These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.  

PubMed

Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

2013-11-01

2

Deficits in Verbal Declarative Memory Function in Women With Childhood Sexual Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown deficits in verbal declarative memory function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most of these studies have been performed in men with combat-related PTSD compared with healthy subjects; relatively little is known about memory function in women with abuse-related PTSD, or whether these effects are specific to PTSD or are a nonspecific outcome of exposure to early

J. Douglas Bremner; Eric Vermetten; Nadeem Afzal; Meena Vythilingam

2004-01-01

3

Sleep-Related Declarative Memory Consolidation and Verbal Replay during Sleep Talking in Patients with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Methods Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Results Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Conclusion Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level. PMID:24349492

Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

2013-01-01

4

Investigation of the component processes involved in verbal declarative memory function in bipolar disorder: utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that standard learning and recall indexes are sensitive markers of verbal declarative memory ability in bipolar disorder (BD), but no study has examined performance across the full range of component process measures on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R) in a BD cohort. As the HVLT-R is part of a widely used battery of cognitive functioning backed by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration as the accepted battery for use in pro-cognitive trials assessing cognitive-enhancing drugs in the related disorder schizophrenia, estimating the utility of its measures in BD is important. Forty-nine BD patients and 51 healthy controls completed the HVLT-R, which was scored for 13 variables of interest, across 4 indices: recall and learning, recognition, strategic organization, and errors. BD patients had greater difficulty in learning the HVLT-R word list compared to controls. They also demonstrated impairment in delayed recall/recognition. There were no differences between the groups in terms of their slope of learning, retrieval index, retention percentage, semantic or serial clustering, errors, or level of retrieval. This pattern was consistent across symptomatic and euthymic patients. The HVLT-R has some utility in characterizing the component processes involved in memory function in BD, such that memory impairments appear to be attributable to deficient encoding processes during the acquisition phase of learning. In the case of planning pro-cognitive clinical trials, the encoding deficits in BD observed here may be sensitive enough to potentially respond to medications designed to enhance the verbal memory performance. PMID:24870365

Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

2014-08-01

5

Effects of dexamethasone on declarative memory function in posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and hippocampal-based memory have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the administration of exogenous glucocorticoids has been shown to result in a transient verbal declarative memory impairment in healthy human subjects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on verbal declarative memory function in patients

J. Douglas Bremner; Meena Vythilingam; Eric Vermetten; Nadeem Afzal; Ahsan Nazeer; John W. Newcomer; Dennis S. Charney

2004-01-01

6

Striatal contributions to declarative memory retrieval  

PubMed Central

Declarative memory is known to depend on the medial temporal lobe memory system. Recently, there has been renewed focus on the relationship between the basal ganglia and declarative memory, including the involvement of striatum. However, the contribution of striatum to declarative memory retrieval remains unknown. Here, we review neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the involvement of the striatum in declarative memory retrieval. From this review, we propose that, along with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the striatum primarily supports cognitive control of memory retrieval. We conclude by proposing three hypotheses for the specific role of striatum in retrieval: (1) Striatum modulates the re-encoding of retrieved items in accord with their expected utility (adaptive encoding), (2) striatum selectively admits information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive gating), and (3) striatum enacts adjustments in cognitive control based on the outcome of retrieval (reinforcement learning). PMID:22884322

Scimeca, Jason M.; Badre, David

2012-01-01

7

The relation between verbal and visuospatial memory and autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more of the basic systems influence the properties of autobiographical memories, little is known about how these cognitive abilities and autobiographical memory are related. To assert whether participants with stronger cognitive abilities also perform better on autobiographical memory tests, participants who completed verbal and visuospatial memory tests also recorded one personal event, which they recalled after a certain interval. Participants who performed well on the verbal memory tests also had better retention for the personal event, providing support for the basic-systems approach to autobiographical memory and preliminary support for the view that people have more memories from adolescence and early adulthood because the memory system works optimally in these lifetime periods. PMID:25460237

Janssen, Steve M J; Kristo, Gert; Rouw, Romke; Murre, Jaap M J

2015-01-01

8

Research Report Contrasting visual working memory for verbal and non-verbal  

E-print Network

Research Report Contrasting visual working memory for verbal and non-verbal material to investigate the neural substrates of non- verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (`Shape task'). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1

9

Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.  

PubMed

Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

2014-08-01

10

Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is evidence for memory impairment in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it remains unclear whether memory impairment is confined to verbal material or whether memory for nonverbal material is also affected. We examined verbal and nonverbal memory for free recall and recognition in 40 patients with PTSD and 40 healthy controls. Analyses showed that patients with PTSD displayed attenuated

Lena Jelinek; Dirk Jacobsen; Michael Kellner; Florentine Larbig; Karl-Heinz Biesold; Klaus Barre; Steffen Moritz

2006-01-01

11

Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

2007-01-01

12

Distinct Episodic Verbal Memory Profiles in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), an episodic verbal learning test, was compared in 61 schizophrenic patients and 61 matched healthy subjects. The 32 indices were calculated using CVLT Scoring Software. This process allowed us to describe patients’ episodic processes in detail (encoding, storage, retrieval). We isolated one group with normative data, another showed impairment of both encoding and retrieval processes, and in the last one, only encoding process was impaired. As schizophrenia is heterogeneous with regard to episodic memory, impairments should not be considered as a common core to the various forms of the illness and it would be fruitful to systematically assess episodic processes in detail to take into account individual abilities and challenges. PMID:25379234

Brazo, Perrine; Ilongo, Michaelle; Dollfus, Sonia

2013-01-01

13

Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

2008-01-01

14

Working memory as a predictor of verbal fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether working memory capacity could account for individual differences in verbal fluency. Working memory was assessed by the speaking span test (Daneman & Green, 1986) that taxes the processing and storage functions of working memory during sentence production. Verbal fluency was assessed by (1) a speech generation task in which subjects made a speech about a picture;

Meredyth Daneman

1991-01-01

15

Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

2009-01-01

16

Verbalizing Facial Memory: Criterion Effects in Verbal Overshadowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigated the role of the recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). In 3 experiments, people witnessed an event, verbally described a perpetrator, and then attempted identification. The authors found in Experiment 1, which included a \\

Joseph Clare; Stephan Lewandowsky

2004-01-01

17

Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory: Multiple Brain Systems Supporting Learning and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate

Larry R. Squire

1992-01-01

18

Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome: A Problem of Memory, Audition, or Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The short-term verbal memory performance of 19 children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) was contrasted with that of two control groups. Results confirm the expected verbal short-term memory deficit in DS subjects and suggest that this deficit is specific to memory for verbal information and is not primarily caused by auditory or…

Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Phillips, Caroline E.

2002-01-01

19

A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

Dennis, Simon

2005-01-01

20

Verbal Intrusions Precede Memory Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbal memory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…

Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

2006-01-01

21

The Role of Parietal Cortex in Verbal Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies of normal subjects and studies of pa- tients with focal lesions implicate regions of parietal cortex in verbal working memory (VWM), yet the precise role of parietal cortex in VWM remains unclear. Some evidence (Paulesu et al., 1993; Awh et al., 1996) suggests that the parietal cortex medi- ates the storage of verbal information, but these studies and

John Jonides; Eric H. Schumacher; Edward E. Smith; Robert A. Koeppe; Edward Awh; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Christy Marshuetz; Christopher R. Willis

1998-01-01

22

Verbal cognition and attention deficits do not explain the verbal memory decline associated with pharmacoresistant partial epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore whether change in verbal memory with time in patients with epilepsy is influenced by performance on tasks assessing verbal cognition or attention\\/processing speed. Thirty-six patients and twenty-five healthy controls were tested twice with median retest intervals of 4.8 and 3.1 years, respectively. Aspects of verbal memory, verbal cognition, and attention\\/processing speed were

Lena Andersson-Roswall; Elisabeth Engman; Kristina Malmgren; Hans Samuelsson

2007-01-01

23

Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

2004-01-01

24

Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

2014-01-01

25

Declarative memory in abused and neglected infants.  

PubMed

To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children's imitative behaviors. Thus, it would appear that maternal negative feedback to child-initiated behaviors is related to an increase in imitative behaviors that are most likely met with positive reinforcement. The continued pursuit of this positivity may impede the development of self-initiated behaviors; delayed development of self-initiated behavior has been linked to disorders of social competence (Landry, Smith, Miller-Loncar, & Swank, 1998). However, imitation has long been known to be a mechanism of learning (Piaget, 1962) and has become an accepted tool for assessment of declarative memory (Bauer, 2004). Whereas the adaptation to abuse posited by Valentino et al. (2006) may be detrimental to social development, our data for this same sample indicate that the reliance on imitative behavior exhibited by the abused children may afford them an advantage at 21 months of age in imitation paradigms. The neglected children are thus at a disadvantage relative to the abused children in the study reported here in that they were not reinforced by mothers for imitative behavior. It is important to note that all children in this sample were from low-income homes. Scores on these events for both target actions and ordered pairs are higher in samples of higher SES children (e.g., Bauer et al., 2000). Thus, the low SES of the families affected performance across the groups. It is possible that the factor responsible for the difference between the abused group and the neglected group is resilience in the face of poverty. Resilience is the ability to recover following a traumatic event or adversity (Masten, 2001), and has been related to child characteristics, such as general intelligence (Masten et al., 1988). It has been proposed that neural plasticity may be responsible for this recovery (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2006). Alternatively, as has been detailed earlier in this chapter, the advantage afforded abused children could arise from the strengthening of neural pathways. It would be adaptive to develop exceptional event memory so as to avoid the events that lead to abuse. Mechan

Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

2010-01-01

26

Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users  

PubMed Central

Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined fronto-parieto-mediotemporal dysfunction. PMID:23585882

Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Quednow, Boris B.

2013-01-01

27

Verbal and Spatial Working Memory In Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory may be composed of a number of subsystems for storing different kinds of information. This is the issue that motivates the present review. There are many different conceptions of working memory, but they all include a common set of characteristics--a memory system that: (a) stores information briefly, (b) stores a limited amount of information, (c) is rapidly accessible,

John Jonides; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Edward E. Smith; Edward Awh; Lisa L. Barnes; Maxwell Drain; Jennifer Glass; Erick J. Lauber; Andrea L. Patalano; Eric H. Schumacher

1996-01-01

28

Reconsolidation of Declarative Memory in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not…

Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector

2007-01-01

29

Long-term declarative memory deficits in diffuse TBI: correlations with cortical thickness, white matter integrity and hippocampal volume.  

PubMed

We investigated structural brain damage in subjects who had suffered severe and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI), and examined its relationship with declarative memory impairment. Cortical thickness, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and volumetric and shape data of the hippocampus were assessed in a group of 26 adults with severe TBI in the chronic stage and 22 healthy matched controls. Declarative memory was evaluated by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). TBI patients performed significantly worse than controls on all RAVLT measures. The group comparison for cortical thickness and DTI revealed a pattern of widespread atrophy in TBI patients. In the TBI group DTI measures correlated with cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal regions, including the precuneus. Declarative memory correlated with both cortical thickness and DTI measures. However, although hippocampal volume was significantly decreased in TBI patients, no correlations were found. Multiple regression analysis of all the structural measures revealed that decreases in Fractional anisotropy (FA) and thinning of the left parietal region were the best predictors of memory impairment. In conclusion, cortical thickness reductions in the left hemisphere and a lack of white matter integrity are the main contributors to long-term impairment in declarative memory among patients suffering from severe and diffuse TBI. In this study the hippocampus did not make a significant contribution to memory dysfunctions, suggesting that damage to this structure is compensated for by other regions, with the definitive sequelae being mainly explained by alterations in cortico-subcortical connectivity. PMID:22482692

Palacios, Eva M; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junque, Carme; Fernandez-Espejo, Davinia; Roig, Teresa; Tormos, Jose M; Bargallo, Nuria; Vendrell, Pere

2013-03-01

30

Interactions between specific parameters of cannabis use and verbal memory.  

PubMed

Recently, the impact of different parameters of cannabis use, including the age of first use, the average frequency of use, the cumulative lifetime dose, the average dose per occasion, and the duration of regular use upon cognitive functions has been discussed. However, to date no study has systematically investigated the interactions of these parameters with regard to cognitive performance. To determine whether these interactions exist, 142 healthy young adult cannabis users participated in a neuropsychological assessment study with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). In line with previous studies on cannabis use and verbal memory, significant associations between certain components of verbal memory and frequency of use, cumulative lifetime dose and duration of regular use respectively were found. Remarkably, a multivariate analysis solely revealed a significant main effect of the duration of cannabis use with regard to immediate recall and recall after interference. Moreover, the findings suggest that age of first use, duration of use and frequency of cannabis use interact with regard to their impact on different measures of verbal memory. The findings of the present study provide first evidence that particular parameters of cannabis use interact with regard to their impact on cognitive functions in unintoxicated cannabis users. This finding might deliver more insight into the complex mechanisms underlying the impaired memory functions observed in cannabis users. PMID:20398718

Wagner, Daniel; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Jörg

2010-08-16

31

Mechanisms of Verbal Memory Impairment in Four Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed…

Nichols, Sharon; Jones, Wendy; Roman, Mary J.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Delis, Dean C.; Reilly, Judy; Bellugi, Ursula

2004-01-01

32

Declarative memory deficits and schizophrenia: problems and prospects.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits are among the most important factors leading to poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia, with deficits in declarative memory among the largest and most robust of these. Thus far, attempts to enhance cognition in schizophrenia have shown only modest success, which underlies increasing efforts to develop effective treatment strategies. This review is divided into three main parts. The first section delineates the nature and extent of the deficits in both patients with schizophrenia and in their adult, non-psychotic relatives. The second part focuses on structural and functional abnormalities in the hippocampus, both in people with schizophrenia and in animal studies that model relevant features of the illness. The third section views problems in declarative memory and hippocampal function from the perspective of elevated rates of common medical disorders in schizophrenia, with a focus on insulin insensitivity/diabetes. The likelihood that poor glucose regulation/availability contribute to declarative memory deficits and hippocampal abnormalities is considered, along with the possibility that schizophrenia and poor glucose regulation share common etiologic elements, and with clinical implications of this perspective for enhancing declarative memory. PMID:21527348

Stone, William S; Hsi, Xiaolu

2011-11-01

33

Fractionating verbal episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the neural correlates of different stages of episodic memory function and their modulation by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several decades of work has supported the role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in episodic memory function. However, a more recent work, derived in part from functional neuroimaging studies, has suggested that other brain

David A. Wolk; Bradford C. Dickerson

2011-01-01

34

Verbal redundancy aids memory for filmed entertainment dialogue.  

PubMed

Three studies investigated the effects of presentation modality and redundancy of verbal content on recognition memory for entertainment film dialogue. U.S. participants watched two brief movie clips and afterward answered multiple-choice questions about information from the dialogue. Experiment 1 compared recognition memory for spoken dialogue in the native language (English) with subtitles in English, French, or no subtitles. Experiment 2 compared memory for material in English subtitles with spoken dialogue in English, French, or no sound. Experiment 3 examined three control conditions with no spoken or captioned material in the native language. All participants watched the same video clips and answered the same questions. Performance was consistently good whenever English dialogue appeared in either the subtitles or sound, and best of all when it appeared in both, supporting the facilitation of verbal redundancy. Performance was also better when English was only in the subtitles than when it was only spoken. Unexpectedly, sound or subtitles in an unfamiliar language (French) modestly improved performance, as long as there was also a familiar channel. Results extend multimedia research on verbal redundancy for expository material to verbal information in entertainment media. PMID:24684077

Hinkin, Michael P; Harris, Richard J; Miranda, Andrew T

2014-01-01

35

Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems. PMID:22043868

Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

2012-05-01

36

Cortical network dynamics during verbal working memory function.  

PubMed

This study is an exploratory investigation of the regional timing of cortical activity associated with verbal working memory function. ERP activity was obtained from a single subject using a 124-channel sensor array during a task requiring the monitoring of imageable words for occasional targets. Distributed cortical activity was estimated every 2.5 ms with high spatial resolution using real head, boundary element modelling of non-target activity. High-resolution structural MRI was used for segmentation of tissue boundaries and co-registration to the scalp electrode array. The inverse solution was constrained to the cortical surface. Cortical activity was observed in regions commonly associated with verbal working memory function. This included: the occipital pole (early visual processing); the superior temporal and inferior parietal gyrus bilaterally and the left angular gyrus (visual and phonological word processing); the dorsal lateral occipital gyrus (spatial processing); and aspects of the bilateral superior parietal lobe (imagery and episodic verbal memory). Activity was also observed in lateral and superior prefrontal regions associated with working memory control of sensorimotor processes. The pattern of cortical activity was relatively stable over time, with variations in the extent and amplitude of contributing local source activations. By contrast, the pattern of concomitant scalp topography varied considerably over time, reflecting the linear summation effects of volume conduction that often confound dipolar source modelling. PMID:11587774

Clark, C R; Moores, K A; Lewis, A; Weber, D L; Fitzgibbon, S; Greenblatt, R; Brown, G; Taylor, J

2001-10-01

37

Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?  

PubMed

In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

2014-09-12

38

Human temporal lobe potentials in verbal learning and memory processes.  

PubMed

Animal experiments and lesion studies have shown the importance of temporal lobe structures for language and memory. We recorded intracranial cognitive potentials from the human lateral and medial temporal lobe in 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation, using a word- and a picture-recognition paradigm. Neuropsychological testing included word fluency, verbal reasoning, sustained attention and a verbal learning memory test (VLMT), which was an adapted version of the Rey auditory verbal learning test. Word-specific N400-potentials elicited in the middle temporal gyrus of the dominant left hemisphere (LTL-N400) predicted immediate recall performance after learning, whereas N400s, elicited by words but not pictures in the left anterior medial temporal lobe (AMTL-N400), predicted delayed recall. The number of words that were learned but forgotten after a 30-min delay correlated only with N400s elicited by words in the left anterior medial temporal lobe. Thus, intracranial recordings indicated that different electrophysiological responses in different temporal lobe structures were linked to memory scores from specific neuropsychological tests. PMID:9153028

Elger, C E; Grunwald, T; Lehnertz, K; Kutas, M; Helmstaedter, C; Brockhaus, A; Van Roost, D; Heinze, H J

1997-05-01

39

Effects of Alzheimer disease on memory for verbal emotional information.  

PubMed

In healthy young and older adults, emotional information is often better remembered than neutral information. It is an open question, however, whether emotional memory enhancement is blunted or preserved in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies of emotional memory in AD have included small samples of patients. In addition, studies that failed to find an enhancement effect in AD used stimuli lacking semantic coherence (e.g. lists of unrelated words, some that were emotional and others that were neutral). To circumvent these limitations, the present study examined a large number of AD patients (N=80) and investigated whether AD patients would show better memory for a verbal description of an emotional event as compared to a neutral one. AD patients were equivalent to young and older control participants in rating the emotional descriptions for valence and arousal. Unlike the control groups, however, memory in AD patients did not benefit from the emotional narratives. We conclude that AD disrupts memory enhancement for at least some types of verbal emotional information. PMID:15037057

Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Alberta; Growdon, John H; Corkin, Suzanne

2004-01-01

40

Functional Topography of the Cerebellum in Verbal Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Speech—both overt and covert—facilitates working memory by creating and refreshing motor memory traces, allowing new information to be received and processed. Neuroimaging studies suggest a functional topography within the sub-regions of the cerebellum that subserve verbal working memory. Medial regions of the anterior cerebellum support overt speech, consistent with other forms of motor execution such as finger tapping, whereas lateral portions of the superior cerebellum support speech planning and preparation (e.g., covert speech). The inferior cerebellum is active when information is maintained across a delay, but activation appears to be independent of speech, lateralized by modality of stimulus presentation, and possibly related to phonological storage processes. Motor (dorsal) and cognitive (ventral) channels of cerebellar output nuclei can be distinguished in working memory. Clinical investigations suggest that hyper-activity of cerebellum and disrupted control of inner speech may contribute to certain psychiatric symptoms. PMID:20563894

Desmond, John E.

2010-01-01

41

The effect of rehearsal rate and memory load on verbal working memory.  

PubMed

While many neuroimaging studies have investigated verbal working memory (WM) by manipulating memory load, the subvocal rehearsal rate at these various memory loads has generally been left uncontrolled. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate how mnemonic load and the rate of subvocal rehearsal modulate patterns of activity in the core neural circuits underlying verbal working memory. Using fMRI in healthy subjects, we orthogonally manipulated subvocal rehearsal rate and memory load in a verbal WM task with long 45-s delay periods. We found that middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) exhibited memory load effects primarily early in the delay period and did not exhibit rehearsal rate effects. In contrast, we found that inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor cortex (PM) and Sylvian-parietal-temporal region (area Spt) exhibited approximately linear memory load and rehearsal rate effects, with rehearsal rate effects lasting through the entire delay period. These results indicate that IFG, PM and area Spt comprise the core articulatory rehearsal areas involved in verbal WM, while MFG and SPL are recruited in a general supervisory role once a memory load threshold in the core rehearsal network has been exceeded. PMID:25467303

Fegen, David; Buchsbaum, Bradley R; D'Esposito, Mark

2015-01-15

42

When visual and verbal memories compete: Evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal\\u000a material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory\\u000a and to identify a more central faculty as the source of a shared limitation. With a visual working memory task in which two

Candice C. Morey; Nelson Cowan

2004-01-01

43

Updating information in verbal working memory and executive functioning.  

PubMed

50 older adults (M age=77.9 yr., SD=7.3; 35 women and 15 men) were tested using the updating working-memory task. They were also given the neuropsychological Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, assumed to evaluate executive functioning and the frontal cortex. A factor analysis with age, education, and verbal ability partialled out was computed on the updating task outcomes and resulted in a two-factor solution, indicating that this task requires two independent processes, interpreted as reflecting a storage component and an updating component. Partial correlations with age, education, and verbal ability partialled out indicated that Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures were significantly associated with the factor supposed to reflect the updating process. Such results appeared consistent with the model of working memory with a central executive system involved in the updating process and related to the executive-frontal functioning, and a phonological loop system involved in the storage of verbal information and not linked to executive-frontal functions. PMID:15825908

Doiseau, Frédéric; Isingrini, Michel

2005-02-01

44

Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

2013-01-01

45

Insular cortex involvement in declarative memory deficits in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have proved that hippocampus relate to the deficient of memory in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many studies in healthy subjects also shown that insular cortex (IC) be involved in the declarative memory. This study was designed to investigate whether insular cortex is involved in declarative memory deficits in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Twelve subjects with

Shulin Chen; Lingjiang Li; Baihua Xu; Jun Liu

2009-01-01

46

Sleep transforms the cerebral trace of declarative memories  

PubMed Central

After encoding, memory traces are initially fragile and have to be reinforced to become permanent. The initial steps of this process occur at a cellular level within minutes or hours. Besides this rapid synaptic consolidation, systems consolidation occurs within a time frame of days to years. For declarative memory, the latter is presumed to rely on an interaction between different brain regions, in particular the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, sleep has been proposed to provide a setting that supports such systems consolidation processes, leading to a transfer and perhaps transformation of memories. Using functional MRI, we show that postlearning sleep enhances hippocampal responses during recall of word pairs 48 h after learning, indicating intrahippocampal memory processing during sleep. At the same time, sleep induces a memory-related functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the mPFC. Six months after learning, memories activated the mPFC more strongly when they were encoded before sleep, showing that sleep leads to long-lasting changes in the representation of memories on a systems level. PMID:18000060

Gais, Steffen; Albouy, Geneviève; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Darsaud, Annabelle; Desseilles, Martin; Rauchs, Géraldine; Schabus, Manuel; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

2007-01-01

47

Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal

Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

2009-01-01

48

Visuospatial Support for Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…

Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

2011-01-01

49

Self-ordered pointing in children with autism: failure to use verbal mediation in the service of working memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that children with autism are impaired in using verbal encoding and rehearsal strategies in the service of working memory. Participants were 24 high-ability, school-age children with autism and a comparison group matched on verbal and non-verbal IQ, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and visual memory. Working memory was assessed using verbal and non-verbal variants of a

Robert M. Joseph; Shelley D. Steele; Echo Meyer; Helen Tager-Flusberg

2005-01-01

50

Altered intrinsic hippocmapus declarative memory network and its association with impulsivity in abstinent heroin dependent subjects.  

PubMed

Converging evidence suggests that addiction can be considered a disease of aberrant learning and memory with impulsive decision-making. In the past decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that drug addiction is involved in multiple memory systems such as classical conditioned drug memory, instrumental learning memory and the habitual learning memory. However, most of these studies have focused on the contributions of non-declarative memory, and declarative memory has largely been neglected in the research of addiction. Based on a recent finding that hippocampus, as a core functioning region of declarative memory, was proved biased the decision-making process based on past experiences by spreading associated reward values throughout memory. Our present study focused on the hippocampus. By utilizing seed-based network analysis on the resting-state functional MRI datasets with the seed hippocampus we tested how the intrinsic hippocampal memory network altered toward drug addiction, and examined how the functional connectivity strength within the altered hippocampal network correlated with behavioral index 'impulsivity'. Our results demonstrated that HD group showed enhanced coherence between hippocampus which represents declarative memory system and non-declarative reward-guided learning memory system, and also showed attenuated intrinsic functional link between hippocampus and top-down control system, compared to the CN group. This alteration was furthered found to have behavioral significance over the behavioral index 'impulsivity' measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). These results provide insights into the mechanism of declarative memory underlying the impulsive behavior in drug addiction. PMID:25008351

Zhai, Tian-Ye; Shao, Yong-Cong; Xie, Chun-Ming; Ye, En-Mao; Zou, Feng; Fu, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zheng-Guo; Li, Shi-Jiang; Yang, Zheng

2014-10-01

51

The Genetic Components of Verbal Divergent Thinking and Short Term Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of twins was conducted to determine the presence of an hereditary component in short term memory and in three aspects of verbal divergent thinking--flexibility, fluency, and originality. Results showed the existence of a significant genetic component in the trait of short term memory, while none was found in verbal divergent thinking. (AG)

Pezzullo, Thomas R.; Madaus, George F.

52

Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

2013-01-01

53

Verbal Mediation and Memory for Novel Figural Designs: A Dual Interference Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To the extent that all types of visual stimuli can be verbalized to some degree, verbal mediation is intrinsic in so-called ''visual'' memory processing. This impurity complicates the interpretation of visual memory performance, particularly in certain neurologically impaired populations (e.g., aphasia). The purpose of this study was to…

Silverberg, N.; Buchanan, L.

2005-01-01

54

Verbal learning and memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder: The role of encoding strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbal memory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees\\/immigrants exposed

Grethe E. Johnsen; Arve E. Asbjørnsen

2009-01-01

55

Assessment of long-term verbal memory in children.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the use of a Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) and a Story Recall test with children aged from 8 to 12 years. 46 normal control children and 19 children of low ability were given the PALT from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and a story recall task, based on Wechsler's Logical Memory subtest, but using stories designed to be suitable for children. Performance on PALT approached ceiling levels for the control children. Both PALT and story recall were more strongly correlated with measures of verbal ability than with digit span. Reliable measures of immediate story recall can be obtained using two or three stories. Many children who are unable to recall a story after a 45 minute delay show dramatic improvement when given a single cue, and it is argued that cued delayed recall gives a better index of long-term memory than uncued recall. Correlations between immediate recall and cued delayed recall are high, and the data presented here may be used to compute a forgetting score which takes into account the level of immediate recall. In the sample seen here, rate of forgetting was remarkably constant across individuals, in both normal and low ability individuals. It is concluded that memory deficits affecting rate of forgetting are rare, but that the test materials described here could be useful for identifying such disorders in children with neurological impairments. PMID:7584288

Beardsworth, E; Bishop, D

1994-06-01

56

Strategic control, consolidation and poly-drug use; the relative contributions to verbal memory impairment in recreational ecstasy users.  

E-print Network

??Tests of verbal learning and memory have frequently been used to examine memory performance in frequent 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) consumers, and meta-analyses have identified verbal learning… (more)

Rouse, E

2014-01-01

57

Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2010-01-01

58

Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time.

Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.

2014-01-01

59

Verbal memory functioning in recurrent depression during partial remission and remission-Brief report  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate verbal memory performance in a group of patients with remitted and partial remitted major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients and 31 healthy matched controls were included in the study. Results from the California Verbal Learning Test show intact verbal memory performance in the patient group regarding learning, recall and recognition. However, patients had significantly poorer performance compared to healthy controls in immediate recall of the first trial in the verbal memory test. In conclusion, the patient group showed intact memory performance, when material is presented more than once. These findings indicate that memory performance in MDD patients with partial remission and remission benefit from repetition of material. PMID:24115937

Hammar, Åsa; Årdal, Guro

2013-01-01

60

Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.  

PubMed

Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence. PMID:24999914

Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

2014-12-01

61

Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

2010-01-01

62

Persistent non-verbal memory impairment in remitted major depression — Caused by encoding deficits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhile neuropsychological impairments are well described in acute phases of major depressive disorders (MDD), little is known about the neuropsychological profile in remission. There is evidence for episodic memory impairments in both acute depressed and remitted patients with MDD. Learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize information during learning. This study investigates non-verbal memory functions in remitted MDD

Andreas Behnken; Sonja Schöning; Joachim Gerß; Carsten Konrad; Renate de Jong-Meyer; Peter Zwanzger; Volker Arolt

2010-01-01

63

Children's Reading Comprehension Ability: Concurrent Prediction by Working Memory, Verbal Ability, and Component Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report data from a longitudinal study that addresses the relations between working memory capacity and reading comprehension skills in children aged 8, 9, and 11 years. At each time point, the authors assessed children's reading ability, vocabulary and verbal skills, performance on 2 working memory assessments (sentence-span and digit working memory), and component skills of comprehension. At each

Kate Cain; Jane Oakhill; Peter Bryant

2004-01-01

64

The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

2012-01-01

65

Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

2009-01-01

66

Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

2012-01-01

67

Verbal Short?term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that verbal short?term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative ease or difficulty with which children remember verbal

Hala Abdelhameed; Jill Porter

2010-01-01

68

Effects of verbal and nonverbal interference on spatial and object visual working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that a verbal coding mechanism is necessarily engaged by object, but not spatial, visual working\\u000a memory tasks. We employed a dual-task procedure that pairedn-back working memory tasks with domain-specific distractor trials inserted into each interstimulus interval of then-back tasks. In two experiments, objectn-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity to verbal distraction, whereas spatialn-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity

Bradley R. Postle; Mark D’Esposito; Suzanne Corkin

2005-01-01

69

Sentence processing and verbal working memory in a white-matter-disconnection patient.  

PubMed

The Arcuate Fasciculus/Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (AF/SLF) is the white-matter bundle that connects posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Its causal functional role in sentence processing and verbal working memory is currently under debate. While impairments of sentence processing and verbal working memory often co-occur in patients suffering from AF/SLF damage, it is unclear whether these impairments result from shared white-matter damage to the verbal-working-memory network. The present study sought to specify the behavioral consequences of focal AF/SLF damage for sentence processing and verbal working memory, which were assessed in a single patient suffering from a cleft-like lesion spanning the deep left superior temporal gyrus, sparing most surrounding gray matter. While tractography suggests that the ventral fronto-temporal white-matter bundle is intact in this patient, the AF/SLF was not visible to tractography. In line with the hypothesis that the AF/SLF is causally involved in sentence processing, the patient?s performance was selectively impaired on sentences that jointly involve both complex word orders and long word-storage intervals. However, the patient was unimpaired on sentences that only involved long word-storage intervals without involving complex word orders. On the contrary, the patient performed generally worse than a control group across standard verbal-working-memory tests. We conclude that the AF/SLF not only plays a causal role in sentence processing, linking regions of the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus to the temporo-parietal region, but moreover plays a crucial role in verbal working memory, linking regions of the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus to the left temporo-parietal region. Together, the specific sentence-processing impairment and the more general verbal-working-memory impairment may imply that the AF/SLF subserves both sentence processing and verbal working memory, possibly pointing to the AF and SLF respectively supporting each. PMID:24953959

Meyer, Lars; Cunitz, Katrin; Obleser, Jonas; Friederici, Angela D

2014-08-01

70

Binding serial order to representations in working memory: a spatial\\/verbal dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal information is coded naturally as ordered representations in working memory (WM). However, this may not be true for\\u000a spatial information. Accordingly, we used memory span tasks to test the hypothesis that serial order is more readily bound\\u000a to verbal than to spatial representations. Removing serial-order requirements improved performance more for spatial locations\\u000a than for digits. Furthermore, serial order was

Leon Gmeindl; Megan Walsh; Susan M. Courtney

2011-01-01

71

Atypical frontal lobe activity during verbal working memory in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal brain functioning during verbal working memory tasks has been shown in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Since adolescents with a familial history of alcoholism (FHP) are at high risk for developing an AUD, it is important to consider whether atypical brain activity during verbal working memory may help to explain FHP vulnerability toward developing alcoholism. Methods To that end, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain response during a verbal working memory 2-back task in 19 FHP adolescents and 16 age and gender-matched family history negative (FHN) controls. Results Despite no group differences in task accuracy, FHP youth had significantly slower average reaction time when making correct responses during the 2-back condition than FHN youth. In contrast to a vigilance control condition, while covarying for reaction time, FHP adolescents showed less activation during verbal working memory than FHN youth in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) – a brain region crucial to intact working memory skills. Conclusions These results suggest that even prior to heavy alcohol use, FHP adolescents show atypical executive brain functioning during verbal working memory, and that these differences are independent of slower working memory reaction time in FHP youth. Given the importance of working memory in numerous areas of day-to-day functioning, such as adaptive decision-making, these abnormalities may contribute to FHP youth vulnerability toward developing AUDs. PMID:22088655

Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

72

Verbal and nonverbal memory in primary progressive aphasia: The Three Words-Three Shapes Test  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate cognitive components and mechanisms of learning and memory in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using a simple clinical measure, the Three Words Three Shapes Test (3W3S). Background PPA patients can complain of memory loss and may perform poorly in standard tests of memory. The extent to which these signs and symptoms reflect dysfunction of the left hemisphere language versus limbic memory network remains unknown. Methods 3W3S data from 26 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA were compared with previously published data from patients with typical dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and cognitively healthy elders. Results PPA patients showed two bottlenecks in new learning. First, they were impaired in the effortless (but not effortful) on-line encoding of verbal (but not non-verbal) items. Second, they were impaired in the retrieval (but not retention) of verbal (but not non-verbal) items. In contrast, DAT patients had impairments also in effortful on-line encoding and retention of verbal and nonverbal items. Conclusions PPA selectively interferes with spontaneous on-line encoding and subsequent retrieval of verbal information. This combination may underlie poor memory test performance and is likely to reflect the dysfunction of the left hemisphere language rather than medial temporal memory network. PMID:22713398

Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily; Shaw, Emily; Sawlani, Sabrina; Rademaker, Alfred; Wieneke, Christina; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2012-01-01

73

The differential role of verbal and spatial working memory in the neural basis of arithmetic.  

PubMed

We examine the relations of verbal and spatial working memory (WM) ability to the neural bases of arithmetic in school-age children. We independently localize brain regions subserving verbal versus spatial representations. For multiplication, higher verbal WM ability is associated with greater recruitment of the left temporal cortex, identified by the verbal localizer. For multiplication and subtraction, higher spatial WM ability is associated with greater recruitment of right parietal cortex, identified by the spatial localizer. Depending on their WM ability, children engage different neural systems that manipulate different representations to solve arithmetic problems. PMID:25144257

Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R

2014-01-01

74

Verbal Knowledge, Working Memory, and Processing Speed as Predictors of Verbal Learning in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…

Rast, Philippe

2011-01-01

75

Differential Effect of Aging on Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50–60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed. PMID:23946892

Kumar, Navnit; Priyadarshi, Brajesh

2013-01-01

76

Differential effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50-60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed. PMID:23946892

Kumar, Navnit; Priyadarshi, Brajesh

2013-08-01

77

Incipient preoperative reorganization processes of verbal memory functions in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

We previously reported nonlinear correlations between verbal episodic memory performance and BOLD signal in memory fMRI in healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to examine this observation in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) who often experience memory decline and need reliable prediction tools before epilepsy surgery with hippocampectomy. Fifteen patients with left mTLE (18-57years, nine females) underwent a verbal memory fMRI paradigm. Correlations between BOLD activity and neuropsychological data were calculated for the i) hippocampus (HC) as well as ii) extrahippocampal mTL structures. Memory performance was systematically associated with activations within the right HC as well as with activations within the left extrahippocampal mTL regions (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus). As hypothesized, the analyses revealed cubic relationships, with one peak in patients with marginal memory performance and another peak in patients with very good performance. The nonlinear correlations between memory performance and activations might reflect the compensatory recruitment of neural resources to maintain memory performance in patients with ongoing memory deterioration. The present data suggest an already incipient preoperative reorganization process of verbal memory in non-amnesic patients with left mTLE by simultaneously tapping the resources of the right HC and left extrahippocampal mTL regions. Thus, in the preoperative assessment, both neuropsychological performance and memory fMRI should be considered together. PMID:25500359

Milian, Monika; Zeltner, Lena; Erb, Michael; Klose, Uwe; Wagner, Kathrin; Frings, Lars; Veil, Cornelia; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Klamer, Silke

2015-01-01

78

Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

2011-01-01

79

Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

2012-01-01

80

Stress Facilitates Consolidation of Verbal Memory for a Film but Does Not Affect Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of psychosocial stress on distinct memory processes was investigated in 157 college students using a brief film, which enabled comparison of verbal and visual memory by using a single complex stimulus. Participants were stressed either following stimuli presentation (consolidation) or before testing 48 hr later (retrieval) and were compared with no-stress controls. Salivary cortisol was measured before and

Victoria E. Beckner; David M. Tucker; Yvon Delville; David C. Mohr

2006-01-01

81

Increased Interhemispheric Interaction Is Associated with Decreased False Memories in a Verbal Converging Semantic Associates Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence indicates that task and subject variables that are associated with increased interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres result in enhanced performance on tests of episodic memory. The current study looked at the effects of increased interhemispheric interaction on false memories using a verbal converging semantic…

Christman, S.D.; Propper, R.E.; Dion, A.

2004-01-01

82

Keeping Timbre in Mind: Working Memory for Complex Sounds that Can't Be Verbalized  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…

Golubock, Jason L.; Janata, Petr

2013-01-01

83

Lexical Contributions to Retention of Verbal Information in Working Memory: Event-Related Brain Potential Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether lexical codes contribute to retention of verbal information in working memory. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded while participants were performing a serial recall task to show differences in brain activity during retention of words or pseudowords. The effects of lexical status and memory load (task difficulty) upon ERP activity during retention also differed,

Daniel S. Ruchkin; Rita S. Berndt; Ray Johnson; Jordan Grafman; Walter Ritter; Howard L. Canoune

1999-01-01

84

Subjective Memory Complaint Only Relates to Verbal Episodic Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment.  

PubMed

Background: A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective: We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method: MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results: Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (? = -1.07, p < 0.001) and delayed episodic memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (? = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions: Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, memory self-complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

2014-10-01

85

Tennessee Williams: The Uses of Declarative Memory in the Glass Menagerie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tennessee Williams called his first great work, The Glass Menagerie, his “memory play.” The situation in which Williams found himself when he began writing the play is explored, as are the ways in which he used the declarative memory of his protagonist, Tom Wingfield, to express and deal with his own painful conflicts. Williams's use of stage directions, lighting, and

Daniel Jacobs

2002-01-01

86

The Role of Depression in Verbal Memory Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between verbal memory and depression scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory following traumatic brain injury. Depression was associated with diminished delayed recall and recognition on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II), even after controlling for a neuropsychological composite score and\\/or a measure of motivation (i.e., the TOMM). There was no

Michelle A. Keiski; Douglas L. Shore; Joanna M. Hamilton

2007-01-01

87

The relationship between cortisol and verbal memory in the early stages of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been linked to learning and memory difficulties in a range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. In Huntington's disease (HD), both declines in learning and memory and HPA axis dysfunction are present early in the disease. However, the relationship between specific learning and memory deficits and HPA axis functioning in HD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in relation to verbal learning and memory in pre-diagnosed (pre-HD) participants and patients at the early stages of diagnosed HD (early-HD). Cortisol concentration was assayed in saliva samples from 57 participants (17 early-HD, 20 pre-HD, and 20 controls) at four time-points across a 24-h period. Verbal memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). We focused statistical analyses on the late evening cortisol concentration, and examined cortisol levels and verbal memory function in relation to diagnostic group (control, pre-HD, early-HD), and in a separate set of analyses combining pre-HD and early-HD (and excluding controls) we also examined cortisol and verbal memory performance in relation to the severity of HD-related motor signs. Of these two classification approaches, HD motor sign severity was more strongly associated with high evening cortisol levels and both reduced information encoding and memory retrieval. Separately, there was also a trend of higher cortisol levels in pre-HD. The findings suggest hypercortisolism and the underlying pathological changes may begin many years before a clinical diagnosis is made, but the memory decline associated with HPA axis disturbance may only become detectable once motor signs become pronounced. PMID:23180175

Shirbin, Christopher A; Chua, Phyllis; Churchyard, Andrew; Hannan, Anthony J; Lowndes, Georgia; Stout, Julie C

2013-03-01

88

Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

2014-01-01

89

KIBRA gene polymorphism has no association with verbal or visual episodic memory performance  

PubMed Central

Inter-individual variability in memory performance has been suggested to result, in part, from genetic differences in the coding of proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study examined the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) on episodic memory performance, using multiple measures of verbal and visual episodic memory. A total of 256 female and 130 male healthy, older adults (mean age = 60.86 years) were recruited from the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP), undergoing both neuropsychological and genetic testing. The current study showed no significant effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Logical Memory test, Paired Associates Learning test or Rey Complex Figure Task. The results suggest there is little to no functional significance of KIBRA genotype on episodic memory performance, regardless of modality. PMID:25339899

Franks, Katherine H.; Summers, Mathew J.; Vickers, James C.

2014-01-01

90

Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

2011-01-01

91

The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

2012-01-01

92

Observations on the relationship between verbal explicit and implicit memory and density of neurons in the hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between neuronal density and verbal memory in left and right hippocampal subfields was investigated in patients who underwent surgery for alleviation of temporal lobe epilepsy. The surgery consisted of unilateral partial removal of the hippocampus along with the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala. Study 1 looked at post-surgical explicit vs implicit verbal memory for lists of words while

D. W Zaidel; M. M Esiri; E. D Beardsworth

1998-01-01

93

Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. PMID:25462517

Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

2014-11-16

94

The decline of verbal and visuospatial working memory across the adult life span.  

PubMed

It has been well established that working memory abilities decrease with advancing age; however, the specific time point in the adult life span at which this deficit begins and the rate at which it advances are still controversial. There is no agreement on whether working memory declines equally for visuospatial and verbal information, and the literature disagrees on how task difficulty may influence this decay. We addressed these questions in a lifespan sample of 1,500 participants between 21 and 80 years old. The n-back task was used, with letters and circles presented at different positions around an imaginary circle, to evaluate working memory in the verbal and visuospatial domains, respectively. The participants' task was to judge whether the current stimulus matched a stimulus that was shown n trials prior. Both domains were evaluated in two levels of difficulty: 1-back and 2-back. The comparison across decades showed that discrimination in the visuospatial and 1-back tasks started to decline earlier in women than in men; however, discrimination was equal between the sexes in the verbal and 2-back tasks. Performance on tasks in the visuospatial domain exhibited more pronounced decline than in those in the verbal domain. The rate of decline in working memory accuracy was superior in 2-back tasks than in 1-back tasks, independent of the domain. These results revealed that the effects of aging on working memory are less dependent on the type of information and more reliant on the resources demanded by the task. PMID:23558670

Cansino, Selene; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Ayala-Hernández, Mariana; Gómez-Fernández, Tania; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garcés-Flores, Lissete; Beltrán-Palacios, Karla; García-Lázaro, Haydée Guadalupe; García-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernández-Apan, Luisa; Bärtschi, Andrea; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores

2013-12-01

95

Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

2007-01-01

96

Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

2013-01-01

97

Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

2011-01-01

98

Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

2012-01-01

99

Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.  

PubMed

Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. PMID:24880338

Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

2014-08-01

100

Long-Term Deficits in Episodic Memory after Ischemic Stroke: Evaluation and Prediction of Verbal and Visual Memory Performance Based on Lesion Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors Test, respectively Lesion characteristics and presence of white matter lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging early after stroke.

Eveline A. Schouten; Sven K. Schiemanck; Nico Brand; Marcel W. M. Post

2009-01-01

101

Prolonged high-altitude residence impacts verbal working memory: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen is critical to normal brain functioning and development. In high altitude where the oxygen concentration and pressure\\u000a are very low, human cognitive capability such as working memory has been found to be jeopardized. Such effect might persist\\u000a with long-term high-altitude residence. The current study investigated the verbal working memory of 28 high-altitude residents\\u000a with blood level oxygen dependent (BOLD)

Xiaodan Yan; Jiaxing Zhang; Qiyong Gong; Xuchu Weng

2011-01-01

102

The Use of Definite References Signals Declarative Memory: Evidence From Patients With Hippocampal Amnesia  

PubMed Central

Language function in patients with impaired declarative memory presents a compelling opportunity to investigate the interdependence of memory and language in referential communication. We examined amnesic patients’ use of definite references during a referential communication task. Discursively, definite references can be used to mark a referent as situationally unique (e.g., “the game,” as in the case of a recently publicized game) or as shared information (e.g., “the game,” as in one discussed previously). We found that despite showing normal collaborative learning after repeated referring—as indexed by consistent and increasingly efficient descriptive labels for previously unfamiliar tangram figures—amnesic patients did not consistently use definite references in referring to those figures. The use of definite references seems to be critically dependent on declarative memory, and the engagement of such memory is signaled by language. PMID:21474841

Duff, Melissa C.; Gupta, Rupa; Hengst, Julie A.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

2011-01-01

103

Predictions of verbal episodic memory in persons with Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined awareness of memory problems and memory self-monitoring abilities in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were 20 individuals with AD and 20 older adult controls. A global performance-prediction paradigm, which required participants to predict the number of words they would remember both prior to and after completing a list-learning memory task, was used as the online assessment

Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe; Adriana M. Seelye

2011-01-01

104

The influence of sertraline on attention and verbal memory in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study investigated the cognitive side effects of a 6-week course of sertraline treatment on verbal memory and attention in children and adolescents. Children with various anxiety disorders (social phobia, generalized and separation anxiety disorder; n = 28), between 8 and 17 years of age, received a standardized, computerized neuropsychological assessment before treatment and another 6 weeks after treatment

Thomas Gunther; Kristian Holtkamp; Jellemer Jolles; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Kerstin Konrad

2005-01-01

105

Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

2010-01-01

106

Relationship between Verbal Working Memory and the SCAN-C in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: An ongoing concern with the evaluation of auditory processing disorders is the extent that assessment instruments are influenced by higher order cognitive functions. This study examined the relationship between verbal working memory and performance on the Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children-Revised (SCAN-C; Keith, 2000b) in…

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Zarafa, Michelle

2010-01-01

107

Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

2010-01-01

108

Cognitive Correlates of Mnemonics Usage and Verbal Recall Memory in Old Age  

E-print Network

Cognitive Correlates of Mnemonics Usage and Verbal Recall Memory in Old Age *Diane M. Jacobs, Ph range: 17­30 years), young-old (age range: 65­73 years), and old-old (age range: 74­87 years) to compare. Background: It has been hypothesized that a reduction in general processing resources contributes to age

109

Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

2012-01-01

110

Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

2010-01-01

111

Encoding: The Keystone to Efficient Functioning of Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like "blonterstaping". The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of…

Barry, Johanna G.; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

2011-01-01

112

Verbal Memory Compensation: Application to Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbal memory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…

Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard

2007-01-01

113

Effects of Verbal Coding on Learning Disabled and Normal Readers Visual Short-Term Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that reading difficulty of learning disabled (LD) children is attributable to deficiencies in verbal encoding was investigated with 60 LD and normal children (mean CA=9.1, mean IQ=103.5). Ss were compared on recall of a serial short-term memory task after pre-training of named and unnamed stimulus conditions. Data suggested that…

Swanson, Lee

114

The Effect of Morphological Complexity on Verbal Working Memory: Results from Arabic Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a "Listening Word Span Task", whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with…

Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Adwan-Mansour, Jasmeen; Sapir, Shimon

2013-01-01

115

Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study  

PubMed Central

Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

2013-01-01

116

Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

2011-01-01

117

In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

2009-01-01

118

Effects of Alzheimer disease on memory for verbal emotional information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In healthy young and older adults, emotional information is often better remembered than neutral information. It is an open question, however, whether emotional memory enhancement is blunted or preserved in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies of emotional memory in AD have included small samples of patients. In addition, studies that failed to find an enhancement effect in AD used stimuli

Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Alberta Anderson; John H. Growdon; Suzanne Corkin

2004-01-01

119

Assessment of long-term verbal memory in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the use of a Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) and a Story Recall test with children aged from 8 to 12 years. 46 normal control children and 19 children of low ability were given the PALT from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and a story recall task, based on Wechsler's Logical Memory subtest, but using

Elizabeth Beardsworth; Dorothy Bishop

1994-01-01

120

Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination Scores and Verbal Memory Performance at a Memory Center: Implications for Cognitive Screening.  

PubMed

Memory decline is often among the first signs heralding the emergence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia regardless of etiology. Despite its limited inclusion of memory screening, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) continues to be the most ubiquitous, first-line screening tool for dementia and cognitive decline. In response to well documented problems with the sensitivity of this instrument and the growing importance of cognitive screening, we assessed the utility of the MMSE as a screening tool among older adults presenting for evaluation at a memory clinic. The Standardized MMSE and a standardized verbal memory test - the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) - were administered to 304 consecutive referrals at a university-based outpatient memory clinic. Among patients scoring above 25 on the MMSE (n = 169), over half exhibited at least moderate memory impairment (HVLT-R delayed recall z ? -2.0) and more than 25% showed severe impairment (delayed recall z ? -3.0). Perhaps even more striking was that among those who achieved perfect (30/30) or near perfect (29/30) scores on the MMSE (n = 70), 43% displayed moderate to severe memory impairment. Although newer screening measures have shown improved sensitivity, more in-depth memory testing appears to be a vital component of successful screening and early detection. PMID:24990889

Lacy, Maureen; Kaemmerer, Tobias; Czipri, Sheena

2014-07-01

121

Differential effects of adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems on human short- and long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material.  

PubMed

The effects of adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems on emotional memory were measured in 64 young men. Placebo, propranolol (40 or 80 mg; beta blocker), or metyiapone (corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) was administered before the viewing of a story composed of emotional and neutral segments. Short- and long-term declarative memory for the story was assessed. Propranolol 40 mg had no effects on declarative memory. Propranolol 80 mg impaired short- and long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. Metyrapone did not impair short-term declarative memory but impaired long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material. Results demonstrate that adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems differentially affect declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material, and suggest that interactions between adrenal hormonal systems modulate emotionally arousing declarative memory in humans. PMID:15113269

Maheu, Francoise S; Joober, Ridha; Beaulieu, Serge; Lupien, Soriia J

2004-04-01

122

Verbal overshadowing of face memory does occur in children too!  

PubMed Central

Verbal descriptions of unfamiliar faces have been found to impair later identification of these faces in adults, a phenomenon known as the “verbal overshadowing effect” (VOE). Although determining whether children are good at describing unfamiliar individuals and whether these descriptions impair their recognition performance is critical to gaining a better understanding children's eyewitness ability, only a couple of studies have examined this dual issue in children and these found no evidence of VOE. However, as there are some methodological criticisms of these studies, we decided to conduct two further experiments in 7–8, 10–11, and 13–14-year-old children and in adults using a more optimal method for the VOE to be observed. Evidence of the VOE on face identification was found in both children and adults. Moreover, neither the accuracy of descriptions, nor delay nor target presence in the lineup was found to be associated with identification accuracy. The theoretical and developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24399985

Dehon, Hedwige; Vanootighem, Valentine; Brédart, Serge

2013-01-01

123

PET Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Change During Working and Declarative Memory: Relationship With Task Performance  

PubMed Central

Functional and anatomical relationships between working and declarative memory were investigated by contrasting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) change during standard working (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and declarative memory (Paired Associate Recognition Test, PART) tasks using identical stimulus–response modalities. The tasks and a resting baseline were administered to 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) during successive 10-min positron emission tomography 15O-water measures of rCBF. For both tasks, rCBF increased over baseline in inferior frontal and occipitotemporal regions, with more consistent dorsolateral prefrontal activation for WCST than PART. Additional orbitofrontal increases and dorsomedial decreases were seen for the PART. Activation patterns diverged when performance was considered. For the WCST, high performers activated dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, whereas top PART performers activated only the occipitotemporal region. These results suggest operation of a frontotemporal network subserving both types of memory function that becomes more focal as performance increases. PMID:9110329

Ragland, J. Daniel; Glahn, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Censits, David M.; Smith, Robin J.; Mozley, P. David; Alavi, Abass; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

124

HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

125

The relationship between hippocampal volume and declarative memory in a population of combat veterans with and without PTSD.  

PubMed

Both reduced hippocampal volume and cognitive alterations have been found in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between hippocampal volume, combat exposure, symptom severity, and memory performance in a sample of combat veterans with and without a history of PTSD. Subjects were 33 male veteran volunteers (16 PTSD+, 17 PTSD-) who underwent an MRI and neuropsychological testing with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), a measure of declarative memory. Relationships between hippocampal volume (i.e., right + left hippocampal volume/whole brain volume) and performance on the CVLT were determined using partial correlational analysis controlled for age and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores. Percent hippocampal volume for the entire sample was positively associated with several aspects of memory performance as reflected by the CVLT. In the PTSD+ group, CVLT performance was negatively correlated with lifetime, but not current CAPS symptoms. CVLT performance appears to be strongly correlated with hippocampal volume in a group of trauma survivors with and without PTSD. Insofar as CVLT performance in the PTSD group was negatively associated with worst episode, but not to current PTSD symptoms, memory performance in combat veterans may reflect some aspect of risk related to the magnitude of the psychological response to trauma, rather than current symptoms that may be interfering with cognitive performance. It will be of interest to study cognitive abilities that may relate to the likelihood of specific PTSD symptoms and to track changes in CVLT performance and hippocampal volume over time in persons with and without a history of trauma exposure. PMID:16891587

Tischler, Lisa; Brand, Sarah R; Stavitsky, Karina; Labinsky, Ellen; Newmark, Randall; Grossman, Robert; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Yehuda, Rachel

2006-07-01

126

Prolonged high-altitude residence impacts verbal working memory: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Oxygen is critical to normal brain functioning and development. In high altitude where the oxygen concentration and pressure are very low, human cognitive capability such as working memory has been found to be jeopardized. Such effect might persist with long-term high-altitude residence. The current study investigated the verbal working memory of 28 high-altitude residents with blood level oxygen dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in contrast with that of the 30 sea level residents. All of the subjects were healthy college students, matched on their age, gender ratio and social-economic status; they also did not show any difference on their hemoglobin level. The high-altitude subjects showed longer reaction time and decreased response accuracy in behavioral performance. Both groups showed activation in the typical regions associated with the 2-back verbal working memory task, and the behavioral performance of both groups showed significant correlations with the BOLD signal change amplitude and Granger causality values (as a measure of the interregional effective connectivity) between these regions. With group comparison statistics, the high-altitude subjects showed decreased activation at the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, the middle occipital and the lingual gyrus, the pyramis of vermis, as well as the thalamus. In conclusion, the current study revealed impairment in verbal working memory among high-altitude residents, which might be associated with the impact of prolonged chronic hypoxia exposure on the brain functionality. PMID:21107542

Yan, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiaxing; Gong, Qiyong; Weng, Xuchu

2011-02-01

127

Poor phonemic discrimination does not underlie poor verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome relative to control participants. To answer these questions, two tasks were used: a discrimination task, in which memory load was as low as possible, and a short-term recognition task that used the same stimulus items. Individuals with Down syndrome were found to perform significantly better than a nonverbal-matched typically developing group on the discrimination task, but they performed significantly more poorly than that group on the recognition task. The Down syndrome group was outperformed by an additional vocabulary-matched control group on the discrimination task but was outperformed to a markedly greater extent on the recognition task. Taken together, the results strongly indicate that phonemic discrimination ability is not central to the verbal short-term memory deficit associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23454358

Purser, Harry R M; Jarrold, Christopher

2013-05-01

128

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

129

Verbal Memory during Simultaneous Interpretation: Effects of Phonological Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group of advanced student interpreters, recall of short stories after simultaneous interpretation from their first (L1) into their second (L2) language, and vice versa, was significantly worse than recall of similar stories after listening. Memory span for digits presented in L1 and L2 was significantly poorer following simultaneous…

Daro, Valeria; Fabbro, Franco

1994-01-01

130

An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients  

PubMed Central

Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

2011-01-01

131

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

132

Observations on the relationship between verbal explicit and implicit memory and density of neurons in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuronal density and verbal memory in left and right hippocampal subfields was investigated in patients who underwent surgery for alleviation of temporal lobe epilepsy. The surgery consisted of unilateral partial removal of the hippocampus along with the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala. Study 1 looked at post-surgical explicit vs implicit verbal memory for lists of words while Study 2 looked at pre- and post-surgical explicit memory for word pairs. Left subfield CA1 appeared to be the most consistently involved in explicit and implicit memory. The results of the two studies confirm presence of hemispheric asymmetry in verbal memory. The notion that hippocampal control of memory is most apparent in post-surgical performance is discussed. PMID:9845051

Zaidel, D W; Esiri, M M; Beardsworth, E D

1998-10-01

133

Comparison of Adult Age Differences in Verbal and VisuoSpatial Memory: The Importance of ‘Pure’, Parallel and Validated Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared age-related decrements in verbal and visuo-spatial memory across a broad elderly adult age range. Twenty-four young (18–25 years), 24 young-old (65–74 years), 24 middle-old (75–84 years) and 24 old-old (85–93 years) adults completed parallel recall and recognition measures of verbal and visuo-spatial memory from the Doors and People Test (Baddeley, Emslie & Nimmo-Smith, 1994). These constituted ‘pure’

Eva Kemps; Rachel Newson

2006-01-01

134

Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.  

PubMed

We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. PMID:24150105

Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

2014-01-01

135

Verbal learning and memory in adolescent cannabis users, alcohol users and non-users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Long-term heavy cannabis use can result in memory impairment. Adolescent users may be especially vulnerable to the adverse\\u000a neurocognitive effects of cannabis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives and methods  In a cross-sectional and prospective neuropsychological study of 181 adolescents aged 16–20 (mean 18.3 years), we compared\\u000a performance indices from one of the most widely used measures of learning and memory—the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test—between\\u000a cannabis

Nadia Solowij; Katy A. Jones; Megan E. Rozman; Sasha M. Davis; Joseph Ciarrochi; Patrick C. L. Heaven; Dan I. Lubman; Murat Yücel

2011-01-01

136

Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. PMID:25379240

Wible, Cynthia G.

2013-01-01

137

Declarative memory after stress in humans: differential involvement of the beta-adrenergic and corticosteroid systems.  

PubMed

To determine the role played by the beta-adrenergic and corticosteroid systems in the modulatory effects of stress on declarative memory function, 42 young men were administered a placebo, propranolol (beta-adrenergic blocker), or metyrapone (corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) before being submitted to a psychological stress protocol. Immediately after stress, subjects viewed a neutral story, unrelated to the stressor. Short- (5 min post learning) and long-term (1 wk post learning) recall of the story was assessed. Placebo and propranolol groups showed significant stress-related increases in corticosteroid levels, whereas metyrapone prevented corticosteroid reactivity to the stressor. Stress triggered significant elevations in cardiac activity (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels) in all three groups, with the metyrapone group showing the strongest elevation in heart rate levels in response to stress. Compared with placebo, propranolol had no effect on short- and long-term recall of the story learned after stress, whereas metyrapone impaired short-term recall of the story, with no further effects on long-term declarative memory. These results suggest that, contrary to the beta-adrenergic system, the corticosteroid system is implicated in declarative memory function after stress in humans. PMID:15585567

Maheu, Françoise S; Joober, Ridha; Lupien, Sonia J

2005-03-01

138

Cohesion, coherence, and declarative memory: Discourse patterns in individuals with hippocampal amnesia  

PubMed Central

Background Discourse cohesion and coherence gives our communication continuity. Deficits in cohesion and coherence have been reported in patients with cognitive-communication disorders (e.g., TBI, dementia). However, the diffuse nature of pathology and widespread cognitive deficits of these disorders have made identification of specific neural substrates and cognitive systems critical for cohesion and coherence challenging. Aims Taking advantage of a rare patient group with selective and severe declarative memory impairments, the current study attempts to isolate the contribution of declarative memory to the successful use of cohesion and coherence in discourse. Methods & Procedures Cohesion and coherence were examined in the discourse of six participants with hippocampal amnesia and six demographically matched comparison participants. Specifically, this study (1) documents the frequency, type, and completeness of cohesive ties; (2) evaluates discourse for local and global coherence; and (3) compares use of cohesive ties and coherence ratings in amnesia and healthy participants. Outcomes & Results Overall, amnesia participants produced fewer cohesive ties per T-unit, the adequacy of their ties were more often judged to be incomplete, and the ratings of their local coherence were consistently lower than comparison participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to the discursive use of cohesion and coherence. Broader notions of cohesion, or interactional cohesion, i.e., cohesion across speakers (two or more people), time (days, weeks), and communicative resources (gesture), warrant further study as the experimental tasks used in the literature, and here, may actually underestimate or overestimate the extent of impairment. PMID:23136461

Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C.

2012-01-01

139

The advantage of reading over listening text comprehension in Down syndrome: what is the role of verbal memory?  

PubMed

The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbal memory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbal memory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbal memory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. PMID:22236632

Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M Chiara

2012-01-01

140

Long-term deficits in episodic memory after ischemic stroke: evaluation and prediction of verbal and visual memory performance based on lesion characteristics.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors Test, respectively. Lesion characteristics and presence of white matter lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging early after stroke. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate prediction of verbal and visual memory performance by lesion side (left v right hemisphere), lesion level (cortical v subcortical), and lesion volume. We controlled for the influence of demographic characteristics, language disability, and visuospatial difficulties on memory. The results demonstrated that poor verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall and recognition) could be predicted by lesion characteristics: patients with left hemispheric, subcortical, and large lesions showed poor memory performance. Poor visual recognition memory could not be predicted by lesion characteristics but only by low educational level. Our results suggest that lesion characteristics play an important role in episodic verbal memory poststroke if demographic and clinical characteristics are taken into account. PMID:19251189

Schouten, Eveline A; Schiemanck, Sven K; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W M

2009-01-01

141

Impact of executive dysfunction on verbal memory performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

It is currently accepted that there is a subset of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who show executive functioning (EF) impairments even in the earlier stages. These patients have been shown to present distinct psychiatric, behavioral, occupational, and even histopathological profiles. We assessed thirty patients with AD on two tasks of verbal memory (Logical Memory - LM, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Task - RAVLT), as well as classical tests of EF. AD patients were classified into either a spared EF (SEF) group if they showed impaired performance (z < -1.5 SD) in none or only one of the executive tests, or into an impaired EF (IEF) group if they showed impaired performance on two or more tasks of EF. Their performance was compared with fourteen healthy controls. SEF showed significantly more years of education than IEF, but the groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, mood symptoms, or performance on general screening tests or attentional tasks. With education as a covariate, both AD groups differed from controls on all measures of memory, but a significant difference was found between SEF and IEF patients only on the recognition phases of both logical memory (p < 0.01) and RAVLT (p = 0.02). Recognition scores significantly correlated with performance on executive tasks. Early AD patients who preserve their EF seem to have an advantage in their ability to recognize information that has been previously presented over patients with impaired EF. Such advantage seems to be strongly associated with executive performance. PMID:20930305

Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Martinez, Daniel; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

2011-01-01

142

The effect of morphological complexity on verbal working memory: results from Arabic speaking children.  

PubMed

To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a Listening Word Span Task, whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with irregular (broken plural) morphology. Each of these words was at the end of a sentence (henceforth, target word). The participant's task was to listen to a series of sentences and then recall the target words. Recall of inflected words was significantly poorer than uninflected words, and recall of words with regular morphology was significantly poorer than recall of words with irregular morphology. These findings, albeit preliminary, suggest a role of morphology in verbal working memory. They also suggest that, at least in Arabic, regular morphological forms are decomposed into their component elements and hence impose an extra load on the central executive and episodic buffer components of working memory. Furthermore, in concert with findings from other studies, they suggest that the effect of morphology on working memory is probably language-specific. The clinical implications of the present findings are addressed. PMID:22485043

Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Adwan-Mansour, Jasmeen; Sapir, Shimon

2013-06-01

143

Verbal Learning and Memory in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies or Parkinson's Disease with Dementia  

PubMed Central

This study compared verbal learning and memory in patients with autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD). Twenty-four DLB patients, 24 PDD patients, and 24 normal comparison participants were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. The three groups were matched on demographic variables and the two patient groups were matched on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. The results indicated that DLB patients recalled less information than PDD patients on all but one recall measure and displayed a more rapid rate of forgetting. In contrast, the PDD patients committed a greater percent of perseveration errors than the DLB patients. The two groups did not differ in the percentage of recall intrusion errors or any measures of recognition. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) using short delay cued recall, percent perseveration errors, and list b recall, differentiated the DLB and PDD groups with 81.3% accuracy. The application of the DFA algorithm to another sample of 42 PDD patients resulted in a 78.6% correct classification rate. The results suggest that, despite equivalent levels of general cognitive impairment, patients with DLB or PDD exhibit a different pattern of verbal learning and memory deficits. PMID:19221922

Vincent Filoteo, J.; Salmon, David P.; Schiehser, Dawn M.; Kane, Amy E.; Hamilton, Joanne M.; Rilling, Laurie M.; Lucas, John A.; Zizak, Vanessa; Galasko, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

144

Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

In humans, theta phase (4–8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM. PMID:24672496

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

2014-01-01

145

Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.  

PubMed

The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information. PMID:15648409

Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

2004-07-01

146

Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

2010-01-01

147

Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

Ebert, Kerry Danahy

2014-01-01

148

The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

2013-01-01

149

The Extent of Working Memory Deficits Associated with Williams Syndrome: Exploration of Verbal and Spatial Domains and Executively Controlled Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…

Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise

2011-01-01

150

The Relationship between Perisylvian Morphology and Verbal Short-Term Memory Functioning in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently present with reduced short-term memory functioning, the relationship between perisylvian morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning has received limited attention. Thus, examining this relationship in children with neurodevelopmental disorders was the focus of this exploratory…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Morgan, Allison E.; Hiemenz, Jennifer R.; Cohen, Morris J.; Hynd, George W.

2004-01-01

151

Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

2014-01-01

152

Assessing declarative memory in schizophrenia using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test stimuli: the Paired Associate Recognition Test  

PubMed Central

The Paired Associate Recognition Test (PART) was developed to measure declarative memory using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) stimuli, so that both tasks could be administered during functional neuroimaging to differentiate memory and executive function, and associated frontal and temporal lobe activation in schizophrenia. The current study was designed to compare PART and WCST performance in schizophrenic patients and to examine effects of medication and symptomatology. The PART, WCST, and standard declarative memory tasks were administered to 30 chronic schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy control subjects. Supporting task validity was the finding that patients were equally impaired on the PART and the WCST. Neuroleptics did not appear to affect performance. The effect of anticholinergic medication correlated negatively with WCST performance in a small subsample. Severity of schizophrenia-specific symptoms measured at intake on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale correlated negatively with performance on the WCST. These results support the application of the PART and WCST in future functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:8723304

Ragland, J. Daniel; Censits, David M.; Gur, Ruben C.; Glahn, David C.; Gallacher, Fiona; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

153

Symptoms of ADHD in Children with High-Functioning Autism Are Related to Impaired Verbal Working Memory and Verbal Delayed Recall  

PubMed Central

Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8–17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA?) “attention problems” according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6–18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA? were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA? group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA?, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment. PMID:23717667

Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

2013-01-01

154

The rise and fall of immediate and delayed memory for verbal and visuospatial information from late childhood to late adulthood.  

PubMed

Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not the immediate versus delayed dimension. We found a linear decrease of 1% to 3% per year in overall memory performance past the age of 25. For visuospatial tests, this decrease started at age 18 and was twice as fast as the decrease of verbal memory. There were strong effects of education, with the highest educated group sometimes scoring one full standard deviation above the lowest educated group. Gender effects were small but as expected: women outperformed men on the verbal memory tasks; men outperformed women on the visuospatial tasks. We also found evidence of increasing proneness to false memory with age. Memory for recent news events did not show a decrease with age. PMID:23261419

Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Rouw, Romke; Meeter, Martijn

2013-01-01

155

Models of verbal working memory capacity: what does it take to make them work?  

PubMed

Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in understanding verbal materials, especially when words are mentally combined to form multiword units or chunks. Toward a more comprehensive theory of capacity limits, we examined models of forced-choice recognition of words within printed lists, using materials designed to produce multiword chunks in memory (e.g., leather brief case). Several simple models were tested against data from a variety of list lengths and potential chunk sizes, with test conditions that only imperfectly elicited the interword associations. According to the most successful model, participants retained about 3 chunks on average in a capacity-limited region of WM, with some chunks being only subsets of the presented associative information (e.g., leather brief case retained with leather as one chunk and brief case as another). The addition to the model of an activated long-term memory component unlimited in capacity was needed. A fixed-capacity limit appears critical to account for immediate verbal recognition and other forms of WM. We advance a model-based approach that allows capacity to be assessed despite other important processing contributions. Starting with a psychological-process model of WM capacity developed to understand visual arrays, we arrive at a more unified and complete model. PMID:22486726

Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Blume, Christopher L; Saults, J Scott

2012-07-01

156

Verbal episodic memory along the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A new perspective.  

PubMed

Impairment on episodic memory (EM) has been strongly correlated with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Morevover, the effects of course and progression of the illness on cognitive functioning have not been well established. The aim of the present study is to assess performance of episodic memory in BD and SZ according to their clinical stages. Subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (n=43) and schizophrenia (31), on euthymia or clinical remission, were recruited from the outpatients facilities at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Brazil). They were classified into two clinical stages (early or late for BD, and recent onset or chronic for SZ) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Episodic memory performance was assessed by means the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) that measures verbal learning and episodic memory in both disorders. Our results showed that patients in early stage of BD (EBD) performed better performance on the total immediate free recall (p<0.0001, F=12.060) as well as in delayed free recall (p<0.0001, F=13.914) compared to late stage (LBD) and SZ groups. In the ability to retain words learned, LBD and chronic (CSZ) were more impaired than other groups. Furthermore, the variation of learning (i.e, learning effects) along the 3 trials of immediate free recall was similar between groups. In conclusion, we found a cognitive decline alongside with the progression of BD whereas such impairment was evident in the early of SZ. Despite this, both groups (BD and SZ) seem to maintain the ability to learn. It emphasizes the relevance of studying new therapeutic strategies, in particular, cognitive rehabilitation/remediation techniques as promissory treatment for psychiatric patients, even in those with moderate disabilities. PMID:25311898

Czepielewski, Letícia S; Massuda, Raffael; Goi, Pedro; Sulzbach-Vianna, Miréia; Reckziegel, Ramiro; Costanzi, Monise; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Gama, Clarissa S

2014-09-16

157

Language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have broad language deficits (that are not restricted to measures of expressive language) and associated verbal short-term memory deficits. The profile of language skills in children with Down syndrome shows similarities to that seen in children with Specific Language Impairment. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21628091

Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervåg, Monica

2011-01-01

158

Verbal, Visual, and Spatio-Sequential Short-Term Memory: Assessment of the Storage Capacities of Children and Teenagers with Down's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…

Frenkel, S.; Bourdin, B.

2009-01-01

159

Sex differences in brain-behavior relationships between verbal episodic memory and resting regional cerebral blood flow  

PubMed Central

Women have better verbal memory, and higher rates of resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). This study examined whether there are also sex differences in the relationship between verbal episodic memory and resting rCBF. Twenty eight healthy right-handed volunteers (14 male, 14 female) underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 15O-water study. Immediate and delayed recall was measured on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale — Revised (WMS-R), and on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Resting rCBF (ml/100 g/min) was calculated for four frontal, four temporal, and four limbic regions of interest (ROIs). Women had better immediate recall on both WMS-R and CVLT tasks. Sex differences in rCBF were found for temporal lobe regions. Women had greater bilateral blood flow in a mid-temporal brain region. There were also sex differences in rCBF correlations with performance. Women produced positive correlations with rCBF laterality in the temporal pole. Greater relative CBF in the left temporal pole was associated with better WMS-R immediate and delayed recall in women only. These results suggest that trait differences in temporal pole brain-behavior relationships may relate to sex differences in verbal episodic memory. PMID:10683395

Ragland, J. Daniel; Coleman, A. Rand; Gur, Ruben C.; Glahn, David C.; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

160

Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops  

PubMed Central

Working memory is the structure devoted to the maintenance of information at short term during concurrent processing activities. In this respect, the question regarding the nature of the mechanisms and systems fulfilling this maintenance function is of particular importance and has received various responses in the recent past. In the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, we suggest that only two systems sustain the maintenance of information at the short term, counteracting the deleterious effect of temporal decay and interference. A non-attentional mechanism of verbal rehearsal, similar to the one described by Baddeley in the phonological loop model, uses language processes to reactivate phonological memory traces. Besides this domain-specific mechanism, an executive loop allows the reconstruction of memory traces through an attention-based mechanism of refreshing. The present paper reviews evidence of the involvement of these two independent systems in the maintenance of verbal memory items. PMID:25426049

Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

2014-01-01

161

Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

2011-01-01

162

Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's…

Phelan, Heather L.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Johnson, Shannon A.

2011-01-01

163

Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

2008-01-01

164

Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

2014-01-01

165

From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…

Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

2012-01-01

166

Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents.  

PubMed

Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794

Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2014-01-01

167

Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents  

PubMed Central

Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794

Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2014-01-01

168

Memory and comprehension deficits in spatial descriptions of children with non-verbal and reading disabilities  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9–12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children’s difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children’s difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions. PMID:25610417

Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare

2015-01-01

169

Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study: Measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function  

PubMed Central

We previously presented normative data from a relatively large, population-based sample (n = 244) of centenarians and a reference group of octogenarians (n = 80) for several brief, global neurocognitive tasks adapted for use for older adults with physical and sensory limitations (Miller et al., 2010). Here, we present additional normative data on several domain-specific tasks from these samples from Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study, including measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function. Expected age differences were demonstrated across all cognitive measures, and, consistent with our previous findings, centenarians showed a stronger association between age and performance. Normative tables are presented unweighted as well as population-weighted, and stratified by age and education level. These findings offer a unique contribution to the literature on cognitive aging, as normative performance in this age group is understudied and largely unavailable to clinicians and researchers. PMID:23379531

Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

2014-01-01

170

Feedback signals in the caudate reflect goal achievement on a declarative memory task.  

PubMed

The striatum has been shown to be a key region in the processing of reward-related information. The head of the caudate nucleus has been implicated in processing performance feedback, or in other words, information about the outcomes of one's actions. However, feedback provides multiple types of information, and it is not clear which of these types of information drive a caudate response. We sought to determine whether the signal in the caudate differed when feedback was informative but only arbitrarily related to performance versus when it provided information about goal achievement. To do this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine caudate activation during a feedback-based paired associate word-learning task. During an initial round of 60 distinct trials, participants chose one of two responses on each trial and received feedback about whether their responses were correct. On the subsequent two rounds, the 60 trials were repeated and participants chose their responses based on their memory of the correct answer. The caudate nuclei were strongly engaged only during the second two rounds, when feedback reflected the accuracy of memory. These results support the idea that feedback-based caudate activation is context dependent: the caudate can be engaged in feedback-based declarative memory tasks, but it is more strongly engaged when feedback is "earned" by performance than when it is informative but not tied to goal achievement. PMID:18445531

Tricomi, Elizabeth; Fiez, Julie A

2008-07-01

171

Selective attention and the three-process memory model for the interpretation of verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The present study investigates selective attention and verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examines the contribution of selective attention, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval memory processes to patients' verbal free recall. We examined 22 non-demented patients with sporadic ALS and 22 demographically related controls using Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST; selective attention) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; immediate & delayed verbal free recall). The item-specific deficit approach (ISDA) was applied to RAVLT to evaluate encoding, consolidation, and retrieval difficulties. ALS patients performed worse than controls on SNST (p < .001) and RAVLT immediate and delayed recall (p < .001) and showed deficient encoding (p = .001) and consolidation (p = .002) but not retrieval (p = .405). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that SNST and ISDA indices accounted for: (a) 91.1% of the variance in RAVLT immediate recall, with encoding (p = .016), consolidation (p < .001), and retrieval (p = .032) significantly contributing to the overall model and the SNST alone accounting for 41.6%; and (b) 85.2% of the variance in RAVLT delayed recall, with consolidation (p < .001) and retrieval (p = .008) significantly contributing to the overall model and the SNST alone accounting for 39.8%. Thus, selective attention, encoding, and consolidation, and to a lesser extent of retrieval, influenced both immediate and delayed verbal free recall. Concluding, selective attention and the memory processes of encoding, consolidation, and retrieval should be considered while interpreting patients' impaired free recall. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10). PMID:22676844

Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2012-09-01

172

The Use of a Self-Generation Memory Encoding Strategy to Improve Verbal Memory and Learning in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation effect refers to the theory that optimal acquisition and retention of information is achieved by active participation rather than by passive observation. The efficacy of a self-generation memory encoding strategy was tested using a verbal paired-associate task for free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory in 40 traumatically brain-injured outpatients in two studies. In study #1, self-generation encoding

Bruce K. Schefft; Mario F. Dulay; Jamison D. Fargo

2008-01-01

173

Verbal working memory load affects prefrontal cortices activation: evidence from a functional NIRS study in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working memory (WM) refers to the temporary maintenance of information that is no longer accessible in the environment, and the manipulation of this information for subsequent use. PET and functional MRI studies suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in WM. Here, we report a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study on the PFC activation caused by a WM task, a verbal n-back task. During performance of the task, concentration changes of oxy-Hb (HbO2), deoxy-Hb (Hb), and total-Hb (HbT) in subjects" prefrontal cortex were monitored by a 24-channel functional NIRS imager. The behavioral performances (accuracy and response time) were recorded simultaneously. Results revealed that as memory load increased, subjects showed poorer behavioral performance as well as monotonously increasing magnitudes of the activations in the left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). In addition, the analysis of comparison between subjects showed that certain relations likely exist between the cerebral activation and the performance parameters for an individual subject: lower accuracy is accompanied by longer response time and further activation. Such means that the subject with difficulty in solving a problem will demonstrate more significant hemodynamic changes compared with the subject without difficulty in solving the same problem.

Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

2005-03-01

174

Analogous mechanisms of selection and updating in declarative and procedural working memory: experiments and a computational model.  

PubMed

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a central capacity-limited component for building structures through temporary bindings, and a single-element focus of attention. Five experiments test the hypothesis of analogous mechanisms in declarative and procedural WM, investigating repetition effects across trials for individual representations (objects and responses) and for sets (memory sets and task sets), as well as set-congruency effects. Evidence for analogous processes was obtained from three phenomena: (1) Costs of task switching and of list switching are reduced with longer preparation interval. (2) The effects of task congruency and of list congruency are undiminished with longer preparation interval. (3) Response repetition interacts with task repetition in procedural WM; here we show an analogous interaction of list repetition with item repetition in declarative WM. All three patterns were reproduced by a connectionist model implementing the assumed selection and updating mechanisms. The model consists of two modules, an item-selection module selecting individual items from a memory set, or responses from a task set, and a set-selection module for selecting memory sets or task sets. The model codes the matrix of binding weights in the item-selection module as a pattern of activation in the set-selection module, thereby providing a mechanism for building chunks in LTM, and for unpacking them as structures into working memory. PMID:23276689

Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S; Druey, Michel D; Gade, Miriam

2013-03-01

175

A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. PMID:24601893

Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

2014-01-01

176

Hippocampal dysfunction during declarative memory encoding in schizophrenia and effects of genetic liability.  

PubMed

Declarative memory (DM) impairments are reported in schizophrenia and in unaffected biological relatives of patients. However, the neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful encoding, mediated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, and the influence of disease-related genetic liability remain under explored. This study employed an event-related functional MRI paradigm to compare activations for successfully and unsuccessfully encoded associative face-name stimuli between 26 schizophrenia patients (mean age: 33, 19m/7f), 30 controls (mean age: 29, 24m/6f), and 14 unaffected relatives of patients (mean age: 40, 5m/9f). Compared to controls or unaffected relatives, patients showed hyper-activations in ventral visual stream and temporo-parietal cortical association areas when contrasting successfully encoded events to fixation. Follow-up hippocampal regions-of-interest analysis revealed schizophrenia-related hyper-activations in the right anterior hippocampus during successful encoding; contrasting successful versus unsuccessful events produced schizophrenia-related hypo-activations in the left anterior hippocampus. Similar hippocampal hypo-activations were observed in unaffected relatives during successful versus unsuccessful encoding. Post hoc analyses of hippocampal volume showed reductions in patients, but not in unaffected relatives compared to controls. Findings suggest that DM encoding deficits are attributable to both disease-specific and genetic liability factors that impact different components of the MTL memory system. Hyper-activations in temporo-occipital and parietal regions observed only in patients suggest the influence of disease-related factors. Regional hyper- and hypo-activations attributable to successful encoding occurring in both patients and unaffected relatives suggest the influence of schizophrenia-related genetic liability factors. PMID:25497222

Pirnia, Tara; Woods, Roger P; Hamilton, Liberty S; Lyden, Hannah; Joshi, Shantanu H; Asarnow, Robert F; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Narr, Katherine L

2015-02-01

177

Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children’s mathematical abilities  

PubMed Central

It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306

Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

2014-01-01

178

Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children's mathematical abilities.  

PubMed

It is assumed that children's performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4-6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children's performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306

Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

2014-01-01

179

Lobular Patterns of Cerebellar Activation in Verbal Working Memory and Finger-Tapping Tasks as Revealed by Functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobular distributions of functional activation of the cerebellum during verbal working-memory and finger movement tasks were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Relative to a rest control, finger tapping of the right hand produced ipsilateral-increased activation in HIV\\/HV (Roman numeral desig- nations based on Larsell's (Larsell and Jansen, 1972) nomencla- ture) and HVI and weaker activation in HVIII

John E. Desmond; John D. E. Gabrieli; Anthony D. Wagner; Bruce L. Ginier; Gary H. Glover

1997-01-01

180

Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children’s Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65–70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and\\u000a memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s\\u000a Version to 15 high-functioning youths with ASD and 15 matched comparison participants. Although

Heather L. Phelan; Jillian H. Filliter; Shannon A. Johnson

2011-01-01

181

Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

2013-01-01

182

Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = ?0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

2013-01-01

183

Mental rotational ability is correlated with spatial but not verbal working memory performance and P300 amplitude in males.  

PubMed

This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory. PMID:23437381

Christie, Gregory J; Cook, Charles M; Ward, Brian J; Tata, Matthew S; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J; Saucier, Deborah M

2013-01-01

184

Uncinate fasciculus microstructure and verbal episodic memory in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological study.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the integrity of uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the association between UF microstructure and verbal episodic memory (as one of the cognitive functions linked to UF) in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 21 patients with ALS and 11 healthy, demographically-comparable volunteers. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivity were the DTI metrics examined. Episodic memory was evaluated with Babcock Story Recall Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for patients; measures of immediate and delayed recall and retention for both tests and sum of words recalled through five learning trials for RAVLT were considered. Patients with ALS showed significant bilateral reduction of axial diffusivity in the UF as compared to controls. Furthermore, there were several significant relations between various DTI metrics (mostly in left hemisphere) and memory measures (specifically for the RAVLT). UF microstructural changes may contribute to ALS-related memory impairment, with word-list learning performance relying more upon the integrity of frontal and temporal connections than memory components associated with story recall. PMID:24190400

Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Kyriazi, Stavroula; Rentzos, Michalis; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2014-12-01

185

Information content and reward processing in the human striatum during performance of a declarative memory task.  

PubMed

Negative feedback can signal poor performance, but it also provides information that can help learners reach the goal of task mastery. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the amount of information provided by negative feedback during a paired-associate learning task influences feedback-related processing in the caudate nucleus. To do this, we manipulated the number of response options: With two options, positive and negative feedback provide equal amounts of information, whereas with four options, positive feedback provides more information than does negative feedback. We found that positive and negative feedback activated the caudate similarly when there were two response options. With four options, the caudate's response to negative feedback was reduced. A secondary goal was to investigate the link between brain-based measures of feedback-related processing and behavioral indices of learning. Analysis of the posttest measures showed that trials with positive feedback were associated with higher posttest confidence ratings. Additionally, when positive feedback was delivered, caudate activity was greater for trials with high than with low posttest confidence. This experiment demonstrated the context sensitivity of feedback processing and provided evidence that feedback processing in the striatum can contribute to the strengthening of the representations available within declarative memory. PMID:22194237

Tricomi, Elizabeth; Fiez, Julie A

2012-06-01

186

Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

2010-01-01

187

Characterization of Verbal and Spatial Memory Changes from Moderate to Supraphysiological increases in Serum Testosterone in Healthy Older Men  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that cognitive changes in response to T supplementation may occur within an ideal range. The objective of this study was to compare the cognitive responses of older, eugonadal men in whom moderate or large increases in serum testosterone levels was induced by exogenous testosterone supplementation. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with subsequent grouping of participants according to average increase in circulating T from baseline. Setting Community dwelling participants. Participants Fifty-seven healthy, eugonadal, community dwelling male volunteers, mean age 67 years (± 11 years). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive weekly intramuscular (I.M.) injections of either 50, 100 or 300mg T enanthate or placebo (saline) injection for six weeks. Cognitive evaluations using a battery of neuropsychological tests were conducted at baseline, weeks 3 and 6 of treatment and after 6 weeks of wash-out. Main Outcome Measures Performance on cognitive tests of verbal and spatial memory. Results Men with moderate increases in serum T and/or its metabolites demonstrated significant improvements in verbal and spatial memory. In contrast, men with large or low increases in circulating T levels, failed to demonstrate significant changes in memory. Conclusion These results suggest that in healthy older men, beneficial changes in cognitive function induced by T supplementation are most evident with moderate increases in T levels. Large or no to low increases in T levels do not appear to appreciably effect cognition. PMID:17145137

Cherrier, M. M.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Amory, J.K.; Johnson, M.; Craft, S.; Peskind, E. R.; Raskind, M.A.

2007-01-01

188

Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

2015-01-01

189

Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation - that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ferguson, Karen J; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; MacPherson, Sarah E

2015-02-01

190

Neural correlates of declarative memory for emotionally valenced words in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to early childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnimal studies have shown that early stressors result in lasting changes in structure and function of brain areas involved in memory, including hippocampus and frontal cortex. Patients with childhood abuse–related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have alterations in both declarative and nondeclarative memory function, and imaging studies in PTSD have demonstrated changes in function during stimulation of trauma-specific memories in hippocampus,

J. Douglas Bremner; Meena Vythilingam; Eric Vermetten; Steven M. Southwick; Thomas McGlashan; Lawrence H. Staib; Robert Soufer; Dennis S. Charney

2003-01-01

191

A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

2014-01-01

192

Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is widely held that conscious recall of past experiences involves a specific system-episodic memory1. Patients with amnesia have gross impairments of episodic memory while other kinds of memory remain intact2,3, suggesting that a separable brain system underlies episodic memory. We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify components of this system in normal volunteers. A dual-task interference paradigm4

T. Shallice; P. Fletcher; P. Grasby; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. J. Dolan

1994-01-01

193

The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation--direct evidence by intracranial EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking state but may become saturated after some time awake. Sleep, in this model, specifically favors restoration of

Nikolai Axmacher; Sven Haupt; Guillen Fernandez; Christian E. Elger; Juergen Fell

2008-01-01

194

Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2014-01-01

195

Sleep-Dependent Declarative Memory Consolidation—Unaffected after Blocking NMDA or AMPA Receptors but Enhanced by NMDA Coagonist D-Cycloserine  

PubMed Central

Sleep has a pivotal role in the consolidation of declarative memory. The coordinated neuronal replay of information encoded before sleep has been identified as a key process. It is assumed that the repeated reactivation of firing patterns in glutamatergic neuron assemblies translates into plastic synaptic changes underlying the formation of longer-term neuronal representations. Here, we tested the effects of blocking and enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission during sleep on declarative memory consolidation in humans. We conducted three placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind studies in which participants learned a word-pair association task. Afterwards, they slept in a sleep laboratory and received glutamatergic modulators. Our first two studies aimed at impairing consolidation by administering the NMDA receptor blocker ketamine and the AMPA receptor blocker caroverine during retention sleep, which, paradoxically, remained unsuccessful, inasmuch as declarative memory performance was unaffected by the treatment. However, in the third study, administration of the NMDA receptor coagonist D-cycloserine (DCS) during retention sleep facilitated consolidation of declarative memory (word pairs) but not consolidation of a procedural control task (finger sequence tapping). Administration of DCS during a wake interval remained without effect on retention of word pairs but improved encoding of numbers. From the overall pattern, we conclude that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory during sleep relies on NMDA-related plastic processes that differ from those processes leading to wake encoding. We speculate that glutamatergic activation during sleep is not only involved in consolidation but also in forgetting of hippocampal memory with both processes being differentially sensitive to DCS and unselective blockade of NMDA and AMPA receptors. PMID:23887151

Feld, Gordon B; Lange, Tanja; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

2013-01-01

196

Sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation--unaffected after blocking NMDA or AMPA receptors but enhanced by NMDA coagonist D-cycloserine.  

PubMed

Sleep has a pivotal role in the consolidation of declarative memory. The coordinated neuronal replay of information encoded before sleep has been identified as a key process. It is assumed that the repeated reactivation of firing patterns in glutamatergic neuron assemblies translates into plastic synaptic changes underlying the formation of longer-term neuronal representations. Here, we tested the effects of blocking and enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission during sleep on declarative memory consolidation in humans. We conducted three placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind studies in which participants learned a word-pair association task. Afterwards, they slept in a sleep laboratory and received glutamatergic modulators. Our first two studies aimed at impairing consolidation by administering the NMDA receptor blocker ketamine and the AMPA receptor blocker caroverine during retention sleep, which, paradoxically, remained unsuccessful, inasmuch as declarative memory performance was unaffected by the treatment. However, in the third study, administration of the NMDA receptor coagonist D-cycloserine (DCS) during retention sleep facilitated consolidation of declarative memory (word pairs) but not consolidation of a procedural control task (finger sequence tapping). Administration of DCS during a wake interval remained without effect on retention of word pairs but improved encoding of numbers. From the overall pattern, we conclude that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory during sleep relies on NMDA-related plastic processes that differ from those processes leading to wake encoding. We speculate that glutamatergic activation during sleep is not only involved in consolidation but also in forgetting of hippocampal memory with both processes being differentially sensitive to DCS and unselective blockade of NMDA and AMPA receptors. PMID:23887151

Feld, Gordon B; Lange, Tanja; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

2013-12-01

197

Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working

Sezen Gokcen; Emre Bora; Serpil Erermis; Hande Kesikci; Cahide Aydin

2009-01-01

198

Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

2008-01-01

199

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

200

The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

Melby-Lervag, Monica

2012-01-01

201

A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

2005-01-01

202

Vividness of Visual Imagery and Incidental Recall of Verbal Cues, When Phenomenological Availability Reflects Long-Term Memory Accessibility  

PubMed Central

The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30?min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories. PMID:23382719

D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

2013-01-01

203

The Magnitude, Generality, and Determinants of Flynn Effects on Forms of Declarative Memory and Visuospatial Ability: Time-Sequential Analyses of Data from a Swedish Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarative memory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35-80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions,…

Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

2008-01-01

204

Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

2012-01-01

205

Verbal Working Memory Performance Correlates with Regional White Matter Structures in the Frontoparietal Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

2011-01-01

206

Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

2014-01-01

207

Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

2009-01-01

208

Verbal Recall in Learning Disabled Children with Memory Dysfunctions: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this pilot study, the effect of experimenter cuing on recall and organization of response was analyzed and compared between subjects identified as learning disabled with an isolated memory impairment (LDMI), learning disabled without an isolated memory impairment (LDO), and normal controls (N). Six subjects were selected for each group after…

Franklin, Anderson J.; Frumkin, Yvette J.

209

Chronic use of cannabis and poor neural efficiency in verbal memory ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The endogenous cannabinoid system is sensitive to the introduction of exogenous cannabinoids such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol,\\u000a which are known to impact upon memory functioning. We sought to examine the impact of chronic cannabis use upon memory-related\\u000a brain function via examination of the subsequent memory effect (SME) of the event-related potential (ERP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The SME is predictive of recall outcome and originates in

Robert A. Battisti; Steven Roodenrys; Stuart J. Johnstone; Colleen Respondek; Daniel F. Hermens; Nadia Solowij

2010-01-01

210

An Investigation of word encoding strategy and verbal short term memory in developmental dyslexia   

E-print Network

Dyslexic children have been shown to have poorer phonological awareness and phonological memory skills than normal readers. Evidence from a number of studies shows that normal readers show impaired recall for phonologically ...

Kennedy, Hazel

2006-01-01

211

Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between ...

Thomason, Moriah E.

212

Dynamic causal modeling of load-dependent modulation of effective connectivity within the verbal working memory network.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown that working memory (WM) tasks engage a distributed neural network that primarily includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. The current challenge is to provide a mechanistic account of the changes observed in regional activity. To achieve this, we characterized neuroplastic responses in effective connectivity between these regions at increasing WM loads using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy individuals during a verbal n-back task. Our data demonstrate that increasing memory load was associated with (a) right-hemisphere dominance, (b) increasing forward (i.e., posterior to anterior) effective connectivity within the WM network, and (c) reduction in individual variability in WM network architecture resulting in the right-hemisphere forward model reaching an exceedance probability of 99% in the most demanding condition. Our results provide direct empirical support that task difficulty, in our case WM load, is a significant moderator of short-term plasticity, complementing existing theories of task-related reduction in variability in neural networks. PMID:24142432

Dima, Danai; Jogia, Jigar; Frangou, Sophia

2014-07-01

213

Physical activity improves verbal and spatial memory in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

We report secondary findings from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of exercise on memory in older adults with probable MCI. We randomized 86 women aged 70-80 years with subjective memory complaints into one of three groups: resistance training, aerobic training, or balance and tone (control). All participants exercised twice per week for six months. We measured verbal memory and learning using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and spatial memory using a computerized test, before and after trial completion. We found that the aerobic training group remembered significantly more items in the loss after interference condition of the RAVLT compared with the control group after six months of training. In addition, both experimental groups showed improved spatial memory performance in the most difficult condition where they were required to memorize the spatial location of three items, compared with the control group. Lastly, we found a significant correlation between spatial memory performance and overall physical capacity after intervention in the aerobic training group. Taken together, our results provide support for the prevailing notion that exercise can positively impact cognitive functioning and may represent an effective strategy to improve memory in those who have begun to experience cognitive decline. PMID:23509628

Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Chan, Alison; Davis, Jennifer C; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Voss, Michelle W; Sharma, Devika; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

2013-01-01

214

Nonword Repetition and Serial Recall: Equivalent Measures of Verbal Short-Term Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn language are very closely related to one another has led to widespread interest in the cognitive processes underlying nonword repetition. One suggestion is that nonword repetition is a relatively pure measure of phonological short-term memory closely associated with other measures of…

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2007-01-01

215

Is the Hippocampus Necessary for Visual and Verbal Binding in Working Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…

Baddeley, Alan; Allen, Richard; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

2010-01-01

216

Temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity during verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on neocortical regions; comparatively little is known about the role of subcortical structures. There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia are involved in WM, but their contribution to different component processes of WM is poorly understood. We examined the temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity

Catherine Chang; Sonia Crottaz-Herbette; Vinod Menonb

217

Morphometry and Connectivity of the Fronto-Parietal Verbal Working Memory Network in Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinctly different maturational processes--cortical thinning and white matter maturation--take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of…

Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.

2011-01-01

218

Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

2014-01-01

219

Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d?=?0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d?=?0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

2014-01-01

220

The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS), as well as an improvement in speech performance regardless of intervention received. While not statistically significant, participants who received an acceptance-based intervention exhibited larger improvements in observer-rated speech performance at post-treatment in comparison to tCBT (F (1,21) = 1.91, p =.18, etap2 = .08) such that individuals in the ABBT condition exhibited a considerably greater improvement in observer-rated speech performance than those in the tCBT condition. There was no differential impact of treatment condition on subjective speech anxiety or working memory task performance. Potential mediators and moderators of treatment were also examined. Results provide support for a brief 90-minute intervention for public speaking anxiety, but more research is needed in a study with a larger sample to fully understand the relationship between ABBT strategies and improvements in behavioral performance.

Glassman, Lisa Hayley

221

Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

2013-03-01

222

From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech  

PubMed Central

The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both conditions, participants viewed one or two target letters. In the “storage” condition, these targets were held in mind across a delay. Then a probe letter was presented, and participants indicated by button press whether the probe matched the targets. In the “manipulation” condition, participants identified new targets by thinking two alphabetical letters forward of each original target (e.g., f-->h). Participants subsequently indicated whether the probe matched the newly derived targets. Brain activity during the storage and manipulation conditions was examined specifically during the delay phase in order to directly compare manipulation versus storage processes. Activations that were common to both conditions, yet disproportionately greater with manipulation, were observed in the left inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, and anterior insula, bilaterally in the parietal lobes and superior cerebellum, and in the right inferior cerebellum. This network shares substrates with overt speech and may represent an inner speech pathway that increases activity with greater working memory demands. Additionally, an inverse correlation was observed between manipulation-related brain activity (on correct trials) and test accuracy in the left premotor cortex, anterior insula, and bilateral superior cerebellum. This inverse relationship may represent intensification of inner speech as one struggles to maintain performance levels. PMID:21889195

Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

2011-01-01

223

The impact of verbal working memory on number-space associations.  

PubMed

Spatial-numerical associations are observed when participants perform number categorization tasks. One such observation is the spatial numerical associations of response codes (SNARC) effect, showing an association between small numbers and the left-hand side and between large numbers and the right-hand side. It has long been argued that this spatial association is automatically activated by the long-term representation underlying numbers processing. Instead, van Dijck and Fias (2011) argued that this association is a short-term representation that is constructed during task execution. This argument was based on the observation of an association between the ordinal position of an item in working memory and response side (e.g., the ordinal position effect). Four different experiments were set up to systematically investigate this assumption. Our results indicate that the activation of the canonical order of numbers in working memory (e.g., 1, 2, 3, etc.) is indeed necessary to observe the SNARC effect. The activation of the standard sequence of numbers (e.g., from 1 to 9) can be overruled when a new random sequence is memorized. However, this is only observed when retrieval of the memorized sequence is required during the numbers classification task. PMID:24707784

Ginsburg, Véronique; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Previtali, Paola; Fias, Wim; Gevers, Wim

2014-07-01

224

Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-12-01

225

How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

2013-01-01

226

The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

2014-01-01

227

EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL CONTENT ON DECLARATIVE MEMORY: TWO STUDIES CONDUCTED ON HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND CEPHALALGIC PATIENTS EFECTOS DEL CONTENIDO EMOCIONAL SOBRE LA MEMORIA DECLARATIVA: DOS ESTUDIOS EFECTUADOS EN SUJETOS SANOS Y PACIENTES CEFALÁLGICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that emotional arousal can promote memory storage. We report two studies evaluating the ef fects of emotional content on declarative memory, conducted with healthy subjects and cephalgic patients. We utilized an adaptation of two versions of the same story, with different arousing properties (neutral or emotional), which have been already employed in experiments involving the enhancing effects

A. Gasbarri; B. Arnone; A. Pompili; A. Marchetti; P. Di Fabrizio; S. Saad Calil; M. C. Tavares; C. Tomaz

228

Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes.  

PubMed

Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation. PMID:23920025

Carney, Daniel P J; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Danielsson, Henrik; Brown, Janice H; Rönnberg, Jerker

2013-10-01

229

The Relationships between Phonological Sensitivity, Syntactic Processing, and Verbal Working Memory in the Reading Performance of Third-Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 112 third-grade children was examined on tasks assessing phonological sensitivity, working memory, and syntactic processing. The children were also administered several measures of word recognition, pseudoword reading, and reading comprehension. A series of hierarchical regression analyses and commonality analyses indicated that phonological sensitivity remained a strong predictor of reading performance after variance in working memory and syntactic

Alexandra Gottardo; Keith E. Stanovich; Linda S. Siegel

1996-01-01

230

Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

2013-01-01

231

Effect of stress, knowledge of results, and proactive inhibition on verbal recognition memory (d') and response criterion (LX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzed recognition memory for CVC trigrams within the context of signal detection theory with 32 undergraduates. Without feedback, instruction-induced stress caused Ss to perform well initially, but with a subsequent decline in performance. The nonstressed group, in contrast, showed poor recognition memory on the 1st trial, but improved later. The Stress * Trials interaction revealed a positive relationship between recognition

W. Crawford Clark; David B. Greenberg

1971-01-01

232

When Customers Exhibit Verbal Aggression, Employees Pay Cognitive Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability

Anat Rafaeli; Amir Erez; Shy Ravid; Rellie Derfler-Rozin; Dorit Efrat Treister; Ravit Scheyer

2012-01-01

233

Developmental patterns of verbal and visuospatial spans.  

PubMed

This study presents developmental data for verbal and spatial memory tasks: Corsi's block-tapping test and Luria's verbal learning test. Norms have been collected from 275 primary and early secondary school children aged from 5 years, 4 months to 13 years, 6 months. Our results confirm a slow and constant improvement in performances over time, and the advantage of about 1.5 items of the verbal span over the spatial span supports the existence of developmental differences between separate memory systems. No significant sex difference was found even if a slight trend in verbal span favouring female subjects is present. PMID:11917975

Nichelli, F; Bulgheroni, S; Riva, D

2001-10-01

234

Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

2010-01-01

235

The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…

Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

2011-01-01

236

Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Congenital Articulatory Disorders: New Empirical Data and Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To investigate the nature of the articulatory rehearsal mechanism of the Articulatory Loop in Baddeley's Working Memory model, it seems particularly important to study individuals who developed a deficit (dysarthria) or total abolition (anarthria) of the ability to articulate language following a cerebral lesion. Method: In this study,…

Carlesimo, G. A.; Galloni, F.; Bonanni, R.; Sabbadini, M.

2006-01-01

237

Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and serointensity are associated with hippocampal volume and verbal memory in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

E-print Network

memory in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Houenou Ja,b,c,d* , d'Albis MAa,b,c,e , Daban Ca latent in humans but has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cognitive deficits volume and cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methods: 102 healthy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

2011-01-01

239

The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

2009-01-01

240

The Role of Attention in the Development of Short-Term Memory: Age Differences in the Verbal Span of Apprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ability of first and fourth graders and adults to recall digits they heard while they were carrying out a visual task. Results suggested that each individual has a core memory capacity limit that can be observed in circumstances in which it cannot be supplemented by mnemonic strategies. The capacity limit increases with age…

Cowan, Nelson; Nugent, Lara D.; Elliott, Emily M.; Ponomarev, Igor; Saults, J. Scott

1999-01-01

241

Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions. PMID:25202255

Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H.; Townsley, Sarah; Hillis, Argye E.

2014-01-01

242

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

243

Barriers to repeated assessment of verbal learning and memory: a comparison of international shopping list task and rey auditory verbal learning test on build-up of proactive interference.  

PubMed

Proactive interference (PI) that remains unidentified can confound the assessment of verbal learning, particularly when its effects vary from one population to another. The International Shopping List Task (ISLT) is a new measure that provides multiple forms that can be equated for linguistic factors across cultural groups. The aim of this study was to examine the build-up of PI on two measures of verbal learning-a traditional test of list learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT) and the ISLT. The sample consisted of 61 healthy adults aged 18-40. Each test had three parallel forms, each recalled three times. Results showed that repeated administration of the ISLT did not result in significant PI effects, unlike the RAVLT. Although these PI effects, observed during short retest intervals, may not be as robust under normal clinical administrations of the tests, the results suggest that the choice of the verbal learning test should be guided by the knowledge of PI effects and the susceptibility of particular patient groups to this effect. PMID:22908204

Rahimi-Golkhandan, S; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Wilson, P

2012-11-01

244

Memory impairment and Benign Epilepsy with centrotemporal spike (BECTS): a growing suspicion.  

PubMed

Benign Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is considered a benign type of epilepsy; nevertheless a significant number of children present clear and heterogeneous cognitive deficits such as memory disturbances. Thus far, evidence about memory impairment has been less than conclusive. To clarify the quality of memory functioning in BECTS children, an analysis of existing findings has been conducted trying to identify the type of memory deficits and their underlying factors. Short- and long-term declarative memory are impaired in BECTS children, with both verbal and non-verbal material; co-occurrence of attentional, linguistic and behavioral disturbances is reported. In children with continuous spikes and waves during the slow-wave sleep pattern the normal downscaling of slow-wave activity is absent, disrupting plastic brain processes of sleep-related memory consolidation. In BECTS children, NREM sleep interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may interfere in the dialogue between temporal and frontal cortex, causing declarative memory deficits: the role of NREM sleep IED acquires a special importance, leading to methodological guidance and suggesting aims for future researches in the field of childhood neuroscience. PMID:24362071

Verrotti, Alberto; Filippini, Melissa; Matricardi, Sara; Agostinelli, Maria Flavia; Gobbi, Giuseppe

2014-02-01

245

Notetaking, Verbal Aptitude, & Listening Span: Factors Involved in Learning from Lectures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three variables (verbal aptitude, listening ability, and notetaking) that may mediate how much college students learn from a lecture were studied. Verbal aptitude was operationalized as a Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test (VSAT) score. Listening ability was measured as the score on an auditory short-term memory task, using the serial running memory

Walbaum, Sharlene D.

246

Listening Is Behaving Verbally  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

Schlinger, Henry D.

2008-01-01

247

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

248

Cultural differences on the children's memory scale  

E-print Network

Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

Cash, Deborah Dyer

2009-05-15

249

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

250

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as "mere" verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

251

Slave to the Rhythm: Experimental Tests of a Model for Verbal Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Sequence Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. "Psychological…

Hitch, Graham J.; Flude, Brenda; Burgess, Neil

2009-01-01

252

Verbal fluency and executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological investigations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have revealed variable results on specific tests, despite a similar overall cognitive profile of predominantly executive dysfunction with some evidence of memory impairment. The most striking and consistent deficit is found using tests of verbal fluency. The current investigation explored why verbal fluency is particularly sensitive to the impairment in ALS, by

S Abrahams; P. N Leigh; A Harvey; G. N Vythelingum; D Grisé; L. H Goldstein

2000-01-01

253

Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Episodic memory,and semantic memory,are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory,functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

254

Examining Visual Verbal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few of the relationships between visual and verbal components are explored. Visuals are considered to be things that can be seen, visible things other than printed words that are used in a communication process. The term verbal applies to written or spoken words. The natural tendency for visual and verbal components to be mutually supportive has…

Braden, Roberts A.

255

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

256

Dream actors in the theatre of memory: their role in the psychoanalytic process.  

PubMed

The author notes that neuropsychological research has discovered the existence of two long-term memory systems, namely declarative or explicit memory, which is conscious and autobiographical, and non-declarative or implicit memory, which is neither conscious nor verbalisable. It is suggested that pre-verbal and pre-symbolic experience in the child's primary relations is stored in implicit memory, where it constitutes an unconscious nucleus of the self which is not repressed and which influences the person's affective, emotional, cognitive and sexual life even as an adult. In the analytic relationship this unconscious part can emerge essentially through certain modes of communication (tone of voice, rhythm and prosody of the voice, and structure and tempo of speech), which could be called the 'musical dimension' of the transference, and through dream representations. Besides work on the transference, the critical component of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis is stated to consist in work on dreams as pictographic and symbolic representations of implicit pre-symbolic and pre-verbal experiences. A case history is presented in which dream interpretation allowed some of a patient's early unconscious, non-repressed experiences to be emotionally reconstructed and made thinkable even though they were not actually remembered. PMID:13678499

Mancia, Mauro

2003-08-01

257

Introduction fMRI Task Individual Differences The Neural Correlates of Visual and Verbal Cognitive Styles  

E-print Network

Introduction fMRI Task Individual Differences The Neural Correlates of Visual and Verbal Cognitive are not well understood. · Hypothesis: Propensity for visual and verbal cognitive styles will correlate with recruitment of modlity-preferential areas (those involved in visual/verbal working memory and processing

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

258

Vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling (VE-ASL) reveals elevated flow territory asymmetry in older adults with substandard verbal memory performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate how flow-territory asymmetry and/or the distribution of blood through collateral pathways may adversely affect the brain’s ability to respond to age-related changes in brain function. These patterns have been investigated in cerebrovascular disease, however here we evaluated how flow-territory asymmetry related to memory generally in older adults. Materials and Methods A multi-faceted MRI protocol, including vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling capable of flow territory mapping, was applied to assess how flow territory asymmetry; memory performance (CERAD-Immediate Recall); cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter lesion (WML) count, and cortical gray matter volume were related in older healthy control volunteers (HC; n=15; age=64.5±7 yrs) and age-matched mild cognitive impairment volunteers (MCI; n=7; age=62.7±3.7 yrs). Results An inverse relationship was found between memory performance and flow territory asymmetry in HC volunteers (P=0.04), which reversed in MCI volunteers (P=0.04). No relationship was found between memory performance and cortical tissue volume in either group (P>0.05). Group-level differences for HC volunteers performing above vs. below average on CERAD-I were observed for flow-territory asymmetry (P<0.02) and cortical volume (P<0.05) only. Conclusion Findings suggest that flow-territory asymmetry may correlate more sensitively with memory performance than CBF, atrophy and WML count in older adults. PMID:23633160

Donahue, Manus J.; Hussey, Erin; Rane, Swati; Wilson, Tracy; van Osch, Matthias; Hartkamp, Nolan; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Ally, Brandon A.

2013-01-01

259

The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

Melby-Lervag, Monica

2012-01-01

260

Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

2013-01-01

261

Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…

Lecas, Jean-Francois; Mazaud, Anne-Marie; Reibel, Esther; Rey, Arnaud

2011-01-01

262

Central effects of sildenafil (Viagra) on auditory selective attention and verbal recognition memory in humans: a study with event-related brain potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess possible central side-effects of sildenafil (Viagra) on attention and memory functions.\\u000a Sildenafil and placebo were administered in young male subjects in a double-blind balanced cross-over design. Behavioral patterns\\u000a and event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded in a spatial auditory attention and a visual word recognition task.\\u000a While behavioral patterns did not reveal

D. Schultheiss; S. V. Müller; W. Nager; C. G. Stief; N. Schlote; U. Jonas; C. Asvestis; S. Johannes; T. F. Münte

2001-01-01

263

The Impact of Visual Memory Deficits on Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…

Larsen, Jessica Maria

2011-01-01

264

Listening Is Behaving Verbally  

PubMed Central

As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p.?2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

Schlinger, Henry D

2008-01-01

265

Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... mind works a lot like a computer. Your brain puts information it judges to be important into "files." When you remember something, you pull up a file. Memory doesn't always work perfectly. As people grow ...

266

DECLARE: A Prototype Declarative Proof System for Higher Order Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes DECLARE, a prototype implementation of a declarative proof system for simple higher order logic. The purpose of DECLARE is to explore mechanisms of specification and proof that may be incorporated into toher theorem provers. It has been developed to aid with reasoning about operational descriptions of systems and languages. Proofs in DECLARE are expressed as proof outlines,

Donald Syme

1997-01-01

267

Children's Comprehension of Metaphor in the Pictorial and Verbal Modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A picture-superiority effect has been observed in studies of children's learning and memory. The present investigation examines whether this effect generalizes to the domain of metaphoric comprehension. The degree of pictorial-verbal consistency in that domain is also explored. Verbal equivalents of the items of the pictorial Metaphoric Triads Task (MIT) were constructed, and both were presented to 2nd-and 5th-grade children

Nathan Kogan; Mindy Chadrow

1986-01-01

268

Memory factors in Rey AVLT: Implications for early staging of cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Supraspan verbal list learning is widely used to assess dementia and related cognitive disorders where declarative memory deficits are a major clinical sign. While the overall learning rate is important for diagnosis, serial position patterns may give insight into more specific memory processes in patients with cognitive impairment. This study explored these patterns in a memory clinic clientele. One hundred eighty three participants took the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The major groups were patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) as well as healthy controls (HC). Raw scores for the five trials and five serial partitions were factor analysed. Three memory factors were found and interpreted as Primacy, Recency, and Resistance to Interference. AD and MCI patients had impaired scores in all factors. SCI patients were significantly impaired in the Resistance to Interference factor, and in the Recency factor at the first trial. The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment. PMID:25112600

Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Ostberg, Per; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hellström, Ake

2014-12-01

269

Subcortical hyperintensity volumetrics in Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly in the Sunnybrook Dementia Study: correlations with atrophy, executive function, mental processing speed, and verbal memory  

PubMed Central

Introduction Subcortical hyperintensities (SHs) are radiological entities commonly observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal elderly controls. Although the presence of SH is believed to indicate some form of subcortical vasculopathy, pathological heterogeneity, methodological differences, and the contribution of brain atrophy associated with AD pathology have yielded inconsistent results in the literature. Methods Using the Lesion Explorer (LE) MRI processing pipeline for SH quantification and brain atrophy, this study examined SH volumes of interest and cognitive function in a sample of patients with AD (n?=?265) and normal elderly controls (n?=?100) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with AD were found to have less gray matter, less white matter, and more sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (all significant, P <0.0001). Additionally, patients with AD had greater volumes of whole-brain SH (P <0.01), periventricular SH (pvSH) (P <0.01), deep white SH (dwSH) (P <0.05), and lacunar lesions (P <0.0001). In patients with AD, regression analyses revealed a significant association between global atrophy and pvSH (P?=?0.02) and ventricular atrophy with whole-brain SH (P <0.0001). Regional volumes of interest revealed significant correlations with medial middle frontal SH volume and executive function (P <0.001) in normal controls but not in patients with AD, global pvSH volume and mental processing speed (P <0.01) in patients with AD, and left temporal SH volume and memory (P <0.01) in patients with AD. Conclusions These brain-behavior relationships and correlations with brain atrophy suggest that subtle, yet measurable, signs of small vessel disease may have potential clinical relevance as targets for treatment in Alzheimer’s dementia. PMID:25478020

2014-01-01

270

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

271

Progesterone and mental imagery interactively predict emotional memories.  

PubMed

Different lines of research suggest that the consolidation of emotional memories is influenced by (a) endogenous levels of sex hormones, and (b) individual differences in the capacity to use vivid mental imagery. No studies to date have investigated how these factors may interact to influence declarative emotional memories. This study examined the interacting influence of progesterone and mental imagery strength on emotional memory consolidation. Twenty-four men, 20 women from the low progesterone (follicular) menstrual phase, and 20 women from the high progesterone (mid-luteal) phase of the cycle were assessed using an objective performance-based measure of mental imagery strength, and then shown a series of aversive and neutral images. Half of the images were accompanied by instructions to process sensory features, and the remaining half to process the conceptual characteristics of the images. Two days later, all participants returned for a surprise free recall memory test. The interaction of progesterone and mental imagery strength significantly predicted recall of visually processed, but not verbally processed, negative images. These data suggest that mental imagery strength may be one mechanism underlying the documented association between endogenous progesterone and enhanced emotional memory performance in the literature. PMID:25278459

Wassell, Jacinta; Rogers, Sebastian; Felmingam, Kim L; Pearson, Joel; Bryant, Richard A

2015-01-01

272

An example of exceptional practice effects in the verbal domain.  

PubMed

XY, a 20-year-old mnemonist (current world ranking within the top 50) was tested with standard neuropsychological tests. XY recalled all words on all trials on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 15 words) and scored above the 99.9th percentile on the Wechsler Memory Scales R, Logical Memory (WLM, 2 short stories, 25 units per story, 50 units total). XY had not been previously tested with neuropsychological tests, but had trained memory techniques for approximately 8 years. We suggest that training on similar tasks resulted in substantial practice effects in the verbal memory domain, with no measurable transfer effects to the visual domain. In addition to previous findings, we present a practice effect on RAVLT and WLM exceeding previously documented test-retest effects by 2-3 standard deviations. PMID:24460464

Stålhammar, Jacob; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders

2015-04-01

273

Acknowledgments vii Declarations viii  

E-print Network

.1 Measuring the Processor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2 Measuring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 C.2 Results on Distributed Memory, Ethernet (argus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 C.3 Results) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 D.2 Results on Distributed Memory, Ethernet (argus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 D.3 Results

Rand, David

274

Declarative Choreographies for Artifacts  

E-print Network

need a choreography language! Collaborative Business Processes Purchase BankOnline Store Vendor? Who sends messages to whom? O1 P1 P3P2 M1 F1 F2 Order Purchase Payment Fulfillment #12;Need a New Declarative Choreographies for Artifacts 5 who to whom send what at what time #12;Participants are Artifact

California at Santa Barbara, University of

275

Are Working Memory Measures Free of Socioeconomic Influence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. Method: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low-income families, completed tests of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span) and vocabulary (expressive and receptive). A…

Engel, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Santos, Flavia Heloisa; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth

2008-01-01

276

Strategic Processing and Episodic Memory Impairment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the

Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Sabine Wilhelm; Scott L. Rauch; Lee Baer; Tracey Reid; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

277

The Effect of Verbal Contextual Information in Processing Visual Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal contextual information affected photography and nonphotography students' performance on semantic retention tests. For example, correct titles aided the formation and retention of accurate memories, while erroneous titles misled students into remembering meanings that had relatively little to do with what was actually pictured in the…

Koroscik, Judith S.; And Others

1985-01-01

278

Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

2012-01-01

279

[Memory disturbances in schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The recent literature on memory disorders in schizophrenic persons is reanalysed. The present interest in memory disorders as a core symptom of cognitive changes in schizophrenia derives from the fact that brain imaging methods have revealed a reduction of substance in the regions surrounding the lateral ventricles. Given this localisation, schizophrenics should suffer from pronounced memory deficits. The paper addresses (1) the role of memory disorders in an overall view of cognitive losses, (2) the pattern of memory losses (verbal vs non-verbal, short-term memory vs long-term memory, implicit vs explicit memory etc.) and (3) recent investigations based on simultaneous use of imaging procedures (fNMR, PET) and cortical activation during memory tasks. A survey of the literature renders it likely that frontal functions play an essential role in the type of memory deficits found among schizophrenics. Thus, a purely temporal localisation is unlikely. The reduced learning efficiency which accounts for most of the schizophrenics' cognitive problems points to a working memory disturbance. On the basis of these results, a model for the memory disorders of schizophrenics is developed. The model covers recent literature on working memory as well as neural network models of schizophrenic disorders. However, a differential psychopathological symptom and syndrome analysis remains a prerequisite for reducing the great variance of the schizophrenics' performance in memory tasks. The importance of cognitive rehabilitation for sociopsychiatric efforts aimed at re-integrating mentally ill persons should not be underestimated. PMID:8851379

Brand, A; Hildebrandt, H; Scheerer, E

1996-02-01

280

Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

2011-01-01

281

Short-term attention and verbal fluency is decreased in restless legs syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent sleep-related movement disorder with disturbed sleep and quality of life. RLS patients complain about increased daytime sleepiness, but there are only few and inconsistent reports about cognitive functioning in this group. We compared cognitive performance of 23 unmedicated RLS patients to that of 23 healthy controls matched individually for age, gender, and educational level. Cognitive tasks were chosen to assess short-term attention, working memory, learning and memory, verbal fluency, and executive functioning. RLS patients performed worse than controls in the area of attention and verbal fluency, and performance in these tasks was associated with RLS severity, sleep quality, depression scores, and memory. There was no difference for working memory, memory, learning, cognitive flexibility, and abstract reasoning. We conclude that there is evidence for deficits in short-term attention and verbal fluency in RLS patients. PMID:20836134

Fulda, Stephany; Beitinger, Marie E; Reppermund, Simone; Winkelmann, Juliane; Wetter, Thomas C

2010-11-15

282

Autobiographical odor memory.  

PubMed

This overview focuses on autobiographical odor memory and how information evoked by the olfactory sense may differ from memories evoked by visual or verbal information. Three key topics are addressed: (a) age distributions of evoked memories; (b) phenomenological experience; and (c) semantic processing. Current evidence suggests that memories triggered by olfactory information are localized to the first decade of life (< 10 years) rather than to young adulthood (10-30 years) which is the typical finding for memories evoked by verbal and visual information. Further, empirical evidence indicates that odor evoked memories are more emotional, associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories evoked by other sensory cues. Finally, previous observations of a significant impact of semantic influences on olfactory processing may also be generalized to retrieval of odor evoked autobiographical information. Specifically, both the age distribution and phenomenological qualities are affected by explicit knowledge of the odor cue. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings indicates that personal memories evoked by olfactory information are different from memories evoked by verbal or visual information. PMID:19686154

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan

2009-07-01

283

Udaipur Lunar Declaration 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report to COSPAR the "Udaipur Declaration" from the participants of Sixth ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (ICEUM6, 22-26 November 2004). Further information can be found on the ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg and publications in the Journal of Earth System Science [Bhandari, N. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon 22-26 November 2004, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114(6), 573-841, 2005].

Foing, B. H.; Bhandari, N.; Goswami, J. N.; Iceum6 Participants

2008-07-01

284

Declarative Visualization Queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not necessarily entirely exposed to scientists writing visualization queries, facilitates the automated construction of visualization pipelines. VisKo queries have been successfully used in support of visualization scenarios from Earth Science domains including: velocity model isosurfaces, gravity data raster, and contour map renderings. Our synergistic environment provided by our CYBER-ShARE initiative at the University of Texas at El Paso has allowed us to work closely with Earth Science experts that have both provided us our test data as well as validation as to whether the execution of VisKo queries are returning visualizations that can be used for data analysis. Additionally, we have employed VisKo queries to support visualization scenarios associated with Giovanni, an online platform for data analysis developed by NASA GES DISC. VisKo-enhanced visualizations included time series plotting of aerosol data as well as contour and raster map generation of gridded brightness-temperature data.

Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

2011-12-01

285

The Development of Young Children's Memory Strategies: First Findings from the Wurzburg Longitudinal Memory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the first findings of the Wurzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbal memory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6-and-1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort--recall, text recall,…

Schneider, Wolfgang; Kron, Veronika; Hunnerkopf, Michael; Krajewski, Kristin

2004-01-01

286

Experimental manipulation of verbal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted in an investigation of the effect of reinforcement on verbal behavior. In the first, it was noted that there were successive increments in a reinforced verbal response, while in the second, which was concerned with the extinction of this response, only that group of Ss which during extinction had another response reinforced extinguished the original response.

Bertram D. Cohen; Harry I. Kalish; John R. Thurston; Edwin Cohen

1954-01-01

287

Meaning: A Verbal Behavior Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to…

Lowenkron, Barry

2004-01-01

288

Verbal Regulation of Motivational States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The motivational function exerted by verbal antecedents has been extensively approached from a theoretical perspective and within the direct conditioning paradigm. However, there is little research concerning the alteration of the motivational function via verbal means. The current study presents 2 consecutive experiments in which the role of the…

Valdivia, Sonsoles; Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco J.

2006-01-01

289

Phonetic recalibration does not depend on working memory.  

PubMed

Listeners use lipread information to adjust the phonetic boundary between two speech categories (phonetic recalibration, Bertelson et al. 2003). Here, we examined phonetic recalibration while listeners were engaged in a visuospatial or verbal memory working memory task under different memory load conditions. Phonetic recalibration was--like selective speech adaptation--not affected by a concurrent verbal or visuospatial memory task. This result indicates that phonetic recalibration is a low-level process not critically depending on processes used in verbal- or visuospatial working memory. PMID:20437168

Baart, Martijn; Vroomen, Jean

2010-06-01

290

Major Declaration and Academic Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An entering university class (N=2,391) was observed across five semesters to study differences in motivational factors (adjusted for differences in talent) between students who declared majors and those who did not. Results indicated that the longer a student waited to declare a major, the lower were the motivation indicators. (Author)

Chase, Clinton I.; Keene, John M.

1981-01-01

291

Differential Effect of an Anticholinergic Antidepressant on Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered critical to the consolidation of procedural memory – the memory of skills and habits. Many antidepressants strongly suppress REM sleep, however, and procedural memory consolidation has been shown to be impaired in depressed patients on antidepressant therapy. As a result, it is important to determine whether antidepressive therapy can lead to amnestic impairment. We thus investigated the effects of the anticholinergic antidepressant amitriptyline on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five healthy men (mean age: 26.8 ± 5.6 y). Interventions: 75 mg amitriptyline versus placebo. Measurements/Results: To test memory consolidation, a visual discrimination task, a finger-tapping task, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were performed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Our findings show that amitriptyline profoundly suppressed REM sleep and impaired perceptual skill learning, but not motor skill or declarative learning. Conclusions: Our study is the first to demonstrate that an antidepressant can affect procedural memory consolidation in healthy subjects. Moreover, considering the results of a recent study, in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were shown not to impair procedural memory consolidation, our findings suggest that procedural memory consolidation is not facilitated by the characteristics of REM sleep captured by visual sleep scoring, but rather by the high cholinergic tone associated with REM sleep. Our study contributes to the understanding of potentially undesirable behavioral effects of amitriptyline. Citation: Goerke M, Cohrs S, Rodenbeck A, Kunz D. Differential effect of an anticholinergic antidepressant on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. SLEEP 2014;37(5):977-985. PMID:24790277

Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter

2014-01-01

292

Short-term memory in Down syndrome: Applying the working memory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is divided into three sections. The fi rst reviews the evidence for a verbal short-term memory defi cit in Down syndrome. Existing research suggests that short-term memory for verbal information tends to be impaired in Down syndrome, in contrast to short-term memory for visual and spatial material. In addition, problems of hearing or speech do not appear to

Christopher Jarrold; Alan D. Baddeley

2001-01-01

293

Storage of Features, Conjunctions, and Objects in Visual Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory can be divided into separate subsystems for verbal and visual information. Although the verbal system has been well characterized, the storage capacity of visual working memory has not yet been established for simple features or for conjunctions of features. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to retain information about only 3–4 colors or orientations in visual working

Edward K. Vogel; Geoffrey F. Woodman; Steven J. Luck

2001-01-01

294

Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

2012-01-01

295

Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

Henry, Lucy

2008-01-01

296

Effects of Anxiety on Memory Storage and Updating in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between trait anxiety and memory functioning in young children was investigated. Two studies were conducted, using tasks tapping verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (Study 1) and working memory (Study 2) in preschoolers. On the verbal storage tasks, there was a detrimental effect of anxiety on processing efficiency…

Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

2011-01-01

297

Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

2011-01-01

298

Verbal play as an interactional discourse resource in early stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease as part of a broader programme of research on language-and-memory-in-use.Aims: To

Samantha Shune; Melissa C. Duff

2012-01-01

299

Analysis of Mean Learning of Normal Participants on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the mean performance of 58 groups of normal adults and children on the free-recall trials of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test shows that the mean auditory-verbal learning of each group is described by the function R1+Sln(t), where R1 is a measure of the mean immediate memory span, S is the slope of the mean logarithmic learning…

Poreh, Amir

2005-01-01

300

VERBAL AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN DELINQUENT BOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 STUDIES USED A LABORATORY MEASURE OF VERBAL AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN WHICH BOYS COMPETED IN PAIRS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER IN ASSEMBLING A FORMBOARD. IN STUDY I, 80 DELINQUENTS WERE SUBJECTED TO INTENSE OR MILD VERBAL ATTACK BY A DELINQUENT ACCOMPLICE. INTENSE VERBAL AGGRESSION LED TO MORE RETALIATORY VERBAL AGGRESSION THAN DID MILD DISTRACTION. IN STUDY II, 128 DELINQUENTS COMPETED AGAINST

DONALD L. MOSHER; ROWE L. MORTIMER; MARTIN GREBEL

1968-01-01

301

A Strategically Timed Verbal Task Improves Performance and Neurophysiological Alertness During Fatiguing Drives  

E-print Network

task condition. Task Billboard Recall (%) No Verbal 64.3 (12.1) Late Verbal 64.3 (20.5) Continuous Verbal 34.3 (22.5) Radio Show 48.6 (18.1) Fatigued driving 29 Figure 1. SDLP (standard deviation of lane position in meters..., 1999). These tasks are cognitively complex, requiring memory, spatial, or linguistic Fatigued driving 5 operations to perform. Though they have been shown to be effective at improving driver alertness, the question remains what the minimum...

Atchley, Paul; Chan, Mark; Gregersen, Sabrina

2013-08-06

302

Individual Differences in Verbal Fluency  

E-print Network

Young adults, healthy older adults, adults with Parkinson's disease and adults with Alzheimer's disease were given a battery of cognitive tests and a series of verbal fluency tasks including tests of phonetic fluency, ...

Rozek, Ellen Kathryn

2009-07-13

303

Verbal mistreatment of the elderly.  

PubMed

Elder mistreatment is expected to rise with the aging of the American population. To date, the association between specific forms of mistreatment and decreased quality of life is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between verbal mistreatment among elderly individuals and depression and quality of life. A sample of 142 older adults (40% male) aged 65 or over was enrolled from a large medical practice and academic dental practice, mean (SD) age = 74.88 (6.98) years. Thirty-eight percent of the sample reported verbal mistreatment. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and depression, verbal mistreatment was a significant predictor of social functioning (r = -.28, p < .001), mental health (r = -.25, p < .001), and role limitations OR = 3.02, 95% CI [1.34-6.77]. The present findings highlight the prevalence of verbal mistreatment of elderly individuals. PMID:24910894

Fulmer, Terry; Rodgers, Rachel F; Pelger, Allison

2014-01-01

304

Differences between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning.  

PubMed

New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above - 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873

Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

2013-10-01

305

Glucose and memory: fractionation of enhancement effects?  

PubMed

Recent research findings indicate that glucose administration enhances some aspects of cognitive functioning. To date, those studies which have investigated the effects of glucose on memory in human participants have concentrated on its apparent ability to attenuate memory impairment. Relatively little research has been done in humans investigating the effects of glucose on memory performance in young healthy participants in whom no memory deficits exist. Moreover, the work which has been conducted in this population has produced somewhat equivocal findings. In this study, after overnight fasting the influence of a 25 g oral dosage of glucose on a range of measures of memory performance was investigated in healthy young female participants. Two control treatments (saccharin and water) were also administered. There was a significant glucose facilitation effect upon performance of long-term verbal free and cued recall tasks which did not vary with test delay. Performance on these free and cued verbal recall measures correlated significantly with blood glucose levels across all participants. No glucose-related facilitation was observed on either a test of short-term verbal memory (forwards/backwards digit recall) or a test of long-term non-verbal memory (complex figure reproduction). However, the significant glucose-related effects observed with long-term free and cued recall remained after controlling for participants' differential baseline blood glucose levels and individual levels of immediate memory performance. Therefore, memory improvement after glucose ingestion was not merely a consequence of lower baseline blood glucose or lower immediate memory performance in the glucose treatment group. These findings indicate that there may be some fractionation in the memory facilitation effects of glucose: the memory enhancing effect of glucose administration in healthy young adults may be greatest on tests of long-term verbal recall. The results suggest that glucose may enhance retention in and/or retrieval from long-term verbal memory. PMID:9683004

Foster, J K; Lidder, P G; Sünram, S I

1998-06-01

306

United Nations Millennium Declaration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

2000-01-01

307

Polish Declarations Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The relationship between Poland and the United States has existed for several centuries, as early as the Revolutionary War some of the key figures were great Polish military heroes, such as Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Continuing and strengthening the relationship between these two countries over the years are the many Poles who have immigrated to the United States. Recently, the Library of Congress digitized one of the most interesting (and little-known) documents in their collection, the Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States. The 111-volume collection was given to President Calvin Coolidge in 1926 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of US independence. These ornately decorated volumes were signed over an eight-month period by nearly one-sixth of Poland's population in 1926, totaling close to 5.5 million signatures. The Library of Congress has digitized the first eleven volumes, and placed them online here for consideration by genealogists, historians, and other interested parties. The first several volumes contain the signatures of government officials, artists (including full-size works of art), and signatures from three institutions of higher learning. Visitors can search the contents by keyword, geographic locations, and by title. Overall, this is a rather remarkable collection, and one that will merit several visits.

2005-01-01

308

The Development of Brain Systems Associated with Successful Memory Retrieval of Scenes  

E-print Network

Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful ...

Ofen, Noa

309

It Is Time to Take Memory Training Seriously  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than 25 years people have known that children and adults with Down syndrome have a specific impairments in working memory. Within the working memory system, they have particular difficulty with the verbal short-term memory part of the system. However, memory training may become more popular as recent work with both children with Down…

Buckley, Sue

2008-01-01

310

Improving Memory Span in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by impaired memory span, particularly auditory verbal memory span. Memory span is linked developmentally to several language capabilities, and may be a basic capacity that enables language learning. If children with DS had better memory span, they might benefit more from language intervention. The…

Conners, F. A.; Rosenquist, C. J.; Arnett, L.; Moore, M. S.; Hume, L. E.

2008-01-01

311

Factor analysis of the WAIS and wechsler memory scale: An analysis of the construct validity of the wechsler memory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAIS and Wechsler Memory Scale subtest scores of 256 neurologic and nonneurologic subjects were factor analyzed. The results supported the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale as a measure of verbal learning and memory, attention and concentration, and orientation. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the Visual Reproduction subtest as a measure of visual memory. Suggestions are offered

Glenn J. Larrabee; Robert L. Kane; John R. Schuck

1983-01-01

312

Recognition Memory, Self-Other Source Memory, and Theory-of-Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and…

Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

2009-01-01

313

Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia Larry R. Squire1,2,3,4* and Stuart M. Zola1,2,3  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia Larry R. Squire1,2,3,4* and Stuart M. Zola 4Department of Psychology, University of California, La Jolla, California ABSTRACT: Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how

Squire, Larry R.

314

Impaired memory for faces and social scenes in autism: clinical implications of memory dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical memory test, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), was used to study the auditory and visual memory of 29 high-functioning adults with autism and 34 group-matched normal controls. The individuals with autism performed as well as the controls on immediate and delayed memory for word pairs and stories and on a verbal working memory task. The autism group was

Diane L. Williams; Gerald Goldstein; Nancy J. Minshew

2005-01-01

315

Brain lesion and memory functioning: Short-term memory deficit is independent of lesion location  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the effects of patterns of brain lesions from penetrating head injuries on memory performance in participants\\u000a of the Vietnam Head Injury Study (Grafman et al., 1988). Classes of lesion patterns were determined by mixture modeling (L.\\u000a K. Muthén & B. O. Muthén, 1998–2004). Memory performance was assessed for short-term memory (STM), semantic memory, verbal\\u000a episodic memory, and visual

Carmi Schooler; Leslie J. Caplan; Andrew J. Revell; Andres M. Salazar; Jordan Grafman

2008-01-01

316

48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration...DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.203...

2010-10-01

317

Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD. PMID:10674806

Savage, C R; Deckersbach, T; Wilhelm, S; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Reid, T; Jenike, M A

2000-01-01

318

Structure and pragmatics of a self-theory of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight hundred ninety-three students completed statements from a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of their memory\\u000a abilities. Twenty-nine memory domains and experiences, such as memory for smells or memory for names, were distributed across\\u000a 60 statements in the questionnaire. A factor analysis yielded three meaningful factors: (1) a verbal memory factor, which\\u000a included memory for names, trivia, and words; (2)a personal

Jerome R. Sehulster

1981-01-01

319

Meaning: A verbal behavior account  

PubMed Central

Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to their comprehension of the meanings of novel words, sentences and propositions. In response to this perceived deficiency, the notion of joint control is presented here. Joint control occurs when a verbal-operant topography, currently evoked by one stimulus, is additionally (i.e., jointly) evoked by a second stimulus. This event of joint stimulus control then sets the occasion for a response. This simple mechanism is shown here to have exceedingly broad explanatory properties: providing a coherent and rigorously behavioral account of various aspects of language ranging from meaning, reference and comprehension, to the development of abstraction in children's speech. PMID:22477291

Lowenkron, Barry

2004-01-01

320

Meaning: A verbal behavior account.  

PubMed

Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to their comprehension of the meanings of novel words, sentences and propositions. In response to this perceived deficiency, the notion of joint control is presented here. Joint control occurs when a verbal-operant topography, currently evoked by one stimulus, is additionally (i.e., jointly) evoked by a second stimulus. This event of joint stimulus control then sets the occasion for a response. This simple mechanism is shown here to have exceedingly broad explanatory properties: providing a coherent and rigorously behavioral account of various aspects of language ranging from meaning, reference and comprehension, to the development of abstraction in children's speech. PMID:22477291

Lowenkron, Barry

2004-01-01

321

Verbal behavior: The other reviews  

PubMed Central

The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

Knapp, Terry J.

1992-01-01

322

Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior.  

PubMed

Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R

2006-01-01

323

Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

2006-01-01

324

Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473

Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

2010-01-01

325

Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

1998-01-01

326

Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functions in temporal lobe epilepsy and to determine whether preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging may predict memory changes following anterior temporal lobe resection. We studied 72 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (41 left) and 20 healthy controls. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for pictures, words and faces was used testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Fifty-four patients subsequently underwent left (29) or right (25) anterior temporal lobe resection. Verbal and design learning were assessed before and 4 months after surgery. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that in left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left hippocampal activation for word encoding correlated with better verbal memory. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right hippocampal activation for face encoding correlated with better visual memory. In left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left than right anterior hippocampal activation on word encoding correlated with greater verbal memory decline after left anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater left than right posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better postoperative verbal memory outcome. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right than left anterior hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation on face encoding predicted greater visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater right than left posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better visual memory outcome. Stepwise linear regression identified asymmetry of activation for encoding words and faces in the ipsilateral anterior medial temporal lobe as strongest predictors for postoperative verbal and visual memory decline. Activation asymmetry, language lateralization and performance on preoperative neuropsychological tests predicted clinically significant verbal memory decline in all patients who underwent left anterior temporal lobe resection, but were less able to predict visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging was the strongest predictor of verbal and visual memory decline following anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperatively, verbal and visual memory function utilized the damaged, ipsilateral hippocampus and also the contralateral hippocampus. Memory function in the ipsilateral posterior hippocampus may contribute to better preservation of memory after surgery. PMID:20157009

Bonelli, Silvia B.; Powell, Robert H. W.; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Samson, Rebecca S.; Symms, Mark R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

2010-01-01

327

Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces  

PubMed Central

Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or inverted and a low- or high-load concurrent verbal WM task was administered to suppress contribution from verbal WM. Even with a high verbal memory load, visual WM performance was significantly better and capacity estimated as significantly greater for famous versus unfamiliar faces. Face inversion abolished this effect. Thus, neither strategic, explicit support from verbal WM nor low-level feature processing easily accounts for the observed benefit of high familiarity for visual WM. These results demonstrate that storage of items in visual WM can be enhanced if robust visual representations of them already exist in long-term memory. PMID:18505323

Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

2014-01-01

328

Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains  

PubMed Central

Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

2014-01-01

329

The effect of visual and verbal modes of presentation on children's retention of images and words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tested the hypothesis that the use of two modes of presenting information to children has an additive memory effect for the retention of both images and words. Subjects were 22 first-grade and 22 fourth-grade children randomly assigned to visual and visual-verbal treatment groups. The visual-verbal group heard a description while observing an object; the visual group observed the same object but did not hear a description. Children were tested individually immediately after presentation of stimuli and two weeks later. They were asked to represent the information recalled through a drawing and an oral verbal description. In general, results supported the hypothesis and indicated, in addition, that children represent more information in iconic (pictorial) form than in symbolic (verbal) form. Strategies for using these results to enhance science learning at the elementary school level are discussed.

Vasu, Ellen Storey; Howe, Ann C.

330

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal be-  

E-print Network

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior 59 In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal be- havior According to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, the mand and the tact are functionally indepen and practical implications. Skin- ner defined the mand as a verbal operant in which the response is controlled

Cooper, Brenton G.

331

The Evolution of Verbal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theory has always been plagued by scantiness of evidence. We see the products of ev olution but not much of the process. Most of the story happened long ago, and little remains of the early stages. Especially few traces of behavior remain; only recently were there artefacts that could endure. Verbal behavior left no artifacts until the appearence of

B. F. Skinner

1986-01-01

332

Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015

Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

1989-01-01

333

Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia. Fischman, and Stephan Heckers Background: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate poor verbal memory activ- ity in healthy adults and patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Twelve patients

Schacter, Daniel

334

37 CFR 41.203 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Patent Interferences § 41.203 Declaration...Interfering subject matter. An interference exists if the subject matter...patent judge declares the patent interference on behalf of the Director....

2014-07-01

335

Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

2006-01-01

336

Talking Smack: Verbal Aggression in Professional Wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents the results of a content analysis of the verbal aggression found in 36 hours of televised professional wrestling. The coding scheme was adapted from the National Television Violence Study and past research on television verbal aggression. Results show that an abundance of verbal aggression occurs in televised professional wrestling, with swearing, competence attacks, and character attacks

Ron Tamborini; Rebecca M. Chory; Ken Lachlan; David Westerman; Paul Skalski

2008-01-01

337

Practicum Students' Verbal Responses to Different Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselor trainees' verbal behavior in two initial interview settings, one each with an active and passive client, was significantly different. Verbal behavior was viewed from two perspectives; along the dimension of broad classification by categories of behavior and along the dimension of 3-6 second units of verbal interaction. (Author)

Palisi, Anthony T.; Ruzicka, Mary F.

1974-01-01

338

Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.  

PubMed

The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of semantic associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the semantic categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a semantic category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use semantic encoding. Using a semantic cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning. PMID:24611440

Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

2015-06-01

339

[Helsinki Declaration--next version].  

PubMed

Authors of the new version of The Helsinki Declaration reorganized the document, and for the first time, included the issue of compensation and treatment for participants who are harmed as a result of participating in research, they provided unified and better protection for vulnerable groups, and more precisely described requirements for post-study arrangements and the use of placebos. Despite this, more consideration should be taken regarding research on human biological material and data, because the new version of The Helsinki Declaration still does not provide an acceptable level of protection for the rights and interests of donors of human biological materials. Although the new version of The Helsinki Declaration confirmed that when using identifiable human materials and data in medical research, informed consent must be obtained for its use and reuse, the obligation for the assessment of each project of medical research using human biological materials (identifiable and unidentifiable) by Research Ethics Committees was not implemented. Anonymisation is not an ethically neutral procedure. Moreover, the Helsinki Declaration does not explain the meaning of the term "anonymisation," which means that the criteria for the procedure might be provided by local stakeholders and because of this, these criteria may push into ethically unacceptable ranges. PMID:24964503

Czarkowski, Marek

2014-05-01

340

Integrating Clinical Assessment With Cognitive Neuroscience: Construct Validation of the California Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing criticism of intellectual and neuropsychological assessment instruments is that they measure global achievement only and, thus, fail to quantify the different strategies, processes, and errors an examinee may display that reflect how a given task is solved. In this study, we psychometrically explored the validity of a new clinical test of verbal memory that incorporates constructs from normal

Dean C. Delis; John Freeland; Joel H. Kramer; Edith Kaplan

1988-01-01

341

How Verbal and Spatial Manipulation Networks Contribute to Calculation: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and…

Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Turbelin, Marie-Renee; Andersson, Frederic; Vigneau, Mathieu; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

2008-01-01

342

Verbal Recall of Auditory and Visual Signals by Normal and Deficient Reading Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal recall of bisensory memory tasks was compared among 48 9- to 12-year old boys in three groups: normal readers, primary deficit readers, and secondary deficit readers. Auditory and visual stimulus pairs composed of digits, which incorporated variations of intersensory and intrasensory conditions were administered to Ss through a Bell and…

Levine, Maureen Julianne

343

Test-Retest Reliability of Component Process Variables Within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging data support the construct validity of component process variables of learning and memory within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R; Brandt & Benedict, 2001); however, the test-retest reliabilities of such measures are heretofore largely unknown. This study reveals generally modest-to-low 1-year test-retest stability for…

Woods, Steven Paul; Scott, J. Cobb; Conover, Emily; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

2005-01-01

344

Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

PAPER Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer subsequently converted to probable Alzheimer's disease. The congruous word repetition effect in the group to the memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and could have value in predicting incipient Alzheimer

Kutas, Marta

345

A compiler framework for restructuring data declarations to enhance cache and TLB effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that memory access performance can be improved by restructuring data declarations, using simple transformations such as array dimension padding and inter-array padding (array alignment) to reduce the number of misses in the cache and TLB (translation lookaside buffer). These transformations can be applied to both static and dynamic array variables. In this paper, we provide a

David F. Bacon; Jyh-Herng Chow; Dz-ching R. Ju; Kalyan Muthukumar; Vivek Sarkar

1994-01-01

346

Memory and Neuropsychology in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses in both short-term and long-term memory in Down syndrome, and the implications of these patterns for both other aspects of cognitive development and underlying neural pathology. There is clear evidence that Down syndrome is associated with particularly poor verbal short-term memory performance, and…

Jarrold, Christopher; Nadel, Lynn; Vicari, Stefano

2009-01-01

347

[Therapists' verbal behavior category system].  

PubMed

This paper presents the theoretical and methodological basis of a therapist's verbal behavior category system that allows us to study clinical psychologists' language from a functional-analytic framework and with a rigorous observation method. The procedure to develop the coding system is explained in detail from a very early stage of exploratory observation, to the systematic observation through the use of The Observer XT software. An analysis of intra- and inter-rater reliability using the kappa coefficient and taking into account the factors that affect the values of Cohen's index was carried out. Results show high levels of observer accuracy (between approximately 87% and 93%) that justify the application of this category system to study therapists' verbal behavior in session. PMID:18940057

Froján Parga, María Xesús; Montaño Fidalgo, Montserrat; Calero Elvira, Ana; García Soler, Alvaro; Garzón Fernández, Alvaro; Ruiz Sancho, Elena María

2008-11-01

348

Environments organize the verbal brain.  

PubMed

FOXP2 expression in the evolution of language derives from its role in allowing vocal articulation that is sensitive to its consequences. The discrete verbal discourse it allows must have evolved recently relative to affective features of vocal behavior such as tone of voice. Because all organ systems must have evolved in the service of behavior, attention is given to ways in which environments may have driven brain organization. PMID:25514940

Catania, A Charles

2014-12-01

349

The Development and Effectiveness of Memory Strategies in Kindergarten and Elementary School: Findings from the Wurzburg and Gottingen Longitudinal Memory Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings of the Wurzburg and Gottingen Longitudinal Memory Studies, which focused on children's verbal memory development. The studies started with 102 (German) kindergarten children in Wurzburg and 86 second-graders in Gottingen who were tested on various memory measures, including sort-recall, memory capacity, metamemory,…

Kron-Sperl, Veronica; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2008-01-01

350

A Cortical Mechanism for Binding in Visual Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luck and Vogel (1997) showed that the storage capacity of visual working memory is about four objects and that this capacity does not depend on the number of features making up the objects. Thus, visual working memory seems to process integrated objects rather than individual features, just as verbal working memory handles higher-order chunks instead of individual features or letters.

Antonino Raffone; Gezinus Wolters

2001-01-01

351

Electrical Signals of Memory and of the Awareness  

E-print Network

of the brain in action, obtained while people perform feats of memory in laboratory settings, have been used accompany re- trieval, and disorders of memory that can result from brain damage. KEYWORDS--declarative memory; priming; event-related poten- tials; ERPs; amnesia What happens in your brain to allow you

Reber, Paul J.

352

Recognition Memory, Self-Other Source Memory, and Theory-of-Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition\\u000a and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source\\u000a memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and without ASD showed an “enactment\\u000a effect”, demonstrating significantly better recognition and source memory for

Sophie E. Lind; Dermot M. Bowler

2009-01-01

353

Effect of training different classes of verbal behavior to decrease aberrant verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal behavior. Similar to a previous study (Arntzen, Ro Tonnessen, & Brouwer, 2006), the results of the current study suggested that the procedure helped to establish a repertoire of appropriate functional vocal verbal behavior in the participant. Overall, the results suggested the effectiveness of an intervention based on training various classes of verbal behavior in decreasing aberrant verbal behavior. PMID:22754112

Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

2012-01-01

354

Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled “psychotic” is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal behavior. Similar to a previous study (Arntzen, Ro Tonnessen, & Brouwer, 2006), the results of the current study suggested that the procedure helped to establish a repertoire of appropriate functional vocal verbal behavior in the participant. Overall, the results suggested the effectiveness of an intervention based on training various classes of verbal behavior in decreasing aberrant verbal behavior. PMID:22754112

Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

2012-01-01

355

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-12-01

356

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-01-01

357

Attentional demands and recall of verbal and color information in action events.  

PubMed

Two experiments addressed the influence of secondary task performance at encoding on recall of different features of subject-performed tasks (SPTs) involving objects (e.g., turn the wallet). In Experiment 1, memory for verbs and colors of objects was assessed, with object names serving as cues. In Experiment 2, object and color memory were assessed, with verbs serving as cues. Results from both experiments indicated a greater deterioration of memory performance under divided attention for verbal features than for colors. In addition, intention to remember did not affect performance for any feature in either experiment. The overall pattern of outcome is discussed relative to the view that encoding of verbal features of SPTs is more attention-demanding than encoding of physical task features, such as color. PMID:8378754

Bäckman, L; Nilsson, L G; Nourp, R K

1993-09-01

358

Enhanced memory ability: Insights from synaesthesia.  

PubMed

People with synaesthesia show an enhanced memory relative to demographically matched controls. The most obvious explanation for this is that the 'extra' perceptual experiences lead to richer encoding and retrieval opportunities of stimuli which induce synaesthesia (typically verbal stimuli). Although there is some evidence for this, it is unlikely to be the whole explanation. For instance, not all stimuli which trigger synaesthesia are better remembered (e.g., digit span) and some stimuli which do not trigger synaesthesia are better remembered. In fact, synaesthetes tend to have better visual memory than verbal memory. We suggest that enhanced memory in synaesthesia is linked to wider changes in cognitive systems at the interface of perception and memory and link this to recent findings in the neuroscience of memory. PMID:22634573

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat; Ward, Jamie

2012-09-01

359

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

360

Visual Working Memory Is Impaired when the Medial Temporal Lobe Is Damaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

The canonical description of the role of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) in memory is that short-term forms of memory (e.g., working memory [WM]) are spared when the MTL is damaged, but longer term forms of memory are impaired. Tests used to assess this have typically had a heavy verbal component, potentially allowing explicit rehearsal strategies to maintain the WM

Ingrid R. Olson; Katherine Sledge Moore; Marianna Stark; Anjan Chatterjee

2006-01-01

361

Neuropsychological Components of Intellectual Disability: The Contributions of Immediate, Working, and Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Efficient memory functions are important to the development of cognitive and functional skills, allowing individuals to manipulate and store information. Theories of memory have suggested the presence of domain-specific (i.e. verbal and spatial) and general processing mechanisms across memory domains, including memory functions…

Edgin, Jamie O.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

2010-01-01

362

False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2008-01-01

363

48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

2010-10-01

364

Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

Zhukov, Katie

2013-01-01

365

Visual and Verbal ReasoningMethods Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ)  

E-print Network

Visual and Verbal ReasoningMethods Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ): (revised version from Kirby et al., 1988) · Verbalizer Dimension (10 items) - I prefer to read instructions about how to do something rather than have someone show me. · Visualizer Dimension (10 items) - I often use diagrams

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

366

Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal

Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

2012-01-01

367

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions prior to completion of this form)  

E-print Network

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions_____ of _____ ATTACHMENT 3.4 RFP-13-801 Attachment 3.4, Bidder Declaration 0% 0% 0% #12;BIDDER DECLARATION Instructions All prime bidders (the firm submitting the bid) must complete the Bidder Declaration. 1.a. Identify all

368

Action, Verbal Response and Spatial Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that perception of distance, orientation and size can be dissociated from action tasks. The action system seems to possess more veridical, unbiased information than the perceptual/verbal system. The current study examines the nature of the distinction between action and verbal responses in a spatial reasoning task. Participants…

Wang, Ranxiao Frances

2004-01-01

369

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

2010-01-01

370

The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

2011-01-01

371

Studies of the conditioning of verbal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one articles reporting studies of the conditioning of verbal behavior were reviewed in terms of setting, verbal responses, reinforcement stimuli, populations, controls, length of sessions, relationships to personality variables, results, and awareness. The majority of the studies report positive results with the use of generalized conditioned reinforcers such as good and mmm-hmmm. The studies reviewed demonstrate that general principles of

Leonard Krasner

1958-01-01

372

Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents  

E-print Network

Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults With Down Syndrome of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those differences in their expressive language profiles. KEY WORDS: Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, narrative

Nguyen, Danh

373

Using Concurrent Verbalization to Measure Math Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…

Lambeth, Cathryn Colley

2012-01-01

374

VERBAL CONSTRAINT MANAGEMENT FOR SHAPE CONCEPTUALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on natural communication in shape modeling show that both direct manipulation of geometry and the expression of constraints are essential. Current solutions on constraint-based modeling do not support the verbal management of constraints. This paper presents a scheme to recognize and manage geometry-related constraints verbally. The execution and interpretation of constraint management actions is done based on a constraint

Jouke Verlinden; Imre Horváth; György Kuczogi

2002-01-01

375

Gaze Patterns, Verbal Insult and Instrumental Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of three gaze patterns-staring, normal looking, glancing and avoiding eye contact-and verbal insult on instrumental aggression. It was hypothesized that the experimental manipulation of verbal insult will: (1) not affect shock intensity or duration (2) not increase the subjects self-reported hostility, and (3)…

Kotsch, William E.

376

Verbal analysis of doctor-patient communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscopic analysis of doctor-patient communication in the general practitioner's surgery is presented. Verbatim transcripts of 85 medical interviews, audiotaped in a natural situation were analysed. The effects of type of complaint, patient gender and physician gender on the process of verbal communication were assessed. This study focused upon the relational aspects of communication, using Stiles' Verbal Response Mode coding

Ludwien Meeuwesen; Cas Schaap; Cees van der Staak

1991-01-01

377

A Taxonomy-Based Verbal Performance Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Verbal Reaction Behavior Log (VRBL) is an instrument used for identification of teacher and pupil verbal behavior. The purposes for its use are (a) an increase in pupil-teacher interaction, (b) an enhancement of indirect and pupil-centered instruction, (c) focus of attention on the logic of classroom discourse, and (d) increased use of…

Mork, Gordon M. A.

378

Verbal Interference Suppresses Exact Numerical Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…

Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

2012-01-01

379

Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and high-income urban developmental contexts. Both low-income rural and low-income urban children showed working memory deficits compared with their high-income counterparts, but their deficits were distinct. Low-income urban children exhibited symmetrical verbal and visuospatial working memory deficits compared with their high-income urban counterparts. Meanwhile, low-income rural children exhibited asymmetrical deficits when compared with their high-income rural counterparts, with more extreme visuospatial working memory deficits than verbal working memory deficits. These results suggest that different types of poverty are associated with different working memory abilities.

Tine, Michele

2014-01-01

380

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2013-07-01

381

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2011-07-01

382

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2014-07-01

383

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2010-07-01

384

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2012-07-01

385

78 FR 27984 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2013-05-13

386

76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2011-01-13

387

76 FR 13655 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2011-03-14

388

78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2013-03-08

389

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2013-10-01

390

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2011-10-01

391

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2012-10-01

392

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2014-10-01

393

49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374.405 Section...Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor...

2010-10-01

394

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

Guerin, Bernard

1994-01-01

395

DECLARATION FORM Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

DECLARATION FORM Page 1 of 2 Global Poverty and Practice Minor Declaration of Intent Submit to GPP many different kinds of work. These different "sectors" include public health, job development, housing of location, where do you hope to engage in a practice? Why is this location of interest to you? 3) Please

Zakhor, Avideh

396

Gift Aid Declaration Form Your details: Name:________________________________________________________________  

E-print Network

Gift Aid Declaration Form Your details: Name Phone:___________________________Mobile:__________________________ Gift Aid Declaration: If you are a UK taxpayer, every £1 you give with Gift Aid is worth £1.25 to the College, at no extra cost to you. All you

Goldschmidt, Christina

397

Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921

Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

2013-01-01

398

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2010-10-01

399

Sociocultural influences on the development of verbal mediation: Private speech and phonological recoding in Saudi Arabian and British samples.  

PubMed

Cross-national stability in private speech (PS) and short-term memory was investigated in Saudi Arabian (n = 63) and British (n = 58) 4- to 8-year-olds. Assumed differences in child-adult interaction between the 2 nationality groups led to predictions of Gender x Nationality interactions in the development of verbal mediation. British boys used more self-regulatory PS than British girls, whereas there was no such difference for the Saudi group. When age, verbal ability, and social speech were controlled, boys used slightly more self-regulatory PS than girls. Self-regulatory PS was related to children's use of phonological recoding of visually presented material in a short-term memory task, suggesting that PS and phonological recoding represent different facets of a domain-general transition toward verbal mediation in early childhood. PMID:16420122

Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

400

Concurrent Use of Khat and Tobacco is Associated with Verbal Learning and Delayed Recall Deficits  

PubMed Central

Aims The present study assessed whether cigarette smokers who are also regular khat users would demonstrate greater impairments in verbal learning and recall compared to both non-smokers who are khat users and control subjects. Design An independent measures, between-subjects design with two co-variates. Setting An outpatient, university research center in Taiz, Yemen. Participants Subjects were 175 Yemeni college students (90 men, 85 women) ranging in age from 18 to 38. Seventy-Five subjects were self-reported chronic cigarette smokers and khat users, 48 non-smoking subjects were self-reported to be chronic khat users and 52 non-smoking subjects reported no current use or history of khat use. Measurements Verbal learning and verbal memory recall was assessed by subject performance on the Arabic version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Findings There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) observed in RAVLT acquisition learning Trials 2–5 and on delayed recall measures between concurrent khat and cigarette users compared to both the khat only group and the control group of nonusers of khat and cigarettes. On each of these trials, concurrent users recalled fewer words, demonstrating a slowed rate of verbal learning. This same pattern of performance was also seen on delayed recall measures. Khat use alone did not affect immediate or delayed recall of previously learned words. Conclusions Khat users who smoke cigarettes have lower rate of verbal learning and delayed recall of previously learned verbal material than Khat users who do not smoke cigarettes. This may be due to pre-existing differences between these groups of subjects. PMID:23714286

Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

2013-01-01

401

Verbal learning in marijuana users seeking treatment: a comparison between depressed and non-depressed samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Both individuals with marijuana use and depressive disorders exhibit verbal learning and memory decrements. Objectives: This study investigated the interaction between marijuana dependence and depression on learning and memory performance. Methods: The California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II) was administered to depressed (n=71) and non-depressed (n=131) near-daily marijuana users. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured by the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Multivariate analyses of covariance statistics (MANCOVA) were employed to analyze group differences in cognitive performance. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relative associations between marijuana use, depression and CVLT-II performance. Findings from each group were compared to published normative data. Results: Although both groups exhibited decreased CVLT-II performance relative to the test’s normative sample (p<0.05), marijuana-dependent subjects with a depressive disorder did not perform differently than marijuana-dependent subjects without a depressive disorder (p>0.05). Further, poorer CVLT-II performance was modestly associated with increased self-reported daily amount of marijuana use (corrected p<0.002), but was not significantly associated with increased scores on measures of depressive symptoms (corrected p>0.002). Conclusion: These findings suggest an inverse association between marijuana use and verbal learning function, but not between depression and verbal learning function in regular marijuana users. PMID:24918839

Roebke, Patrick V.; Vadhan, Nehal P.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Levin, Frances R.

2014-01-01

402

The Memory Fitness Program: Cognitive Effects of a Healthy Aging Intervention  

PubMed Central

Context Age-related memory decline affects a large proportion of older adults. Cognitive training, physical exercise, and other lifestyle habits may help to minimize self-perception of memory loss and a decline in objective memory performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-week educational program on memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy diet led to improved memory performance in older adults. Design A convenience sample of 115 participants (mean age: 80.9 [SD: 6.0 years]) was recruited from two continuing care retirement communities. The intervention consisted of 60-minute classes held twice weekly with 15–20 participants per class. Testing of both objective and subjective cognitive performance occurred at baseline, preintervention, and postintervention. Objective cognitive measures evaluated changes in five domains: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, retention of verbal information, memory recognition, and verbal fluency. A standardized metamemory instrument assessed four domains of memory self-awareness: frequency and severity of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use. Results The intervention program resulted in significant improvements on objective measures of memory, including recognition of word pairs (t[114] = 3.62, p < 0.001) and retention of verbal information from list learning (t[114] = 2.98, p < 0.01). No improvement was found for verbal fluency. Regarding subjective memory measures, the retrospective functioning score increased significantly following the intervention (t[114] = 4.54, p < 0.0001), indicating perception of a better memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that a 6-week healthy lifestyle program can improve both encoding and recalling of new verbal information, as well as self-perception of memory ability in older adults residing in continuing care retirement communities. PMID:21765343

Miller, Karen J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Gaines, Jean M.; Parrish, John M.; Ercoli, Linda M.; Marx, Katherine; Ronch, Judah; Pilgram, Barbara; Burke, Kasey; Barczak, Nancy; Babcock, Bridget; Small, Gary W.

2014-01-01

403

Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

1981-01-01

404

Exceptional verbal intelligence after hemispherotomy in a child with Rasmussen encephalitis.  

PubMed

We report a longitudinal case study of a left-handed girl who underwent left hemispherotomy at 7 years for Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). Presurgical evaluation showed mild hemiparesis, no visual defect, and light neuropsychological impairment with short-term memory weakness. Language fMRI showed a right hemispheric dominance. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited right hemiplegia and hemianopsia but preserved intellectual capacities. She became seizure-free, and antiepileptic medication was discontinued. Long-term follow-up showed very high verbal intelligence at 11 years of age (VCI of 155) and improvement in working memory as well as language and reading abilities. Furthermore, a significant visuoverbal discrepancy became increasingly pronounced. Thus, early surgical treatment of epilepsy avoided the global cognitive deterioration usually associated with RE. Finally, such a high level of verbal functioning combined with low spatial reasoning with a single hemisphere provides additional information on the neurocognitive profile of children with RE after hemispherotomy. PMID:24471481

Grosmaitre, Catherine; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Dorfmuller, Georg; Rodrigo, Sebastian; Ville, Dorothée; Delalande, Olivier; Bulteau, Christine

2015-04-01

405

Sociocultural Influences on the Development of Verbal Mediation: Private Speech and Phonological Recoding in Saudi Arabian and British Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-national stability in private speech (PS) and short-term memory was investigated in Saudi Arabian (n=63) and British (n=58) 4- to 8-year-olds. Assumed differences in child-adult interaction between the 2 nationality groups led to predictions of Gender ? Nationality interactions in the development of verbal mediation. British boys used more…

Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

406

The effects of verbal and spatial interference in the encoding and retrieval of spatial and nonspatial texts.  

PubMed

The paper investigates the specific roles of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) and verbal working memory (VWM) in encoding and retrieval of information conveyed by spatial and nonspatial texts. In two experiments, a total of 109 undergraduate students-54 in Experiment 1, 55 in Experiment 2-listened to spatial and nonspatial texts while performing a spatial (Experiment 1) or verbal (Experiment 2) concurrent task during either encoding or retrieval. Text memorisation and comprehension were tested by free-recall and sentence-verification tasks. The results show that a concurrent spatial task is detrimental to memory performance for spatial text more than for nonspatial text. In contrast, a concurrent verbal task is equally damaging to memory performance for both spatial and nonspatial texts. Moreover, a spatial task interferes with both encoding and retrieval, in contrast with a verbal task, where the interference effect is active only when the task is performed during encoding. Overall, these findings show the involvement of VSWM in the construction and reactivation of mental models derived from spatial descriptions, and the role played by VWM in construction, but not reactivation, of mental models derived from spatial and nonspatial texts. PMID:16482463

Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana; Meneghetti, Chiara

2007-07-01

407

Using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to Differentiate Alzheimer's Dementia and Behavioural Variant Fronto-Temporal Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with focal lesions, patterns of learning, retrieval, and recognition deficits vary according to site of damage. Because different brain regions are affected by the underlying pathology in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and behavioral variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), one might predict that the two disorders would result in different sorts of memory deficits on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test

Monica Ricci; Suzanne Graef; Carlo Blundo; Laurie A. Miller

2012-01-01

408

Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

2013-01-01

409

The role of sleep in false memory formation Jessica D. Payne a,c,*, Daniel L. Schacter c  

E-print Network

The role of sleep in false memory formation Jessica D. Payne a,c,*, Daniel L. Schacter c , Ruth E evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation (Payne, Ellenbogen, Walker to benefit declarative memory as well (see Marshall & Born, 2007; Payne et al., 2008b for review). Memory

Schacter, Daniel

410

Successful Verbal Retrieval in Elderly Subjects Is Related to Concurrent Hippocampal and Posterior Cingulate Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Memory decline and hippocampal atrophy are two major aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. Using a response-related fMRI design, we investigated the relationship between successful verbal retrieval and concurrent cerebral activation in elderly subjects in different stages of cognitive decline. We chose a correlational over the more traditional categorical approach to increase the power of detecting relevant activations. Methods: Eleven subjects

Reinhard Heun; Katrin Freymann; Michael Erb; Dirk T. Leube; Frank Jessen; Tilo T. Kircher; Wolfgang Grodd

2006-01-01

411

Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

412

Mechanisms of verbal memory impairment in four neurodevelopmental disorders  

E-print Network

Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed examination; Developmental disorders; Brain lesions; Specific language impairment; Williams Syndrome; Down Syndrome 1 disorders: specific language impairment (SLI), Williams Syndrome (WMS), and Down Syndrome (DS). Because

Bellugi, Ursula

413

Inhibition in Verbal Working Memory Revealed by Brain Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many occasions in which humans and other animals must inhibit the production of some behavior or inhibit the processing of some internal representation. Success in inhibitory processing under normal circumstances can be revealed by the fact that certain brain pathologies render inhibitory processing ineffective. These pathologies often have been associated with damage to frontal cortex, including lateral and

John Jonides; Edward E. Smith; Christy Marshuetz; Robert A. Koeppe; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz

1998-01-01

414

Effects of alcohol on verbal processing: An ERP study  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioral studies suggest that alcohol intoxication impairs speed and accuracy of word recognition and categorization, but alcohol’s effects on the brain during verbal cognitive processing have not been adequately understood. Using event-related potentials (ERP) and a word recognition paradigm, this study investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on prelexical, semantic, and mnemonic aspects of verbal processing. Methods Concurrent measures of ERPs and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were obtained in a word repetition priming task and permitted a comparison of the effects of alcohol on the central and autonomic physiological systems. Social drinkers participated in all four cells of the within-subjects balanced placebo design in which effects of alcohol and instructions as to the beverage content (expectancy) were manipulated. The average peak blood alcohol level was raised to 0.045%. Results None of the manipulations affected behavioral performance and expectancy had no effect on any of the measures. In contrast, alcohol ingestion attenuated the temporo-parietal N180 suggesting an impairment in prelexical pattern recognition processes. Alcohol significantly increased the amplitude of N450 and the latency of P580, particularly on trials evoking sympathetic arousal as measured with SCRs. Conclusions Although behavioral measures were unaffected, ERPs showed that a moderately low alcohol dose affected verbal processing during both early, prelexical and late, semantic stages. Alcohol significantly increased the difficulty of semantic access and integration as reflected in larger N450 amplitude and longer P580 latency. This effect was particularly prominent on arousal-related trials, suggesting that alcohol impairs processes that modulate cognitive functioning. The lack of an interaction between the factors of repetition and beverage suggests that a moderately low alcohol dose exerts these effects via the semantic and integration systems rather than via memory processes. PMID:15084899

Marinkovic, Ksenija; Halgren, Eric; Maltzman, Irving

2013-01-01

415

Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.  

PubMed

Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes. PMID:24869438

Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

2014-05-01

416

Memory and executive functions in adolescents with posttreatment Lyme disease.  

PubMed

Although adults with late stage posttreatment Lyme disease often experience difficulties in memory, little is known about the relationship between cognition and Lyme disease in children and adolescents. Twenty-five adolescents with late stage posttreatment Lyme disease (symptoms > 6 months) and 25 participants without Lyme disease (matched on gender, IQ, age, socioeconomic status) were assessed for neuropsychological functioning, depression, school functioning, and predisease academic achievement. The Lyme group had significant deficits in cognition (short-term visual memory, short-term and delayed verbal memory, all forms of recognition memory), as well as worse attendance, grades, and subjective reports of memory problems, without differing in predisease achievement or depression. Deficits in visual memory exceeded deficits in verbal memory-a striking difference from what is reported in adults. These results reveal that adolescents with a history of treated Lyme disease are at risk for long-term problems in cognition and school functioning. PMID:18726742

McAuliffe, Patrick; Brassard, Marla R; Fallon, Brian

2008-01-01

417

Beijing declaration on medical pathophysiology education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (ISP), at its fifth quadrennial conference in Beijing, China, in 2006, adopted a declaration related to pathophysiological teaching and learning issues (APPENDIX). The ISP Declaration is a blueprint document that refers to the present position of pathophysiology in medical education. Pathophysiology is not thought of at all medical universities as an independent course. All medical curricula, however, recognize the necessity and importance of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of disease for medical practice. The ISP Declaration outlines the rationale and didactic advantages of an integrative approach that is critical for the contemporary complexity of biomedical information and methodology.

Zdenko Kovac (University of Zagreb Pathophysiology)

2007-07-27

418

Assisting the Non-Verbal to "Talk"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For availability see EC 091 173. Described are communication aids and equipment for the physically or severely handicapped individual with non-verbal problems, including devices in the following categories: communication boards, electronic boards, a slide system, and typewriters. (IM)

Kolstoe, Betty J.

1976-01-01

419

The functional analysis of problematic verbal behavior.  

PubMed

This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The "problematic" aspects of the verbal behavior differed-the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff. Research in the area of problematic verbal behavior is sparse and warrants further attention from behavior analysts who work in public school settings. This research demonstrates the applicability and relevance of functionally analyzing problematic verbal behavior in public school settings. PMID:22477228

Ewing, Christopher B; Magee, Sandy K; Ellis, Janet

2002-01-01

420

The functional analysis of problematic verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The “problematic” aspects of the verbal behavior differed—the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff. Research in the area of problematic verbal behavior is sparse and warrants further attention from behavior analysts who work in public school settings. This research demonstrates the applicability and relevance of functionally analyzing problematic verbal behavior in public school settings. PMID:22477228

Ewing, Christopher B.; Magee, Sandy K.; Ellis, Janet

2002-01-01

421

Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

Tway, Patricia

1976-01-01

422

Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.  

PubMed

The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment. PMID:24344673

Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

2014-01-01

423

Staffing the empirical analysis of verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Empirical articles in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior were inspected to evaluate the contributions of new and repeat investigators. The journal has attracted a steady stream of new empirical authors from early in its history. In recent years, repeat authors have begun to have a substantial impact on the journal. These outcomes suggest a maturing research community and provide cause for optimism about the future of empirical verbal behavior research. PMID:22477222

Critchfield, Thomas S.

2000-01-01

424

Staffing the empirical analysis of verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Empirical articles in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior were inspected to evaluate the contributions of new and repeat investigators. The journal has attracted a steady stream of new empirical authors from early in its history. In recent years, repeat authors have begun to have a substantial impact on the journal. These outcomes suggest a maturing research community and provide cause for optimism about the future of empirical verbal behavior research. PMID:22477222

Critchfield, T S

2000-01-01

425

Skinner's verbal behavior, Chomsky's review, and mentalism.  

PubMed Central

Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with most aspects of verbal behavior. However, its treatment of the learning of grammatical behavior has been challenged repeatedly (e.g., Chomsky, 1959). The present paper will attempt to show that the learning of grammar and syntax can be dealt with adequately within a behavior-analytic framework. There is no need to adopt mentalist (or cognitivist) positions or to add mentalist elements to behaviorist theories. PMID:2103585

Stemmer, N

1990-01-01

426

Multiple Systems of Spatial Memory: Evidence from Described Scenes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent models in spatial cognition posit that distinct memory systems are responsible for maintaining transient and enduring spatial relations. The authors used perspective-taking performance to assess the presence of these enduring and transient spatial memories for locations encoded through verbal descriptions. Across 3 experiments, spatial…

Avraamides, Marios N.; Kelly, Jonathan W.

2010-01-01

427

Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

1999-01-01

428

Working memory capacity — facets of a cognitive ability construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is differentiated theoretically along two dimensions: contents and functions. The resulting 3×3 matrix was operationalized by 23 tasks sampled from the literature. Data for these tasks from 128 participants were analyzed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Regarding the content facet, spatial working memory was clearly distinct from the other two content categories. A distinction between verbal

Klaus Oberauer; H.-M. Süß; R. Schulze; O. Wilhelm; W. W. Wittmann

2000-01-01

429

Rats Depend on Habit Memory for Discrimination Learning and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the circumstances in which rats engage either declarative memory (and the hippocampus) or habit memory (and the dorsal striatum). Rats with damage to the hippocampus or dorsal striatum were given three different two-choice discrimination tasks (odor, object, and pattern). These tasks differed in the number of trials required for…

Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

2007-01-01

430

A Memory-Based Model of Hick's Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose and evaluate a memory-based model of Hick's law, the approximately linear increase in choice reaction time with the logarithm of set size (the number of stimulus-response alternatives). According to the model, Hick's law reflects a combination of associative interference during retrieval from declarative memory and occasional savings…

Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

2011-01-01

431

Is selective mutism associated with deficits in memory span and visual memory?: An exploratory case-control study.  

PubMed

Our main aim in this study was to explore the association between selective mutism (SM) and aspects of nonverbal cognition such as visual memory span and visual memory. Auditory-verbal memory span was also examined. The etiology of SM is unclear, and it probably represents a heterogeneous condition. SM is associated with language impairment, but nonspecific neurodevelopmental factors, including motor problems, are also reported in SM without language impairment. Furthermore, SM is described in Asperger's syndrome. Studies on nonverbal cognition in SM thus merit further investigation. Neuropsychological tests were administered to a clinical sample of 32 children and adolescents with SM (ages 6-17 years, 14 boys and 18 girls) and 62 nonreferred controls matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. We used independent t-tests to compare groups with regard to auditory-verbal memory span, visual memory span, and visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), and employed linear regression analysis to study the impact of SM on visual memory, controlling for IQ and measures of language and motor function. The SM group differed from controls on auditory-verbal memory span but not on visual memory span. Controlled for IQ, language, and motor function, the SM group did not differ from controls on visual memory. Motor function was the strongest predictor of visual memory performance. SM does not appear to be associated with deficits in visual memory span or visual memory. The reduced auditory-verbal memory span supports the association between SM and language impairment. More comprehensive neuropsychological studies are needed. PMID:16411178

Kristensen, Hanne; Oerbeck, Beate

2006-01-01

432

40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound source categories to satisfy...Flatwood Paneling, Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetic Manufacturing Operations, Rubber Tire...Ship Building and Repair, Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry...

2012-07-01

433

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2012-04-01

434

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2011-04-01

435

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2013-04-01

436

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2014-04-01

437

19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...member of a family group may declare for all. “A family group residing...related by blood, marriage, domestic relationship (as defined...related by blood, marriage, domestic relationship, or adoption...included in the family...

2014-04-01

438

Is the Binding of Visual Features in Working Memory Resource-Demanding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The episodic buffer component of working memory is assumed to play a role in the binding of features into chunks. A series of experiments compared memory for arrays of colors or shapes with memory for bound combinations of these features. Demanding concurrent verbal tasks were used to investigate the role of general attentional processes, producing load effects that were no

Richard J. Allen; Alan D. Baddeley; Graham J. Hitch

2006-01-01

439

Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

2014-01-01

440

Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

Tine, Michele

2014-01-01

441

Investigating the Structure and Age Invariance of Episodic Memory Across the Adult Lifespan  

E-print Network

- terized, among other things, as olfactory, auditory, or tactile. Verbal, figural, and spatial memoryInvestigating the Structure and Age Invariance of Episodic Memory Across the Adult Lifespan Karen L. Siedlecki University of Virginia The structure of episodic memory was investigated by assessing different

442

On Auditing Auditory Information: The Influence of Mood on Memory for Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that memory for music possesses a number of similarities to the more frequently studied modalities of verbal and visual memory. The present study addresses a yet uninvestigated factor involved in the memory for music: mood. Specifically, the study explored whether a mood-congruency effect is attained using major and…

Houston, David; Haddock, Geoffrey

2007-01-01

443

Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.  

PubMed

Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed. PMID:23383629

Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

2013-01-01

444

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions prior to completion of this form)  

E-print Network

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions_____ of _____ RFP-12-604 0% 0% 0% Attachment 3.4 #12;BIDDER DECLARATION Instructions All prime bidders (the firm submitting the bid) must complete the Bidder Declaration. 1.a. Identify all current certifications issued

445

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions prior to completion of this form)  

E-print Network

BIDDER DECLARATION 1. Prime bidder information (Review attached Bidder Declaration Instructions-10-801 #12;BIDDER DECLARATION Instructions All prime bidders (the firm submitting the bid) must complete the Bidder Declaration. 1.a. Identify all current certifications issued by the State of California

446

Opposite Effects of Cortisol on Consolidation of Temporal Sequence Memory during Waking and Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory functions involve three stages: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Modulating effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been consistently observed for declarative memory with GCs enhancing encoding and impairing retrieval, but surprisingly, little is known on how GCs affect memory consolidation. Studies in rats suggest a beneficial effect…

Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

2011-01-01

447

A Quantitative Measure of JS's Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

JS is a highly able, well-educated 37 year old man with Asperger syndrome. A recent qualitative paper (Boucher, 2007) described his self-report of verbal and visual memory difficulties. The present paper used the WMS-III to compare the memory profile of JS to that of the adults with HFA in the Williams et al. (2005) WMS-III paper. Results show…

Ben Shalom, Dorit; Faran, Yifat; Boucher, Jill

2010-01-01

448

Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

2009-01-01

449

Evidence for a Specific Impairment of Serial Order Short-Term Memory in Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and…

Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

2012-01-01

450

Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia.Aims: The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on

Nadine Martin; Francine Kohen; Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Anna Soveri; Matti Laine

2011-01-01

451

Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia.Aims: The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on

Nadine Martin; Francine Kohen; Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Anna Soveri; Matti Laine

2012-01-01

452

Working Memory and Mental Arithmetic: A Case for Dual Central Executive Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to examine the possible existence of two limited-capacity pools of central executive resources: one each for verbal and visuospatial processing. Ninety-one college students (M age = 19.0, SD = 2.2) were administered a verbal working memory task that involved updating numbers in 2-, 3-, and 4-load conditions. The task…

Ketelsen, Kirk; Welsh, Marilyn

2010-01-01

453

Dissociation Between Delayed Alternation and Memory After Pediatric Head Injury: Relationship to MRI Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the usefulness of a delayed alternation task in characterizing the cognitive sequelae of closed head injury in children and adolescents. Verbal learning and memory (California Verbal Learning Test) were also studied for comparison. Sixty-two closed head injury patients (mean age, 9.6 years), who were studied after an average postinjury interval of 20 months, were divided according to

Harvey S. Levin; Kathleen A. Culhane; Jack M. Fletcher; Dianne B. Mendelsohn; Matthew A. Lilly; Harriet Harward; Sandra B. Chapman; Derek A. Bruce; Lori Bertolino-Kusnerik; Howard M. Eisenberg

1994-01-01

454

Memory in health and in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Memory is an important capacity needed for survival in a changing environment, and its principles are shared across species. These principles have been studied since the inception of behavioral science, and more recently neuroscience has helped understand brain systems and mechanisms responsible for enabling aspects of memory. Here we outline the history of work on memory and its neural underpinning, and describe the major dimensions of memory processing that have been evaluated by cognitive neuroscience, focusing on episodic memory. We present evidence in healthy populations for sex differences—females outperforming in verbal and face memory, and age effects—slowed memory processes with age. We then describe deficits associated with schizophrenia. Impairment in schizophrenia is more severe in patients with negative symptoms—especially flat affect—who also show deficits in measures of social cognition. This evidence implicates medial temporal and frontal regions in schizophrenia. PMID:24459407

Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

2013-01-01

455

Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

2011-01-01

456

Status of Nonhuman Memory Monitoring and  

E-print Network

Monitoring of cognitive processes may improve decision making by condi- tionalizing behavioral choices access to cognitive processes by pro- viding verbal commentaries on their experience of cognition. Hampton Abstract In this chapter, the concept of monitored and unmonitored memory and cognition

Hampton, Robert

457

Testing of Modern Semiconductor Memory Structures  

E-print Network

that they are officially declared "intelligent". 9. Nature does not make mistakes, a fact that the human race to what many believe, no single memory test exists that is able to detect all possible circuit defects. 3 is continuously trying to disprove. 10. God does not play dice (Albert Einstein): He knows that the devil

Kuzmanov, Georgi

458

Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference  

PubMed Central

Background Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Methodology/Principal Findings Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. Conclusions/Significance This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals. PMID:18648493

Hartshorne, Joshua K.

2008-01-01

459

Comparing topography-based verbal behavior with stimulus selection-based verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Michael (1985) distinguished between two types of verbal behavior: topography-based and stimulus selection-based verbal behavior. The current research was designed to empirically examine these two types of verbal behavior while addressing the frequently debated question, Which augmentative communication system should be used with the nonverbal developmentally disabled person? Four mentally retarded adults served as subjects. Each subject was taught to tact an object by either pointing to its corresponding symbol (selection-based verbal behavior), or making the corresponding sign (topography-based verbal behavior). They were then taught an intraverbal relation, and were tested for the emergence of stimulus equivalence relations. The results showed that signed responses were acquired more readily than pointing responses as measured by the acquisition of tacts and intraverbals, and the formation of equivalence classes. These results support Michael's (1985) analysis, and have important implications for the design of language intervention programs for the developmentally disabled. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:22477602

Sundberg, Carl T.; Sundberg, Mark L.

1990-01-01

460

Memory, executive cognitive function, and readiness to change drinking behavior.  

PubMed

The transtheoretical model of Prochaska and DiClemente [Psychother. Theory Res. Prac. 19 (1982) 276] postulates that cognitive skills are critical for drinking behavior change. Memory and executive cognitive function likely influence the execution of skills that are implicated for both motivating and sustaining drinking behavior change. Participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (N=117) were administered a battery of standardized memory and executive cognitive function tests that included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), and Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Lower verbal and higher delayed recall memory score at baseline significantly predicted precontemplation, higher verbal memory scores predicted contemplation, and better attention-concentration at baseline significantly predicted reduced drinking at 3-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption. The study findings indicate that explicit memory processes may have utility for predicting readiness to change drinking behavior. PMID:15621401

Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

2005-02-01

461

Otitis media, language development, and parental verbal stimulation.  

PubMed

Examined the impact of recurrent otitis media in the first 3 years of life on verbal abilities of 3- to 4-year-old children and the potential for parental verbal stimulation to buffer the negative effects of intermittent hearing loss. Fathers and mothers of 56 children with variable histories of otitis media participated in videotaped parent-child interactions that were used to code level of parental verbal stimulation. Measures of the children's verbal abilities were the McCarthy Verbal Scale Index and a score for the child's verbalizations with each parent. Active and engaging parental verbalizations appeared to buffer the child's developing verbal abilities from the deleterious effects of recurrent otitis. Post hoc analyses examined the implications of task structure and parent sex on parent verbal stimulation. Discussion addresses the importance of paternal involvement for the home language environment and implications for intervention. PMID:1593393

Freeark, K; Frank, S J; Wagner, A E; Lopez, M; Olmsted, C; Girard, R

1992-04-01

462

Normative data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in episodic memory, related to medial temporal lobe dysfunction, are a core component of schizophrenia. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is one of the most widely used neuropsychological memory tasks in clinical practice but normative data are limited. Over the last 15 years, the RAVLT has been used to assess verbal episodic memory performance as part of the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). This study aims to provide RAVLT norms, derived from the WAFSS, for individuals meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, for use in clinical settings. Performance on three immediate and one delayed recall trials, and additional measures of encoding and forgetting, is presented for 492 patients and 260 healthy community controls. Results indicated that age and sex (both groups) and IQ (schizophrenia group only) significantly influenced performance. Norms are presented, as means and standard deviations, stratified accordingly. Additional between-groups analysis clearly shows a significant memory deficit in schizophrenia even when patients are matched on IQ, age, and sex with healthy controls. PMID:21310743

Badcock, Johanna C; Dragovic, Milan; Dawson, Lisa; Jones, Rochelle

2011-04-01

463

Feelings Without Memory in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD’s effect on emotion. Objective: We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. Methods: A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. Results: As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. Conclusions: These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients’ memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences. PMID:25237742

Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S.

2014-01-01

464

Constructs and Events in Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis. PMID:23814375

Fryling, Mitch J.

2013-01-01

465

Constructs and events in verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis. PMID:23814375

Fryling, Mitch J

2013-01-01

466

Verbal medication orders in the OR.  

PubMed

Medication errors are the fourth most commonly reported sentinel event, and changes in practice are needed to provide a safe environment for patients in the OR. Existing measures for preventing medication errors in the OR have focused on labeling medication containers on and off the sterile field. Very little attention, however, has been given to the potential for errors caused by verbal orders in the OR or to developing processes to prevent such errors. Simple solutions for improving the safety of verbal medication orders include instituting a read-back system in which verbal orders are written on a dry-erase board and verified by the ordering physician, requesting clarification of questionable orders, and reducing distractions in the OR. PMID:17931542

Hendrickson, Thomas

2007-10-01

467

Verbal fluency in children with ADHD: strategy using and temporal properties.  

PubMed

Verbal fluency tasks are commonly used in cognitive and developmental neuropsychology in assessing executive functions, language skills as well as divergent thinking. Twenty-two typically developing children and 22 children with ADHD between the ages of 8 and 12 years were examined using verbal fluency tasks, prepotent response inhibition, and working memory tests. The clinical group showed impaired inhibitory and spatial working memory processes. We used different qualitative analyses of verbal fluency tasks to explore the lexical and executive strategies (word clustering and switching), and the temporal properties of the responses. Children with ADHD had a leeway in applying relevant lexical or executive strategies related to difficulties in strategy using. The reduced efficiency of children with ADHD in semantic fluency task is based on suboptimal shifting between word clusters and is related to the lack of ability of producing new clusters of items. The group difference appeared at the level of accessing and/or activating common words; however, the executive process of searching the lexicon extensively is intact. PMID:23731209

Takács, Ádám; Kóbor, Andrea; Tárnok, Zsanett; Csépe, Valéria

2014-01-01

468

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

Forgetfulness; Amnesia; Impaired memory; Loss of memory; Amnestic syndrome; Dementia - memory loss ... or severe illness, including brain surgery Transient global amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause ...

469

The establishing operation and teaching verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of that paper there has been an increase in the application of CEOs as independent variables in the teaching of verbal behavior in applied setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of clinical applications of the EO to the teaching of verbal behavior during the last 20 years. PMID:23814365

Carbone, Vincent J

2013-01-01

470

The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of that paper there has been an increase in the application of CEOs as independent variables in the teaching of verbal behavior in applied setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of clinical applications of the EO to the teaching of verbal behavior during the last 20 years. PMID:23814365

Carbone, Vincent J.

2013-01-01

471

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

472

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

473

What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

2014-01-01

474

Cultural variation in verbal versus spatial neuropsychological function across the life span.  

PubMed

Established culture-invariant measures are needed for cross-cultural assessment of verbal and visuospatial speed of processing and working memory across the life span. In this study, 32 younger and 32 older adults from China and from the United States were administered numerically based and spatially based measures of speed of processing and working memory. Chinese superiority on the numerically based tasks was found for younger adults. Age and increasing task demands diminished this cultural effect, as predicted by the framework proposed by D. C. Park, R. Nisbett, and T. Hedden (1999). However, the visuospatial measures of both working memory and speed of processing did not differ cross-culturally for either age group. The authors concluded that these visuospatial measures provide culture-invariant estimates of cognitive processes in East Asian and Western cultures, but that numerically based tasks show evidence of cultural and linguistic biases in performance levels. PMID:11853358

Hedden, Trey; Park, Denise C; Nisbett, Richard; Ji, Li-Jun; Jing, Qicheng; Jiao, Shulan

2002-01-01

475

Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

476

53Probability, Verbal Expressions of Marginal Probability of Discrete Variables  

E-print Network

Independence; Conditional Probability; Diagnostic Tests; Odds and Odds Ratio, Risk Ratio; Probability, Verbal, such as "The probabil ity of X is 70%" or "The odds are 3 to 1." Correspondence Between Verbal and Numerical

Druzdzel, Marek J.

477

Using contextual analysis to investigate the nature of spatial memory  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the properties of episodic spatial memory by conducting contextual analysis on spatial memory tasks in a large sample of individuals (N = 778) between the ages of 18 and 92. The results suggest that episodic spatial memory as measured by a dot location task is not uniquely influenced by memory but is strongly influenced by f