results of treatment show that the larger the thyroid element the greater is the benefit of thyroidectomy or X-ray therapy, and the fewer the subsequent residual signs. When nervous instability predominates less relief is obtained by surgery or X-rays, and symptoms may be little changed or even made worse by the addition of hypothyroidism. Cases in which nervous instability predominates, with minimal thyroid dysfunction, have been termed “autonomic imbalance”, “neurocirculatory asthenia”, or “Basedow's disease with no thyrotoxicosis”. Thirteen such cases are described, all of which were females, with average age of 32 years. 9 had enlarged thyroids, 11 complained of palpitations, and 8 of excessive sweating. The basal metabolic rate, estimated in 8 cases, did not exceed +10%. There was some loss of weight in 6 cases, but in none was the appetite increased. The average diurnal pulse-rate did not exceed 95 and sleeping pulse was significantly lower. X-rays of heart, taken in 6 cases, were normal. Psychological troubles in 6 cases. Three cases treated by X-ray therapy and I surgically with no benefit. Remaining 10 cases treated medically with improvement. The group is ill-defined and requires further investigation of cause and treatment. The recognition of autonomic imbalance is important in order to avoid useless thyroidectomy or X-ray therapy, and encourage more extended use of psychotherapy. Investigation of its cause may yield information of value in the ætiological problem of thyrotoxicosis. PMID:19992127

  20. Weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Scott K

    2002-04-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory failure, but numerous complications have been identified. Therefore, once clinical improvement has occurred, emphasis is placed on quickly weaning (ie, liberating) the patient from mechanical ventilation. Weaning can be subdivided into 2 components: readiness testing and progressive withdrawal. Traditionally, both clinical factors and weaning predictors have been used to assess readiness for spontaneous breathing trials, which can be carried out using a T-piece or a low level of ventilatory support. The role of weaning predictors is under investigation, and their role in clinical decision making remains poorly defined. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of weaning failure have provided a framework for identifying potentially correctable limiting factors. Randomized controlled trials suggest that several approaches to progressive withdrawal may be acceptable, though only a minority of patients require progressive withdrawal. Emerging evidence indicates that protocol-directed weaning, driven by respiratory therapists and intensive care nurses, can improve outcome. PMID:11929617

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a pneumonia that develops initially more than 48 h from the start of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The route of infection is almost always through the respiratory tract. Intake of contaminants from outside the tracheal tube (silent aspiration) is considered a key route, and suctioning of secretions that have accumulated above the cuff of the endotracheal tubes is effective in preventing infection. The circuit is managed and heated-wire humidifiers and suction are manipulated based on appropriate infection control measures. To diagnose pathogens, efforts should be made to collect specimens from the pneumonia focus. Realistically, however, diagnosis can also be achieved based on the clinical course and from the results of culture of samples from tracheal aspirate. Use of prophylactic antimicrobials is not recommended, but once a diagnosis is made, antimicrobials are administered that combat the causative microorganism. PMID:19857223

  2. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers. PMID:23678661

  3. Purge ventilation operability

    SciTech Connect

    Marella, J.R.

    1995-04-10

    A determination of minimum requirements for purge exhaust ventilation system operability has been performed. HLWE and HLW Regulatory Program personnel have evaluated the various scenarios of equipment conditions and HLWE has developed the requirements for purge exhaust systems. This report is provided to document operability requirements to assist Tank Farm personnel to determine whether a system is operable/inoperable and to define required compensatory actions.

  4. Surfactant and noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Mats; Bohlin, Kajsa

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from birth is feasible and safe even in very preterm infants. However, many infants will develop respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and require surfactant treatment. Combining a noninvasive ventilation approach with a strategy for surfactant administration is important to ensure optimal outcome, but questions remain about the optimal timing, mode of delivery and value of predictive tests for surfactant deficiency. Key findings in this review include the following: (1) a noninvasive ventilation strategy with CPAP from birth has a similar outcome to routine intubation in the delivery room; (2) prophylactic surfactant treatment has no advantage over early CPAP with selective surfactant administration; (3) surfactant during CPAP can be safely administered by rapid intubation-extubation (the INSURE method or via tracheal placement of a thin catheter), and (4) predictive tests for surfactant deficiency are being developed and might in future aid in directing surfactant treatment to infants at risk of developing severe RDS. A strategy for surfactant administration should be part of a noninvasive ventilation approach for preterm infants at risk of developing significant RDS. The different methods for surfactant administration during CPAP are reviewed here. PMID:26044100

  5. Impact of Energy Imbalance Tariff on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study that uses actual wind power data and actual energy prices to analyze the impact of an energy imbalance tariff imposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on wind power.

  6. Slow imbalance relaxation and thermoelectric transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Matthew S.; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2009-02-01

    We compute the electronic component (?) of the thermal conductivity and the thermoelectric power (?) of monolayer graphene within the hydrodynamic regime, taking into account the slow rate of carrier population imbalance relaxation. Interband electron-hole generation and recombination processes are inefficient due to the nondecaying nature of the relativistic energy spectrum. As a result, a population imbalance of the conduction and valence bands [i.e., a nonequilibrium state with ?e+?h?0 , where ?e (?h) denotes the electron (hole) chemical potential] is generically induced upon the application of a thermal gradient. We show that the thermoelectric response of a graphene monolayer depends upon the ratio of the sample length to an intrinsic length scale lQ set by the imbalance relaxation rate. At the same time, we incorporate the crucial influence of the metallic contacts required for the thermopower measurement (under open circuit boundary conditions) since carrier exchange with the contacts also relaxes the imbalance. These effects are especially pronounced for clean graphene, where the thermoelectric transport is limited exclusively by intercarrier collisions. For specimens shorter than lQ , the population imbalance extends throughout the sample; ? and ? asymptote toward their zero imbalance relaxation limits. In the opposite limit of a graphene slab longer than lQ , at nonzero doping ? and ? approach intrinsic values characteristic of the infinite imbalance relaxation limit. Samples of intermediate (long) length in the doped (undoped) case are predicted to exhibit an inhomogeneous temperature profile, while ? and ? grow linearly with the system size. In all cases except for the shortest devices, we develop a picture of bulk electron and hole number currents that flow between thermally conductive leads, where steady-state recombination and generation processes relax the accumulating imbalance. Our analysis incorporates, in addition, the effects of (weak) quenched disorder.

  7. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60 and 240s(-1)) and eccentric (30 and 120s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30s(-1) concentric quadriceps 240s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury. PMID:25426513

  8. Tc-/sup 99m/-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, P.O.; Biello, D.R.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Lee, M.E.; Ramanna, L.; Siegel, B.A.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of improved methods for radioaerosol inhalation imaging, we obtained preperfusion radioaerosol images in 107 patients (mean age . 62 years), who were referred for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). For each patient, we compared six-view aerosol images with accompanying perfusion scans and chest radiographs and with Xenon-133 (Xe-133) or Krypton-81m (Kr-81m) studies. Four observers at four different institutions independently evaluated aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion pairs, classifying the probability of PE as low, high, or indeterminate. The radioaerosol images were good to excellent in quality; excessive central deposition of activity was infrequent and did not interfere with image interpretation. The aerosol-perfusion studies showed 86% agreement with Xe-133 perfusion interpretations (n . 299) and 80% agreement with Kr-81m perfusion interpretations (n . 99). These rates of agreement were comparable with those of intraobserver agreement for gas-to-gas and aerosol-to-aerosol comparisons, and higher than interobserver agreement rates. In a limited number (n . 9) of angiographically documented cases, aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion studies provided accurate and equivalent diagnoses. The results suggest that radioaerosol inhalation studies, performed with improved nebulizers, are diagnostically equivalent to ventilation imaging as an adjunct to perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected PE.

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a hazardous location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 25.831 Section 25.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating 25.831 Ventilation... system which would adversely affect the ventilating air, the ventilation system must be designed...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a hazardous location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 25.831 Section 25.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating 25.831 Ventilation... system which would adversely affect the ventilating air, the ventilation system must be designed...

  13. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218

  14. Cadmium transport and toxicity in isolated perfused renal proximal tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cadmium is a potent toxicant preferentially accumulated in the renal cortex of humans and other animals. To assess the renal toxicity of inorganic cadmium, isolated segments (S1, S2, and S3) of rabbit renal proximal tubules were perfused with various concentrations of unlabeled cadmium chloride (CdCl[sub 2]) and a vital dye (FD C green). The tubular epithelial cells were observed under the light microscope for cellular injury and necrosis. Cellular swelling, luminal membrane blebbing, and cellular vacuolization were indicators of cellular injury, and dye uptake was indicative of cellular necrosis. To determine lumen-to-bath transport rates for cadmium, the segments were perfused with a mixture of [sup 109]CdCl[sub 2] and [sup 3]H-L-glucose; unlabeled CdCl[sub 2] was added when necessary to vary the total cadmium concentration from 1.5 [mu]M to 2000 [mu]M. Immediately after perfusion the tubules were extracted with 3% trichoroacetic acid (TCA) or with a modified Ringer's buffer of reduced osmolality to determine the fate of the cadmium removed from the lumen. Based on the toxicant indicators, increased dye uptake, increased luminal membrane blebbing, and increased vacuole formation, as the cadmium concentration was increased, cadmium was found to show toxicity to renal tubular cells at concentrations greater than 500 [mu]M. In transport experiments, increasing the cadmium concentration causes an increase in the leak of L-glucose, also indicating toxicity. A clear imbalance exists between the rate of disappearance of cadmium from the lumen and the rate of appearance in the bath for all three tubular segments. Cadmium appears to bind cellular membrane proteins, but it is extractable with 3% TCA. Cadmium, like mercury, is taken up at the luminal membrane, but very little is transported through the basolateral membrane.

  15. Ventilation in chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Torsten; Ragaller, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Chest trauma is one important factor for total morbidity and mortality in traumatized emergency patients. The complexity of injury in trauma patients makes it challenging to provide an optimal oxygenation while protecting the lung from further ventilator-induced injury to it. On the other hand, lung trauma needs to be treated on an individual basis, depending on the magnitude, location and type of lung or chest injury. Several aspects of ventilatory management in emergency patients are summarized herein and may give the clinician an overview of the treatment possibilities for chest trauma victims. PMID:21769213

  16. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  17. 4D micro-CT-based perfusion imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Johnston, S. M.; Lin, M.; Hedlund, L. W.; Johnson, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    Quantitative in-vivo imaging of lung perfusion in rodents can provide critical information for preclinical studies. However, the combined challenges of high temporal and spatial resolution have made routine quantitative perfusion imaging difficult in rodents. We have recently developed a dual tube/detector micro-CT scanner that is well suited to capture first-pass kinetics of a bolus of contrast agent used to compute perfusion information. Our approach is based on the paradigm that the same time density curves can be reproduced in a number of consecutive, small (i.e. 50?L) injections of iodinated contrast agent at a series of different angles. This reproducibility is ensured by the high-level integration of the imaging components of our system, with a micro-injector, a mechanical ventilator, and monitoring applications. Sampling is controlled through a biological pulse sequence implemented in LabVIEW. Image reconstruction is based on a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique implemented on a GPU. The capabilities of 4D micro-CT imaging are demonstrated in studies on lung perfusion in rats. We report 4D micro-CT imaging in the rat lung with a heartbeat temporal resolution of 140 ms and reconstructed voxels of 88 ?m. The approach can be readily extended to a wide range of important preclinical models, such as tumor perfusion and angiogenesis, and renal function.

  18. New ventilated isolation cage.

    PubMed

    Cook, R O

    1968-05-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH "shoebox" cage rack (60 inches wide x 28 inches deep x 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. PMID:5659368

  19. The impact of sample imbalance on identifying differentially expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Li, Jianzhong; Gao, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background Recently several statistical methods have been proposed to identify genes with differential expression between two conditions. However, very few studies consider the problem of sample imbalance and there is no study to investigate the impact of sample imbalance on identifying differential expression genes. In addition, it is not clear which method is more suitable for the unbalanced data. Results Based on random sampling, two evaluation models are proposed to investigate the impact of sample imbalance on identifying differential expression genes. Using the proposed evaluation models, the performances of six famous methods are compared on the unbalanced data. The experimental results indicate that the sample imbalance has a great influence on selecting differential expression genes. Furthermore, different methods have very different performances on the unbalanced data. Among the six methods, the welch t-test appears to perform best when the size of samples in the large variance group is larger than that in the small one, while the Regularized t-test and SAM outperform others on the unbalanced data in other cases. Conclusion Two proposed evaluation models are effective and sample imbalance should be taken into account in microarray experiment design and gene expression data analysis. The results and two proposed evaluation models can provide some help in selecting suitable method to process the unbalanced data. PMID:17217526

  20. The KUJ 2000 ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Mukka, L.

    1995-12-31

    LKAB has been mining iron ore in northern Sweden for about 100 years and now enters the next century with a major new investment in Kiruna. The underground projects involve construction of a new main haulage level, a new mining system and a new ventilation system. This paper describes the Ventilation Project from the investigation stage through to construction.

  1. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  2. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  3. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Juara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  4. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  5. Evaluation of building ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.T.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past several years, NIOSH has responded to health hazard evaluation requests from workers in dozens of office environments. Typically, the employees have complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, lethargy and the inability to concentrate. Most often inadequate ventilation has been blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stresses include: migration of odors or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust from building fume hoods or through heat wheels; buildup of microorganisms in the HVAC system components; and poor odor or environmental control due to insufficient fresh outdoor air or system heating or cooling malfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of building ventilation systems, the ventilation problems associated with poorly designed or operating systems, and the methodology for effectively evaluating system performance.

  6. Comparison of CT-derived Ventilation Maps with Deposition Patterns of Inhaled Microspheres in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods: Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1µm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results: Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1µm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies.

  7. Comparison of CT-derived ventilation maps with deposition patterns of inhaled microspheres in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Lamm, Wayne J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1μm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1μm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies. PMID:25513951

  8. Adventitial Perfusion and Intraplaque Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Song, Yan; Chen, Huijun; Kerwin, William S.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Dong, Li; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Yuan, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Autopsy studies have suggested a relationship between intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and vasa vasorum, which arise primarily from the adventitia. Adventitial vasa vasorum can be characterized in the carotid arteries by estimating perfusion parameters via dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The purpose of this investigation was to use dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to test in vivo in a clinical population whether adventitial perfusion, indicative of vasa vasorum microstructure, is associated with IPH. Methods Symptomatic patients with carotid plaque ipsilateral to the ischemic event underwent bilateral carotid artery MRI examination, which included multicontrast sequences for detecting IPH and a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence for characterizing adventitial perfusion. Kinetic modeling of the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI time series was performed to estimate adventitial vp (fractional plasma volume, reflecting local blood supply) and Ktrans (transfer constant, reflecting vessel surface area, and permeability). Results From the 27 patients (22 men; 69±10 years of age) recruited, adventitial perfusion parameters were obtained in 50 arteries. The presence of IPH was associated with a significantly higher value in adventitial Ktrans (0.142±0.042 vs 0.112±0.029 min−1; P<0.001) but not in vp (0.163±0.064 vs 0.149±0.062; P=0.338). This relationship remained after adjusting for symptomatic status, degree of stenosis, and other confounding factors. Conclusions This study demonstrated an independent pathophysiological link between the adventitia and IPH and related it to the microstructure of adventitial vasa vasorum. Adventitial perfusion imaging may be useful in studying plaque pathogenesis, but further examination through prospective studies is needed. PMID:23471271

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation....

  10. Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, A I; Maser, R E; Ziegler, D

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined. PMID:21569084

  11. Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?

    PubMed

    Vinik, A I; Maser, R E; Ziegler, D

    2011-06-01

    It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined. PMID:21569084

  12. Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Conduit, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.

  13. Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Keyserlingk, C. W. von; Conduit, G. J.

    2011-05-15

    We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.

  14. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Pauline E; Berger, Frdric

    2010-03-01

    In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2) and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA) controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA) and PHERES1 (PHE1) controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis. PMID:20333248

  15. [Mechanical ventilation in pediatrics (III). Weaning, complications and other types of ventilation. High-frequency ventilation].

    PubMed

    Martinn-Torres, F; Ibarra de la Rosa, I; Fernndez Sanmartn, M; Garca Menor, E; Marinn Snchez, J M

    2003-08-01

    In the era of lung-protective ventilation strategies, high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has attracted renewed interest and its use has dramatically increased in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. HFOV is able to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury by limiting the incidence of volutrauma, atelectrauma, barotrauma and biotrauma. During HFOV, adequate oxygenation and ventilation is achieved by using low tidal volumes and small pressure swings at supraphysiologic frequencies. Unlike other high-frequency ventilation modes, HFOV has an active expiration phase. HFOV constitutes a safe and successful ventilation mode for managing pediatric patients with respiratory insufficiency refractory to optimized conventional mechanical ventilation and provides better results when initiated early. However, the elective use of HFOV requires further studies to identify its benefits over conventional modes of mechanical ventilation and to support its routine use as a first line therapy. In the present article, the Respiratory Working Group of the Spanish Society Pediatric Critical Care reviews the main issues in the pediatric application of HFOV. In addition, a general practical protocol and specific management strategies, as well as the monitoring, patient care and other special features of the use of HFOV in the pediatric setting, are discussed. PMID:14562843

  16. [Possibilities and limitations of ventilation monitoring during anesthesia of the newborn and infants].

    PubMed

    Fsel, T; Altemeyer, K H; Heinrich, H; Lotz, P

    1984-01-01

    The following methods for monitoring the ventilation in general anaesthesia can theoretically be applied for neonates and small infants: The use of a precordial stethoscope, measurements and observation of the ventilation pressure, analysis of the inspiratory oxygen concentration, measurement of the expiratory volume, analysis of end-tidal CO2, transcutaneous O2 and CO2 measurement and blood gas analysis. These methods are evaluated and their limitations discussed. Special attention is paid to the application of these methods used in the different paediatric anaesthetic systems. A three graded plan which classifies the risks for the patients and/or the operations is presented in order to rationalize the use of these methods, some of which require expensive equipment. The basic ventilation monitoring includes, even for short operations in healthy patients (Grade I), the precordial stethoscope, the measurement of the inspiratory oxygen concentration, the measurement of the ventilation pressure and, for school age children also measurement of the expiratory volume. For operations lasting longer than one hour (Grade II) end-tidal CO2 analysis should be used when the ventilation-perfusion ratio is undisturbed. Transcutaneous O2 is desirable, but at the present time not accurate for conditions of general anaesthesia. For all high risk patients and/or operations (Grade III), particularly in the neonates, arterial blood gases are indispensable as well as the other methods for monitoring ventilation. PMID:6424495

  17. Potential Role of Lung Ventilation Scintigraphy in the Assessment of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Begic, Amela

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the importance of the lung ventilation scintigraphy (LVS) to study the regional distribution of lung ventilation and to describe most frequent abnormal patterns of lung ventilation distribution obtained by this technique in COPD and to compare the information obtained by LVS with the that obtained by traditional lung function tests. Material and methods: The research was done in 20 patients with previously diagnosed COPD who were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo in exacerbation of COPD during first three months of 2014. Each patient was undergone to testing of pulmonary function by body plethysmography and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy with radio pharmaceutics Technegas, 111 MBq Tc -99m-MAA. We compared the results obtained by these two methods. Results: All patients with COPD have a damaged lung function tests examined by body plethysmography implying airflow obstruction, but LVS indicates not only airflow obstruction and reduced ventilation, but also indicates the disorders in distribution in lung ventilation. Conclusion: LVS may add further information to the functional evaluation of COPD to that provided by traditional lung function tests and may contribute to characterizing the different phenotypes of COPD. PMID:25132709

  18. Solar ventilation and tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admek, Karel; Pavlů, Milo; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  19. Ridge ventilator door

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsings, R.D.; Norling, R.E.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a ridge ventilating device for regulating air flow through a ridge passage in the roof of a building, which comprises: (a) first and second elongate opposed door panels on parallel hinges for attachment to the roof of the building; (b) an elongate actuating unit depending from the door panels and having a mounting pivot for attachment to the interior roof structure of the building. The elongate actuating unit has a pair of elongate upright connecting links with upper ends each pivotally connected to one of the doors. Lower ends pivotally connects together by a common pivot by which upward thrust may be imparted to the links. The actuating unit has an elongate extensible and retractable means with an upper end connected to the common pivot and a lower end connected to the mounting pivot to open and close the doors in response to extension and retraction of the extensible and retractable means.

  20. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  1. Cardiac gated ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1995-05-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

  2. Influence of perfusate on liver viability during hypothermic machine perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jian-Hui; Chen, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Fei; He, Ning; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To optimize the perfusates used for hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 12 per group) that received either saline, University of Wisconsin cold-storage solution (UW) or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK) as the perfusate. Each group was divided into two subgroups: static cold storage (SCS) and HMP (n = 6 per subgroup). The liver graft was retrieved according to the method described by Kamada. For the SCS group, the graft was directly placed into cold perfusate (0-4?C) for 6 h after liver isolation while the portal vein of the graft was connected to the perfusion machine for the HMP group. Then the perfusates were collected at different time points for analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Liver tissues were obtained for evaluation of histology, dry/wet weight (D/W) ratio, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) levels. The portal vein pressure and velocity were monitored in real time in all HMP subgroups. RESULTS: Comparison of HMP and SCS: Regardless of the perfusate, HMP improved the architecture of donor graft in reducing the congestion around sinusoids and central vein and maintaining sinusoid lining in morphology; HMP improved liver function in terms of ALT, AST and LDH, especially during the 3-6 h period (SCS vs HMP using saline: ALT3, 225.00 105.62 vs 49.50 18.50, P = 0.047; LDH3, 1362.17 563.30 vs 325.75 147.43, P = 0.041; UW: LDH6, 2880.14 948.46 vs 2135.00 174.27, P = 0.049; HTK, AST6, 307.50 52.95 vs 185.20 20.46, P = 0.041); HMP decreased MDA level (saline, 2.79 0.30 vs 1.09 0.09, P = 0.008; UW, 3.01 0.77 vs 1.23 0.68, P = 0.005; HTK, 3.30 0.52 vs 1.56 0.22, P = 0.006). Comparison among HMP subgroups: HTK showed less portal vein resistance than UW and saline (vs saline, 3.41 0.49 vs 5.00 0.38, P < 0.001; vs UW, 3.41 0.49 vs 4.52 0.63, P = 0.007); UW reduced edema most efficiently (vs saline, 0.68 0.02 vs 0.79 0.05, P = 0.013), while HTK maintained ATP levels best (vs saline, 622.60 29.11 vs 327.43 44.66, P < 0.001; vs UW, 622.60 29.11 vs 301.80 37.68, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HMP is superior to SCS in maintaining both architecture and function of liver grafts. Further, HTK was found to be the optimal perfusate for HMP. PMID:26269674

  3. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  4. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  5. Regional coronary perfusion and bioenergetics in experimental atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zwolak, R. M.; Malik, A. B.; Morrison, E. S.; Scott, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of experimental coronary atherosclerosis on myocardial high energy phosphates and regional coronary perfusion and oxygen delivery were studied. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) New Zealand white rabbits developed mild to moderate coronary vascular disease in 4 months when serum cholesterol levels were maintained at 1500--2000 mg/dl. Resting left ventricular levels of creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the cellular energy charge were unaltered after 2 months of diet but were decreased after 4 and 6 months. Tissue lactate and the lactate/pyruvate ratio were increased after 4 months, suggesting mild tissue ischemia. The regional blood flow rate was measured in rabbits given pentobarbital after 6 months of diet using labeled microspheres, and the response to stress was tested after 5 minutes of hypoxic ventilation (5% O2/N2). The percentage of cardiac output to subendocardium (endo) and subepicardium (epi) in HC rabbits and that in control animals were similar at rest, but unlike that of control animals, the endo perfusion did not increase significantly in HC animals during hypoxic stress. Baseline regional left ventricular oxygen deliveries were similar between groups, but the baseline endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio was reduced in HC rabbits. In control rabbits hypoxia did not alter total O2 delivery, and the endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio was constant, whereas hypoxia in HC animals produced a decrease in total oxygen delivery and a further decrease in the endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio. Thus, moderate long-term coronary occlusive disease produced alterations in the distribution of coronary perfusion that are similar to those after acute partial occlusion, ie, selective reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to subendocardium. These results may relate to the pathogenesis of subendocardial infarction in man, which often occurs in the absence of complete coronary occlusion. Images Figure 1 PMID:7361855

  6. 6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION HOUSE. THIS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WAS INSTALLED BY PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS WHEN THE MILL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1923-24. ONE AIR WASHER AND FAN ROOM EXTERIOR IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. THE DUCTS FROM BOTH FAN ROOMS (CURVED METAL STRUCTURES AT CENTER AND LEFT OF PHOTO) ARE CONNECTED TO A COMMON AIR SHAFT. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  7. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  8. Gender Imbalance in Accounting Academia: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Charles E.; Pate, Gwen R.; Clark, Stanley J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s reflected a gender imbalance in the accounting academy as the proportion of female professors fell far below the percentage of women accountants in practice. For a sample of doctoral-granting and nondoctoral-granting Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) institutions, the

  9. Addressing Gender Imbalance in Nigeria's Higher Education through Institutional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the gender imbalance among students in Nigeria's higher education and the possible ways to addressing them. The poor access of female gender to higher education in Nigeria has become a thing of great concern to all stakeholders such as School authorities, Government, International agencies and employers of labor. The paper

  10. Labor Markets in Imbalance: Review of Qualitative Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, James L.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    Recent statistical investigations indicate that labor market imbalance has increased during the past decade and has had important deleterious effects on the nation's inflation and productivity growth records. A growing difficulty in filling skilled jobs at a given unemployment rate is reflected. Business community analysts attribute the growing…

  11. Nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Elfverson, S.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system, preferably arranged in a vehicle, including at least one outlet housing with a through-flow duct for ventilation air, a fixed plate transverse to the flow duct and rigidly attached to the outlet housing, and a plurality of plates parallel to the fixed plate. These plates are mutually displaceable in a direction transverse to the flow duct under the action of a control lever passing through the plates, the plates being formed with perforation patterns, which in coaction form ventilation ducts through which the ventilation air can flow and in response to the setting of the control lever cause deviation of the flow direction of the ventilation air. Each displaceable plate is formed with a grid cross comprising at least two intersecting bars, of which one bar has a substantially circular cross section, while the other bar has a substantially elliptical cross section and wherein the control lever is adapted to grip round a grid cross, the control lever having two pairs of longitudinal slots. One pair of the slots is adapted to grip without play one of the intersecting bars in each respective grid cross. The other pair of slots comprises a first slot adapted to grip without play the other of the intersecting bars, and a second slot formed with a width disabling engagement with the other of the intersecting bars.

  12. Genomic imbalances in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Fasel, David A.; Levy, Brynn; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Wuttke, Matthias; Abraham, Alison G.; Kaskel, Frederick; Köttgen, Anna; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Wong, Craig S.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. There is frequent uncertainty in the identification of specific etiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Recent studies indicate that chromosomal microarrays can identify rare genomic imbalances that can clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental and cardiac disorders in children; however, the contribution of unsuspected genomic imbalance to the incidence of pediatric CKD is unknown. METHODS. We performed chromosomal microarrays to detect genomic imbalances in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study, a longitudinal prospective multiethnic observational study of North American children with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with clinically detectable syndromic disease were excluded from evaluation. We compared 419 unrelated children enrolled in CKiD to multiethnic cohorts of 21,575 children and adults that had undergone microarray genotyping for studies unrelated to CKD. RESULTS. We identified diagnostic copy number disorders in 31 children with CKD (7.4% of the cohort). We detected 10 known pathogenic genomic disorders, including the 17q12 deletion HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and triple X syndromes in 19 of 419 unrelated CKiD cases as compared with 98 of 21,575 control individuals (OR 10.8, P = 6.1 × 10–20). In an additional 12 CKiD cases, we identified 12 likely pathogenic genomic imbalances that would be considered reportable in a clinical setting. These genomic imbalances were evenly distributed among patients diagnosed with congenital and noncongenital forms of CKD. In the vast majority of these cases, the genomic lesion was unsuspected based on the clinical assessment and either reclassified the disease or provided information that might have triggered additional clinical care, such as evaluation for metabolic or neuropsychiatric disease. CONCLUSION. A substantial proportion of children with CKD have an unsuspected genomic imbalance, suggesting genomic disorders as a risk factor for common forms of pediatric nephropathy. Detection of pathogenic imbalances has practical implications for personalized diagnosis and health monitoring in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00327860. FUNDING. This work was supported by the NIH, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. PMID:25893603

  13. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  15. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 183.610... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  17. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 183.610... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built...

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  19. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  20. Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Naomi D L; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Hollenberg, Norman K

    2006-01-01

    Foods and beverages rich in flavonoids are being heralded as potential preventive agents for a range of pathologic conditions, ranging from hypertension to coronary heart disease to stroke and dementia. We and others have demonstrated that short-term ingestion of cocoa, particularly rich in the subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, induced a consistent and striking peripheral vasodilation in healthy people, improving endothelial function in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. The vasodilator response was reversed by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an arginine analog that blocks nitric oxide synthesis. Flavanol-poor cocoa induced much smaller responses. Because impairment of endothelial function is a nearly universal accompaniment of the aging process, we examined the peripheral vasodilator response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy older subjects. Observations point to a favorable response among the older. Together with peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease is responsible for significant mortality with advancing age. An association of decreased cerebral perfusion with dementia has been recently highlighted. The prospect of increasing cerebral perfusion with cocoa flavanols is extremely promising. Our still preliminary data hold out the promise that the cerebral blood supply in the elderly participates in the vasodilator response. With the modalities of transcranial Doppler and MRI, we have the capabilities of analyzing the potential benefits of flavanols on brain perfusion and, subsequently, on cognition. PMID:16794460

  1. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Cot, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

  2. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must... with the controls for every power ventilation system to which this section is applicable; and (b)...

  4. Digital Compensation of IQ Imbalance for Dual-Carrier Double Conversion Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chester Sungchung; Park, Fitzgerald Sungkyung

    A receiver architecture and a digital IQ imbalance compensation method for dual-carrier reception are newly proposed. The impact of IQ imbalance on the baseband signal is mathematically analyzed. Based on the analysis, IQ imbalance parameters are estimated and the coupling effect of IQ imbalance is compensated using digital baseband processing alone. Simulation results show that the proposed IQ imbalance compensation successfully removes IQ imbalance. The deviation from the ideal performance is less than 1dB when it is applied to the 3GPP-LTE carrier aggregation.

  5. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  6. Mechanical ventilation in rural ICUs

    PubMed Central

    Fieselmann, John F; Bock, M Jeanne; Hendryx, Michael S; Wakefield, Douglas; Helms, Charles M; Bentler, Suzanne E

    1999-01-01

    Background: In recent years, rural hospitals have expanded their scope of specialized services, which has led to the development and staffing of rural intensive care units (ICUs). There is little information about the breadth, quality or outcomes of these services. This is particularly true for specialized ICU services such as mechanical ventilation, where little, if any, information exists specifically for rural hospitals. The long-term objectives of this project were to evaluate the quality of medical care provided to mechanically ventilated patients in rural ICUs and to improve patient care through an educational intervention. This paper reports baseline data on patient and hospital characteristics for both rural and rural referral hospitals. Results: Twenty Iowa hospitals were evaluated. Data collected on 224 patients demonstrated a mean age of 70 years and a mean ICU admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22, with an associated 36% mortality. Mean length of ICU stay was 10 days, with 7.7 ventilated days. Significant differences were found in both institutional and patient variables between rural referral hospitals and rural hospitals with more limited resources. A subgroup of patients with diagnoses associated with complex ventilation had higher mortality rates than patients without these conditions. Patients who developed nosocomial events had longer mean ventilator and ICU days than patients without nosocomial events. This study also found ICU practices that frequently fell outside the guidelines recommended by a task force describing minimum standards of care for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: Despite distinct differences in the available resources between rural referral and rural hospitals, overall mortality rates of ventilated patients are similar. Considering the higher mortality rates observed in patients with complicated medical conditions requiring complex ventilation management, the data may suggest that this subgroup could benefit from treatment at a tertiary center with greater resources and technology. PMID:11056720

  7. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2003-07-18

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

  8. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO{sub 2} (PaCO{sub 2}: 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5{degree}C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous {sup 133}Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of {sup 133}Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO{sub 2}, cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure.

  9. Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, P.O.; Biello, D.R.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Lee, M.E.; Ramanna, L.; Siegel, B.A.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of improved methods for radioaerosol inhalation imaging, we obtained preperfusion radioaerosol images in 107 patients (mean age = 62 years), who were referred for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). For each patient, we compared six-view aerosol images with accompanying perfusion scans and chest radiographs and with Xenon-133 (Xe-133) or Krypton-81 m (Kr-81m) studies. Four observers at four different institutions independently evaluated aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion pairs, classifying the probability of PE as low, high, or indeterminate. The results suggest that radioaerosol inhalation studies, performed with improved nebulizers, are diagnostically equivalent to ventilation imaging as an adjunct to perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected PE.

  10. Water and Carbon as Creators of Imbalances in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    Our studies are showing that the carbon and water are closely intertwined. There are many reasons to study the imbalance of water and carbon together. For example, in photosynthesis six molecules of water and six molecules of carbon dioxide have created one molecule of sugar and six molecules of oxygen. 6H2O + 6CO2 go C6H12O6 + 6O2 For water and carbon dioxide, regarding the point of view of the imbalance, this process is the creator of imbalance of the decreasing type. The concentration of water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will decrease. For oxygen this process is the creator of imbalance of the increasing type. The concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere will increase. Water and carbon dioxide can be created independently of each other. For example, water is obtained from combining two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom: 2 H2 + O2 go 2 H2O Carbon dioxide also is possible to create without water: Na2CO3 go Na2O + CO2 or CaCO3 go CaO + CO2 But it is very often the water and carbon dioxide made up simultaneously in one reaction. For example combustion of methane gives carbon dioxide and water: CH4 + 2 O2 go CO2 + 2 H2O Carbon dioxide can come up more complicated way. Initially created carbon monoxide and water 2 CH4 + 3 O2 go 2 CO + 4 H2O After then the carbon monoxide rapidly oxidized to carbon dioxide. The gasification of solid fuels is the reaction: C + H20 go CO + H2 In the next step carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide, and hydrogen is oxidized to water. C3H8 + 5 O2 go 3 CO2 + 4 H2O By the incomplete combustion of propane will be produced some very interesting components: 2 C3H8 + 7 O2 go 8 H2O + 2 CO2 + 2 CO + 2 C It will be water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and pure carbon. Carbon monoxide will oxidize to carbon dioxide. But the pure carbon will have a very serious going on. By the incomplete combustion of not only propane, but other hydrocarbons, will be produced and the pure carbon also. This "pure carbon" or "black carbon" plays a very important role as the accelerator of the glaciers melting. The "black carbon" is one of the most important creators of the imbalance of water in Nature. More than a billion people of the world population are seriously dependent from the imbalances which create a "black carbon". There are many other processes of interaction between water and carbon, which creates imbalances of various types. We see that the imbalance of water and the imbalance of carbon sometimes can be controlled or at least, we would be prepared for unintended consequences.

  11. Myocardial perfusion imaging using contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles are an excellent intravascular tracer, and both the rate of myocardial opacification (analogous to coronary microvascular perfusion) and contrast intensity (analogous to myocardial blood volume) provide unique insights into myocardial perfusion. A strong evidence base has been accumulated to show comparability with nuclear perfusion imaging and incremental diagnostic and prognostic value relative to wall motion analysis. This technique also provides the possibility to measure myocardial perfusion at the bedside. Despite all of these advantages, the technique is complicated, technically challenging, and has failed to scale legislative and financial hurdles. The development of targeted imaging and therapeutic interventions will hopefully rekindle interest in this interesting modality. PMID:25817740

  12. Perioperative uses of transcranial perfusion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Transcranial perfusion monitoring provides early warning of impending brain ischemia and may be used to guide management of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. The monitoring options include measurement of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures, assessment of cerebral blood flow, and assessment of the adequacy of perfusion by measurement of cerebral oxygenation and brain tissue biochemistry. Some monitoring techniques are well established, whereas others are relatively new to the clinical arena and their indications are still being evaluated. Currently available monitoring techniques are reviewed and their appropriateness and application to the perioperative period is discussed. PMID:17884708

  13. [Impact of combined anesthesia using isoflurane on the development of adaptation mechanisms on changing ventilation conditions in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Vyzhigina, M A; Riabova, O S; Kulagina, T Iu; Zhukova, S G; Parshin, V D; Sandrikov, V A; Buniatian, A A

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of isoflurane (IF) as a component of combined anesthesia during thoracic interventions in the lateral position on the development of adaptation mechanisms to a change in artificial ventilation (AV) modes--from ventilation of both lungs to that of one lung (unilateral ventilation, ULV), long exposure to ULV and to a change from ULV to ventilation of both lungs. Eighteen patients at a high operation-anesthetic risk were examined. Measurements were made in 6 steps, including conditions in AV, exposure to ULV for 15-30, 55-60, and 80-120 minutes, AV after 20-min exposure to ULV, and at the end of surgery in the supine position. While analyzing the results, the authors made an important observation that IF has a property of preventing capillary formation in the ventilated portions, without impairing the mechanism of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction in the area of atelectized alveoles. This contributed to the optimization of a ventilation-perfusion relationship and creates conditions for adequate oxygenation. The use of IF as a component of combined anesthesia during thoracic operations associated with a need for artificial unilateral ventilation in patients at a high operation-anesthetic risk created conditions for optimizing gas exchange and blood circulation at all stages of an operation and anesthesia. PMID:17184063

  14. Vasomotor tone does not affect perfusion heterogeneity and gas exchange in normal primate lungs during normoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenny, R. W.; Robertson, H. T.; Hlastala, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether vasoregulation is an important cause of pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity, we measured regional blood flow and gas exchange before and after giving prostacyclin (PGI(2)) to baboons. Four animals were anesthetized with ketamine and mechanically ventilated. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mark regional perfusion before and after PGI(2) infusion. The lungs were subsequently excised, dried inflated, and diced into approximately 2-cm(3) pieces (n = 1,208-1,629 per animal) with the spatial coordinates recorded for each piece. Blood flow to each piece was determined for each condition from the fluorescent signals. Blood flow heterogeneity did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Two other measures of spatial blood flow distribution, the fractal dimension and the spatial correlation, did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Alveolar-arterial O(2) differences did not change with PGI(2) infusion. We conclude that, in normal primate lungs during normoxia, vasomotor tone is not a significant cause of perfusion heterogeneity. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of blood flow, active regulation of regional perfusion is not required for efficient gas exchange.

  15. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balboa-Beltrn, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5?- and 3?-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients. Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3?-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5?-UTR polymorphisms). For neither the 3?- nor the 5?-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance. The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold, in our population. These data circumscribe the influence of these polymorphisms in the clinical outcome of 5-FU and question their use for establishing 5-FU dosage, above all when additional genetic factors are not considered. PMID:26166093

  16. Animal models of ex vivo lung perfusion as a platform for transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kevin; Bobba, Christopher; Ghadiali, Samir; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M; Whitson, Bryan A

    2014-05-20

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a powerful experimental model for isolated lung research. EVLP allows for the lungs to be manipulated and characterized in an external environment so that the effect of specific ventilation/perfusion variables can be studied independent of other confounding physiologic contributions. At the same time, EVLP allows for normal organ level function and real-time monitoring of pulmonary physiology and mechanics. As a result, this technique provides unique advantages over in vivo and in vitro models. Small and large animal models of EVLP have been developed and each of these models has their strengths and weaknesses. In this manuscript, we provide insight into the relative strengths of each model and describe how the development of advanced EVLP protocols is leading to a novel experimental platform that can be used to answer critical questions in pulmonary physiology and transplant medicine. PMID:24977117

  17. Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion.

  18. Optimal ventilation of the anesthetized pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the pediatric patient is challenging because small changes in delivered volume can be a significant fraction of the intended tidal volume. Anesthesia ventilators have traditionally been poorly suited to delivering small tidal volumes accurately, and pressure-controlled ventilation has become used commonly when caring for pediatric patients. Modern anesthesia ventilators are designed to deliver small volumes accurately to the patient's airway by compensating for the compliance of the breathing system and delivering tidal volume independent of fresh gas flow. These technology advances provide the opportunity to implement a lung-protective ventilation strategy in the operating room based upon control of tidal volume. This review will describe the capabilities of the modern anesthesia ventilator and the current understanding of lung-protective ventilation. An optimal approach to mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient is described, emphasizing the importance of using bedside monitors to optimize the ventilation strategy for the individual patient. PMID:25625261

  19. Cigarette smoke ventilation decreases prostaglandin inactivation in rat and hamster lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Maennistoe, J.; Uotila, P.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of exogenous PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were investigated in isolated rat and hamster lungs. When isolated lungs from animals were ventilated with cigarette smoke during pulmonary infusion of 100 nmol of PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, the amounts of the 15-keto-metabolites in the perfusion effluent were decreased. Pre-exposure of animals to cigarette smoke daily for 3 weeks did not change the metabolism of PGE2 when the lungs were ventilated with air. Cigarette smoke ventilation of lungs from pre-exposed animals caused, however, a similar decrease in the metabolism of PGE2 as in animals not previously exposed to smoke. After pulmonary injection of 10 nmol of /sup 14/C-PGE2 the radioactivity appeared more rapidly in the effluent during cigarette smoke ventilation suggesting inhibition of the PGE2 uptake mechanism. In rat lungs pulmonary vascular pressor responses to PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were inhibited by smoke ventilation.

  20. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  1. Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.

  2. Staff nurse empowerment and effort-reward imbalance.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Kinga M; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Kerr, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an expanded model of Rosabeth Moss Kanter's Structural Theory of Organizational Behaviour (Kanter 1977; Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian and Wilk 2001) by examining the relationship between nurses' empowerment and their perceptions of effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist 1996). A sample of 112 staff nurses employed in teaching hospitals in Ontario participated in this study (58% return rate). A descriptive correlational survey design was used to collect data by eLiciting responses to five self-report instruments: the Conditions of Work Effectiveness II, the Job Activities Scale II, and the Organizational Relationships Scale II (Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian and Wilk 2001), the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) scale (Siegrist and Peter 1999a) and a demographic questionnaire. Staff nurses were only moderately empowered, and 24.1% perceived their work to have more efforts than rewards, according to Siegrist's guidelines. PMID:15503922

  3. Thrust imbalance of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Sforzini, R. H.; Shackelford, B. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Monte Carlo statistical analysis of thrust imbalance is applied to both the Titan IIIC and the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors (SRMs) firing in parallel, and results are compared with those obtained from the Space Shuttle program. The test results are examined in three phases: (1) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the four developmental motors (DMs 1 through 4); (2) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the three quality assurance motors (QMs 1 through 3); (3) SRMs on the first flight test vehicle (STS-1A and STS-1B). The simplified internal ballistic model utilized for computing thrust from head-end pressure measurements on flight tests is shown to agree closely with measured thrust data. Inaccuracies in thrust imbalance evaluation are explained by possible flight test instrumentation errors.

  4. Lung-lung interaction in isolated perfused unilateral hyperventilated rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Aishan; Kurata, Shunichi; Ikeda, Satoshi; Georgieva, Gabriela S; Zhu, Chenting; Tomita, Makoto; Katoh, Iyoko; Mitaka, Chieko; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Imai, Takasuke

    2010-05-01

    The technique of conducting high tidal volume (TV) ventilation-induced lung inflammation including remote organs is still open to discussion, and our aim is to investigate this issue in isolated ventilated rat lungs perfused with salt solution. Selective right lung (RL) hyperventilation (TV of 15 mL/kg with air containing 5% CO(2) on zero or 2.5 cm H(2)0 end expiratory pressure [ZEEP or PEEP] in addition to left lung (LL) on 2.5 cm H(2)0 continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for 60 min, was realized after 30 min both lungs ventilation by occluding the left main bronchus, and it was allocated to the following 5 groups: groups 1 and 2 underwent hyperventilation under ZEEP, groups 3 and 4 underwent hyper ventilation under PEEP with recirculation or nonrecirculation (R-ZEEP or NR-ZEEP and R-PEEP or NR-PEEP), and group 5 served as the control group. Recirculation means the same perfusate recirculates the system throughout the procedure. The wet/dry ratio and protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Prot-BALF), cytokine messenger RNAs (mRNAs), localization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by immunofluorescence double staining, and TNF-alpha concentration in the perfusate and BALF in each lung were measured and compared between groups by Kruskal-Wallis test. Lung injury (increased wet/dry ratio, Prot-BALF, and TNF-alpha on endothelial and epithelial cells) was shown in the hyperventilated RLs with ZEEP compared with their corresponding CPAP LLs. PEEP prevented these injuries. Lung injury was also demonstrated in the recirculated LL compared with the nonrecirculated LL (Prot-BALF, TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta] mRNAs: the LL of the R-ZEEP is greater than the LL of NR-ZEEP by P < 0.01). Unilateral hyperventilated lungs with ZEEP induced TNF-alpha, increased permeability, and injured the control lung via perfusion. PMID:20403578

  5. Money and age in schools: Bullying and power imbalances.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; Castellanos, Melisa

    2014-09-12

    School bullying continues to be a serious problem around the world. Thus, it seems crucial to clearly identify the risk factors associated with being a victim or a bully. The current study focused in particular on the role that age and socio-economic differences between classmates could play on bullying. Logistic and multilevel analyses were conducted using data from 53,316 5th and 9th grade students from a representative sample of public and private Colombian schools. Higher age and better family socio-economic conditions than classmates were risk factors associated with being a bully, while younger age and poorer socio-economic conditions than classmates were associated with being a victim of bullying. Coming from authoritarian families or violent neighborhoods, and supporting beliefs legitimizing aggression, were also associated with bullying and victimization. Empathy was negatively associated with being a bully, and in some cases positively associated with being a victim. The results highlight the need to take into account possible sources of power imbalances, such as age and socio-economic differences among classmates, when seeking to prevent bullying. In particular, interventions focused on peer group dynamics might contribute to avoid power imbalances or to prevent power imbalances from becoming power abuse. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25219327

  6. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  7. Sumatriptan and cerebral perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scott, A K; Grimes, S; Ng, K; Critchley, M; Breckenridge, A M; Thomson, C; Pilgrim, A J

    1992-04-01

    1. The effect of sumatriptan on regional cerebral perfusion was studied in healthy volunteers. 2. Intravenous sumatriptan (2 mg) had no detectable effect on regional cerebral perfusion as measured using a SPECT system with 99technetiumm labelled hexemethylpropyleneamineoxime. 3. Sumatriptan had no effect on pulse, blood pressure or ECG indices. 4. All six volunteers experienced minor adverse effects during the intravenous infusion. PMID:1315562

  8. Musculoskeletal pain and effort-reward imbalance- a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question. Methods A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180193, 2001). Results After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one casecontrol study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively. Conclusions On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on the association between ERI and musculoskeletal pain, additional longitudinal studies must be performed - with a standardised method for recording and classifying exposure, as well as control of physical confounders. Appropriate preventive measures can then be specified. PMID:24428955

  9. Fracture ventilation by surface winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Dragila, M. I.; Weisbrod, N.

    2011-12-01

    Gas exchange between the Earth subsurface and the atmosphere is an important mechanism, affecting hydrological, agricultural and environmental processes. From a hydrological aspect, water vapor transport is the most important process related to Earth-atmosphere gas exchange. In respect to agriculture, gas transport in the upper soil profile is important for soil aeration. From an environmental aspect, emission of volatile radionuclides, such as 3H, 14C and Rd from radioactive waste disposal facilities; volatile organic components from industrial sources and Rn from natural sources, all found in the upper vadose zone, can greatly affect public health when emissions occur in populated areas. Thus, it is vital to better understand gas exchange processes between the Earth's upper crust and atmosphere. Four major mechanisms are known to transfer gases between ground surface and atmosphere: (1) Diffusion; (2) Pressure gradients between ground pores and atmosphere due to changes in barometric pressure; (3) Density-driven gas flow in respond to thermal gradients in the ground; and (4) Winds above the ground surface. Herein, the wind ventilation mechanism is studied. Whereas the wind's impact on ground ventilation was explored in several studies, the physical mechanisms governing this process were hardly quantified or characterized. In this work the physical properties of fracture ventilation due to wind blowing along land surface were explored and quantified. Both field measurements and Hele-Shaw experiments under controlled conditions in the laboratory were used to study this process. It was found that winds in the range of 0.3 m/s result in fracture ventilation down to a depth of 0.2 m. As wind velocity increases, the depth of the ventilation inside the fracture increases respectively, in a linear manner. In addition, the fracture aperture also affects the depth of ventilation, which grows as fracture aperture increases. For the maximal examined aperture of 2 cm and wind velocity of 1.25 m/s, fracture ventilation was deeper than 0.45 m. This study sheds new light on fracture ventilation, showing that moderate winds may increase evaporation and gas exchange between fractured media and the atmosphere. Even though wind impact is limited to the top 0.5 m below the ground surface, it is an important process as most of the biological activities, as well as important hydrological processes occur in this region. Wind effect should be considered when modeling mass and energy balances between the Earth upper crust and atmosphere.

  10. ICA-based compensation for IQ imbalance in OFDM optical fiber communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Hu, Guijun; Li, Zhaoxi; Mu, Liping; Zhang, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    A method based on the independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed to compensate the in-phase and quadrature-phase the (IQ) imbalance in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) optical fiber communication systems. The mathematical model of IQ imbalance system has been analyzed. Then, ICA algorithm is applied in the system to combat the mirror interference introduced by IQ imbalance. This algorithm can realize the joint compensation of both transmitter and receiver IQ imbalance with the optical channel that contains noise, attenuation and chromatic dispersion. The simulation shows that the performance degradation caused by IQ imbalance can be compensated by ICA algorithm effectively.

  11. Contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to eupneic ventilation in the intact, unanesthetized dog

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Grgory M.; Smith, Curtis A.; Henderson, Kathleen S.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

    2009-01-01

    We used extracorporeal perfusion of the reversibly isolated carotid sinus region to determine the effects of specific carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor inhibition on eupneic ventilation (V?i) in the resting, awake, intact dog. Four female spayed dogs were studied during wakefulness when CB was perfused with 1) normoxic, normocapnic blood; and 2) hyperoxic (>500 mmHg), hypocapnic (?20 mmHg) blood to maximally inhibit the CB tonic activity. We found that CB perfusion per se (normoxic-normocapnic) had no effect on V?i. CB inhibition caused marked reductions in V?i (?60%, range 4980%) and inspiratory flow rate (?58%, range 4487%) 2441 s following the onset of CB perfusion. Thereafter, a partial compensatory response was observed, and a steady state in V?i was reached after 5076 s following the onset of CB perfusion. This steady-state tidal volume-mediated hypoventilation (?31%) coincided with a significant reduction in mean diaphragm electromyogram (?24%) and increase in mean arterial pressure (+12 mmHg), which persisted for 725 min until CB perfusion was stopped, despite a substantial increase in CO2 retention (+9 Torr, arterial Pco2) and systemic respiratory acidosis. We interpret these data to mean that CB chemoreceptors contribute more than one-half to the total eupneic drive to breathe in the normoxic, intact, awake animal. We speculate that this CB contribution consists of both the normal tonic sensory input from the CB chemoreceptors to medullary respiratory controllers, as well as a strong modulatory effect on central chemoreceptor responsiveness to CO2. PMID:19246650

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems 111.103-1 Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must... with the controls for every power ventilation system to which this section is applicable; and (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems 111.103-1 Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must... with the controls for every power ventilation system to which this section is applicable; and (b)...

  14. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Underground Only 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of...

  15. 46 CFR 42.15-45 - Ventilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilators. 42.15-45 Section 42.15-45 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard 42.15-45 Ventilators. (a) Ventilators in position 1 or 2 to spaces... extend to more than 7.5 feet above the deck, need not be fitted with closing arrangements...

  16. 46 CFR 42.15-45 - Ventilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilators. 42.15-45 Section 42.15-45 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard 42.15-45 Ventilators. (a) Ventilators in position 1 or 2 to spaces... extend to more than 7.5 feet above the deck, need not be fitted with closing arrangements...

  17. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large...

  18. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large...

  19. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large...

  20. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large...

  1. 46 CFR 72.05-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 72.05-50 Section 72.05-50 Shipping COAST... Structural Fire Protection 72.05-50 Ventilation. (a) Where the term duct is used in this section, it shall include trunks, plenums, and any other type of ventilation piping, chambers, or duct work. (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping COAST... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation....

  3. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST....15-5 Ventilation. (a) Operations, reactions or experiments which produce toxic, noxious or corrosive... independent power exhaust ventilation system which terminates so as to prevent fumes from entering...

  5. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  6. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  7. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section 27.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to...

  8. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section 27.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to...

  9. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  10. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  11. Ventilation first for Melbourne hospital.

    PubMed

    2010-11-01

    Infection control is a paramount concern for hospitals worldwide. AECOM engineers in Australia designed the first ever displacement ventilation solution for a Melbourne hospital, researching how materials and systems can assist management of, and reduce, infection transmission within healthcare environments. PMID:21141233

  12. Fire Service Training. Ventilation. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers ventilation practices and principles. As background, subjects such as heat transmission and building construction are included. The three objectives of this part of the course are to enable the fireman to (1) rescue trapped victims, (2) locate fires as

  13. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Marion L.; Sherman, Max H.; Rudd, Armin

    2005-03-01

    This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.

  14. What is the Imbalance of Water in Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Look at any lake. Water comes into the lake from the atmosphere, from surface and groundwater sources. Water leaves the lake to the atmosphere, surface and underground drains, as well as for consumption by human society, wild plants and animals if they are within the boundaries of the lake's system. If quantity of water coming into the lake is equally of the quantity of water which flow from the lake, so the lake level has not changed and we have a state of equilibration or balance. The bookkeeper's book also has name "balance". But this is just a play on words. If the water is coming into the lake more than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will increase and we have a state of the imbalance of the increase type. If the water is coming into the lake less than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will decrease and we have a state of the imbalance of the decrease type. Everyone knows that the lake level rises or falls, for example during the year. Sometimes it is happened some balance. But the state of balance is rare and in of the short duration. The lake is of most the time in the conditions of the imbalance increases or the imbalance decreases type. The balance as a state of equilibrium, in the language of mathematics, is the point of the extremum between the periods of rise and fall. The balance is a special condition, which is existing very rare and a very short period of time. The people sometimes to do the great efforts for maintain the constant level of the lakes. But these facts don't change the situation. On the contrary, the human's struggle for maintain the lake in constant level just shows how difficult and expensive to go against the natural laws of Nature. When water was plentiful, these facts could be ignored. But now when the global water shortage is quickly growing, many previously ignored details are becoming crucial. There are very important to do the correct definitions of the borders and parameters of the system. The precise of the measurement of the parameters system have the decisive role. The systemic approach to addressing the imbalance, we will describe in another separate paper. Now in our case, the lake and its effective environment is one system. It is possible so roughly determine the system of lakes that will be always to do the report exact which wants the boss. It is happened quite often. For example, it was the time when the human's leaders have used the hypothesis that the Earth is flat and the Sky is hard. This dominant interpretation of the Nature was used by force a lot of centuries. Who were disagreed with these statements those were burned at the stake, etc. This situation was change only when the domestic recourses were exhausted. The new recourses were possible to get as expansion to other countries, continents, space etc. The flat Earth and the hard Sky not help more. Now the balance idea is in some similar situation. The balance is a convenient, relaxing hypothesis or model. This model gave a lot of opportunities for the development of science and practice in the past. But the humanity is in other conditions now. Rest we have only on the dream. The era of the balance is going to end. The era of the imbalance is coming now for future. The humanity must to learn to live in an era of great change or disappear.

  15. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  16. Mass imbalance error of waterhammer equations and leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, C.P. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The waterhammer equations can be used to compute mass inventory changes for pipeline leak detection. In such applications the pipeline is monitored continuously in time and there is no clear demarcation between steady-state and transients. This paper addresses a mass imbalance error of the waterhammer equations. The authors establish that the net mass influx error for the waterhammer equations at the steady-state with maximum flow-rate bounds the same error during transients. A method to evaluate this bound is presented. Using petroleum products pipelines as an example, they show that the waterhammer equations are not accurate enough for leak detection in some systems.

  17. Cardiac MRI assessment of myocardial perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamirani, Yasmin S; Kramer, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity around the globe. Assessment of myocardial perfusion to diagnose ischemia is commonly performed in symptomatic patients prior to referral for cardiac catheterization. Among other noninvasive imaging modalities, cardiac MRI (CMR) is emerging as a highly sensitive and specific test for myocardial ischemia and infarction. Resting perfusion on CMR is used to evaluate for microvascular obstruction, which is shown to predict adverse left ventricular remodeling and cardiac events after acute myocardial infarction. This article summarizes the current understanding of CMR perfusion. PMID:24976472

  18. The basis and basics of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bone, R C; Eubanks, D H

    1991-06-01

    The development of mechanical ventilators and the procedures for their application began with the simple foot pump developed by Fell O'Dwyer in 1888. Ventilators have progressed through three generations, beginning with intermittent positive pressure breathing units such as the Bird and Bennett device in the 1960s. These were followed by second-generation units--represented by the Bennett MA-2 ventilator--in the 1970s, and the third-generation microprocessor-controlled units of today. During this evolutionary process clinicians recognized Types I and II respiratory failure as being indicators for mechanical ventilatory support. More recently investigators have expanded, clarified, and clinically applied the physiology of the work of breathing (described by Julius Comroe and other pioneers) to muscle fatigue, requiring ventilatory support. A ventilator classification system can help the clinician understand how ventilators function and under what conditions they may fail to operate as desired. Pressure-support ventilation is an example of how industry has responded to a clinical need--that is, to unload the work of breathing. All positive pressure ventilators generate tidal volumes by using power sources such as medical gas cylinders, air compressors, electrically driven turbines, or piston driven motors. Positive end-expiratory pressures, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, pressure release ventilation, and mandatory minute ventilation, are examples of the special functions available on modern ventilators. Modern third-generation ventilators use microprocessors to control operational functions and monitors. Because these units have incorporated the experience learned from earlier ventilators, it is imperative that clinicians understand basic ventilator operation and application in order to most effectively prescribe and assess their use. PMID:2036934

  19. Minute ventilation at different compression to ventilation ratios, different ventilation rates, and continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation in a newborn manikin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In newborn resuscitation the recommended rate of chest compressions should be 90 per minute and 30 ventilations should be delivered each minute, aiming at achieving a total of 120 events per minute. However, this recommendation is based on physiological plausibility and consensus rather than scientific evidence. With focus on minute ventilation (Mv), we aimed to compare todays standard to alternative chest compression to ventilation (C:V) ratios and different ventilation rates, as well as to continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation. Methods Two investigators performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a newborn manikin with a T-piece resuscitator and manual chest compressions. The C:V ratios 3:1, 9:3 and 15:2, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation (120 compressions and 40 ventilations per minute) were performed in a randomised fashion in series of 10 2 minutes. In addition, ventilation only was performed at three different rates (40, 60 and 120 ventilations per minute, respectively). A respiratory function monitor measured inspiration time, tidal volume and ventilation rate. Mv was calculated for the different interventions and the MannWhitney test was used for comparisons between groups. Results Median Mv per kg in ml (interquartile range) was significantly lower at the C:V ratios of 9:3 (140 (134144)) and 15:2 (77 (7483)) as compared to 3:1 (191(183199)). With ventilation only, there was a correlation between ventilation rate and Mv despite a negative correlation between ventilation rate and tidal volumes. Continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv as compared to coordinated compressions and ventilations at a C:V ratio of 3:1. Conclusions In this study, higher C:V ratios than 3:1 compromised ventilation dynamics in a newborn manikin. However, higher ventilation rates, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv than coordinated compressions and ventilations with 90 compressions and 30 ventilations per minute. PMID:23075128

  20. Patient-ventilator interaction: an overview.

    PubMed

    Prinianakis, George; Kondili, Eumorfia; Georgopoulos, Dimitris

    2005-06-01

    During assisted mechanical ventilation, the total pressure applied to respiratory system is the sum of ventilator and muscle pressure. As a result, the respiratory system is under the influence of two pumps, the ventilator pump (ie, Paw), which is controlled by the physician's brain and the capabilities of the ventilator, and the patient's own respiratory muscle pump (Pmus), which is controlled by the patient's brain. The patient-ventilator interaction is mainly an expression of the function of these two brains, which should be in harmony to promote patient-ventilator synchrony. The achievement of this harmony depends exclusively on the physician, who should be aware that during assisted mechanical ventilation the respiratory system is not a passive structure but reacts to pressure delivered by the ventilator via various feedback systems and, depending on several factors both to the ventilator and patient, may modify the function of the ventilator. Finally, the physician should know that the ventilator imposes significant constraints to the respiratory system, the magnitude of which depends heavily on the triggering variable, the variable that controls the gas delivery and the cycling off criterion. PMID:15936690

  1. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Khushbu; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kohli, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission) along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult. PMID:26236504

  2. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jain, Khushbu; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kohli, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission) along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000?ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, ?? m , ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult. PMID:26236504

  3. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in cardiac nitroso-redox imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Hare, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports the importance of nitroso-redox balance in the cardiovascular system. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a major oxidative enzyme and increased XOR activity, leading to both increased production of reactive oxygen species and uric acid, is implicated in heart failure. Within the heart, XOR activity stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, and impairs matrix structure. The underpinnings of these derangements can be linked not solely to oxidative stress, but may also involve the process of nitroso-redox imbalance. In this regard, XOR interacts with nitric oxide signaling at numerous levels, including a direct protein-protein interaction with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Deficiency or translocation of NOS1 away from this microdomain leads to increased activity of XOR, which in turn impairs excitation-contraction coupling and myofilament calcium sensitivity. There is a mounting abundance of preclinical data supporting beneficial effects of inhibiting XOR, but translation to the clinic continues to be incomplete. A growing understanding of XOR and its role in nitroso-redox imbalance has great potential to lead to improved pathophysiologic insights and possibly therapeutic advances. PMID:19273066

  4. Effects of imbalance and geometric error on precision grinding machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    To study balancing in grinding, a simple mechanical system was examined. It was essential to study such a well-defined system, as opposed to a large, complex system such as a machining center. The use of a compact, well-defined system enabled easy quantification of the imbalance force input, its phase angle to any geometric decentering, and good understanding of the machine mode shapes. It is important to understand a simple system such as the one I examined given that imbalance is so intimately coupled to machine dynamics. It is possible to extend the results presented here to industrial machines, although that is not part of this work. In addition to the empirical testing, a simple mechanical system to look at how mode shapes, balance, and geometric error interplay to yield spindle error motion was modelled. The results of this model will be presented along with the results from a more global grinding model. The global model, presented at ASPE in November 1996, allows one to examine the effects of changing global machine parameters like stiffness and damping. This geometrically abstract, one-dimensional model will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of an abstract approach for first-order understanding but it will not be the main focus of this thesis. 19 refs., 36 figs., 10 tables.

  5. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion. PMID:21886280

  6. TEMPOL increases NAD+ and improves redox imbalance in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Mayumi; Kawano, Kimika; Yamanaka, Yuki; Saiga, Misako; Yamada, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Continuous energy conversion is controlled by reduction–oxidation (redox) processes. NAD+ and NADH represent an important redox couple in energy metabolism. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the scavenging of several reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is reduced to hydroxylamine by NADH. TEMPOL is also involved in NAD+ production in the ascorbic acid–glutathione redox cycle. We utilized the chemical properties of TEMPOL to investigate the effects of antioxidants and NAD+/NADH modulators on the metabolic imbalance in obese mice. Increases in the NAD+/NADH ratio by TEMPOL ameliorated the metabolic imbalance when combined with a dietary intervention, changing from a high-fat diet to a normal diet. Plasma levels of the superoxide marker dihydroethidium were higher in mice receiving the dietary intervention compared with a control diet, but were normalized with TEMPOL consumption. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation in obesity. PMID:26942863

  7. Chronic ventilator dependence in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, M E; Lewis, C Y

    2000-11-01

    Long-term ventilator dependence is the need for mechanical ventilation for more than 6 h/d for more than 21 days. Long-term ventilator dependence complicates 9% to 20% of the episodes of mechanical ventilation treated in the intensive care units of acute care hospitals; it is associated with an average mortality rate of 40%. Unlike acute respiratory failure, the risk for which does not increase with age, long-term ventilator dependence falls disproportionately to patients aged 70 years or older. During the past 2 decades, a profusion of care sites for patients with long-term ventilator dependence has evolved, largely as the product of the prospective payment system for health services introduced by the Health Care Financing Administration in 1983. The outcome of long-term ventilator dependence in elderly patients across this health care continuum is addressed. PMID:10984753

  8. Liquid ventilation: it's not science fiction anymore.

    PubMed

    Norris, M K; Fuhrman, B P; Leach, C L

    1994-08-01

    Liquid ventilation is, by all initial considerations, an unconventional concept. Decades of research, however, have found that by using perfluorocarbons, which are capable of holding high concentrations of critical gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, gas exchange optimal enough to support life is possible with no known toxic effects. The earliest method of liquid ventilation, tidal liquid breathing, involved infusion and active removal of tidal volumes of perfluorocarbons by a liquid ventilator for gas exchange. Recently, a new method of partial liquid breathing, called perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange, makes the process of liquid ventilation simpler by using conventional gas ventilators. Current research is showing great promise in the use of liquid ventilation for patients with pulmonary pathology. Critical care nurses should become knowledgeable of this new mode of ventilation and be prepared to meet the special needs of this unique population. PMID:7780839

  9. Multi-delay Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion MRI in Moyamoya Disease Comparison with CT Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Yu, Songlin; Alger, Jeffry R.; Zuo, Zhentao; Chen, Juan; Wang, Rong; An, Jing; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Jizong; Xue, Rong; Wang, Danny JJ

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present a multi-delay multi-parametric pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) protocol that offers simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial transit time (ATT) and arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) and to evaluate its accuracy by comparison with CT perfusion in moyamoya disease. Materials and Methods A 4 post-labeling delay (PLD) pCASL protocol was applied on 17 patients with moyamoya disease who also underwent CT perfusion imaging. ATT was estimated using the multi-delay protocol and included in the calculation of CBF. ASL and CT perfusion images were rated for lesion severity/conspicuity. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated across voxels between the two modalities in grey and white matter of each subject respectively and between normalized mean values of ASL and CT perfusion measures in major vascular territories. Results Significant associations between ASL and CT perfusion were detected using subjective ratings, voxel-wise analysis in grey and white matter and region of interest (ROI) based analysis of normalized mean perfusion. The correlation between ASL CBF and CT perfusion was improved using the multi-delay pCASL protocol compared to CBF acquired at a single PLD of 2 s (p<0.05). Conclusion There is a correlation between perfusion data from ASL and CT perfusion imaging in patients with moyamoya disease. Multi-delay ASL can improve CBF quantification, which could be a prognostic imaging biomarker in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:24557051

  10. Regional myocardial perfusion of cardioplegic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene, J.; Lyons, K.P.; Ott, R.A.; Gelezunas, V.L.; Chang, C.W.; Kowall, M.G.; Haiduc, N.J.

    1987-05-01

    We compared the regional myocardial perfusion of blood cardioplegic solution (BCP) and crystalloid cardioplegic solution (CCP) in 14 mongrel dogs. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established at 28 degrees C, and a hydraulic occluder was placed around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In group 1 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were ligated; in group 2 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were left in situ. After the aorta was clamped, BCP and CCP were alternately perfused at 200 ml/min. The occluder was inflated to produce moderate, severe, and critical LAD stenosis, and regional perfusion was measured by xenon-133 washout with the Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detector. BCP infusion produced a consistently higher aortic pressure, but CCP flow was better than BCP flow under all conditions, particularly without coronary collaterals. Regional myocardial perfusion of CCP is superior to BCP.

  11. [New modifications in isolated extremity perfusion ].

    PubMed

    Aigner, K; Hild, P; Hundeiker, M

    1982-07-15

    Hyperthermic isolated extremity perfusion has been undertaken in 117 patients with advanced melanoma of the extremities from october 1979 to may 1981. Perfusion is indicated in cases above level III and tumor thickness above 1,5 mm. Among the cytostatic agents used were melphalane, melphalane and dactinomycin, nitrogen mustard/dactinomycin, as well as DTIC, cis-platinum and the combination of cis-platinum and dactinomycin. All cytostatics lead to tumor regression, as observed on tumors left in situ. Longterm results have yet to be awaited. While melphalane may be perfused at 42 degrees C, the cisplatinum perfused extremity should not be heated to above 40 degrees C because permanent neurological damage may be induced. For this reason maximal hyperthermia is reached before the cytostatic agent is introduced and has to be lowered when the drug is added. PMID:6889794

  12. The ACE1 thoracic Electrical Impedance Tomography system for ventilation and perfusion.

    PubMed

    Mellenthin, Michelle M; Mueller, Jennifer L; Bueno de Camargo, Erick Dario Leon; Silva de Moura, Fernando; Hamilton, Sarah J; Gonzalez Lima, Raul

    2015-08-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a technique which can image the varying electrical properties of biological tissues. For clinical use of EIT, it can be advantageous to know both tissue conductivity and permittivity. Presented is the hardware design for the pairwise current injection active complex electrode (ACE1) EIT system which measures phasic voltages for conductivity and permittivity image reconstruction. In this system, alternating current is injected on electrodes on the boundary of a domain and single-ended voltage measurements are used in image reconstructions of the domain's interior and in calculating the current applied at the electrodes. PMID:26737189

  13. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually more complex and case specific. They are subject to occupational safety legislation and not discussed here.

  14. Modeling of Tracer Transport Delays for Improved Quantification of Regional Pulmonary (18)F-FDG Kinetics, Vascular Transit Times, and Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2015-11-01

    (18)F-FDG-PET is increasingly used to assess pulmonary inflammatory cell activity. However, current models of pulmonary (18)F-FDG kinetics do not account for delays in (18)F-FDG transport between the plasma sampling site and the lungs. We developed a three-compartment model of (18)F-FDG kinetics that includes a delay between the right heart and the local capillary blood pool, and used this model to estimate regional pulmonary perfusion. We acquired dynamic (18)F-FDG scans in 12 mechanically ventilated sheep divided into control and lung injury groups (n=6 each). The model was fit to tracer kinetics in three isogravitational regions-of-interest to estimate regional lung transport delays and regional perfusion. (13)NN bolus infusion scans were acquired during a period of apnea to measure regional perfusion using an established reference method. The delayed input function model improved description of (18)F-FDG kinetics (lower Akaike Information Criterion) in 98% of studied regions. Local transport delays ranged from 2.0 to 13.6s, averaging 6.42.9s, and were highest in non-dependent regions. Estimates of regional perfusion derived from model parameters were highly correlated with perfusion measurements based on (13)NN-PET (R (2)=0.92, p<0.001). By incorporating local vascular transports delays, this model of pulmonary (18)F-FDG kinetics allows for simultaneous assessment of regional lung perfusion, transit times, and inflammation. PMID:25940652

  15. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  16. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-11-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  17. Vicarious Audiovisual Learning in Perfusion Education

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Thomas E.; Holt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video. These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW standalone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of todays perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p < .05). The same was true for test #2 where video learners (n = 10) had an average score of 77% while text learners (n = 9) scored 60% (p < .05). Survey results indicated video learners were more satisfied with their learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent. PMID:21313929

  18. Pancreas transplants: evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kuni, C C; du Cret, R P; Boudreau, R J

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants. PMID:2500016

  19. Perfusion-Decellularization of Porcine Lung and Trachea for Respiratory Bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Korkmaz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Soos, Pal; Ishtok, Roland; Chaimow, Nicole; Ptzold, Ines; Czerny, Natalie; Schmack, Bastian; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre Rdiger; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Decellularization of native organs may provide an acellular tissue platform for organ regeneration. However, decellularization involves a trade-off between removal of immunogenic cellular elements and preservation of biomechanical integrity. We sought to develop a bioartificial scaffold for respiratory tissue engineering by decellularization of porcine lungs and trachea while preserving organ architecture and vasculature. Lung-trachea preparations from 25 German Landrace pigs were perfused in a modified Langendorff circuit and decellularized by an SDC (sodium deoxycholate)-based perfusion protocol. Decellularization was evaluated by histology and fluorescence microscopy, and residual DNA quantified spectrophotometrically and compared with controls. Airway compliance was evaluated by endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to simulate physiological breathing-induced stretch. Structural integrity was evaluated by bronchoscopy and biomechanical stress/strain analysis by measuring passive tensile strength, all compared with controls. Decellularized lungs and trachea lacked intracellular components but retained specific collagen fibers and elastin. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of DNA compared with controls (32.8??12.4??g DNA/mg tissue vs. 179.7??35.8??g DNA/mg tissue, P?perfusion protocol demonstrated increased airway compliance but preserved biomechanical integrity as compared with native tissue. Whole porcine lungs-tracheae can be successfully decellularized to create an acellular scaffold that preserves extracellular matrix and retains structral integrity and three-dimensional architecture to provide a bioartifical platform for respiratory tissue engineering. PMID:25894696

  20. Cyclooxygenase blockade (COB) attenuates ethanol-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in perfused rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, W.H.; Lyles, D. )

    1990-02-26

    Ethanol causes pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular leak by obscure mechanisms. In lambs, COB with indomethacin (Indo) or meclofenamate (Meclo) block ethanol's circulatory effects. To test for these effects in rats, in-situ, ventilated, Krebs-Henselheit perfused (constant flow) lungs were studied in 6 groups: ethanol (ETOH) and perfusate controls; ETOH/Meclo, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, IV; ETOH/Indo, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, IV, given 30 minutes before study. They measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and edema, indexed by reservoir weight change (RW), then by tracheal froth ( death'). ETOH doses (0.5, 1.3 and 2.2gm) were infused into the perfusate (60 ml). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and X{sup 2}; n = 9 in each group. PAP differed by treatment, by drug/dose, and by dose/treatment interactions; PIP, RW change, and death' were attenuated. Data show that COB lessens the vascular and edema effects of moderate dose ETOH, which larger ETOH doses override.

  1. Calculation of the Respiratory Modulation of the Photoplethysmogram (DPOP) Incorporating a Correction for Low Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Paul S.; Wang, Rui; McGonigle, Scott J.; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2014-01-01

    DPOP quantifies respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram. It has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. The correlation between DPOP and PPV may degrade due to low perfusion effects. We implemented an automated DPOP algorithm with an optional correction for low perfusion. These two algorithm variants (DPOPa and DPOPb) were tested on data from 20 mechanically ventilated OR patients split into a benign stable region subset and a whole record global set. Strong correlation was found between DPOP and PPV for both algorithms when applied to the stable data set: R = 0.83/0.85 for DPOPa/DPOPb. However, a marked improvement was found when applying the low perfusion correction to the global data set: R = 0.47/0.73 for DPOPa/DPOPb. Sensitivities, Specificities, and AUCs were 0.86, 0.70, and 0.88 for DPOPa/stable region; 0.89, 0.82, and 0.92 for DPOPb/stable region; 0.81, 0.61, and 0.73 for DPOPa/global region; 0.83, 0.76, and 0.86 for DPOPb/global region. An improvement was found in all results across both data sets when using the DPOPb algorithm. Further, DPOPb showed marked improvements, both in terms of its values, and correlation with PPV, for signals exhibiting low percent modulations. PMID:25177348

  2. Calculation of the Respiratory Modulation of the Photoplethysmogram (DPOP) Incorporating a Correction for Low Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S; Wang, Rui; McGonigle, Scott J; Uribe, Alberto A; Bergese, Sergio D

    2014-01-01

    DPOP quantifies respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram. It has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. The correlation between DPOP and PPV may degrade due to low perfusion effects. We implemented an automated DPOP algorithm with an optional correction for low perfusion. These two algorithm variants (DPOPa and DPOPb) were tested on data from 20 mechanically ventilated OR patients split into a benign "stable region" subset and a whole record "global set." Strong correlation was found between DPOP and PPV for both algorithms when applied to the stable data set: R = 0.83/0.85 for DPOPa/DPOPb. However, a marked improvement was found when applying the low perfusion correction to the global data set: R = 0.47/0.73 for DPOPa/DPOPb. Sensitivities, Specificities, and AUCs were 0.86, 0.70, and 0.88 for DPOPa/stable region; 0.89, 0.82, and 0.92 for DPOPb/stable region; 0.81, 0.61, and 0.73 for DPOPa/global region; 0.83, 0.76, and 0.86 for DPOPb/global region. An improvement was found in all results across both data sets when using the DPOPb algorithm. Further, DPOPb showed marked improvements, both in terms of its values, and correlation with PPV, for signals exhibiting low percent modulations. PMID:25177348

  3. Perfusion visualization and analysis for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2005-04-01

    Given the nature of pulmonary embolism (PE), timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. Contrast enhanced high-resolution CT images allow physicians to accurately identify segmental and sub-segmental emboli. However, it is also important to assess the effect of such emboli on the blood flow in the lungs. Expanding upon previous research, we propose a method for 3D visualization of lung perfusion. The proposed method allows users to examine perfusion throughout the entire lung volume at a single glance, with areas of diminished perfusion highlighted so that they are visible independent of the viewing location. This may be particularly valuable for better accuracy in assessing the extent of hemodynamic alterations resulting from pulmonary emboli. The method also facilitates user interaction and may help identify small peripheral sub-segmental emboli otherwise overlooked. 19 patients referred for possible PE were evaluated by CT following the administration of IV contrast media. An experienced thoracic radiologist assessed the 19 datasets with 17 diagnosed as being positive for PE with multiple emboli. Since anomalies in lung perfusion due to PE can alter the distribution of parenchymal densities, we analyzed features collected from histograms of the computed perfusion maps and demonstrate their potential usefulness as a preliminary test to suggest the presence of PE. These histogram features also offer the possibility of distinguishing distinct patterns associated with chronic PE and may even be useful for further characterization of changes in perfusion or overall density resulting from associated conditions such as pneumonia or diffuse lung disease.

  4. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareian, Hassan; Vakili, Vahid Tabataba

    2009-12-01

    Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs), such as inphase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA) linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs). In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD), and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  5. Mathematical modelling of ventilation mechanics.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, U; Kaiser, S

    1995-05-01

    Routine application of 'rule of thumb' parameter sets in clinical practice pushes model visions to the background, including the complete framework of assumptions, simplifications, suppositions and conditions. But: models can be very strong tool, when applied selectively--that means, with a clear idea of destination, definition, parameter selection and verification. This article discusses universal issues of modelling--based on ventilation mechanics models in intensive care medicine. PMID:8847466

  6. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Moser, K.M.; Hartman, M.T.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A vital factor conditioning the usage of the pulmonary perfusion (Q) scan in the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism is the prevalence of abnormal Q scans in subjects free of cardiopulmonary disease. Because this prevalence has not been well defined, we performed Q scans in 80 nonsmoking subjects 18 to 29 yr of age having no known active cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject underwent a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and PA chest roentgenogram, followed by a 6-view Q scan. Two subjects in whom a Q defect was suspected underwent a /sup 133/Xe equilibrium-washout ventilation (V) scan. All Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by 2 experienced readers. Seventy-nine of the 80 Q scans were read as normal. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect. One of the 80 subjects, who had a mild pectus excavatum, had a left upper lobe subsegmental defect, which was not seen on the V scan. Based on the statistical analysis of these data, no more than 3.68% of normal nonsmoking persons in this age group may have a lobar or segmental Q scan defect and no more than 6.77% may have a subsegmental defect (with 95% confidence). Therefore, our study indicated that Q scan defects, particularly lobar or segmental, are rarely present among normal nonsmokers in this age group.

  7. Uptake of exogenous spermidine by rat lungs perfused in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, D.E.; Addison, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of the polyamine spermidine (SPD) from the pulmonary circulation was characterized by using ventilated rat lungs perfused in situ with Krebs-Henseleit-bicarbonate buffer containing 4.5% bovine serum albumin, 5.6 mM glucose, and 20 amino acids at plasma levels. (/sup 14/C)SPD was accumulated by the lungs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The pathway of SPD uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent K/sub m/ in the range of 1 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 450-540 pmol/g lung min. SPD uptake was inhibited by the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine and spermine (SPM) and by the inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, methyglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Inhibition of SPD uptake by SPM followed competitive kinetics; although MGBG was also a competitive inhibitor of SPD uptake, MGBG was less effective than SPM. These observations indicate that SPD is taken up from the pulmonary circulation by a carrier-mediated pathway that is inhibited by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits substrate affinity in the range of plasma SPD concentrations.

  8. Polarization-multiplexed LDPC-coded QAM robust to I-Q imbalance and polarization offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Xu, Lei; Minkov, Lybomir L.; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Shaoliang

    2010-12-01

    Polarization-multiplexed LDPC-coded QAM robust to I-Q imbalance and polarization offset is proposed. Efficient mitigation of I-Q imbalance and polarization offset is demonstrated with LDPC-coded turbo equalization by simultaneous MAP detection of symbols transmitted over two orthogonal polarizations. The proposed scheme is much more efficient in I-Q imbalance and polarization offset compensation than conventional approaches.

  9. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Arthur C W; So, H M; Tang, S L; Yeung, Alwin; Lam, S M; Yan, W W

    2015-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the commonest, yet mostly preventable, infection in mechanically ventilated patients. Successful control of ventilator-associated pneumonia can save hospitalisation cost, and is possible by using a multidisciplinary clinical and administrative approach. The ventilator-associated pneumonia rate should be expressed as the number of ventilator-associated pneumonia days per 1000 ventilator days to take into account the device-utilisation duration for meaningful comparison. Various strategies address the issue, including general infection control measures, body positioning, intubation and mechanical ventilation, oral and gastro-intestinal tract, endotracheal tube, airway pressure, cuff pressure, selective digestive and/or oropharyngeal decontamination, and probiotic or early antibiotic treatment, as well as overall administration at a policy level. The rationale and controversy of these approaches are discussed in this article. The authors suggest that all units treating mechanically ventilated patients should have a ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention protocol in place, and ventilator-associated pneumonia should be seriously considered as a key performance indicator in local intensive care units. PMID:25593193

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  11. Passive ventilation for residential air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Axley, J.

    1999-07-01

    Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led to tighter residential construction standards on both continents and as a result problems associated with insufficient background ventilation have surfaced. Can European passive ventilation systems be adapted for use in North American dwellings to provide general background ventilation for air quality control? This paper attempts to answer this question. The configuration, specifications and performance of the preferred European passive ventilation system--the passive stack ventilation (PSV) system--will be reviewed; innovative components and system design strategies recently developed to improve the traditional PSV system performance will be outlined; and alternative system configurations will be presented that may better serve the climatic extremes and more urban contexts of North America. While these innovative and alternative passive ventilation systems hold great promise for the future, a rational method to size the components of these systems to achieve the control and precision needed to meet the conflicting constraints of new ventilation and air tightness standards has not been forthcoming. Such a method will be introduced in this paper and an application of this method will be presented.

  12. Efficient Compensation of Transmitter and Receiver IQ Imbalance in OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandur, Deepaknath; Moonen Eurasip Member, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Radio frequency impairments such as in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances can result in a severe performance degradation in direct-conversion architecture-based communication systems. In this paper, we consider the case of transmitter and receiver IQ imbalance together with frequency selective channel distortion. The proposed training-based schemes can decouple the compensation of transmitter and receiver IQ imbalance from the compensation of channel distortion in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The presence of frequency selective channel fading is a requirement for the estimation of IQ imbalance parameters when both transmitter/receiver IQ imbalance are present. However, the proposed schemes are equally applicable over a frequency flat/frequency selective channel when either transmitter or only receiver IQ imbalance is present. Once the transmitter and receiver IQ imbalance parameters are estimated, a standard channel equalizer can be applied to estimate/compensate for the channel distortion. The proposed schemes result in an overall lower training overhead and a lower computational requirement, compared to the joint compensation of transmitter/receiver IQ imbalance and channel distortion. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed schemes provide a very efficient compensation with performance close to the ideal case without any IQ imbalance.

  13. Obtained Diversity Gain in OFDM Systems under the Influence of IQ Imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Younghwan; Kwon, Jihyeon; Lee, Yuro; Lee, Dongchan; Ahn, Jaemin

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of IQ (In-phase/Quadrature-phase) imbalance at both transmitter and receiver of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system and show that more diversity gain can be achieved even though there are unwanted IQ imbalance. When mixed sub-carriers within an OFDM symbol due to the IQ imbalance undergo frequency selective channels, additional diversity effects are expected during the demodulation process. Simulation results on the symbol error rate (SER) performance with ML (Maximum Likelihood) and OSIC (Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation) receiver show that significant performance gain can be achieved with the diversity gain caused by the IQ imbalance combined with the frequency selective channels.

  14. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  15. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  16. Oxidant/Antioxidant imbalance and the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moneim, Ahmed E Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions among older people. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the most hallmarks lesions in the brain of AD in addition to neurons loss. Accumulating evidence has shown that oxidative stress-induced damage may play an important role in the initiation and progression of AD pathogenesis. Redox impairment occurs when there is an imbalance between the production and quenching of free radicals from oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species augment the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β and tau protein hyperphosphorylation and vice versa. Currently, there is no available treatments can modify the disease. However, wide varieties of antioxidants show promise to delay or prevent the symptoms of AD and may help in treating the disease. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis and the common used antioxidant therapies for AD will summarize. PMID:25817254

  17. Colombian late cretaceous tropical planktonic foraminifera: Redressing the imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    Recent work involving Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera has concentrated on European and other areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Many of the biostratigraphical and evolutionary models reflect this geographical restriction and ignore earlier studies from tropical areas. In 1955 Rolando Gandolfi described many new species and subspecies from Colombia and provided a different view of the evolutionary development of planktonic foraminifera. A re-examination of the Gandolfi type collection using Scanning Electron Micrography (Environmental Chamber technique) integrated with Colombian well samples from onshore Guajira area, Middle and Upper Magdalena Valley and Putumayo Basin has given a new view into the evolutionary development of Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera. This has enabled a modified globigerine Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy to be constructed for Colombia. This work redresses the imbalance between studies of tropical and northern high latitude Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera and provides an insight into the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatological factors influencing the Colombian region at the time.

  18. Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei; Loeb, Norman; Palmer, Matt; Roberts, Malcolm; Smith, Doug

    2014-05-01

    Combining satellite data, atmospheric reanalyses and climate model simulations, variability in the net downward radiative flux imbalance at the top of Earth's atmosphere (N) are reconstructed and linked to recent climate change. Over the period 1985-2012 we estimate N=0.470.54 Wm-2 (uncertainties at 90% confidence level). Variability relates primarily to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and variability relating to El Nino with good agreement between the monthly reconstruction and atmospheric simulations using prescribed sea surface temperature and radiative forcings (r~0.6). Combining with a simple energy balance climate model we argue that increased ocean heat uptake below the mixed layer is required to reconcile changes in N and surface temperature since 1985.

  19. Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

  20. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Liégina Silveira; de Sousa, Nathalia Parente; Barros, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira; Matias, Marcelo Silveira; Monteiro, Luana Torres; Beraldo, Marcelo do Amaral; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure. PMID:24473768

  1. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Ligina Silveira; Sousa, Nathalia Parente de; Barros, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira; Matias, Marcelo Silveira; Monteiro, Luana Torres; Beraldo, Marcelo do Amaral; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure. PMID:24473768

  2. The equation of the water-energy imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2011-12-01

    The water-energy balance for a catchment over a long-term time scale describes the relationship between the components of water and energy balances of land, and actual evaporation (E) can be expressed as the function of available water (precipitation, P) and available energy (potential evaporation, Ep), i.e. the Budyko hypothesis. For a long-term time scale, the balance, which can be defined as a steady ratio of actual evaporation to precipitation (E/P), can be expected for a catchment. The balance implies an assumption that the change in water storage can be ignored. At a smaller time scale, the change in water storage (S) disturbs the balance, which leads to an imbalance. Therefore, we derive a new water-energy balance equation including the effect of water storage, which expresses actual evaporation as the function of available water (precipitation + water storage, P + S) and available energy (potential evaporation, Ep). This water balance equation was validated at different time scales (from monthly to daily) based on data from the flux observation at the Weishan experiment station in China and the Yakutsk experiment station in Russia. As mentioned in this study, there are two water-energy balance equations, namely the equation at long-term time scale (equation 1) and the equation at smaller time scales (equation 2). Equation 1 implies a stabilized relationship between E/P and Ep/P at long-term time scale, i.e. a balance. However, at smaller time scales, the relationship is not stabilized, i.e. an imbalance. Instead, equation 2 proposed a new balance, a stabilized relationship between E/(P+S) and Ep/(P+S).

  3. Propensity to Obesity Impacts the Neuronal Response to Energy Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Bessesen, Daniel H.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1?day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30?min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30?min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity. PMID:25767441

  4. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  5. GPU-accelerated voxelwise hepatic perfusion quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Cao, Y.

    2012-09-01

    Voxelwise quantification of hepatic perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging greatly contributes to assessment of liver function in response to radiation therapy. However, the efficiency of the estimation of hepatic perfusion parameters voxel-by-voxel in the whole liver using a dual-input single-compartment model requires substantial improvement for routine clinical applications. In this paper, we utilize the parallel computation power of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the computation, while maintaining the same accuracy as the conventional method. Using compute unified device architecture-GPU, the hepatic perfusion computations over multiple voxels are run across the GPU blocks concurrently but independently. At each voxel, nonlinear least-squares fitting the time series of the liver DCE data to the compartmental model is distributed to multiple threads in a block, and the computations of different time points are performed simultaneously and synchronically. An efficient fast Fourier transform in a block is also developed for the convolution computation in the model. The GPU computations of the voxel-by-voxel hepatic perfusion images are compared with ones by the CPU using the simulated DCE data and the experimental DCE MR images from patients. The computation speed is improved by 30 times using a NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU compared to a 2.67 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. To obtain liver perfusion maps with 626 400 voxels in a patient's liver, it takes 0.9 min with the GPU-accelerated voxelwise computation, compared to 110 min with the CPU, while both methods result in perfusion parameters differences less than 10-6. The method will be useful for generating liver perfusion images in clinical settings.

  6. Ventilation network optimization for deep mines

    SciTech Connect

    Bojilov, V.; Hadjiev, M.; Shoushoulov, G.

    1999-07-01

    The development of underground mines in Bulgaria has reached depth limit. The conventional approach for engineering the mine ventilation is unsatisfactory under the existing level of concentration and intensification of mining work under the already complicated mining and geological conditions. This necessitates the optimization of ventilation networks for achieving the required efficiency and reliability. Direct measurements in mines has created an adequate numerical mine ventilation model. This model can optimize and forecast the future development of the mine ventilation system with the help of computer software. By means of the prepared nomograms the individual parameters of the ventilating flow are optimized in accordance with the temperature of the adjacent rock surfaces surrounding the mine headings. The risk of thermal loading on workers can be determined satisfactorily. Ventilation study results for the two deep mines in Bulgaria (both exceeds 1,000 m) could also be used for other mines of similar depth and conditions in other countries.

  7. CFD applications in tunnel ventilation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.E. Jr.; Zigh, A.

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal ventilation systems in transit and rail tunnels are typically analyzed by one dimensional ventilation network simulation models, such as the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) program. However, in recent years computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been utilized in conjunction with one-dimensional ventilation network programs to study ventilation systems for large volume spaces such as transit stations and rail overbuilds, as well as for vehicular tunnels. CFD uses numerical methods to simulate complex fluid flow phenomena in three dimensions to predict the distribution of velocity, pressure, temperature, concentration, and other relevant variables throughout the volume. This paper presents an overview of CFD study results from emergency ventilation analysis for a transit station and both emergency ventilation and diesel emissions analysis for a rail overbuild.

  8. Echocardiography in a Patient on Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankush

    2015-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary interactions or effects of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation (MV) were first documented in the year 1733. Stephen Hales showed that the blood pressure of healthy individual fell during spontaneous inspiration and he later went on to discover the ventilator. A year later Kussmaul described pulsus paradoxus (inspiratory absence of radial pulse) in patients with tubercular pericarditis. Echocardiography can help to diagnose a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases and can guide therapeutic decisions in patients on mechanical ventilation. PMID:26731826

  9. Pulmonary Perfusion and Xenon Gas Exchange in Rats: MR Imaging with Intravenous Injection of Hyperpolarized 129Xe1

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Mller, Harald E.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pollaro, James; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a method for regional evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange based on intravenous injection of hyperpolarized xenon 129 (129Xe) and subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the gas-phase 129Xe emerging in the alveolar airspaces. Materials and Methods: Five Fischer 344 rats that weighed 200425 g were prepared for imaging according to an institutional animal care and use committeeapproved protocol. Rats were ventilated, and a 3-F catheter was placed in the jugular (n = 1) or a 24-gauge catheter in the tail (n = 4) vein. Imaging and spectroscopy of gas-phase 129Xe were performed after injecting 5 mL of half-normal saline saturated with 129Xe hyperpolarized to 12%. Corresponding ventilation images were obtained during conventional inhalation delivery of hyperpolarized 129Xe. Results: Injections of 129Xe-saturated saline were well tolerated and produced a strong gas-phase 129Xe signal in the airspaces that resulted from 129Xe transport through the pulmonary circulation and diffusion across the blood-gas barrier. After a single injection, the emerging 129Xe gas could be detected separately from 129Xe remaining in the blood and was imaged with an in-plane resolution of 1 1 mm and a signal-to-noise ratio of 25. Images in one rat revealed a matched ventilation-perfusion deficit, while images in another rat showed that xenon gas exchange was temporarily impaired after saline overload, with recovery of function 1 hour later. Conclusion: MR imaging of gas-phase 129Xe emerging in the pulmonary airspaces after intravenous injection has the potential to become a sensitive and minimally invasive new tool for regional evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2513081550/DC1 PMID:19703880

  10. In Vivo MR Imaging of Pulmonary Perfusion and Gas Exchange in Rats via Continuous Extracorporeal Infusion of Hyperpolarized 129Xe

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Möller, Harald E.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Nouls, John C.; Freeman, Matthew S.; Qi, Yi; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits high resolution, regional visualization of pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, its reasonably high solubility (>10%) and large chemical shift range (>200 ppm) in tissues allow HP 129Xe to serve as a regional probe of pulmonary perfusion and gas transport, when introduced directly into the vasculature. In earlier work, vascular delivery was accomplished in rats by first dissolving HP 129Xe in a biologically compatible carrier solution, injecting the solution into the vasculature, and then detecting HP 129Xe as it emerged into the alveolar airspaces. Although easily implemented, this approach was constrained by the tolerable injection volume and the duration of the HP 129Xe signal. Methods and Principal Findings Here, we overcome the volume and temporal constraints imposed by injection, by using hydrophobic, microporous, gas-exchange membranes to directly and continuously infuse 129Xe into the arterial blood of live rats with an extracorporeal (EC) circuit. The resulting gas-phase 129Xe signal is sufficient to generate diffusive gas exchange- and pulmonary perfusion-dependent, 3D MR images with a nominal resolution of 2×2×2 mm3. We also show that the 129Xe signal dynamics during EC infusion are well described by an analytical model that incorporates both mass transport into the blood and longitudinal relaxation. Conclusions Extracorporeal infusion of HP 129Xe enables rapid, 3D MR imaging of rat lungs and, when combined with ventilation imaging, will permit spatially resolved studies of the ventilation-perfusion ratio in small animals. Moreover, EC infusion should allow 129Xe to be delivered elsewhere in the body and make possible functional and molecular imaging approaches that are currently not feasible using inhaled HP 129Xe. PMID:22363613

  11. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  13. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  14. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10...

  15. [Non invasive ventilation: how, when and why?].

    PubMed

    Mitrofan, Elena Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Use of non invasive ventilation (NIV), the delivery of mechanical ventilation without endotracheal intubation, is increasing among patients with acute and chronic respiratory failure, mainly because of its convenience, lower cost, morbidity sparing potential compared with standard invasive technique. An understanding of the technical equipment, the classification, modes of ventilation and the selection of an appropriate interface are necessary for the best outcomes. The parameters which should be monitored during noninvasive ventilation are presented. The majority of studies have used pressure-targeted ventilation in the assist mode. Positive qualities of pressure support ventilation (PSV) are leak compensation, good patient/ventilator synchrony and the option of integrated positive end-expiratory pressure to counteract the effect of dynamic hyperinflation. The interface between patient and ventilator is a crucial issue of noninvasive ventilation. Advantages and disadvantages of face and nasal masks are discussed. The beneficial effects of NIV have been demonstrated in patients with respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.35). Arterial blood gas tensions should be measured in most patients with acute breathlessness. PMID:21495294

  16. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist: a ventilation tool or a ventilation toy?

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Walter; Jorens, Philippe G

    2011-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation has, since its introduction into clinical practice, undergone a major evolution from controlled ventilation to various modes of assisted ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is the newest development. The implementation of NAVA requires the introduction of a catheter to measure the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EA(di)). NAVA relies, opposite to conventional assisted ventilation modes, on the EA(di) to trigger the ventilator breath and to adjust the ventilatory assist to the neural drive. The amplitude of the ventilator assist is determined by the instantaneous EA(di) and the NAVA level set by the clinician. The NAVA level amplifies the EA(di) signal and determines instantaneous ventilator assist on a breath-to-breath basis. Experimental and clinical data suggest superior patient-ventilator synchrony with NAVA. Patient-ventilator asynchrony is present in 25% of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit and may contribute to patient discomfort, sleep fragmentation, higher use of sedation, development of delirium, ventilator-induced lung injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and ultimately mortality. With NAVA, the reliance on the EA(di) signal, together with an intact ventilatory drive and intact breathing reflexes, allows integration of the ventilator in the neuro-ventilatory coupling on a higher level than conventional ventilation modes. The simple monitoring of the EA(di) signal alone may provide the clinician with important information to guide ventilator management, especially during the weaning process. Although, until now, little evidence proves the superiority of NAVA on clinically relevant end points, it seems evident that patient populations (eg, COPD and small children) with major patient-ventilator asynchrony may benefit from this new ventilatory tool. PMID:21255496

  18. Wife Beating in South Africa: An Imbalance Theory of Resources and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Susanne Y. P.; Ting, Kwok-Fai

    2008-01-01

    This article develops an imbalance theory to explain physical violence against women in intimate relationships in South Africa. The theory proposes four typologies: dependence, compensation, submission, and transgression, through which imbalances in resource contribution and power distribution between spouses are hypothesized to contribute to

  19. A comparison between the effort-reward imbalance and demand control models

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Aleck S; Kelly, Shona; Demers, Paul A; Mustard, Cameron; Hertzman, Clyde

    2003-01-01

    Background To compare the predictive validity of the demand/control and reward/imbalance models, alone and in combination with each other, for self-reported health status and the self-reported presence of any chronic disease condition. Methods Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions were obtained in a sample of sawmill workers using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. The relative predictive validity of task-level control was compared with effort/reward imbalance. As well, the predictive validity of a model developed by combining task-level control with effort/reward imbalance was determined. Logistic regression was utilized for all models. Results The demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models independently predicted poor self-reported health status. The effort-reward imbalance model predicted the presence of a chronic disease while the demand/control model did not. A model combining effort-reward imbalance and task-level control was a better predictor of self-reported health status and any chronic condition than either model alone. Effort reward imbalance modeled with intrinsic effort had marginally better predictive validity than when modeled with extrinsic effort only. Conclusions Future work should explore the combined effects of these two models of psychosocial stress at work on health more thoroughly. PMID:12636876

  20. Ventilation above closing volume reduces pulmonary vascular resistance hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Creamer, K M; McCloud, L L; Fisher, L E; Ehrhart, I C

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) hysteresis and lung volume, with special attention to the effects of ventilation around closing volume (CV). Isolated, blood-perfused canine left lower lung lobes (LLL) were incrementally inflated and deflated. Airway and pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) were recorded after each stepwise volume change. Constant blood flow was provided (600 ml/min) and the pulmonary vein pressure (PVP) was held constant at 5 cm H2O. PAP changes, therefore, were a direct index of PVR changes. Group 1 lobes underwent a full inflation from complete collapse to total lobe capacity (TLC) followed by a full deflation. Group 2 lobes underwent two deflation/inflation cycles, after an initial full inflation. These cycles, both beginning at TLC, had deflation end above and below CV, respectively. Significant PVR hysteresis was noted when the first inflation and deflation were compared. The maximum difference in PAP on deflation was 3.3 cm H2O or 11%. The mean decrease was 2.7 cm H2O for 18 lobes (p < 0.0001). The PAPs on all subsequent inflations or deflations that began above CV remained 9% lower than the initial inflation (n = 9, p < 0.0001), but were not different from each other. However, the final inflation which began from below CV resulted in a 30% return of PVR hysteresis (mean increase in PAP of 0.8 cm H2O, n = 7, p < 0.004). We conclude that there is hysteresis in the PVR response during ventilation, with decreased PVR during deflation relative to the initial inflation, that this hysteresis is absent when lung volume is maintained greater than CV, and that hysteresis returns when inflation occurs after deflation below CV. PMID:9769269

  1. Interrupted aortic arch with retrograde subclavian perfusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sok-Leng; Forsey, Jonathan; Walsh, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Type B interrupted aortic arch results in the left subclavian artery being perfused by a patent ductus arteriosus and antegrade flow is usually seen in the left subclavian artery. We describe a case of retrograde perfusion of the left subclavian artery through the circle of Willis in the presence of interrupted aortic arch type B and a restrictive patent ductus arteriosus. This is similar to subclavian steal syndrome when the perfusion pressure from the cerebral circuit is greater than that from the left subclavian artery. Early recognition of this phenomenon may alter management by indicating restriction at ductal level. This case highlights the need for a comprehensive review of both ventricular systolic function and ductal haemodynamics when retrograde flow is seen in the subclavian artery. PMID:25029884

  2. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is 'biomimetic' in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2-4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  3. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  4. Barotrauma and microvascular injury in lungs of nonadult rabbits: effect of ventilation pattern.

    PubMed

    Peevy, K J; Hernandez, L A; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1990-06-01

    To study the pulmonary microvascular injury produced by ventilation barotrauma, the isolated perfused lungs of 4 to 6-wk-old New Zealand white rabbits were ventilated by one of the following methods: peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) 23 cm H2O, gas flow rate 1.1 L/min (group 1); PIP 27 cm H2O, gas flow rate 6.9 L/min (group 2); PIP 50 cm H2O, gas flow rate 1.9 L/min (group 3); or PIP 53 cm H2O, gas flow rate 8.3 L/min (group 4). Microvascular permeability was assessed using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) before and 5, 30, and 60 min after a 15-min period of ventilation. Baseline Kfc was not significantly different between groups. A significant increase over the baseline Kfc was noted at 60 min in group 2 and in all postventilation Kfc values in groups 3 and 4 (p less than .05). Group 1 Kfc values did not change significantly after ventilation. At all post-ventilation times, values for Kfc were significantly greater in groups 3 and 4 than in group 1 (p less than .05). Group 4 Kfc values were significantly greater than those in group 2 at 5 and 30 min postventilation. These data indicate that high PIP, and to a lesser extent, high gas flow rates cause microvascular injury in the compliant nonadult lung and suggest that the combination of high PIP and high gas flow rates are the most threatening to microvascular integrity. PMID:2344755

  5. Estimation of blood perfusion using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jansson, T; Persson, H W; Lindström, K

    1999-01-01

    Ways to measure blood perfusion using ultrasound techniques such as continuous-wave Doppler, pulsed Doppler, colour Doppler and power Doppler will be reviewed. From a certain standpoint, blood perfusion may be defined as the difference between arterial inflow and arterial outflow from a considered volume, i.e. capillary flow. The low velocities and small blood volumes involved make the signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range and frequency resolution critical factors in the detection system. Another limiting factor is tissue motion which obscures the blood signal. Perfusion may still under certain conditions be estimated with the first moment of the Doppler power spectrum, as obtained with any Doppler ultrasound method. Modern flow mapping techniques also make it possible to estimate perfusion by counting the number of pixels that indicate flow, but low flow velocities cannot be included in the estimate. Future high-frequency systems may, however, provide very detailed images of minute flow distributions in superficial layers. Contrast agents are widely used today to enhance the blood signal, and a technique named harmonic imaging can suppress movement artefacts from surrounding tissue. Transient signals from disrupting contrast agent particles in an ultrasound field can potentially be used for perfusion quantification. Future developments to extract the blood flow signal from its noisy environment, aside from contrast agents, may be multiple sample volumes, frequency compounding and/or improved signal processing. The lack of an adequate perfusion phantom for verification of measurements of microcirculatory flow becomes, however, more apparent with improved detectability of slow flows. PMID:10333683

  6. Ventilation strategies for preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in preterm infants with respiratory disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Salvatore; Marseglia, Lucia; Manti, Sara; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Cuppari, Caterina; David, Antonio; Chirico, Gaetano; Gitto, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced by several inflammatory and structural cells of the airways. The lungs of preterm newborns are susceptible to oxidative injury induced by both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Increased oxidative stress and imbalance in antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Preterm infants are frequently exposed to high oxygen concentrations, infections or inflammation; they have reduced antioxidant defense and high free iron levels which enhance toxic radical generation. Multiple ventilation strategies have been studied to reduce injury and improve outcomes in preterm infants. Using lung protective strategies, there is the need to reach a compromise between satisfaction of gas exchange and potential toxicities related to over-distension, derecruitment of lung units and high oxygen concentrations. In this review, the authors summarize scientific evidence concerning oxidative stress as it relates to resuscitation in the delivery room and to the strategies of ventilation. PMID:26572937

  7. Dynamic Behaviour of Ventilated Hydrofoils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Arndt, Roger; Wosnik, Martin

    2006-11-01

    In certain types of pumping applications oscillations are induced by operation with liquids containing a free gas load. In order to understand the physics of this process, a series of tests with a ventilated A 2D NACA 0015 hydrofoil were performed in the water tunnel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. The special bubble removal feature of the water tunnel allowed continuous ventilation without experiencing visible bubbles upstream the hydrofoil. These studies build on previous work on cavitation-induced oscillations. Gas injection studies were made over a range of gas flow rates and test section pressure. The results clearly show that lift oscillations increase in intensity when the gas load is increased. The point of maximum unsteadiness is also associated the rapid decline of the foil performance as measured as average lift. Further increase of the gas injection load gives a steady behaviour with almost no lift. These experiments are compared with traditional cavitation experiments. The similarities between gas injection- and cavitation induced unsteadiness on the hydrofoil are many, but the amplitude of lift oscillations found on the foil with gas injection corresponds to about 50% of that found for cavitating hydrofoils. The fact that the oscillations are periodic leads to the consideration of both passive and active control.

  8. Stress-first Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nasir; Parker, Matthew W; Henzlova, Milena J; Duvall, William Lane

    2016-02-01

    Stress-first approaches to myocardial perfusion imaging provide diagnostically and prognostically accurate perfusion data equivalent to a full rest-stress study, save time in the imaging laboratory, and reduce the radiation exposure to patients and laboratory staff. Converting a nuclear cardiology laboratory from a conventional rest-stress strategy to a stress-first approach involves challenges such as the need for attenuation correction, triage of patients to an appropriate protocol, real-time review of stress images, and consideration of differential reimbursement. PMID:26590780

  9. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to provide ventilation to dilute, render harmless, and to carry away flammable, explosive, noxious... ventilation control device is damaged to an extent that ventilation of the working face is...

  10. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used to provide ventilation to dilute, render harmless, and to carry away flammable, explosive, noxious... ventilation control device is damaged to an extent that ventilation of the working face is...

  11. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to provide ventilation to dilute, render harmless, and to carry away flammable, explosive, noxious... ventilation control device is damaged to an extent that ventilation of the working face is...

  12. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to provide ventilation to dilute, render harmless, and to carry away flammable, explosive, noxious... ventilation control device is damaged to an extent that ventilation of the working face is...

  13. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure. PMID:25844759

  14. Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Waxman, A.D.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Goldsmith, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.

    1986-09-01

    The regional distribution of (99mTc)DTPA aerosol was compared with that of /sup 133/Xe (n = 30) and krypton (n = 24) in a group of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. All patients had an aerosol study using a recently available commercial generator system, a ventilation study with one of the gases, and perfusion imaging. Regional information was assessed visually on xenon, krypton, and aerosol studies independently by considering each lung as three equal-sized zones. In addition, gas ventilation findings peripheral to regions of aerosol turbulence (hot spots) were evaluated. Only 64% of the zones were in complete agreement on xenon and aerosol. Most of the discordance between xenon and aerosol was accounted for by minor degrees of /sup 133/Xe washout retention in zones that appeared normal in the aerosol study. An agreement rate of 85% was noted between 81mKr and aerosol regionally. The regions of discordance between aerosol and gas studies, however, usually were associated with unimpressive perfusion defects that did not change the scintigraphic probability for pulmonary embolism in any patient. Regarding zones of aerosol hyperdeposition, 76% had associated washout abnormalities on xenon; however, there was no correlation between the presence of these abnormalities or perfusion abnormalities. The results confirm the high sensitivity of /sup 133/Xe washout imaging, but suggest that radioaerosol imaging will detect most parenchymal abnormalities associated with perfusion defects of significance.

  15. Effects of laser acupuncture on blood perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-ju; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Han-ping; Liu, Song-hao; Liu, Liang-gang

    2006-09-01

    Based on Pennes equation, the influences of the intensity and the impulse frequency of laser acupuncture on the point tissues' blood flow perfusion rate are discussed. We find that the blood perfusion rate of point tissue increases with the intensity of laser acupuncture increasing. After impulse laser acupuncture the point tissue blood perfusion rate increase little, but after continuum laser acupuncture the point tissues blood perfusion rate increase much.

  16. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. PMID:24507472

  17. Increasing energy efficiency of mine ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Papar, Riyaz; Szady, A.; Huffer, W.D.; Martin V.; McKane, A.T.

    1999-06-01

    Every year the US mining industry spends millions of dollars on underground ventilation systems. Potential motor-driven system energy savings can be realized by using mature, proven, and cost-effective technologies. Improved energy efficiency also leads to reduced environmental emissions. This paper promotes a systems approach to increase the energy efficiency in mine ventilation.

  18. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each...

  19. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... independent power exhaust ventilation system which terminates so as to prevent fumes from entering other portions of the vessel. The exhaust system of the fume hood shall be compatible with the ventilation...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  6. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon monoxide... case where partitions between compartments have louvres or other means allowing air to flow between compartments, there must be a means convenient to the crew for closing the flow of air through the...

  7. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon monoxide... case where partitions between compartments have louvres or other means allowing air to flow between compartments, there must be a means convenient to the crew for closing the flow of air through the...

  8. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon monoxide... case where partitions between compartments have louvres or other means allowing air to flow between compartments, there must be a means convenient to the crew for closing the flow of air through the...

  9. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  10. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  11. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  12. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  13. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  14. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  15. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  16. 29 CFR 1910.94 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation. 1910.94 Section 1910.94 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Occupational Health and Environmental Control § 1910.94 Ventilation. (a) Abrasive blasting—(1)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Cargo Accommodations 23.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be...

  18. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Cargo Accommodations 23.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be...

  19. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.219 Ventilation....

  20. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.219 Ventilation....

  1. YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

    2002-11-22

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

  2. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.15-10 Section 111.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box...

  3. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. PMID:25080924

  4. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable, ensures prompt service, and, most importantly, enhances safe management of mechanical ventilators. PMID:25520839

  5. Effect of gender on sympathovagal imbalance in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Lalitha, Venugopal; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Although recently the incidence of prehypertension has increased considerably, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the effects of gender in its causation have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product (RPP), and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were reordered and analyzed in normotensive and prehypertensive males and females. It was observed that low frequency-high frequency (LF-HF) ratio, the sensitive indicator of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI), is significantly more (P < .001) in male prehypertensives compared with female prehypertensives. Although SVI in prehypertensives was found to be due to both sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition, contribution of vagal withdrawal was prominent in males. The LF-HF ratio was significantly correlated with BMI, WHR, BHR, BP, and RPP, which was more prominent in male prehypertensives and the degree of correlation was more for WHR and diastolic pressure. It was concluded that vagal inhibition plays an important role in critical alteration of SVI in the genesis of prehypertension, especially in males, and WHR could be a better indicator of SVI in prehypertensives. It was suggested that prehypertensives should improve their vagal tone to restore the sympathovagal homeostasis. PMID:21967020

  6. Gene Dosage Imbalance Contributes to Chromosomal Instability-Induced Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Murillo-Maldonado, Juan M; Benhra, Najate; Barrio, Lara; Prez, Lidia; Quiroga, Gonzalo; Nebreda, Angel R; Miln, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is thought to be a source of mutability in cancer. However, CIN often results in aneuploidy, which compromises cell fitness. Here, we used the dosage compensation mechanism (DCM) of Drosophila to demonstrate that chromosome-wide gene dosage imbalance contributes to the deleterious effects of CIN-induced aneuploidy and its pro-tumorigenic action. We present evidence that resetting of the DCM counterbalances the damaging effects caused by CIN-induced changes in X chromosome number. Importantly, interfering with the DCM suffices to mimic the cellular effects of aneuploidy in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, JNK-dependent cell death, and tumorigenesis upon apoptosis inhibition. We unveil a role of ROS in JNK activation and a variety of cellular and tissue-wide mechanisms that buffer the deleterious effects of CIN, including DNA-damage repair, activation of the p38 pathway, and cytokine induction to promote compensatory proliferation. Our data reveal the existence of robust compensatory mechanisms that counteract CIN-induced cell death and tumorigenesis. PMID:26859353

  7. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  8. Mnesic imbalance: a cognitive theory about autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity and behavioral flexibility. Some cognitive theories can be useful for finding a relationship between these irregularities and the biological mechanisms that may give rise to this disorder. Among such theories are mentalizing deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction, but none of them has been able to explain all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning. In keeping with this view, one may postulate the possibility that declarative memory replaces faulty procedural memory in some of its functions, which implies making conscious efforts in order to perform actions that are normally automatic. This may disturb cognitive development, resulting in autism symptoms. Furthermore, this mnesic imbalance is probably involved in all autism spectrum disorders. In the present work, this theory is expounded, including preliminary supporting evidence. PMID:18925971

  9. Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985–2012

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard P; Liu, Chunlei; Loeb, Norman G; Palmer, Matthew D; Roberts, Malcolm; Smith, Doug; Vidale, Pier-Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Combining satellite data, atmospheric reanalyses, and climate model simulations, variability in the net downward radiative flux imbalance at the top of Earth's atmosphere (N) is reconstructed and linked to recent climate change. Over the 1985–1999 period mean N (0.34 ± 0.67 Wm−2) is lower than for the 2000–2012 period (0.62 ± 0.43 Wm−2, uncertainties at 90% confidence level) despite the slower rate of surface temperature rise since 2000. While the precise magnitude of N remains uncertain, the reconstruction captures interannual variability which is dominated by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Monthly deseasonalized interannual variability in N generated by an ensemble of nine climate model simulations using prescribed sea surface temperature and radiative forcings and from the satellite-based reconstruction is significantly correlated (r∼0.6) over the 1985–2012 period. PMID:25821270

  10. The man-made creators of the imbalance of water in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    At 2011 we have described the imbalance of water in Nature as the system [1]. At 2012 we have described water and carbon and the glaciers [2], [3] as creators of the imbalance of Nature. Now we are describing some man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis is a powerful creator of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis significantly increases the complexity of the structures and reduces the entropy. Earth's hydrosphere contains water less than it was flowed via photosynthesis. This is an example of the imbalance of involving when the return of water has delayed because water is involved into the processes of life and other processes. People widely use photosynthesis and create not only an additional man-made imbalance of water in Nature, but also the man-made changing the albedo, and a lot of other important parameters of the planet of Earth. All of these processes are significantly imbalanced. The fossil hydrocarbons have accumulated during millions of years, but now are burned. This is an example of the imbalance delay by time. The man-made burning of the hydrocarbons is creating the imbalances of impact or explosive type, because of the burning processes is in millions of times faster than the accumulation processes. Please pay attention to the imbalance of redeployment by places. For example, oil and gas are extracted in one places, and burned in others. During combustion is standing out not only water, but energy, and other components. The temperature in the centers of big cities is always higher and there is dominating the rising air. It pollutes the environment, changes circulations, create greenhouse effect, etc. Other examples of the imbalance of relocation are shown in the production and consumption of food. The irrigation systems transfer water from one place to another. This transfer of water creates a lot of imbalances in change climate, ecosystems, etc in places where water was took and where the water was brought. Usually these are different places where the water taken, where the water used to grow crops, where the crop had eaten and where waste throw out. It creates a lot of the man-made imbalances of redeployment, which generate the new chains of different types of the man-made imbalances of water, other components and processes. The waste is one of the most important man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. Some of water from the waste comes back into circulation in the clean or dirty conditions. Another part of water from waste will join into numerous water-based or water-use components of Nature, and fall out of the hydrological cycle for a long time. The quantity and diversity of waste are rising much faster than the recycles industries and it is creating a lot of dangerous imbalances of Nature. The wastes are is the time bombs, which man made, and which will soon explode. The traditional balanced science and practice are not prepared to deal with the waste problem. The concept of the imbalance of Nature can help prevent this catastrophic explosion. People are creating a lot of the man-made imbalances of Nature which bring the dangerous 'unexpected surprises'. The concept of the imbalance of Nature give possibilities to create the man-made imbalances of Nature with the predictable parameters and it can help do Mother Nature to be friendlier to humanity.

  11. The effect of insufflation leaks upon ventilation. A quantified comparison of ventilators.

    PubMed

    Watt, J W; Fraser, M H

    1994-04-01

    Some ventilator-dependent patients use uncuffed tracheostomy tubes, resulting in fluctuations in the minute volume of ventilation. Bedside measurement of ventilation is difficult because of the insufflation and exsufflation leaks. This laboratory study of five different ventilators measured the tidal volumes achieved with three insufflation leaks introduced in an increasing order of magnitude and at three levels of compliance. The largest leak reduced the peak inflation pressure from 26 to 14 cmH2O in two pressure-limited ventilators with a 35% loss of the initial tidal volume of 800 ml. The turbine-driven pressure-limited ventilator retained a peak pressure of 20.5 cmH2O and lost only 14% of the volume, whereas the volume ventilators lost 65% of the tidal volume. The loss of volume was 3% for every cmH2O decrease in airway pressure due to a leak, regardless of the ventilator or compliance. Using the Friedman test, the differences between the volume ventilators and the pressure ventilators were significant whilst the three pressure-limited ventilators did not perform significantly differently from each other. PMID:8179141

  12. Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, H.L.; Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V.; Wang, Y.J.

    1998-12-31

    This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

  13. Mechanical Ventilation in the Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, A. I.; Linsao, L.; Reid, M. McC.; Sutton, M. D.; Tilak, K. S.; Ulan, O. A.; Swyer, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    A controlled study of mechanical ventilation has been performed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. 168 infants in respiratory failure were ventilated and 53 similar infants were not. Artificial mechanical ventilation improved survival in infants weighing more than 2000 g. from 15% to 43% (4/27 vs. 29/67, p < 0025). Infants who weighed more than 1500 g. and developed respiratory failure at less than 38 hours of age had an improved survival (16/31) on ventilatory treatment, as compared with infants more than 1500 g. ventilated at more than 38 hours of age (24/78) (p < 005). Artificial ventilation improved Pao2, Paco2, and [H+]a within one hour, but it was only the change in [H+]a in infants more than 2000 g. which was of prognostic significance. Survival rates were similar for each of the three types of respirator used. PMID:4920541

  14. An intelligent control system for ventilators.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Shaw, D; Jih, K S

    1998-10-01

    This study reports on a ventilator system that consists of several intelligent modules for controlling ventilator operation. These modules are software programs in two controllers. One controller is a personal computer used for diagnoses, determining settings and checking the effects of settings. The other controller is a single-chip microprocessor in a ventilator that controls the ventilator's settings in accordance with the computer settings. After setting up the system, an artificial lung model simulating a patient's lung is used to test the system. The result of test run indicated that it always responds to a patient's lung condition in a stable manner. Thus, the proposed system with its intelligent modules may assist clinicians in caring for patients and managing ventilator operation. PMID:9832029

  15. A pressure-limited critical care ventilator.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H; Myers, T

    1987-03-01

    We developed a new pressure-limited ventilator system by modifying the Bird #7001M ventilator. Our aims were to free ICU floor space by wall-mounting the ventilator, and to employ a pressure-limited, gas-powered ventilator similar to our transport ventilator to aid in the training of members of our transport team. The system provides a peak pressure of 150 cm H2O and a peak flow of 208 L/min. When coupled with heated pneumatic nebulizers, it quietly provides a maximum gas flow of 208 L/min with nebulized water at 37 degrees C. We successfully used this system for over 4 years to provide a wide range of ventilatory support and oxygen therapy. PMID:10315728

  16. Neonatal mechanical ventilation: Indications and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Qazi; Younus, Mir M.; Ahmed, Asif; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Iqbal, Javed; Charoo, Bashir A.; Ali, S Wajid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Decreasing mortality in sick and ventilated neonates is an endeavor of all neonatologists. To reduce the high mortality in this group of neonates, identification of risk factors is important. This study was undertaken to find out the indications of ventilation and complications in ventilated neonates and also study possible predictors of outcome. Subjects: Age <1-month; mechanically ventilated; not having suspected metabolic disorders or congenital anomalies; excluding postoperative patients. Methods: Neonates consecutively put on mechanical ventilation during the study period (October 2011 to November 2013) enrolled. Primary disease of the neonates along with complications present listed. Clinical and laboratory parameters analyzed to find the predictors of mortality. Results: Total 300 neonates were ventilated. 52% were male. Mean age, weight, and gestational age were 21 62 h, 2320 846.2 g, and 35.2 4.9 weeks, respectively. 130 (43%) neonates died. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (31.1%), sepsis (22.7%), and birth asphyxia (18%) were the most common indications for ventilation. Mortality in ventilated patients with sepsis, pneumonia, RDS or birth asphyxia was 64.7%, 60%, 44.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. Weight <2500 g, gestation <34 weeks, initial pH <7.1, presence of sepsis, apnea, shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were significantly associated with mortality (P < 0.05). Resuscitation at birth, seizures, intra ventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, ventilator-associated pneumonia, PO2, or PCO2 did not have a significant association with mortality. On logistic regression, gestation <34 weeks, initial pH <7.1, pulmonary hemorrhage, or shock were independently significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Weight <2500 g, gestation <34 weeks, initial arterial pH <7.1, shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, apnea, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were significant predictors of mortality in ventilated neonates. PMID:26430338

  17. HOW THE LEED VENTILATION CREDIT IMPACTS ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GSHP SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impacts of increased outdoor air (OA) ventilation on the performance of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems that heat and cool typical primary schools. Four locations Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, and Chicago are selected in this study to represent different climate zones in the United States. eQUEST, an integrated building and HVAC system energy analysis program, is used to simulate a typical primary school and the GSHP system at the four locations with minimum and 30% more than minimum OA ventilation. The simulation results show that, without an energy recovery ventilator, the 30% more OA ventilation results in an 8.0 13.3% increase in total GSHP system energy consumption at the four locations. The peak heating and cooling loads increase by 20.2 30% and 14.9 18.4%, respectively, at the four locations. The load imbalance of the ground heat exchanger is increased in hot climates but reduced in mild and cold climates.

  18. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  19. Automated sonographic evaluation of testicular perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierman, Jonathan S.; Clement, Gregory T.; Kalish, Leslie A.; O'Kane, Patrick L.; Frauscher, Ferdinand; Paltiel, Harriet J.

    2006-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the investigation of vascular disorders of the testis. We investigated the ability of two automated computer algorithms to analyse contrast-enhanced pulse inversion US data in a rabbit model of unilateral testicular ischaemia and to correctly determine relative testicular perfusion: nonlinear curve fitting of the US backscatter intensity as a function of time; and spectral analysis of the intensity time trace. We compared (i) five metrics based on the algorithmic data to testicular perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabelled microspheres, a reference standard; (ii) qualitative assessment of the US images by two independent readers blinded to the side of the experimental and control testes to the radiolabelled microsphere perfusion ratios; and (iii) results of the algorithmically-derived metrics to the qualitative assessments of the two readers. For the curve fit method, the algorithmically-derived metrics agreed with the reference standard in 54% to 68% of all cases. For the spectral method, the results agreed in 70% of all cases. The two readers agreed with the reference standard in 40% and 35% of all cases, respectively. These results suggest that automated methods of analysis may provide useful information in the assessment of testicular perfusion.

  20. Simplified prototyping of perfusable polystyrene microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Reginald; Ahn, Byungwook; R. Myers, David; Qiu, Yongzhi; Sakurai, Yumiko; Moot, Robert; Mihevc, Emma; Trent Spencer, H.; Doering, Christopher; A. Lam, Wilbur

    2014-01-01

    Cell culture in microfluidic systems has primarily been conducted in devices comprised of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or other elastomers. As polystyrene (PS) is the most characterized and commonly used substrate material for cell culture, microfluidic cell culture would ideally be conducted in PS-based microsystems that also enable tight control of perfusion and hydrodynamic conditions, which are especially important for culture of vascular cell types. Here, we report a simple method to prototype perfusable PS microfluidics for endothelial cell culture under flow that can be fabricated using standard lithography and wet laboratory equipment to enable stable perfusion at shear stresses up to 300 dyn/cm2 and pumping pressures up to 26 kPa for at least 100 h. This technique can also be extended to fabricate perfusable hybrid PS-PDMS microfluidics of which one application is for increased efficiency of viral transduction in non-adherent suspension cells by leveraging the high surface area to volume ratio of microfluidics and adhesion molecules that are optimized for PS substrates. These biologically compatible microfluidic devices can be made more accessible to biological-based laboratories through the outsourcing of lithography to various available microfluidic foundries. PMID:25379106

  1. Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  2. High tidal volume ventilation induces proinflammatory signaling in rat lung endothelium.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sunita; Sen, Namita; Yiming, Maimaiti T; Patel, Rashmi; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Quadri, Sadiqa; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2003-02-01

    Alveolar overdistension during mechanical ventilation causes leukocyte sequestration, leading to lung injury. However, underlying endothelial cell (EC) mechanisms are undefined. In a new approach, we exposed isolated blood-perfused rat lungs to high tidal volume ventilation (HV) for 2 h, then obtained fresh lung endothelial cells (FLEC) by immunosorting at 4 degrees C. Immunoblotting experiments indicated that as compared with FLEC derived from lungs ventilated at low volume (LV), HV markedly enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrP). The tyrosine kinase blocker, genistein, inhibited this response. HV also induced focal adhesion (FA) formation in FLEC, as detected by immunofluorescent aggregates of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin that co-localized with aggregations of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Immunoprecipitation and blotting experiments revealed that HV increased TyrP of the FA protein, paxillin. In addition, HV induced a paxillin-associated P-selectin expression on FLEC that was also inhibited by genistein. However, HV did not increase lung water. These results indicate that in HV, EC signaling in situ causes FA formation and induces TyrP-dependent P-selectin expression. These signaling mechanisms may promote leukocyte-mediated responses in HV. PMID:12540489

  3. Computational Study of Effects of Tension Imbalance on Phonation in a Three Dimensional Tubular Larynx Model

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The current study explores the use of a continuum based computational model to investigate the effect of left right tension imbalance on vocal fold vibrations and glottal aerodynamics, as well as its implication on phonation. The study allows us to gain new insights into the underlying physical mechanism of irregularities induced by vocal fold tension imbalance associated with unilateral cricothyroid muscle paralysis. Method A three dimensional simulation of glottal flow and vocal fold dynamics in a tubular laryngeal model with tension imbalance was conducted by using a coupled flow-structure interaction computational model. Tension imbalance was modeled by reducing by 20% the Young’s modulus of one of the vocal folds, while holding vocal fold length constant. Effects of tension imbalance on vibratory characteristic of the vocal folds and on the time-varying properties of glottal airflow as well as the aerodynamic energy transfer are comprehensively analyzed. Results and Conclusions The analysis demonstrates that the continuum based biomechanical model can provide a good description of phonatory dynamics in tension imbalance conditions. It is found that while 20% tension imbalance does not have noticeable effects on the fundamental frequency, it does lead to a larger glottal flow leakage and asymmetric vibrations of the two vocal folds. A detailed analysis of the energy transfer suggests that the majority of the energy is consumed by the lateral motion of the vocal folds and the net energy transferred to the softer fold is less than the one transferred to the normal fold. PMID:24725589

  4. Comparing Normothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation With Different Perfusates on Porcine Livers From Donors After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Nassar, A; Farias, K; Buccini, L; Mangino, M J; Baldwin, W; Bennett, A; O'Rourke, C; Iuppa, G; Soliman, B G; Urcuyo-Llanes, D; Okamoto, T; Uso, T D; Fung, J; Abu-Elmagd, K; Miller, C; Quintini, C

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) may be an effective strategy to resuscitate livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD). There is no consensus regarding the efficacy of different perfusates on graft and bile duct viability. The aim of this study was to compare, in an NMP porcine DCD model, the preservation potential of three different perfusates. Twenty porcine livers with 60?min of warm ischemia were separated into four preservation groups: cold storage (CS), NMP with Steen solution (Steen; XVIVO Perfusion Inc., Denver, CO), Steen plus red blood cells (RBCs), or whole blood (WB). All livers were preserved for 10?h and reperfused to simulate transplantation for 24?h. During preservation, the NMP with Steen group presented the highest hepatocellular injury. At reperfusion, the CS group had the lowest bile production and the worst hepatocellular injury compared with all other groups, followed by NMP with Steen; the Steen plus RBC and WB groups presented the best functional and hepatocellular injury outcomes, with WB livers showing lower aspartate aminotransferase release and a trend toward better results for most parameters. Based on our results, a perfusate that contains an oxygen carrier is most effective in a model of NMP porcine DCD livers compared with Steen solution. Specifically, WB-perfused livers showed a trend toward better outcomes compared with Steen plus RBCs. PMID:26663737

  5. 22 year cycle in the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernova, Elena; Baranov, Dmitrii; Tyasto, Marta

    The manifestation of the 22 year solar magnetic cycle in the imbalance of positive and negative photospheric magnetic fluxes is studied. For the analysis we use synoptic maps of the photospheric magnetic field of Kitt Peak Observatory (1976 - 2003) and John Wilcox Observatory in Stanford (1976 - 2012). We consider strong magnetic fields for the heliolatitudes in the interval from +40 to -40. It is shown that the sign of the imbalance between positive and negative fluxes remains constant during 11 years from one inversion of the Suns global magnetic field to the next one and always coincides with the sign of the polar field in the Northern hemisphere. Thus, the imbalance between the magnetic fluxes of different polarities changes according to the 22 year cycle. The sign of the imbalance is determined both by the phase of the solar cycle (before or after the inversion) and by the parity of the solar cycle. The imbalance of positive and negative magnetic fluxes can be observed not only for the strong fields in the sunspot zone. The mean magnetic field of the Sun (Sun as a star), which is determined by the net flux of the background fields, changes according to the same pattern as the imbalance of the strong fields. The regular changes of the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fields are reflected also in the parameters of heliosphere. We show the connection of the imbalance with the quadrupole component of the photospheric magnetic field and with the imbalance of the interplanetary magnetic field (the difference between the numbers of the days with positive and negative polarities of the interplanetary magnetic field near Earth).

  6. A new system for understanding modes of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, R L; Primiano, F P

    2001-06-01

    Numerous ventilation modes and ventilation options have become available as new mechanical ventilators have reached the market. Ventilator manufacturers have no standardized terminology for ventilator modes and ventilation options, and ventilator operator's manuals do not help the clinician compare the modes of ventilators from different manufacturers. This article proposes a standardized system for classifying ventilation modes, based on general engineering principles and a small set of explicit definitions. Though there may be resistance by ventilator manufacturers to a standardized system of ventilation terminology, clinicians and health care equipment purchasers should adopt such a system in the interest of clear communication--the lack of which prevents clinicians from fully understanding the therapies they administer and could compromise the quality of patient care. PMID:11353550

  7. Genetic imbalances revealed by comparative genomic hybridization in osteosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Toshifumi; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Wai, Daniel; Buerger, Horst; Flege, Silke; Lindner, Norbert; Kevric, Matthias; Diallo, Raihanatou; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Brinkschmidt, Christian; Juergens, Heribert; Winkelmann, Winfried; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, Barbara; Bielack, Stefan S; Poremba, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Osteosarcomas are the most frequent bone sarcomas. The molecular chromosomal aberrations in osteosarcomas were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We studied 47 frozen tumors (41 primary samples, 6 relapses) in osteosarcoma patients registered in the Cooperative Osteosarcoma Study (COSS) protocol. Genomic imbalances were detected in 40 of 41 primary tumors and 6 of 6 relapsed tumors. Gains were more frequent than losses (ratio of 1.3:1). The median number of changes was 16 and 12 in primary and relapsed osteosarcomas, respectively. The median number of aberrations in primary high-grade osteosarcomas (17.0) was significantly higher than in low- or intermediate-grade osteosarcoma subtypes (3.0) (p = 0.038). The most frequent gains included 8q, 1p21-p31 and 1q21-q24, and the most frequent losses were 10q, 5q and 13q. High-level gains were observed on 8q23-q24, 17p13 and 1q21-q24. A gain of 19p (p < 0.001) or loss of 9p (p = 0.027) was more frequent in poor responders than in good responders. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with primary metastases (p = 0.002), poor histologic responses (p = 0.005), high-level gains of 19p (p = 0.012) or losses of 13q14 (p = 0.042) had significantly lower event-free survival (EFS), whereas patients with a loss of 5q (p = 0.007) or a loss of 10q21-22 (p = 0.017) had significantly higher EFS than patients without these aberrations. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that primary metastasis, loss of 13q14 and loss of 5q were independent prognostic factors. The findings of our study seem to be useful for evaluating the prognosis of patients and may finally lead to treatment strategies based on genetic background of osteosarcoma. PMID:12402305

  8. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-01-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates. PMID:22983845

  9. Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between genes and the environment are now regarded as the most probable explanation for autism. In this review, we summarize the results of a metallomics study in which scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements were examined for 1,967 autistic children (1,553 males and 414 females aged 0–15 years-old), and discuss recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic roles of infantile mineral imbalances in the pathogenesis of autism. In the 1,967 subjects, 584 (29.7%) and 347 (17.6%) were found deficient in zinc and magnesium, respectively, and the incidence rate of zinc deficiency was estimated at 43.5% in male and 52.5% in female infantile subjects aged 0–3 years-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals were found to suffer from high burdens of aluminum, cadmium and lead, respectively, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic. High toxic metal burdens were more frequently observed in the infants aged 0–3 years-old, whose incidence rates were 20.6%, 12.1%, 7.5%, 3.2% and 2.3% for aluminum, cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury, respectively. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may be critical and induce epigenetic alterations in the genes and genetic regulation mechanisms of neurodevelopment in the autistic children, and demonstrate that a time factor “infantile window” is also critical for neurodevelopment and probably for therapy. Thus, early metallomics analysis may lead to early screening/estimation and treatment/prevention for the autistic neurodevelopment disorders. PMID:24284360

  10. Chromosomal imbalances of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Goeze, Almut; Schlns, Karsten; Wolf, Guenter; Thsler, Zsuzsanna; Petersen, Simone; Petersen, Iver

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to screen 83 lung adenocarcinomas of 60 patients for chromosomal imbalances. The most common alteration was DNA overrepresentation on chromosome 1q, with a peak incidence at 1q22-q23 in 73% of the primary tumours, followed by DNA overrepresentation on chromosomes 8q and 20q, and deletions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, 6q, 9p, 9q, and 13q, in at least 60%. The generation of a difference histogram of metastasizing versus non-metastasizing tumours and a case-by-case histogram for the comparison of 23 paired samples of primary tumours and corresponding metastases suggested that deletions on chromosomes 3p12-p14, 3p22-p24, 4p13-15.1, 4q21-qter, 6q21-qter, 8p, 10q, 14q21, 17p12-p13, 20p12, and 21q, and overrepresentations on chromosomes 1q21-q25, 7q11.2, 9q34, 11q12-q13, 14q11-q13, and 17q25 are associated with the metastatic phenotype. In contrast, losses on chromosome 19 and gains on 3p, 4q, 5p, and 6q were preferentially found in non-metastasizing tumours. The analysis of the paired samples revealed considerable chromosomal instability, but indicated a clonal relationship in each case. The primary tumours often showed additional deletions, suggesting that loss of function mutations are critical in the initial phase of tumour dissemination, whereas the metastases preferentially acquired DNA gains, probably modulating the metastatic phenotype. The primary data from this study (ratio profiles, clinicopathological parameters, histograms) are also available at http://amba.charite.de/cgh. PMID:11748636

  11. Common Mechanisms of Excitatory and Inhibitory Imbalance in Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gao, R.; Penzes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ) are cognitive disorders with complex genetic architectures but overlapping behavioral phenotypes, which suggests common pathway perturbations. Multiple lines of evidence implicate imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory activity (E/I imbalance) as a shared pathophysiological mechanism. Thus, understanding the molecular underpinnings of E/I imbalance may provide essential insight into the etiology of these disorders and may uncover novel targets for future drug discovery. Here, we review key genetic, physiological, neuropathological, functional, and pathway studies that suggest alterations to excitatory/inhibitory circuits are keys to ASD and SCZ pathogenesis. PMID:25732149

  12. [Recommendations for invasive home mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Randerath, W J; Kamps, N; Brambring, J; Gerhard, F; Lorenz, J; Rudolf, F; Rosseau, S; Scheumann, A; Vollmer, V; Windisch, W

    2011-02-01

    Due to chronic respiratory failure, a proportion of patients require long-term home ventilation therapy. The treating doctors, nurses and therapists, as well as employees of the health insurance provider, all require specialized knowledge in order to establish and monitor home ventilation. The following document represents a consensus formed by the participating specialist societies, the health insurers and their medical advisory services. The recommendations for accomplishing home mechanical ventilation are based on the "S2 Guidelines for Non-Invasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Failure", and provide advice about the necessary qualifications of medical and nursing practitioners working in specialised ventilation centres or in the home setting. Management of transfer, which comprises the medical, technical and organisational requirements for releasing the patient from hospital care, is of paramount importance. In outpatient care, the requirements for the recruitment of resources, monitoring of procedures, adjustment of ventilation, and frequency of check-ups are each addressed. The recommendations are supplemented by appendices which include patient transfer forms, checklists for the supply of basic resources for home ventilation, as well as a template for the letter of discharge from hospital. PMID:21294061

  13. Quantification of ventilation characteristics of a helmet.

    PubMed

    Van Brecht, A; Nuyttens, D; Aerts, J M; Quanten, S; De Bruyne, G; Berckmans, D

    2008-05-01

    Despite the augmented safety offered by wearing a cyclist crash helmet, many cyclists still refuse to wear one because of the thermal discomfort that comes along with wearing it. In this paper, a method is described that quantifies the ventilation characteristics of a helmet using tracer gas experiments. A Data-Based Mechanistic model was applied to provide a physically meaningful description of the dominant internal dynamics of mass transfer in the imperfectly mixed fluid under the helmet. By using a physical mass balance, the local ventilation efficiency could be described by using a single input-single output system. Using this approach, ventilation efficiency ranging from 0.06 volume refreshments per second (s(-1)) at the side of the helmet to 0.22s(-1) at the rear ventilation opening were found on the investigated helmet. The zones at the side were poorly ventilated. The influence of the angle of inclination on ventilation efficiency was dependent on the position between head and helmet. General comfort of the helmet can be improved by increasing the ventilation efficiency of fresh air at the problem zones. PMID:17959135

  14. Basic Surgical Techniques in the Gttingen Minipig: Intubation, Bladder Catheterization, Femoral Vessel Catheterization, and Transcardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ettrup, Kaare S.; Glud, Andreas N.; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise M.; Meier, Kaare; Soerensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R.; Alstrup, Aage K. Olsen

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Gttingen minipig in research of topics such as neuroscience, toxicology, diabetes, obesity, and experimental surgery reflects the close resemblance of these animals to human anatomy and physiology 1-6.The size of the Gttingen minipig permits the use of surgical equipment and advanced imaging modalities similar to those used in humans 6-8. The aim of this instructional video is to increase the awareness on the value of minipigs in biomedical research, by demonstrating how to perform tracheal intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion. Endotracheal Intubation should be performed whenever a minipig undergoes general anesthesia, because it maintains a patent airway, permits assisted ventilation and protects the airways from aspirates. Transurethral bladder catheterization can provide useful information about about hydration state as well as renal and cardiovascular function during long surgical procedures. Furthermore, urinary catheterization can prevent contamination of delicate medico-technical equipment and painful bladder extension which may harm the animal and unnecessarily influence the experiment due to increased vagal tone and altered physiological parameters. Arterial and venous catheterization is useful for obtaining repeated blood samples and monitoring various physiological parameters. Catheterization of femoral vessels is preferable to catheterization of the neck vessels for ease of access, when performing experiments involving frame-based stereotaxic neurosurgery and brain imaging. When performing vessel catheterization in survival studies, strict aseptic technique must be employed to avoid infections6. Transcardial perfusion is the most effective fixation method, and yields preeminent results when preparing minipig organs for histology and histochemistry2,9. For more information about anesthesia, surgery and experimental techniques in swine in general we refer to Swindle 2007. Supplementary information about premedication and induction of anesthesia, assisted ventilation, analgesia, pre- and postoperative care of Gttingen minipigs are available via the internet at http://www.minipigs.com10. For extensive information about porcine anatomy we refer to Nickel et al. Vol. 1-511. PMID:21730947

  15. Functional and morphologic changes caused by acute ozone exposure in the isolated and perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, M.V.; McDonald, R.J.; Berry, J.D.; Joad, J.P.; Tarkington, B.K.; Hyde, D.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Ozone has been shown to increase airway resistance and/or airway reactivity in vivo in animals and humans. Because of the complexities inherent in studying this phenomenon in whole animals, we developed a model of ozone-induced effects on airway physiology using the isolated perfused rat lung. Rat lungs were suspended in an airtight chamber and perfused via the pulmonary circulation with a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 4.5% bovine albumin. Ventilation of the lungs was achieved by generating a fluctuating negative pressure within the chamber (-2 to -7 cm H2O) at a rate of 60 breaths/min. The lungs were ventilated with humidified 95% air and 5% CO2 alone (control condition) or mixed with ozone at 1.0 or 2.0 ppm. Transpulmonary pressure, flow rate, and tidal volume were recorded at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours, and pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were calculated. There was no significant difference in lung weight/total body weight ratios between the three groups at the end of the 3-h period. RL increased and Cdyn decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner with ozone exposure. The percent increase above baseline in RL +/- SEM at 3 h was 9.4 +/- 4.1% for control lungs, 21.0 +/- 3.2% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 63.6 +/- 13.5% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs. The percent decrease below baseline in Cdyn +/- SEM at 3 h was 27.4 +/- 2.1% for control lungs, 37.1 +/- 2.7% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 55.2 +/- 7.3% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Spontaneous breathing with airway pressure release ventilation favors ventilation in dependent lung regions and counters cyclic alveolar collapse in oleic-acid-induced lung injury: a randomized controlled computed tomography trial

    PubMed Central

    Wrigge, Hermann; Zinserling, Jrg; Neumann, Peter; Muders, Thomas; Magnusson, Anders; Putensen, Christian; Hedenstierna, Gran

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung areas and in less cyclic collapse during the tidal breath. Methods In this randomized controlled experimental trial, 22 pigs with oleic-acid-induced lung injury were randomly assigned to receive APRV with or without spontaneous breathing at comparable airway pressures. Four hours after randomization, dynamic computed tomography scans of the lung were obtained in an apical slice and in a juxtadiaphragmatic transverse slice. Analyses of regional attenuation were performed separately in nondependent and dependent halves of the lungs on end-expiratory scans and end-inspiratory scans. Tidal changes were assessed as differences between inspiration and expiration of the mechanical breaths. Results Whereas no differences were observed in the apical slices, spontaneous breathing resulted in improved tidal ventilation of dependent lung regions (P < 0.05) and less cyclic collapse (P < 0.05) in the juxtadiaphragmatic slices. In addition, with spontaneous breathing, the end-expiratory aeration increased and nonaerated tissue decreased in dependent lung regions close to the diaphragm (P < 0.05 for the interaction ventilator mode and lung region). Conclusion Spontaneous breathing during APRV redistributes ventilation and aeration to dependent, usually well-perfused, lung regions close to the diaphragm, and may thereby contribute to improved arterial oxygenation. Spontaneous breathing also counters cyclic collapse, which is a risk factor for ventilation-associated lung injury. PMID:16356227

  17. Gastric rupture after bag-mask-ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Stephan; Filipovic, Miodrag; Schoch, Otto; Mauermann, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    A 42 year old woman underwent bronchoscopy with procedural propofol sedation. During the procedure, the patient suffered respiratory arrest, and bag-mask ventilation was initiated. During forced mask ventilation, abdominal distention occurred. Even after correct placement of an endotracheal and a nasogastric tube, high inspiratory pressures persisted. The abdominal CT scan revealed a high amount of intraperitoneal free air. An emergent laparotomy confirmed a stomach rupture. Immediately after opening of the peritoneal cavity, peak ventilatory pressures decreased. In this case forceful bag-mask ventilation led to air insufflation into the stomach, increasing gastric pressure, and consecutive stomach rupture. PMID:26744639

  18. Weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Scalise, P J; Votto, J J

    2005-01-01

    As many as 5% of patients who need mechanical ventilation will require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). The cost of their care and its associated morbidity is alarming; however, good outcomes can be achieved when their care is specialized and delivered in a programmatic manner. In this article, we review some of the common and potentially reversible reasons why patients fail successfully liberation from mechanical ventilation. We examine the outcomes of patients requiring PMV and present evidence that supports the development of specialized units where patients can be cohorted and may produce better outcomes than would be likely if these patients remained in the ICU. PMID:16279157

  19. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown to improve secretion removal. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation combines percussion with hyperinflation and a simulated cough, but the evidence for intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients is insufficient to support routine use. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient consists of appropriate humidification and as-needed airway suctioning. Intermittent techniques may play a role when secretion retention persists despite adequate humidification and suctioning. The technique selected should remedy the suspected etiology of the secretion retention (eg, insufflation-exsufflation for impaired cough). Further research into secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient is needed. PMID:17894902

  20. HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) literature in Japan: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.

    1988-02-01

    Japanese businessmen in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACandR) industry consider the monitoring of technical and market developments in the United States to be a normal part of their business. In contrast, efforts by US businessmen to monitor Japanese HVAC and R developments are poorly developed. To begin to redress this imbalance, this report establishes the groundwork for a more effective system for use in monitoring Japanese HVAC and R literature. Discussions of a review of the principal HVAC and R publications in Japan and descriptions of the type of information contained in each of those publications are included in this report. Since the Japanese HVAC and R literature is abundant, this report also provides practical suggestions on how a researcher or research manager can limit the monitoring effort to the publications and type of information that would most likely be of greatest value.

  1. Analysis of the method for ventilation heterogeneity assessment using the Otis model and forced oscillations.

    PubMed

    Glapi?ski, Jaros?aw; Mroczka, Janusz; Polak, Adam G

    2015-12-01

    Increased heterogeneity of the lung disturbs pulmonary gas exchange. During bronchoconstriction, inflammation of lung parenchyma or acute respiratory distress syndrome, inhomogeneous lung ventilation can become bimodal and increase the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury during mechanical ventilation. A simple index sensitive to ventilation heterogeneity would be very useful in clinical practice. In the case of bimodal ventilation, the index (H) can be defined as the ratio between the longer and shorter time constant characterising regions of contrary mechanical properties. These time constants can be derived from the Otis model fitted to input impedance (Zin) measured using forced oscillations. In this paper we systematically investigated properties of the aforementioned approach. The research included both numerical simulations and real experiments with a dual-lung simulator. Firstly, a computational model mimicking the physical simulator was derived and then used as a forward model to generate synthetic flow and pressure signals. These data were used to calculate the input impedance and then the Otis inverse model was fitted to Zin by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Finally, the obtained estimates of model parameters were used to compute H. The analysis of the above procedure was performed in the frame of Monte Carlo simulations. For each selected value of H, forward simulations with randomly chosen lung parameters were repeated 1000 times. Resulting signals were superimposed by additive Gaussian noise. The estimated values of H properly indicated the increasing level of simulated inhomogeneity, however with underestimation and variation increasing with H. The main factor responsible for the growing estimation bias was the fixed starting vector required by the LM algorithm. Introduction of a correction formula perfectly reduced this systematic error. The experimental results with the dual-lung simulator confirmed potential of the proposed procedure to properly deduce the lung heterogeneity level. We conclude that the heterogeneity index H can be used to assess bimodal ventilation imbalances in cases when this phenomenon dominates lung properties, however future analyses, including the impact of lung tissue viscoelasticity and distributed airway or tissue inhomogeneity on H estimates, as well as studies in the time domain, are advisable. PMID:26363677

  2. On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Haslwanter, Alois; Hrtnagl, Lukas; Jasoni, Richard L; Fenstermaker, Lynn F; Arnone, John A; Hammerle, Albin

    2009-09-01

    The Penman-Monteith combination equation, which is most frequently used to derive the surface conductance to water vapour (Gs), implicitly assumes the energy balance to be closed. Any energy imbalance (positive or negative) will thus affect the calculated Gs. Using eddy covariance energy flux data from a temperate grassland and a desert shrub ecosystem we explored five possible approaches of closing the energy imbalance and show that calculated Gs may differ considerably between these five approaches depending on the relative magnitudes of sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the magnitude and sign of the energy imbalance. Based on our limited understanding of the nature of the energy imbalance, we tend to favour an approach which preserves the Bowen-ratio and closes the energy balance on a larger time scale. PMID:24465070

  3. A single-to-differential low-noise amplifier with low differential output imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Duan; Wei, Huang; Chengyan, Ma; Xiaofeng, He; Yuhua, Jin; Tianchun, Ye

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a single-ended input differential output low-noise amplifier intended for GPS applications. We propose a method to reduce the gain/amplitude and phase imbalance of a differential output exploiting the inductive coupling of a transformer or center-tapped differential inductor. A detailed analysis of the theory of imbalance reduction, as well as a discussion on the principle of choosing the dimensions of a transformer, are given. An LNA has been implemented using TSMC 0.18 ?m technology with ESD-protected. Measurement on board shows a voltage gain of 24.6 dB at 1.575 GHz and a noise figure of 3.2 dB. The gain imbalance is below 0.2 dB and phase imbalance is less than 2 degrees. The LNA consumes 5.2 mA from a 1.8 V supply.

  4. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  5. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors are opened as a part of the normal mining cycle, they shall be closed as soon as possible to...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors are opened as a part of the normal mining cycle, they shall be closed as soon as possible to...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors are opened as a part of the normal mining cycle, they shall be closed as soon as possible to...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  9. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  10. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  18. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  20. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  1. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation... combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not... Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation... combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not... Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation... combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not... Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation... combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not... Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation... combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not... Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation; (c) Have the stop position of...

  13. 46 CFR 153.310 - Ventilation system type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation system type. 153.310 Section 153.310... Handling Space Ventilation 153.310 Ventilation system type. A cargo handling space must have a permanent forced ventilation system of the exhaust type....

  14. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table 1 refers to this section, the cargo pumproom ventilation system must change the air in the cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 153.310 - Ventilation system type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system type. 153.310 Section 153.310... Handling Space Ventilation 153.310 Ventilation system type. A cargo handling space must have a permanent forced ventilation system of the exhaust type....

  16. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  18. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must...

  19. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table 1 refers to this section, the cargo pumproom ventilation system must change the air in the cargo...

  20. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... Components 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  2. 33 CFR 183.620 - Natural ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation 183.620 Natural ventilation system. (a) Except for compartments open to the atmosphere, a natural ventilation system that meets...

  3. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must...

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation; (c) Have the stop position of...

  5. 33 CFR 183.620 - Natural ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation 183.620 Natural ventilation system. (a) Except for compartments open to the atmosphere, a natural ventilation system that meets...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment...

  7. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation 38.20-10 VentilationT/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  8. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation 38.20-10 VentilationT/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  9. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation 38.20-10 VentilationT/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  10. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation 38.20-10 VentilationT/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  11. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation 38.20-10 VentilationT/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  13. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  14. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  15. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  17. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  18. Pravastatin attenuates hypertension, oxidative stress and angiogenic imbalance in rat model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ashley J; Banek, Christopher T; Needham, Karen; Gillham, Haley; Capoccia, Susan; Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition characterized by an imbalance of circulating angiogenic factors and new-onset hypertension. Although current treatment options are limited, recent studies suggest pravastatin may improve angiogenic profile and reduce blood pressure in preeclampsia. We hypothesized pravastatin would restore angiogenic balance and reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) in rats with reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP)-induced hypertension. Pravastatin was administered i.p. (1 mg/kg/day) in RUPP (RUPP+P) and normal pregnant rats (NP+P) from day 14-19 of pregnancy. On day 19, MAP was measured via catheter, conceptus data was recorded and tissues collected. MAP was increased (p<0.05) in RUPP compared to NP dams and pravastatin ameliorated this difference. Pravastatin attenuated decreased fetal weight and plasma VEGF and the RUPP-induced increased sFlt-1 when compared to NP dams. Pravastatin treatment did not improve angiogenic potential in RUPP serum and decreased (P<0.05) endothelial tube formation in NP rats. RUPP rats presented with indices of oxidative stress such as increased placental catalase activity and plasma TBARS along with decreased plasma total antioxidant capacity compared to NP controls and pravastatin attenuated these effects. MAP, fetal weight, plasma VEGF, and plasma sFlt-1 were unchanged in NP+P compared to NP controls. The present data indicate that treatment with pravastatin attenuates oxidative stress and lowers MAP in placental ischemia-induced hypertension, but may have negative effects on circulating angiogenic potential during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to determine if there are long-term deleterious effects on maternal or fetal health following pravastatin treatment during pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia. PMID:23460290

  19. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Israel L.; Pgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.; Mariani, Alessandro W.; Fernandes, Flvio G.; Unterpertinger, Fernando V.; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p?=?0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dynscm-5, respectively (p?=?0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H2O in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H2O in Group 2 (p?=?0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p?=?0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p?=?1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm2 and 137.50/mm2, respectively (p?=?0.71). CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation. PMID:23018310

  20. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.