Sample records for verbal declarative memory

  1. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  2. Deficits in Verbal Declarative Memory Function in Women With Childhood Sexual Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Douglas Bremner; Eric Vermetten; Nadeem Afzal; Meena Vythilingam

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown deficits in verbal declarative memory function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most of these studies have been performed in men with combat-related PTSD compared with healthy subjects; relatively little is known about memory function in women with abuse-related PTSD, or whether these effects are specific to PTSD or are a nonspecific outcome of exposure to early

  3. Sleep-Related Declarative Memory Consolidation and Verbal Replay during Sleep Talking in Patients with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Methods Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Results Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Conclusion Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level. PMID:24349492

  4. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH. PMID:21774923

  5. Long-term memory: A review and meta-analysis of studies of declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI), in particular declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed individuals with SLI are poorer than age matched controls in the learning and retrieval of verbal information from the declarative memory. However, there is evidence to suggest that the problems with declarative learning and memory for verbal information in SLI might be due to difficulties with verbal working memory and language. The learning and retrieval of non-verbal information from declarative memory appears relatively intact. In relation to procedural learning and memory, evidence indicates poor implicit learning of verbal information. Findings pertaining to nonverbal information have been mixed. This review of the literature indicates there are now substantial grounds for suspecting that multiple memory systems may be implicated in the impairment. PMID:24748707

  6. Comparing the benefits of caffeine, naps and placebo on verbal, motor and perceptual memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara C. Mednick; Denise J. Cai; Jennifer Kanady; Sean P. A. Drummond

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine, the world's most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90min) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills,

  7. Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    Chapter 21 Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends on cross of such phenomena are founded on contemporary classification systems for memorial abilities. The category of declarative memory refers to the ability to remember prior autobiographical episodes and complex facts

  8. Striatal contributions to declarative memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Jason M.; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    Declarative memory is known to depend on the medial temporal lobe memory system. Recently, there has been renewed focus on the relationship between the basal ganglia and declarative memory, including the involvement of striatum. However, the contribution of striatum to declarative memory retrieval remains unknown. Here, we review neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the involvement of the striatum in declarative memory retrieval. From this review, we propose that, along with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the striatum primarily supports cognitive control of memory retrieval. We conclude by proposing three hypotheses for the specific role of striatum in retrieval: (1) Striatum modulates the re-encoding of retrieved items in accord with their expected utility (adaptive encoding), (2) striatum selectively admits information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive gating), and (3) striatum enacts adjustments in cognitive control based on the outcome of retrieval (reinforcement learning). PMID:22884322

  9. Ictal mnemestic aura and verbal memory function.

    PubMed

    Vederman, Aaron C; Holtzer, Roee; Zimmerman, Molly E; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William B

    2010-04-01

    Déjà vu aura is a well-known phenomenon experienced by some patients with epilepsy. This study sought to explore the relationship between verbal memory and the experience of déjà vu or other types of mnemestic auras in 42 individuals with intractable seizures and 42 age- and education-matched patient controls. Verbal memory was assessed with indices of learning, long delay recall, and recognition from the California Verbal Learning Test. Results indicated that auras of any type were not associated with memory performance on the California Verbal Learning Test. As expected, age and education were related to verbal memory performance. Mnemestic auras were associated with clinical indices of illness, suggesting that the presence of these auras may be regarded as a risk factor for greater chronicity and severity in epilepsy. PMID:20207589

  10. Evidence against Decay in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…

  11. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

  12. Distinct episodic verbal memory profiles in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brazo, Perrine; Ilongo, Michaelle; Dollfus, Sonia

    2013-06-01

    According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), an episodic verbal learning test, was compared in 61 schizophrenic patients and 61 matched healthy subjects. The 32 indices were calculated using CVLT Scoring Software. This process allowed us to describe patients' episodic processes in detail (encoding, storage, retrieval). We isolated one group with normative data, another showed impairment of both encoding and retrieval processes, and in the last one, only encoding process was impaired. As schizophrenia is heterogeneous with regard to episodic memory, impairments should not be considered as a common core to the various forms of the illness and it would be fruitful to systematically assess episodic processes in detail to take into account individual abilities and challenges. PMID:25379234

  13. Cerebellar contributions to verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Simon P; Davis, Nick J; Morgan, Helen M; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing evidence for a cerebellar role in working memory. Clinical research has shown that working memory impairments after cerebellar damage and neuroimaging studies have revealed task-specific activation in the cerebellum during working memory processing. A lateralisation of cerebellar function within working memory has been proposed with the right hemisphere making the greater contribution to verbal processing and the left hemisphere for visuospatial tasks. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to examine whether differences in post-stimulation performance could be observed based on the cerebellar hemisphere stimulated and the type of data presented. We observed that participants were significantly less accurate on a verbal version of a Sternberg task after stimulation to the right cerebellar hemisphere when compared to left hemisphere stimulation. Performance on a visual Sternberg task was unaffected by stimulation of either hemisphere. We discuss our results in the context of prior studies that have used cerebellar stimulation to investigate working memory and highlight the cerebellar role in phonological encoding. PMID:24338673

  14. Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Gais; Jan Born

    2007-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these experiments show that declarative memory benefits mainly from

  15. Declarative Memory, Awareness, and Transitive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic usually attributed to declarative memory is that what is learned is accessible to awareness. Recently, the relationship between awareness and declarative (hippocampus-dependent) memory has been questioned on the basis of findings from transitive inference tasks. In transitive inference, participants are first trained on overlapping pairs of items (e.g., A+B?, B+C?, C+D?, and D+E?, where + and ? indicate correct and incorrect choices). Later, participants who choose B over D when presented with the novel pair BD are said to demonstrate transitive inference. The ability to exhibit transitive inference is thought to depend on the fact that participants have represented the stimulus elements hierarchically (i.e., A>B>C>D>E). We found that performance on five-item and six-item transitive inference tasks was closely related to awareness of the hierarchical relationship among the elements of the training pairs. Participants who were aware of the hierarchy performed near 100% correct on all tests of transitivity, but participants who were unaware of the hierarchy performed poorly (e.g., on transitive pair BD in the five-item problem; on transitive pairs BD, BE, and CE in the six-item problem). When the five-item task was administered to memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region, the patients were impaired at learning the training pairs. All patients were unaware of the hierarchy and, like unaware controls, performed poorly on the BD pair. The findings indicate that awareness is critical for robust performance on tests of transitive inference and support the view that awareness of what is learned is a fundamental characteristic of declarative memory. PMID:16267221

  16. Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…

  17. Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory: Multiple Brain Systems Supporting Learning and Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire

    1992-01-01

    The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate

  18. A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

  19. Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…

  20. Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: the effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L C; Campos, J; Forcato, C; Leiguarda, R; Maldonado, H; Molina, V A; Pedreira, M E

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Thus, using our verbal learning task, we analyzed the effect of benzodiazepines on the re-stabilization of the declarative memory. On Day 1, volunteers learned an association between five cue- response-syllables. On Day 2, the verbal memory was labilized by a reminder presentation, and then a placebo capsule or 0.25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbal memory was evaluated on Day 3. The volunteers who had received the 0.25 mg clonazepam along with the specific reminder on Day 2, exhibited memory improvement. In contrast, there was no effect when the drug was given without retrieval, when the memory was simply retrieved instead of being reactivated or when short-term memory testing was performed 4 h after reactivation. We discuss the GABAergic role in reconsolidation, which shows a collateral effect on other memories when the treatment is aimed at treating anxiety disorders. Further studies might elucidate the role of GABA in the reconsolidation process associated with dissimilar scenarios. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22819624

  1. Comparing the benefits of Caffeine, Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Kanady, Jennifer; Drummond, Sean P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine, the world’s most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90 minutes) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition for unassociated words were tested after a 7hr retention period (with a between-session nap or drug intervention). A second, different, word list was administered post-intervention and memory was tested after a 20min retention period. The non-declarative tasks (finger tapping task and texture discrimination task) were trained before the intervention and then retested afterwards. Naps enhanced recall of words after a 7hr and 20min retention interval relative to both caffeine and placebo. Caffeine significantly impaired motor learning compared to placebo and naps. Napping produced robust perceptual learning compared with placebo; however, naps and caffeine were not significantly different. These findings provide evidence of the limited benefits of caffeine for memory improvement compared with napping. We hypothesize that impairment from caffeine may be restricted to tasks that contain explicit information; whereas strictly implicit learning is less compromised. PMID:18554731

  2. Verbal Intrusions Precede Memory Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbal memory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…

  3. Verbal memory retrieval engages visual cortex in musicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Huang; J. X. Zhang; Z. Yang; G. Dong; J. Wu; A. S. Chan; X. Weng

    2010-01-01

    As one major line of research on brain plasticity, many imaging studies have been conducted to identify the functional and structural reorganization associated with musical expertise. Based on previous behavioral research, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of superior verbal memory performance in musicians. Participants with and without musical training performed a verbal

  4. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  5. Development of Working Memory for Verbal-Spatial Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Morey, Candice C.

    2006-01-01

    Verbal-to-spatial associations in working memory may index a core capacity for abstract information limited in the amount concurrently retained. However, what look like associative, abstract representations could instead reflect verbal and spatial codes held separately and then used in parallel. We investigated this issue in two experiments on…

  6. Altered brain function underlying verbal memory encoding and retrieval in psychotic major depression

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Ryan; Garrett, Amy; Cohen, Jeremy; Gomez, Rowena; Lembke, Anna; Keller, Jennifer; Reiss, Allan L.; Schatzberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic major depression (PMD) is associated with deficits in verbal memory as well as other cognitive impairments. This study investigated brain function in individuals with PMD during a verbal declarative memory task. Participants included 16 subjects with PMD, 15 subjects with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) and 16 healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired while subjects performed verbal memory encoding and retrieval tasks. During the explicit encoding task, subjects semantically categorized words as either “man-made” or “not manmade.” For the retrieval task, subjects identified whether words had been presented during the encoding task. Functional MRI data were processed using SPM5 and a group by condition ANOVA. Clusters of activation showing either a significant main effect of group or an interaction of group by condition were further examined using t-tests to identify group differences. During the encoding task, the PMD group showed lower hippocampus, insula, and prefrontal activation compared to HC. During the retrieval task, the PMD group showed lower recognition accuracy and higher prefrontal and parietal cortex activation compared to both HC and NPMD groups. Verbal retrieval deficits in PMD may be associated with deficient hippocampus function during encoding. Increased brain activation during retrieval may reflect an attempt to compensate for encoding deficits. PMID:23149036

  7. Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarative memory. In fact, reactivating a declarative memory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarative memories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval–relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586

  8. Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

  9. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  10. Intact Conceptual Priming in the Absence of Declarative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D.A.; Stark, C.E.L.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Priming is an unconscious (nondeclarative) form of memory whereby identification or production of an item is improved by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed that declarative memory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing a basis for familiarity judgments. In two experiments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired patients. All patients exhibited fully intact priming in tests of both free association (study tent; at test, provide an association to canvas) and category verification (study lemon; at test, decide: Is lemon a type of fruit?). Yet the 2 most severely amnesic patients performed at chance on matched tests of recognition memory. These findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments. We suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarative memory. PMID:15447639

  11. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome

    PubMed Central

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J. Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5–15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection volumes and greater temporal pole integrity after left temporal surgery. Results were independent of post-surgical intellectual function and language lateralization. Our findings indicate post-surgical, hemisphere-dependent material-specific improvement in memory functions in the intact temporal lobe. However, outcome was linked to the anatomical integrity of the temporal lobe memory system, indicating that compensatory mechanisms are constrained by the amount of tissue which remains in the operated temporal lobe. Careful tailoring of resections for children undergoing epilepsy surgery may enhance long-term memory outcome. PMID:25392199

  12. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5-15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection volumes and greater temporal pole integrity after left temporal surgery. Results were independent of post-surgical intellectual function and language lateralization. Our findings indicate post-surgical, hemisphere-dependent material-specific improvement in memory functions in the intact temporal lobe. However, outcome was linked to the anatomical integrity of the temporal lobe memory system, indicating that compensatory mechanisms are constrained by the amount of tissue which remains in the operated temporal lobe. Careful tailoring of resections for children undergoing epilepsy surgery may enhance long-term memory outcome. PMID:25392199

  13. Declarative memory in abused and neglected infants.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children's imitative behaviors. Thus, it would appear that maternal negative feedback to child-initiated behaviors is related to an increase in imitative behaviors that are most likely met with positive reinforcement. The continued pursuit of this positivity may impede the development of self-initiated behaviors; delayed development of self-initiated behavior has been linked to disorders of social competence (Landry, Smith, Miller-Loncar, & Swank, 1998). However, imitation has long been known to be a mechanism of learning (Piaget, 1962) and has become an accepted tool for assessment of declarative memory (Bauer, 2004). Whereas the adaptation to abuse posited by Valentino et al. (2006) may be detrimental to social development, our data for this same sample indicate that the reliance on imitative behavior exhibited by the abused children may afford them an advantage at 21 months of age in imitation paradigms. The neglected children are thus at a disadvantage relative to the abused children in the study reported here in that they were not reinforced by mothers for imitative behavior. It is important to note that all children in this sample were from low-income homes. Scores on these events for both target actions and ordered pairs are higher in samples of higher SES children (e.g., Bauer et al., 2000). Thus, the low SES of the families affected performance across the groups. It is possible that the factor responsible for the difference between the abused group and the neglected group is resilience in the face of poverty. Resilience is the ability to recover following a traumatic event or adversity (Masten, 2001), and has been related to child characteristics, such as general intelligence (Masten et al., 1988). It has been proposed that neural plasticity may be responsible for this recovery (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2006). Alternatively, as has been detailed earlier in this chapter, the advantage afforded abused children could arise from the strengthening of neural pathways. It would be adaptive to develop exceptional event memory so as to avoid the events that lead to abuse. Mechan

  14. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  15. Aging and interference in verbal working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trey Hedden; Denise Park

    2001-01-01

    According to inhibitory views of working memory, old adults should have particular problems deleting irrelevant information from working memory, leading to greater interference effects compared with young adults. The authors investigated this hypothesis by using variations of an A-B, C-D retroactive interference paradigm in working memory with young and old adults. They used a recognition measure of memory, assessing both

  16. Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined fronto-parieto-mediotemporal dysfunction. PMID:23585882

  17. Timely sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation in infants.

    PubMed

    Seehagen, Sabine; Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S; Schneider, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Human infants devote the majority of their time to sleeping. However, very little is known about the role of sleep in early memory processing. Here we test 6- and 12-mo-old infants' declarative memory for novel actions after a 4-h [Experiment (Exp.) 1] and 24-h delay (Exp. 2). Infants in a nap condition took an extended nap (?30 min) within 4 h after learning, whereas infants in a no-nap condition did not. A comparison with age-matched control groups revealed that after both delays, only infants who had napped after learning remembered the target actions at the test. Additionally, after the 24-h delay, memory performance of infants in the nap condition was significantly higher than that of infants in the no-nap condition. This is the first experimental evidence to our knowledge for an enhancing role of sleep in the consolidation of declarative memories in the first year of life. PMID:25583469

  18. Declarative-Procedural Memory Interaction in Learning Agents

    E-print Network

    Tan, Ah-Hwee

    Declarative-Procedural Memory Interaction in Learning Agents (Extended Abstract) Wenwen Wang, Ah-Hwee Tan School of Computer Engineering Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 Drive, Singapore 118230 {tloonin, tyuansin}@dso.org.sg ABSTRACT It has been well recognized that human

  19. Music Training Improves Verbal but Not Visual Memory: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Explorations in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yim-Chi Ho; Mei-Chun Cheung; Agnes S. Chan

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued

  20. Verbal Positional Memory in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Mehler, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory is a fundamental prerequisite for language learning. This study investigated 7-month-olds' (N = 62) ability to remember the identity and order of elements in a multisyllabic word. The results indicate that infants detect changes in the order of edge syllables, or the identity of the middle syllables, but fail to encode the order…

  1. Mechanisms of Verbal Memory Impairment in Four Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon; Jones, Wendy; Roman, Mary J.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Delis, Dean C.; Reilly, Judy; Bellugi, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed…

  2. Sleep Facilitates Consolidation of Emotional Declarative Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hu; Melinda Stylos-Allan; Matthew P. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Bothsleepandemotionareknowntomodulate processes of memory consolidation, yet their interaction is poorly understood. We examined the influence of sleep on consolidation of emotionally arousing and neutral de- clarative memory. Subjects completed an initial study session involving arousing and neutral pictures, either in the evening or in the morning. Twelve hours later, after sleeping or staying awake, subjects performed a recogni- tion test

  3. Verbal Shadowing and Visual Interference in Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial memory is thought to be organized along experienced views and allocentric reference axes. Memory access from different perspectives typically yields V-patterns for egocentric encoding (monotonic decline in performance along with the angular deviation from the experienced perspectives) and W-patterns for axes encoding (better performance along parallel and orthogonal perspectives than along oblique perspectives). We showed that learning an object array with a verbal secondary task reduced W-patterns compared with learning without verbal shadowing. This suggests that axes encoding happened in a verbal format; for example, by rows and columns. Alternatively, general cognitive load from the secondary task prevented memorizing relative to a spatial axis. Independent of encoding, pointing with a surrounding room visible yielded stronger W-patterns compared with pointing with no room visible. This suggests that the visible room geometry interfered with the memorized room geometry. With verbal shadowing and without visual interference only V-patterns remained; otherwise, V- and W-patterns were combined. Verbal encoding and visual interference explain when W-patterns can be expected alongside V-patterns and thus can help in resolving different performance patterns in a wide range of experiments. PMID:24019953

  4. PROTECTION AND EXTINCTION OF MOTOR MEMORIES: INTERFERENCE FROM THE DECLARATIVE MEMORY SYSTEM IN CONTEXT SWITCHING

    E-print Network

    Shadmehr, Reza

    IN CONTEXT SWITCHING by Aymeric Blanc A thesis submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity © 2013 Aymeric Blanc All Rights Reserved #12;ii Abstract Procedural memories (skills) and declarative

  5. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Diana A.; Kronemer, Sharif I.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Desmond, John E.; Marvel, Cherie L.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters), in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords) and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters) visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times (RTs) on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword) vs. low (real word) phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex (VC). Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance. PMID:25309402

  6. The relationship between intelligence and verbal and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Powell, G E

    1979-04-01

    Administered the Logical Memory Test (LM) and the Rey-Osterreith Test (RO), which have been assumed to pertain to verbal and spatial cognitive functioning, to 150 Ss referred for neuropsychological screening. Ss also were administered the short version of the WAIS, plus Digit Span. It was found that LM did relate more to verbal IQ than to spatial IQ and vice-versa for RO. It was not clear exactly what aspect of cognitive functioning Digit Span was tapping. The clinical implications of the study are that LM scores must be viewed in the light of verbal IQ level, and RO scores interpreted in relation to both spatial IQ and age. Data are presented that can be used for the statistical interpretation of an individual case test scores. PMID:457895

  7. Role of Verbal Memory in Reading Text Comprehension of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, Maria Chiara; Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between verbal memory and reading text comprehension in individuals with Down syndrome. The hypothesis that verbal memory provides unique contribution to reading text comprehension after controlling for verbal skills was tested. Twenty-three individuals with Down syndrome (ages 11 years, 2 months-18 years, 1…

  8. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  9. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris C. Verster; Evelijne M. Bekker; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jan K. Buitelaar; Marinus N. Verbaten; Edmund R. Volkerts; Berend Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background  Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited\\u000a evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the\\u000a effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial.\\u000a After

  10. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. PMID:25639372

  11. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  12. Obesity enhances verbal memory in postmenopausal women with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bindu N; Pang, Deborah; Stern, Yaakov; Silverman, Wayne; Kline, Jennie K; Mayeux, Richard; Schupf, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the loss of estrogen after menopause may play a role in cognitive declines associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In postmenopausal women, the principal source of estrogen is estrone, which is influenced by body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in postmenopausal women is associated with higher levels of serum estradiol and estrone. We hypothesized that obesity could have a beneficial effect on cognition with advancing age. We compared the performance of healthy nondemented obese and non-obese women with Down syndrome (DS) on a broad spectrum of cognitive tests. Estrone levels were 66.9% higher in obese than in non-obese postmenopausal women, and 136% higher in obese than in non-obese premenopausal women. Obese postmenopausal women performed significantly better than non-obese women on measures of verbal memory and on an omnibus test of neuropsychological function, but did not differ significantly in verbal fluency, language, praxis or visuospatial functioning. Among premenopausal women, there was no difference in cognitive function between obese and non-obese women. Our results support the hypothesis that higher endogenous estrogen levels after menopause are associated with better performance on verbal memory. PMID:14749133

  13. Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

  14. Reduced sleep-associated consolidation of declarative memory in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen; Robert Göder; Jochen Fischer; Ines Wilhelm; Mareen Seeck-Hirschner; Josef Aldenhoff; Lioba Baving

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveSleep supports the consolidation of declarative memory. Patients with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not only characterized by sleep problems but also by declarative memory deficits. Given that the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep is supported by slow oscillations, which are predominantly generated by the prefrontal cortex, and that ADHD patients display low prefrontal brain activity, we assumed that ADHD

  15. The role and dynamic of strengthening in the reconsolidation process in a human declarative memory: what decides the fate of recent and older memories?

    PubMed

    Forcato, Cecilia; Fernandez, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarative memories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarative memory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of the memory. Forgetting may represent a process that weakens the effect of strengthening. PMID:23658614

  16. The Role and Dynamic of Strengthening in the Reconsolidation Process in a Human Declarative Memory: What Decides the Fate of Recent and Older Memories?

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, María E.

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarative memories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarative memory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of the memory. Forgetting may represent a process that weakens the effect of strengthening. PMID:23658614

  17. Comparison of verbal and nonverbal memory in elderly normal subjects and dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Omer, H; Babayov, D; Menczel, J

    1985-03-01

    A multimodal memory test was devised to investigate the differences between verbal and nonverbal memory in demented and normal older people (65 to 98 years of age). Recognition memory for faces, geometric designs, tactual fabrics, words, and sentences significantly differentiated between the two groups. Verbal memory was better than nonverbal memory in both groups. No differences in subtest profiles were found between groups. Findings suggest that the verbal-nonverbal dimension is of importance to rehabilitation programs. The relatively slow deterioration of verbal memory with age leads to the suggestion that verbal memory might be capitalized on for the creation of compensatory mechanisms. The similarity in subtest profiles is in agreement with the accelerated aging hypothesis of dementia. PMID:3997489

  18. Effects of Regulating Positive Emotions through Reappraisal and Suppression on Verbal and Non-Verbal Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

  19. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

  20. Memory for verbal information in individuals with HIV-associated dementia complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DesirÉE A. White; Michael J. Taylor; Nelson Butters; Carol Mack; David P. Salmon; Guerry Peavy; Lee Ryan; Robert K. Heaton; J. Hampton Atkinson; James L. Chandler; Igor Grant

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of memory performance were examined for 9 participants with HIV-associated dementia (HAD), 15 HIV-seropositive participants without dementia, and 15 HIV-seronegative controls. Episodic and semantic memory were assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, and Verbal Fluency tests. The HAD group showed deficits in episodic memory, with relative sparing of semantic memory. In addition, results suggest

  1. Neonatal Cerebral Abnormalities and Later Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory Abilities of Children Born Very Preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caron A. C. Clark; Lianne J. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, 103 very preterm children underwent structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term equivalent age and an assessment of verbal (Digit Span) and visuospatial (Corsi Blocks) working memory at 6 years corrected age. Compared to children born full term (N = 108), very preterm children were characterized by poorer verbal and visuospatial working memory

  2. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  3. Verbal learning and memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder: The role of encoding strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grethe E. Johnsen; Arve E. Asbjørnsen

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbal memory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees\\/immigrants exposed

  4. Increased frontocerebellar activation in alcoholics during verbal working memory: an fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Desmond; S. H. Annabel Chen; Eve DeRosa; Michelle R Pryor; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Edith V Sullivan

    2003-01-01

    Although there is clear evidence of alcoholism-related damage to the frontal lobes and cerebellum from neuroimaging, neuropathological, and neuropsychological studies, the functional role of the cerebellum and cerebrocerebellar circuits related to verbal working memory deficits of alcoholics have not been well studied. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects performed a Sternberg verbal working memory task while receiving an fMRI scan in a

  5. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness) benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After 3 h of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS) rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles, or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores. PMID:25225474

  6. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  7. Glucocorticoids Decrease Hippocampal and Prefrontal Activation during Declarative Memory Retrieval in Young Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Y. L. Oei; Bernet M. Elzinga; Oliver T. Wolf; Michiel B. de Ruiter; Jessica S. Damoiseaux; Joost P. A. Kuijer; Dick J. Veltman; Philip Scheltens; Serge A. R. B. Rombouts

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol in human) are associated with impairments in declarative memory retrieval. Brain regions hypothesized\\u000a to mediate these effects are the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Our aim was to use fMRI in localizing the effects\\u000a of GCs during declarative memory retrieval. Therefore, we tested memory retrieval in 21 young healthy males in a randomized\\u000a placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants

  8. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder and declarative memory functioning: a review

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Kristin W.

    2011-01-01

    Declarative memory dysfunction is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper reviews this literature and presents two frameworks to explain the nature of this dysfunction: that memory deficits are a product of neurobiological abnormalities caused by PTSD andlor that pre-existing memory deficits serve as a risk factor for the development of PTSD following trauma exposure. Brain regions implicated in declarative memory deficits include the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and imaging and biochemistry studies as they relate to memory dysfunction are described. Prospective and twin studies provide support for a risk factor model. PMID:22033732

  10. Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

  11. Functional Activation of the Human Frontal Cortex During the Performance of Verbal Working Memory Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Petrides; Bessie Alivisatos; Ernst Meyer; Alan C. Evans

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography during the performance of verbal working memory tasks. The same type of verbal response (i.e., reciting numbers) was required in the control and the two experimental tasks. In the control task, the subjects were required to count aloud. In the two experimental tasks, the subjects were required to maintain within

  12. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  13. Revisiting Evidence for Modularity and Functional Equivalence across Verbal and Spatial Domains in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control,…

  14. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  15. Serial Order Reconstruction in Down Syndrome: Evidence for a Selective Deficit in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Down syndrome consistently perform less well than appropriately matched comparison groups on tests of verbal short-term memory, despite performing relatively well on non-verbal short-term memory tasks. However, it is not clear whether these findings constitute evidence for a selective deficit in verbal short-term…

  16. An Investigation of word encoding strategy and verbal short-term memory in dyslexic children 

    E-print Network

    Timmins, Louisa

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of verbal short term memory and encoding strategies in dyslexics. The first main aim was to investigate whether or not dyslexics made more errors with pairs ...

  17. Association of Maternal Genital and Reproductive Infections with Verbal Memory and Motor Deficits in Adult Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbal memory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbal memory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbal memory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21600665

  18. Binding of verbal and spatial features in auditory working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray T. Maybery; Peter J. Clissa; Fabrice B. R. Parmentier; Doris Leung; Grefin Harsa; Allison M. Fox; Dylan M. Jones

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V1S1, V2S2, V3S3, V4S4) were followed by a recognition probe stimulus. A critical test of the binding or integration of the verbal and spatial features of the study

  19. Glutamate and GABA concentration changes in the globus pallidus internus of Parkinson's patients during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks: A report of two subjects.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Darrow, David; Varga, Georgeta; Robinson, Jennifer L; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia, typically associated with motor function, are involved in human cognitive processes, as demonstrated in behavioral, lesion, and noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies. Here we report task-contingent changes in concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of two patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery by utilizing in-vivo microdialysis measurements during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks. Performance of an implicit memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with increased levels of glutamate and GABA in the GPi compared to their concentrations at baseline. On the other hand, performance of a declarative memory task (verbal learning task-VLT) was associated with decreased levels of glutamate and GABA in GPi compared to baseline during the encoding and immediate recall phase with less conclusive results during the delayed recall phase. These results are in line with hypothesized changes in these neurotransmitter levels: an increase of excitatory (Glu) input from subthalamic nucleus (STN) to GPi during implicit memory task performance and a decrease of inhibitory inputs (GABA) from globus pallidus externus (GPe) and striatum to GPi during declarative memory performance. Consistent with our previous report on in-vivo neurotransmitter changes during tasks in STN, these data provide corroborative evidence for the direct involvement of basal ganglia in cognitive functions and complements our model of the functional circuitry of basal ganglia in the healthy and Parkinson's disease affected brain. PMID:25596441

  20. Vocal emotions influence verbal memory: neural correlates and interindividual differences.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Chen, Ce-Belle; Ching, April; Tan, Ling; Hong, Ryan Y

    2013-03-01

    Past research has identified an event-related potential (ERP) marker for vocal emotional encoding and has highlighted vocal-processing differences between male and female listeners. We further investigated this ERP vocal-encoding effect in order to determine whether it predicts voice-related changes in listeners' memory for verbal interaction content. Additionally, we explored whether sex differences in vocal processing would affect such changes. To these ends, we presented participants with a series of neutral words spoken with a neutral or a sad voice. The participants subsequently encountered these words, together with new words, in a visual word recognition test. In addition to making old/new decisions, the participants rated the emotional valence of each test word. During the encoding of spoken words, sad voices elicited a greater P200 in the ERP than did neutral voices. While the P200 effect was unrelated to a subsequent recognition advantage for test words previously heard with a neutral as compared to a sad voice, the P200 did significantly predict differences between these words in a concurrent late positive ERP component. Additionally, the P200 effect predicted voice-related changes in word valence. As compared to words studied with a neutral voice, words studied with a sad voice were rated more negatively, and this rating difference was larger, the larger the P200 encoding effect was. While some of these results were comparable in male and female participants, the latter group showed a stronger P200 encoding effect and qualitatively different ERP responses during word retrieval. Estrogen measurements suggested the possibility that these sex differences have a genetic basis. PMID:23224782

  1. Tennessee Williams: The Uses of Declarative Memory in the Glass Menagerie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Jacobs

    2002-01-01

    Tennessee Williams called his first great work, The Glass Menagerie, his “memory play.” The situation in which Williams found himself when he began writing the play is explored, as are the ways in which he used the declarative memory of his protagonist, Tom Wingfield, to express and deal with his own painful conflicts. Williams's use of stage directions, lighting, and

  2. Incipient preoperative reorganization processes of verbal memory functions in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Milian, Monika; Zeltner, Lena; Erb, Michael; Klose, Uwe; Wagner, Kathrin; Frings, Lars; Veil, Cornelia; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Klamer, Silke

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported nonlinear correlations between verbal episodic memory performance and BOLD signal in memory fMRI in healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to examine this observation in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) who often experience memory decline and need reliable prediction tools before epilepsy surgery with hippocampectomy. Fifteen patients with left mTLE (18-57years, nine females) underwent a verbal memory fMRI paradigm. Correlations between BOLD activity and neuropsychological data were calculated for the i) hippocampus (HC) as well as ii) extrahippocampal mTL structures. Memory performance was systematically associated with activations within the right HC as well as with activations within the left extrahippocampal mTL regions (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus). As hypothesized, the analyses revealed cubic relationships, with one peak in patients with marginal memory performance and another peak in patients with very good performance. The nonlinear correlations between memory performance and activations might reflect the compensatory recruitment of neural resources to maintain memory performance in patients with ongoing memory deterioration. The present data suggest an already incipient preoperative reorganization process of verbal memory in non-amnesic patients with left mTLE by simultaneously tapping the resources of the right HC and left extrahippocampal mTL regions. Thus, in the preoperative assessment, both neuropsychological performance and memory fMRI should be considered together. PMID:25500359

  3. Verbal emotional memory in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy: A first study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Jambaqué; Charlotte Pinabiaux; Célia Dubouch; Martine Fohlen; Christine Bulteau; Olivier Delalande

    2009-01-01

    That emotional memory enhancement is compromised in adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in the case of early cerebral damage, has been suspected. We conducted a study in which we compared 20 children and adolescents aged 11–15years with early TLE with 40 healthy control subjects. We studied the effect of emotional information on verbal memory performance using story

  4. Children's Reading Comprehension Ability: Concurrent Prediction by Working Memory, Verbal Ability, and Component Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane; Bryant, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study that addresses the relations between working memory capacity and reading comprehension skills in children aged 8, 9, and 11 years. At each time point, the authors assessed children's reading ability, vocabulary and verbal skills, performance on 2 working memory assessments (sentence-span and digit…

  5. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  6. Effects of 42 Hr of Total Sleep Deprivation on Component Processes of Verbal Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis H. Turner; Sean P. A. Drummond; Jennifer S. Salamat; Gregory G. Brown

    2007-01-01

    The current investigation examined changes in working memory (WM) component processes following total sleep deprivation (TSD) in a sample of healthy young persons. Forty subjects were administered a verbal form of a continuous recognition test (CRT) before and after 42 hr of TSD. Parameters of a computational model of the CRT reflecting attention, WM span, and rate of episodic memory

  7. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

  8. SPATIAL AND VERBAL MEMORY TEST SCORES FOLLOWING YOGA AND FINE ARTS CAMPS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANJUNATH N. K; SHIRLEY TELLES

    Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their

  9. A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF VERBAL WORKING MEMORY BASED ON TRANSITORY ACTIVATION

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    1 A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF VERBAL WORKING MEMORY BASED ON TRANSITORY ACTIVATION PATTERNS* Shane T of the structure of a neural network's connections and short-term memory in terms of the patterns of activation across the network (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Caianiello, 1961). However, recent neural-network models of short

  10. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  11. A Common Neural Substrate for Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. "Working memory, thought, and action." New York, NY: Oxford University Press,…

  12. Verbal and visual-spatial working memory and mathematical ability in different domains throughout primary school.

    PubMed

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of visual-spatial and verbal working memory for mathematics performance and learning seems to vary with age, the novelty of the material, and the specific math domain that is investigated. In this study, the relations between verbal and visual-spatial working memory and performance in four math domains (i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) at different ages during primary school are investigated. Children (N = 4337) from grades 2 through 6 participated. Visual-spatial and verbal working memory were assessed using online computerized tasks. Math performance was assessed at the start, middle, and end of the school year using a speeded arithmetic test. Multilevel Multigroup Latent Growth Modeling was used to model individual differences in level and growth in math performance, and examine the predictive value of working memory per grade, while controlling for effects of classroom membership. The results showed that as grade level progressed, the predictive value of visual-spatial working memory for individual differences in level of mathematics performance waned, while the predictive value of verbal working memory increased. Working memory did not predict individual differences between children in their rate of performance growth throughout the school year. These findings are discussed in relation to three, not mutually exclusive, explanations for such age-related findings. PMID:25377509

  13. Binding of Verbal and Spatial Features in Auditory Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybery, Murray T.; Clissa, Peter J.; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Leung, Doris; Harsa, Grefin; Fox, Allison M.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V[subscript 1]S[subscript 1], V[subscript 2]S[subscript 2], V[subscript 3]S[subscript 3], V[subscript 4]S[subscript 4]) were…

  14. Dissociation of the neural systems for working memory maintenance of verbal and nonspatial visual information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Rämä; Joseph B. Sala; Joseph S. Gillen; James J. Pekar; Susan M. Courtney

    2001-01-01

    Working memory for names and faces was investigated to ascertain whether verbal and nonspatial visual information is maintained\\u000a in working memory by separate neural systems. The subjects performed a delayed match-to-sample task for famous or unfamous\\u000a faces and names and a sensorimotor control task. Several occipital, temporal, parietal, and prefrontal areas were activated\\u000a during all memory delays, in comparison with

  15. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  16. KIBRA gene polymorphism has no association with verbal or visual episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Katherine H.; Summers, Mathew J.; Vickers, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual variability in memory performance has been suggested to result, in part, from genetic differences in the coding of proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study examined the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) on episodic memory performance, using multiple measures of verbal and visual episodic memory. A total of 256 female and 130 male healthy, older adults (mean age = 60.86 years) were recruited from the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP), undergoing both neuropsychological and genetic testing. The current study showed no significant effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Logical Memory test, Paired Associates Learning test or Rey Complex Figure Task. The results suggest there is little to no functional significance of KIBRA genotype on episodic memory performance, regardless of modality. PMID:25339899

  17. The temporal dynamics of enhancing a human declarative memory during reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Coccoz, V; Sandoval, A V; Stehberg, J; Delorenzi, A

    2013-08-29

    When a consolidated memory is reactivated, it can become labile and prone to enhancement or disruption, a process known as reconsolidation. The reconsolidation hypothesis has challenged the traditional view that memories after consolidation are fixed and unchangeable. Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms mediating memory retrieval and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory can be dissociated, offering a new promise for the understanding of human memory persistence. Although reconsolidation studies typically use amnesic agents, it has also been shown that memory can be enhanced by pharmacological agents and real-life events during reconsolidation. Recently, we demonstrated that a mild stressor, cold pressor stress (CPS), can enhance human declarative memory during reconsolidation in a cued-recall test. Here we evaluate whether the recollection of 7- or 20-day-old long-term memories can be improved by exposure to two different neuromodulators: a mild stressor and glucose during reconsolidation. As expected, poor and very poor memory performance was found at the time of memory reactivation (days 6 and 20 after training). CPS during reconsolidation improved the long-term expression of a declarative memory 6 -but not 20-days after training. However, the administration of an oral source of glucose (juice), but not a diet juice, can enhance memory during reconsolidation even 20 days after training. Interestingly, when a recognition test was applied instead of a cued-recall test, memory performance was still robust at both 1 and 3 weeks after training. Here we show that the period in which this memory can be reactivated and become labile largely exceeds the period in which that memory is recalled, proving evidence that conscious access is not needed for reconsolidation. Present results are consistent with dissociation between the mechanisms mediating memory labilization and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory. PMID:23624059

  18. Antiretroviral Adherence and the Nature of HIV-Associated Verbal Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Woo, Ellen; Foley, Jessica; Ettenhofer, Mark L.; Cottingham, Maria E.; Gooding, Amanda L.; Jang, Jiah; Kim, Michelle S.; Castellon, Steve A.; Miller, Eric N.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between antiretroviral adherence and HIV-associated verbal memory impairment. HIV-positive participants demonstrated poorer verbal memory than HIV-negative participants. Both good (?90%) and poor (<90%) adherers displayed encoding deficits as compared with controls, but only poor adherers exhibited retrieval deficits. Encoding deficits primarily accounted for reduced delayed recall in good adherers, but both encoding and retrieval deficits accounted for reduced delayed recall in poor adherers. The retrieval difference between the adherence groups might be explained by a neuroprotective effect of good antiretroviral adherence or preexisting HIV-related retrieval deficits that result in poorer adherence. PMID:21948894

  19. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

  20. Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

  1. The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

  2. Beyond Capacity Limitations: Determinants of Word Recall Performance on Verbal Working Memory Span Tasks in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that…

  3. Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Cahill; James L. McGaugh

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site

  4. Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

    2014-11-16

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. PMID:25462517

  5. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  6. Verbal Memory Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Costello Syndrome: Evidence for Relative Preservation in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David D.; Katzenstein, Jennifer M.; Hopkins, Elisabeth; Stabley, Deborah L.; Sol-Church, Katia; Gripp, Karen W.; Axelrad, Marni E.

    2013-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene which belongs to the family of syndromes called rasopathies. HRAS plays a key role in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation. Prior research has found impaired recall memory in CS despite enhancement in LTP that would predict memory preservation. Based on findings in other rasopathies, we hypothesized that the memory deficit in CS would be specific to recall, and that recognition memory would show relative preservation. Memory was tested using word-list learning and story memory tasks with both recall and recognition trials, a design that allowed us to examine these processes separately. Participants were 11 adolescents and young adults with molecularly confirmed CS, all of whom fell in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Results indicated a clear dissociation between verbal recall, which was impaired (M = 69 ± 14), and recognition memory, which was relatively intact (M = 86 ± 14). Story recognition was highly correlated with listening comprehension (r = .986), which also fell in the low-average range (M = 80 ± 12.9). Performance on other measures of linguistic ability and academic skills was impaired. The findings suggest relatively preserved recognition memory that also provides some support for verbal comprehension. This is the first report of relatively normal performance in a cognitive domain in CS. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which altered RAS-MAPK signaling affects neuronal plasticity and memory processes in the brain. PMID:23918324

  7. Genetic Architecture Of Declarative Memory: Implications for Complex Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Bachman, Peter; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Glahn, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Why do memory abilities vary so greatly across individuals and cognitive domains? Although memory functions are highly heritable, what exactly is being genetically transmitted? Here we review evidence for the contribution of both common and partially independent inheritance of distinct aspects of memory function. We begin by discussing the assessment of long-term memory and its underlying neural and molecular basis. We then consider evidence for both specialist and generalist genes underlying individual variability in memory, indicating that carving memory into distinct subcomponents may yield important information regarding its genetic architecture. And finally we review evidence from both complex and single-gene disorders, which provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human memory function. PMID:21832260

  8. Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.

    PubMed

    Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

    2014-08-01

    Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. PMID:24880338

  9. Association between subcortical volumes and verbal memory in unmedicated depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Turner, Arlener D; Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Zarate, Carlos; Nugent, Allison C

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown poor performance on verbal memory tasks in patients with major depressive disorder relative to healthy controls, as well as structural abnormalities in the subcortical structures that form the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry. Few studies, however, have attempted to link the impairments in learning and memory in depression with these structural abnormalities, and of those which have done so, most have included patients medicated with psychotropic agents likely to influence cognitive performance. This study thus examines the relationship between subcortical structural abnormalities and verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in unmedicated depressed patients. A T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan and the CVLT were obtained on 45 subjects with major depressive disorder and 44 healthy controls. Using the FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) volumes of selected subcortical structures were segmented and correlated with CVLT performance. Depressed participants showed significantly smaller right thalamus and right hippocampus volumes than healthy controls. Depressed participants also showed impaired performance on global verbal learning ability, and appeared to depend upon an inferior memory strategy (serial clustering). Measures of serial clustering were correlated significantly with right hippocampal volumes in depressed participants. Our findings indicate that depressed participants and healthy controls differ in the memory strategies they employ, and that while depressed participants had a smaller hippocampal volume, there was a positive correlation between volume and use of an inferior memory strategy. This suggests that larger hippocampal volume is related to better memory recall in depression, but specifically with regard to utilizing an inferior memory strategy. PMID:22714007

  10. Association Between Subcortical Volumes and Verbal Memory in Unmedicated Depressed Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Arlener D.; Furey, Maura; Drevets, Wayne C.; Zarate, Carlos; Nugent, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown poor performance on verbal memory tasks in patients with major depressive disorder relative to healthy controls, as well as structural abnormalities in the subcortical structures that form the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry. Few studies, however, have attempted to link the impairments in learning and memory in depression with these structural abnormalities, and of those which have done so, most have included patients medicated with psychotropic agents likely to influence cognitive performance. This study thus examines the relationship between subcortical structural abnormalities and verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in unmedicated depressed patients. A T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan and the CVLT were obtained on 45 subjects with major depressive disorder and 44 healthy controls. Using the FMRIB’s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) volumes of selected subcortical structures were segmented and correlated with CVLT performance. Depressed participants showed significantly smaller right thalamus and right hippocampus volumes than healthy controls. Depressed participants also showed impaired performance on global verbal learning ability, and appeared to depend upon an inferior memory strategy (serial clustering). Measures of serial clustering were correlated significantly with right hippocampal volumes in depressed participants. Our findings indicate that depressed participants and healthy controls differ in the memory strategies they employ, and that while depressed participants had a smaller hippocampal volume, there was a positive correlation between volume and use of an inferior memory strategy. This suggests that larger hippocampal volume is related to better memory recall in depression, but specifically with regard to utilizing an inferior memory strategy. PMID:22714007

  11. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  12. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  13. Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

  14. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  15. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  16. Early ‘visual’ cortex activation correlates with superior verbal memory performance in the blind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noa Raz; Pazit Pianka; Rafael Malach; Ehud Zohary; Amir Amedi

    2003-01-01

    The visual cortex may be more modifiable than previously considered. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten congenitally blind human participants, we found robust occipital activation during a verbal-memory task (in the absence of any sensory input), as well as during verb generation and Braille reading. We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the occipital cortex, along

  17. Encoding: The Keystone to Efficient Functioning of Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like "blonterstaping". The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of…

  18. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  19. A Multiple Case Study of Verbal Short-Term Memory in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, S.; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, M.; Eliez, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q 11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we…

  20. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  1. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

  2. Verbal Memory Compensation: Application to Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbal memory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…

  3. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  4. Medial temporal and prefrontal lobe activation during verbal encoding following glucose ingestion in schizophrenia: A pilot fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Stone; Heidi W. Thermenos; Sarah I. Tarbox; Russell A. Poldrack; Larry J. Seidman

    2005-01-01

    Verbal declarative memory is one of the most reliably impaired cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Important issues are whether the problem is reversible, and which brain regions underlie improvement. We showed previously that glucose administration improved declarative memory in patients with schizophrenia, and sought in this pilot study to identify whether glucose affects the location or degree of activation of brain

  5. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  6. Verbal Memory Impairment in Severe Closed-Head Injury: The Role of Encoding and Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Woo, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We applied the Item Specific Deficit Approach (ISDA) to California Verbal Learning Test data obtained from 56 severe, acceleration-deceleration CHI participants and 62 controls. The CHI group demonstrated deficits on all ISDA indices in comparison to controls. Regression analyses indicated that encoding deficits, followed by consolidation deficits, accounted for most of the variance in delayed recall. Additionally, level of acquisition played a partial role in CHI-associated consolidation difficulties. Finally, CHI encoding deficits were largely driven by low semantic clustering during list learning. These results suggest that encoding (primary) and consolidation (secondary) deficits account for CHI-associated verbal memory impairment. PMID:20175012

  7. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  8. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Francine Kohen; Nadine Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and

  9. The Interaction of Concreteness and Phonological Similarity in Verbal Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level. PMID:20053042

  10. Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth F. Loftus; David G. Miller; Helen J. Burns

    1978-01-01

    A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced

  11. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-08-01

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete. PMID:21799485

  12. Separating Recognition Processes of Declarative Memory via Anodal tDCS: Boosting Old Item Recognition by Temporal and New Item Detection by Parietal Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Raithel, Almuth; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Alekseichuk, Ivan; Schacht, Annekathrin; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from imaging studies that parietal and temporal cortices act together to achieve successful recognition of declarative information; nevertheless, the precise role of these regions remains elusive. To evaluate the role of these brain areas in declarative memory retrieval, we applied bilateral tDCS, with anode over the left and cathode over the right parietal or temporal cortices separately, during the recognition phase of a verbal learning paradigm using a balanced old-new decision task. In a parallel group design, we tested three different groups of healthy adults, matched for demographic and neurocognitive status: two groups received bilateral active stimulation of either the parietal or the temporal cortex, while a third group received sham stimulation. Accuracy, discriminability index (d’) and reaction times of recognition memory performance were measurements of interest. The d’ sensitivity index and accuracy percentage improved in both active stimulation groups, as compared with the sham one, while reaction times remained unaffected. Moreover, the analysis of accuracy revealed a different effect of tDCS for old and new item recognition. While the temporal group showed enhanced performance for old item recognition, the parietal group was better at correctly recognising new ones. Our results support an active role of both of these areas in memory retrieval, possibly underpinning different stages of the recognition process. PMID:25816233

  13. An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

  14. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  15. Processing of syntactically complex sentences relies on verbal short-term memory: Evidence from a short-term memory patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costanza Papagno; Carlo Cecchetto; Fabiola Reati; Lorenzo Bello

    2007-01-01

    The role of the phonological loop in auditory sentence comprehension was examined in a 35-year-old woman with a selective deficit of verbal short-term memory (STM). More specifically, the objective of the experiment was to test whether sentence comprehension is limited by number of propositions, as suggested by Rochon, Waters, and Caplan (2000), or whether it depends on syntactic complexity. In

  16. Contributions of Source and Inhibitory Mechanisms to Age-Related Retroactive Interference in Verbal Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trey Hedden; Denise C. Park

    2003-01-01

    Determining contributions of source-monitoring and inhibitory function to age-related forgetting has been an elusive goal for cognitive theorists. Five studies used a verbal working memory paradigm to examine mechanisms accounting for disproportionate retroactive interference (RI) experienced with adult aging. Participants distinguished studied target-word pairs from interfering pairs that were read aloud. Source-monitoring and inhibitory task components varied through manipulations of

  17. Selective deficits in verbal working memory associated with a known genetic etiology: The neuropsychological profile of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERONICA J. HINTON; DARRYL C. DE VIVO; NANCY E. NEREO; EDWARD GOLDSTEIN; YAAKOV STERN

    2001-01-01

    Forty-one boys diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) were each compared to an unaffected sibling on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Verbal, visuospatial, attention 0memory, abstract thinking, and academic achievement skills were tested. Results indicated the boys with DMD performed similarly to their siblings on the majority of measures, indicating intact verbal, visuospatial, long-term memory, and abstract skills. However, the

  18. Verbal and Visual-Spatial Memory Impairment in Youth at Familial Risk for Schizophrenia or Affective Psychosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Silvia; Pousada, Andrea; Stone, William S.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Manschreck, Theo C.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia and affective psychoses share several common biological origins, particularly genetic susceptibility. Kraepelin posited that differing clinical expressions in these disorders reflect different etiopathologies. We tested a neuropsychological component of this hypothesis by evaluating verbal and visual memory performance in nonpsychotic youth at familial risk for psychosis, taking into account contributions to memory dysfunction including executive processing and psychopathology. Methods Teenage and young adults (ages 13-25) at familial high-risk (FHR) for schizophrenia (HR-SCZ, n=41) or affective psychosis (HR-AFF, n=24) were compared to community controls (CC, n=54) on verbal (Miller-Selfridge Context Memory) and visual (Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure) memory tests in which the roles of strategy and contextual processing on distinct recall domains could be assessed. Effects of psychopathology, vigilance and working memory were investigated to determine their influence on memory performance. Results HR-AFF and HR-SCZ exhibited similarly impaired memory profiles and elevated levels of psychopathology compared to CC. HR-SCZ were significantly impaired on both verbal and visual-spatial memory, while HR-AFF in verbal memory only. However, effect sizes, in the medium range, were largely comparable between the two HR groups. Deficits in verbal recall and in visual memory organization remained significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Youth at FHR for psychosis present relatively common memory deficits across both visual-spatial and verbal modalities that are not explained by current psychopathology, vigilance or working memory deficits. Deficits in organizing information to be recalled represent a promising trait of psychosis vulnerability. PMID:23312552

  19. Verbal Learning and Memory in Older Adults with Minor and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Zillmer, Eric A.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Kumar, Anand; Gur, Ruben C.; McAndrew, Lisa M.; Bilker, Warren B.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Moberg, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Late-life minor depression (miD) is a prevalent but poorly understood illness. Verbal learning and memory profiles have commonly been used to characterize neuropsychiatric disorders. This study compared the performance of 27 older adults with miD on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with 26 age-matched individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 36 non-depressed controls. Results revealed that the miD group performed comparably with controls and significantly better than the MDD group on several CVLT indices. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, consistent with theoretical representations of “normal,” “subcortical,” and “cortical” verbal learning and memory profiles. The majority of the miD group showed “normal” profiles (74%), whereas most individuals with MDD displayed “subcortical” profiles (54%). The findings suggest that depression in the elderly is a heterogeneous entity and that the CVLT may be a useful tool for characterizing learning and memory in late-onset depressive disorders. PMID:22189596

  20. The Item-Specific Deficit Approach to evaluating verbal memory dysfunction: Rationale, psychometrics, and application

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Hinkin, Charles H.; Miller, Eric N.; Gooding, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we introduce the Item-Specific Deficit Approach (ISDA), a novel method for characterizing memory process deficits in list-learning data. To meet this objective, we applied the ISDA to California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) data collected from a sample of 132 participants (53 healthy participants and 79 neurologically compromised participants). Overall, the ISDA indices measuring encoding, consolidation, and retrieval deficits demonstrated advantages over some traditional indices and indicated acceptable reliability and validity. Currently, the ISDA is intended for experimental use, although further research may support its utility for characterizing memory impairments in clinical assessments. PMID:19142773

  1. Verbal learning and memory in adolescent cannabis users, alcohol users and non-users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Solowij; Katy A. Jones; Megan E. Rozman; Sasha M. Davis; Joseph Ciarrochi; Patrick C. L. Heaven; Dan I. Lubman; Murat Yücel

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  Long-term heavy cannabis use can result in memory impairment. Adolescent users may be especially vulnerable to the adverse\\u000a neurocognitive effects of cannabis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives and methods  In a cross-sectional and prospective neuropsychological study of 181 adolescents aged 16–20 (mean 18.3 years), we compared\\u000a performance indices from one of the most widely used measures of learning and memory—the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test—between\\u000a cannabis

  2. The neural correlates of age effects on verbal-spatial binding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of age-related differences in the binding of verbal and spatial information utilizing event-related working memory tasks. Twenty-one right handed younger adults and twenty-one right handed older adults performed two versions of a dual task of verbal and spatial working memory. In the unbound dual task version letters and locations were presented simultaneously in separate locations, while in the bound dual task version each letter was paired with a specific location. In order to identify binding-specific differences, mixed-effects ANOVAs were run with the interaction of age and task as the effect of interest. Although older adults performed worse in the bound task than younger adults, there was no significant interaction between task and age on working memory performance. However, interactions of age and task were observed in brain activity analyses. Older adults did not display the greater unbound than bound task activity that younger adults did at the encoding phase in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right putamen, and globus pallidus as well as at the maintenance phase in the cerebellum. We conclude that the binding of letters and locations in working memory is not as efficient in older adults as it is in younger adults, possibly due to the decline of cognitive control processes that are specific to working memory binding. PMID:24631396

  3. Slow Sleep Spindle Activity, Declarative Memory, and General Cognitive Abilities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Design: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Measurements and Results: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Conclusions: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8–11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. Citation: Hoedlmoser K, Heib DPJ, Roell J, Peigneux P, Sadeh A, Gruber G, Schabus M. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1501-1512. PMID:25142558

  4. Think Before You Speak: Pauses, Memory Search, and Trace Redintegration Processes in Verbal Memory Span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Hulme; Philip Newton; Nelson Cowan; George Stuart; Gordon Brown

    1999-01-01

    Immediate memory span and speed of memory search were assessed for words and nonwords of short and long spoken duration. Memory span was substantially greater for words than for nonwords and for short than for long items, though speed of memory search was unaffected by either length or lexicality. An analysis of the temporal pattern of responses in the memory

  5. How do subvocal rehearsal and general attentional resources contribute to verbal short-term memory span?

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Whether rehearsal has a causal role in verbal STM has been controversial in the literature. Recent theories of working memory emphasize a role of attentional resources, but leave unclear how they contribute to verbal STM. Two experiments (with 49 and 102 adult participants, respectively) followed up previous studies with children, aiming to clarify the contributions of attentional capacity and rehearsal to verbal STM. Word length and presentation modality were manipulated. Experiment 1 focused on order errors, Experiment 2 on predicting individual differences in span from attentional capacity and articulation rate. Structural equation modeling showed clearly a major role of attentional capacity as a predictor of verbal STM span; but was inconclusive on whether rehearsal efficiency is an additional cause or a consequence of verbal STM. The effects of word length and modality on STM were replicated; a significant interaction was also found, showing a larger modality effect for long than short words, which replicates a previous finding on children. Item errors occurred more often with long words and correlated negatively with articulation rate. This set of findings seems to point to a role of rehearsal in maintaining item information. The probability of order errors per position increased linearly with list length. A revised version of a neo-Piagetian model was fit to the data of Experiment 2. That model was based on two parameters: attentional capacity (independently measured) and a free parameter representing loss of partly-activated information. The model could partly account for the results, but underestimated STM performance of the participants with smaller attentional capacity. It is concluded that modeling of verbal STM should consider individual and developmental differences in attentional capacity, rehearsal rate, and (perhaps) order representation. PMID:25798114

  6. Effect of musical experience on verbal memory in Williams syndrome: evidence from a novel word learning task.

    PubMed

    Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K; Steele, Anita L

    2011-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS. In Study 1, we presented a memory task of eight spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and identified its group name to 38 individuals with WS. Study 2, involving another group of individuals with WS (n=38), included six spoken or sung sentences that identified an animal group name. In both studies, those who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on the verbal memory task when the sentences were sung than when they were spoken. Those who had not taken formal lessons showed no such benefit. We also found that increased enjoyment of music and heightened emotional reactions to music did not impact performance on the memory task. These compelling findings provide the first evidence that musical experience may enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS and shed more light on the complex relationship between aspects of cognition and altered neurodevelopment in this unique disorder. PMID:21807007

  7. Differential associations between types of verbal memory and prefrontal brain structure in healthy aging and late life depression

    PubMed Central

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca; Zhang, Aifeng; Kumar, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Verbal memory deficits attributed to late life depression (LLD) may result from executive dysfunction that is more detrimental to list-learning than story-based recall when compared to healthy aging. Despite these behavioral dissociations, little work has been done investigating related neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in LLD. We compared list-learning to story-based memory performance in 24 non-demented individuals with LLD (age~66.1±7.8) and 41 non-demented/non-depressed healthy controls (HC; age~67.6±5.3). We correlated significant results of between-group analyses across memory performance variables with brain volumes of frontal, temporal and parietal regions known to be involved with verbal learning and memory. When compared to the HC group, the LLD group showed significantly lower verbal memory performance for spontaneous recall after repeated exposure and after a long-delay but only for the list-learning task; groups did not differ on story-based memory performance. Despite equivalent brain volumes across regions, only the LLD group showed brain associations with verbal memory performance and only for the list-learning task. Specifically, frontal volumes important for subjective organization and response monitoring correlated with list-learning performance in the LLD group. This study is the first to demonstrate neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in individuals with LLD. Results provide structural evidence for the behavioral dissociations between list-learning and story-based recall in LLD when compared to healthy aging. More specifically, it points toward a network of predominantly anterior brain regions that may underlie the executive contribution to list-learning in older adults with depression. PMID:22564447

  8. The effect of verbal reminders on memory reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-06-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our memory of a prior experience is considered to be one of the hallmarks in human memory development, but surprisingly, little is known about the ontogeny of this fundamental ability. Prior research has shown that by 4 years of age, children can use a simple verbal reminder (e.g., "Do you remember coming here before?") to reactivate an otherwise inaccessible memory of a unique visual stimulus. Given that language comprehension precedes production, it has been hypothesized that the ability to use verbal reminders may emerge well before 4 years of age. In the present experiment, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether a verbal reminder reactivated memory in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children who were tested using the visual-paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Our findings showed that the ability to exploit a simple verbal reminder emerges by at least 2 years of age. PMID:22822936

  9. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  10. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  11. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning. PMID:22021253

  12. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  13. A Common Neural Substrate for Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. Working memory, thought, and action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007]. We explore the alternative hypothesis that maintenance in VWM is subserved by temporary activation of the language production system [Acheson, D. J., & MacDonald, M. C. Verbal working memory and language production: Common approaches to the serial ordering of verbal information. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 50–68, 2009b]. Specifically, we hypothesized that for stimuli lacking a semantic representation (e.g., nonwords such as mun), maintenance in VWM can be achieved by cycling information back and forth between the stages of phonological encoding and articulatory planning. First, fMRI was used to identify regions associated with two different stages of language production planning: the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) for phonological encoding (critical for VWM of nonwords) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) for lexical–semantic retrieval (not critical for VWM of nonwords). Next, in the same subjects, these regions were targeted with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during language production and VWM task performance. Results showed that rTMS to the pSTG, but not the MTG, increased error rates on paced reading (a language production task) and on delayed serial recall of nonwords (a test of VWM). Performance on a lexical–semantic retrieval task (picture naming), in contrast, was significantly sensitive to rTMS of the MTG. Because rTMS was guided by language production-related activity, these results provide the first causal evidence that maintenance in VWM directly depends on the long-term representations and processes used in speech production. PMID:20617889

  14. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  15. Interference Control, Working Memory, Concept Shifting, and Verbal Fluency in Adults With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie D. J. Marchetta; Petra P. M. Hurks; Lydia Krabbendam; Jelle Jolles

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine 4 domains of executive functioning in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—namely interference control, concept shifting, verbal fluency, and verbal working memory. Four groups of participants were included: (a) adults diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD?; n = 20), (b) adults diagnosed with both ADHD and 1 or more comorbid disorder(s) (ADHD+; n = 22),

  16. Functional activation of the human frontal cortex during the performance of verbal working memory tasks.

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, M; Alivisatos, B; Meyer, E; Evans, A C

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography during the performance of verbal working memory tasks. The same type of verbal response (i.e., reciting numbers) was required in the control and the two experimental tasks. In the control task, the subjects were required to count aloud. In the two experimental tasks, the subjects were required to maintain within working memory the numbers they generated (self-ordered task) or the numbers generated by the experimenter (externally ordered task). Examination of the difference in activation between these conditions revealed strong bilateral activation within the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex during both experimental tasks. There was, however, no evidence of additional activation within the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex when monitoring self-generated responses as compared with the monitoring of externally generated responses. These results provide evidence regarding the role of the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in mnemonic processing that are in agreement with recent findings from work with non-human primates. Images PMID:8430101

  17. Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: Evidence from the concreteness effect.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo; Castellà, Judit; Provencio, Violeta; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate. PMID:25231876

  18. The Color Object Association Test (COAT): The Development of a New Measure of Declarative Memory for 18- to 36-Month-Old Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Jordan; Andrea L. Johnson; Steven J. Hughes; Elsa G. Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Few methods exist to measure declarative (explicit) memory in children during the toddler and preschool stages of development. We report the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of declarative memory for this age group, the Color Object Association Test (COAT). In pilot testing and large scale application of the test, the COAT was demonstrated to be a reliable

  19. Manipulability impairs association-memory: revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

  20. Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops

    PubMed Central

    Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the structure devoted to the maintenance of information at short term during concurrent processing activities. In this respect, the question regarding the nature of the mechanisms and systems fulfilling this maintenance function is of particular importance and has received various responses in the recent past. In the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, we suggest that only two systems sustain the maintenance of information at the short term, counteracting the deleterious effect of temporal decay and interference. A non-attentional mechanism of verbal rehearsal, similar to the one described by Baddeley in the phonological loop model, uses language processes to reactivate phonological memory traces. Besides this domain-specific mechanism, an executive loop allows the reconstruction of memory traces through an attention-based mechanism of refreshing. The present paper reviews evidence of the involvement of these two independent systems in the maintenance of verbal memory items. PMID:25426049

  1. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794

  2. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794

  3. Feedback signals in the caudate reflect goal achievement on a declarative memory task

    PubMed Central

    Tricomi, Elizabeth; Fiez, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    The striatum has been shown to be a key region in the processing of reward-related information. The head of the caudate nucleus has been implicated in processing performance feedback, or in other words, information about the outcomes of one’s actions. However, feedback provides multiple types of information, and it is not clear which of these types of information drive a caudate response. We sought to determine whether the signal in the caudate differed when feedback was informative but only arbitrarily related to performance versus when it provided information about goal achievement. To do this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine caudate activation during a feedback-based paired associate word learning task. During an initial round of 60 distinct trials, participants chose one of two responses on each trial and received feedback about whether their responses were correct. On the subsequent two rounds, the 60 trials were repeated and participants chose their responses based on their memory of the correct answer. The caudate nuclei were strongly engaged only during the second two rounds, when feedback reflected the accuracy of memory. These results support the idea that feedback-based caudate activation is context dependent: the caudate can be engaged in feedback-based declarative memory tasks, but it is more strongly engaged when feedback is “earned” by performance than when it is informative but not tied to goal achievement. PMID:18445531

  4. From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…

  5. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  6. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  7. Memory and comprehension deficits in spatial descriptions of children with non-verbal and reading disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9–12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children’s difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children’s difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions. PMID:25610417

  8. Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

    2014-08-01

    Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

  9. ERP/CSD indices of impaired verbal working memory subprocesses in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Gates, Nathan A; Kroppmann, Chris J; Gil, Roberto B; Bruder, Gerard E

    2006-05-01

    To disentangle subprocesses of verbal working memory deficits in schizophrenia, long EEG epochs (>10 s) were recorded from 13 patients and 17 healthy adults during a visual word serial position test. ERP generator patterns were summarized by temporal PCA from reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms to sharpen 31-channel topographies. Patients showed poorer performance and reduced left inferior parietotemporal P3 source. Build-up of mid-frontal negative slow wave (SW) in controls during item encoding, integration, and active maintenance was absent in patients, whereas a sustained mid-frontal SW sink during the retention interval was comparable across groups. Mid-frontal SW sinks (encoding and retention periods) and posterior SW sinks and sources (encoding only) were related to performance in controls only. Data suggest disturbed processes in a frontal-parietotemporal network in schizophrenia, affecting encoding and early item storage. PMID:16805862

  10. Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities. PMID:24742190

  12. Distinct anatomical correlates of discriminability and criterion setting in verbal recognition memory revealed by lesion-symptom mapping.

    PubMed

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L Jaap; Schoo, Linda; Kuijf, Hugo J; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Recognition memory, that is, the ability to judge whether an item has been previously encountered in a particular context, depends on two factors: discriminability and criterion setting. Discriminability draws on memory processes while criterion setting (i.e., the application of a threshold resulting in a yes/no response) is regarded as a process of cognitive control. Discriminability and criterion setting are assumed to draw on distinct anatomical structures, but definite evidence for this assumption is lacking. We applied voxel-based and region of interest-based lesion-symptom mapping to 83 patients in the acute phase of ischemic stroke to determine the anatomical correlates of discriminability and criterion setting in verbal recognition memory. Recognition memory was measured with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Signal-detection theory was used to calculate measures for discriminability and criterion setting. Lesion-symptom mapping revealed that discriminability draws on left medial temporal and temporo-occipital structures, both thalami and the right hippocampus, while criterion setting draws on the right inferior frontal gyrus. Lesions in the right inferior frontal gyrus were associated with liberal response bias. These findings indicate that discriminability and criterion setting indeed depend on distinct anatomical structures and provide new insights in the anatomical correlates of these cognitive processes that underlie verbal recognition memory. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1292-1303, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25423892

  13. Verbal working memory load affects prefrontal cortices activation: evidence from a functional NIRS study in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to the temporary maintenance of information that is no longer accessible in the environment, and the manipulation of this information for subsequent use. PET and functional MRI studies suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in WM. Here, we report a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study on the PFC activation caused by a WM task, a verbal n-back task. During performance of the task, concentration changes of oxy-Hb (HbO2), deoxy-Hb (Hb), and total-Hb (HbT) in subjects" prefrontal cortex were monitored by a 24-channel functional NIRS imager. The behavioral performances (accuracy and response time) were recorded simultaneously. Results revealed that as memory load increased, subjects showed poorer behavioral performance as well as monotonously increasing magnitudes of the activations in the left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). In addition, the analysis of comparison between subjects showed that certain relations likely exist between the cerebral activation and the performance parameters for an individual subject: lower accuracy is accompanied by longer response time and further activation. Such means that the subject with difficulty in solving a problem will demonstrate more significant hemodynamic changes compared with the subject without difficulty in solving the same problem.

  14. A randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept, crossover trial of phenytoin for hydrocortisone-induced declarative memory changes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Lu, Hanzhang; Denniston, Daren; Uh, Jinsoo; Thomas, Binu P.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Auchus, Richard J.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Tamminga, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Corticosteroid excess is associated with declarative memory impairment and hippocampal atrophy. These findings are clinically important because approximately 1% of the population receives prescription corticosteroids at any time, and major depressive disorder is associated with elevated cortisol levels and hippocampal atrophy. In animals, hippocampal changes with corticosteroids are blocked by phenytoin. The objective of the current study was to extend these preclinical findings to humans. We examined whether phenytoin attenuated the effects of hydrocortisone on declarative memory. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessed task-related hippocampal activation. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover study was conducted in 17 healthy adult volunteers. Participants received hydrocortisone (2.5 days), phenytoin (3.5 days), both medications together, or placebo, with 21-day washouts between conditions. Differences between treatments were estimated using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis. Results Fifteen participants had data from at least two treatment conditions and were used in the analysis. Basal cortisol levels negatively correlated with fMRI BOLD activation in the para-hippocampus with a similar trend observed in the hippocampus. Decrease in declarative memory with hydrocortisone was blocked with concomitant phenytoin administration. Relative to the placebo condition, a significant decrease in hippocampal BOLD activation was observed with hydrocortisone and phenytoin alone, and the two medications in combination. Declarative memory did not show significant correlations with hippocampal activation. Limitations The modest sample size, which limited our statistical power, was a limitation. Conclusions Findings from this pilot study suggest phenytoin attenuated effects of corticosteroids memory in humans, but potentiated the reduction in hippocampal activation. PMID:23453674

  15. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. PMID:24601893

  16. The memory that’s right and the memory that’s left: Event-related potentials reveal hemispheric asymmetries in the encoding and retention of verbal information

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual field (old words). An ERP memory effect linked to explicit retrieval revealed no asymmetries for words repeated at short and medium retention intervals, but at longer repetition lags (20–50 intervening words) this ‘old/new effect’ was more pronounced for words whose study presentation had been biased to the right hemisphere (RH). Additionally, a repetition effect linked to more implicit recognition processes (P2 amplitude changes) was observed at all lags for words preferentially encoded by the RH but was not observed for left hemisphere (LH)-encoded words. These results are consistent with theories that the RH encodes verbal stimuli more veridically whereas the LH encodes in a more abstract manner. The current findings provide a critical link between prior work on memory asymmetries, which has emphasized general LH advantages for verbal material, and on language comprehension, which has pointed to an important role for the RH in language processes that require the retention and integration of verbal information over long time spans. PMID:17291547

  17. Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children’s mathematical abilities

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306

  18. Rapid Eye Movement and Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Contributions in Memory Consolidation and Resistance to Retroactive Interference for Verbal Material

    PubMed Central

    Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Neu, Daniel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep contributes to the consolidation of new memories, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to the prevention of retroactive interference. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Two sessions of either a morning nap or wakefulness. Participants: Twenty-five healthy young adults. Interventions: Declarative learning of word pairs followed by a nap or a wake interval, then learning of interfering word pairs and delayed recall of list A. Measurements and Results: After a restricted night (24:00-06:00), participants learned a list of word pairs (list A). They were then required to either take a nap or stay awake during 45 min, after which they learned a second list of word pairs (list B) and then had to recall list A. Fifty percent of word pairs in list B shared the first word with list A, resulting in interference. Ten subjects exhibited REM sleep whereas 13 subjects exhibited NREM stage 3 (N3) sleep. An interference effect was observed in the nap but not in the wake condition. In post-learning naps, N3 sleep was associated with a reduced interference effect, which was not the case for REM sleep. Moreover, participants exhibiting N3 sleep in the post-learning nap condition also showed a reduced interference effect in the wake condition, suggesting a higher protection ability against interference. Conclusion: Our results partly support the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep contributes in protecting novel memories against interference. However, rapid eye movement sleep-related consolidation is not evidenced. Citation: Deliens G; Leproult R; Neu D; Peigneux P. Rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep contributions in memory consolidation and resistance to retroactive interference for verbal material. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1875-1883. PMID:24293762

  19. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with “optimal outcomes” (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the average range or above on all measures and showed few differences from the TD group. The HFA group performed within the average range but showed significantly lower mean performance than the other groups on multiple language measures, even when controlling for VIQ. Results also indicate that OO individuals show strong language abilities in all areas tested, but that their language may show greater reliance on verbal memory. PMID:23982487

  20. Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

  1. A fMRI Study of Verbal Working Memory, Cardiac Output, and Ejection Fraction in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzin Irani; Lawrence H. Sweet; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Beth A. Jerskey; Richard C. Mulligan; Angela L. Jefferson; Athena Poppas; Ronald A. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal\\u000a working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen\\u000a patients were recruited

  2. Lobular Patterns of Cerebellar Activation in Verbal Working Memory and Finger-Tapping Tasks as Revealed by Functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Desmond; John D. E. Gabrieli; Anthony D. Wagner; Bruce L. Ginier; Gary H. Glover

    1997-01-01

    The lobular distributions of functional activation of the cerebellum during verbal working-memory and finger movement tasks were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Relative to a rest control, finger tapping of the right hand produced ipsilateral-increased activation in HIV\\/HV (Roman numeral desig- nations based on Larsell's (Larsell and Jansen, 1972) nomencla- ture) and HVI and weaker activation in HVIII

  3. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = ?0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  4. Functional connectivity reveals load dependent neural systems underlying encoding and maintenance in verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Woodward, T S; Cairo, T A; Ruff, C C; Takane, Y; Hunter, M A; Ngan, E T C

    2006-04-28

    One of the main challenges in working memory research has been to understand the degree of separation and overlap between the neural systems involved in encoding and maintenance. In the current study we used a variable load version of the Sternberg item recognition test (two, four, six, or eight letters) and a functional connectivity method based on constrained principal component analysis to extract load-dependent neural systems underlying encoding and maintenance, and to characterize their anatomical overlap and functional interaction. Based on the pattern of functional connectivity, constrained principal component analysis identified a load-dependent encoding system comprising bilateral occipital (Brodmann's area (BA) 17, 18), bilateral superior parietal (BA 7), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (BA 46), and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32) regions. For maintenance, in contrast, constrained principal component analysis identified a system that was characterized by both load-dependent increases and decreases in activation. The structures in this system jointly activated by maintenance load involved left posterior parietal (BA 40), left inferior prefrontal (BA 44), left premotor and supplementary motor areas (BA 6), and dorsal cingulate regions (BA 24, 32), while the regions displaying maintenance-load-dependent activity decreases involved bilateral occipital (BA 17, 18), posterior cingulate (BA 23) and rostral anterior cingulate/orbitofrontal (BA 10, 11, 32) regions. The correlation between the encoding and maintenance systems was strong and negative (Pearson's r = -.55), indicting that some regions important for visual processing during encoding displayed reduced activity during maintenance, while subvocal rehearsal and phonological storage regions important for maintenance showed a reduction in activity during encoding. In summary, our analyses suggest that separable and complementary subsystems underlie encoding and maintenance in verbal working memory, and they demonstrate how constrained principal component analysis can be employed to characterize neuronal systems and their functional contributions to higher-level cognition. PMID:16324799

  5. Component analysis of verbal versus spatial working memory training in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Steeger, Christine M; Dobrzenski, Bradley A; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive training of working memory (WM) using the Cogmed-RM intervention has recently shown some efficacy as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but this intervention may not be optimally designed. A recent component analysis of WM has suggested that maintenance in primary memory (PM) appears to be largely intact whereas recall from secondary memory (SM) appears to be deficient in ADHD relative to age-matched controls. However, extrapolating from basic research, there is reason to believe that Cogmed-RM may target the PM component more than the SM component; though training with spatial exercises may target the SM component more than training with verbal exercises. To investigate, participants diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either a verbal training condition (n = 24) or a spatial training condition (n = 23) using a randomized, controlled design, and both groups were instructed to complete at least 20 days of training. The PM and SM components of WM were assessed immediately before and after training using both verbal and spatial free recall tasks. The main findings showed that both versions of the intervention enhanced the maintenance of information in PM regardless of test modality, but not the recall of information from SM. Therefore, the component of WM that is improved by Cogmed-RM is not the same component of WM that is deficient in ADHD. PMID:21390920

  6. Age differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory updating: evidence from analysis of serial position curves.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Felicia; Borella, Erika; Mammarella, Irene C; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    Memory updating is the ability to select and update relevant information and suppress no-longer-relevant data. The few studies in this area, targeting mainly the verbal domain, have investigated and confirmed an age-related decline in working memory updating ability (De Beni & Palladino, 2004; Van der Linden, Bredart, & Beerten, 1994). The present research examines the ability of younger and older adults to update information in verbal and visuo-spatial running memory tasks. Results showed that the participants' performance was higher in the verbal than in the visuo-spatial task. Nonetheless, independently of the task domain, an age-related decline in updating performance was found. Moreover, analysis of serial positions suggested that, in the updating procedure, the participants were not attempting to actively maintain items, preferring to adopt a low-effort, "recency-based" strategy. The use of this type of strategy is more evident in older participants, as shown in both the accuracy performance and the proportion of intrusion errors. PMID:22133192

  7. The deaf utilize phonological representations in visually presented verbal memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Kanaka, Noriko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Katsumi; Namatame, Miki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The phonological abilities of congenitally deaf individuals are inferior to those of people who can hear. However, deaf individuals can acquire spoken languages by utilizing orthography and lip-reading. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that deaf individuals utilize phonological representations via a mnemonic process. We compared the brain activation of deaf and hearing participants while they memorized serially visually presented Japanese kana letters (Kana), finger alphabets (Finger), and Arabic letters (Arabic). Hearing participants did not know which finger alphabets corresponded to which language sounds, whereas deaf participants did. All of the participants understood the correspondence between Kana and their language sounds. None of the participants knew the correspondence between Arabic and their language sounds, so this condition was used as a baseline. We found that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was activated by phonological representations in the deaf group when memorizing both Kana and Finger. Additionally, the brain areas associated with phonological representations for Finger in the deaf group were the same as the areas for Kana in the hearing group. Overall, despite the fact that they are superior in visual information processing, deaf individuals utilize phonological rather than visual representations in visually presented verbal memory. PMID:25498951

  8. The Representation of Order Information in Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigate how order information is represented in auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM). We used fMRI and a serial recall task to dissociate neural activity patterns representing the phonological properties of the items stored in STM from the patterns representing their order. For this purpose, we analyzed fMRI activity patterns elicited by different item sets and different orderings of those items. These fMRI activity patterns were compared with the predictions made by positional and chaining models of serial order. The positional models encode associations between items and their positions in a sequence, whereas the chaining models encode associations between successive items and retain no position information. We show that a set of brain areas in the postero-dorsal stream of auditory processing store associations between items and order as predicted by a positional model. The chaining model of order representation generates a different pattern similarity prediction, which was shown to be inconsistent with the fMRI data. Our results thus favor a neural model of order representation that stores item codes, position codes, and the mapping between them. This study provides the first fMRI evidence for a specific model of order representation in the human brain. PMID:24828642

  9. Noninvasive optical evaluation of low frequency oscillations in prefrontal cortex hemodynamics during verbal working memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Li, Kai; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-03-01

    The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[deoxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of ?[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of ?[oxy-Hb] and ?[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between ?[deoxy-Hb] and ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.

  10. The Differential Role of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory in the Neural Basis of Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relations of verbal and spatial WM ability to the neural bases of arithmetic in school-age children. We independently localize brain regions subserving verbal versus spatial representations. For multiplication, higher verbal WM ability is associated with greater recruitment of the left temporal cortex, identified by the verbal localizer. For multiplication and subtraction, higher spatial WM ability is associated with greater recruitment of right parietal cortex, identified by the spatial localizer. Depending on their WM ability, children engage different neural systems that manipulate different representations to solve arithmetic problems. PMID:25144257

  11. Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…

  12. The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

  13. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement. PMID:25595984

  14. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions. PMID:18782482

  15. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  16. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  17. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  18. Correlation between calbindin expression in granule cells of the resected hippocampal dentate gyrus and verbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karádi, Kázmér; Janszky, József; Gyimesi, Csilla; Horváth, Zsolt; Lucza, Tivadar; Dóczi, Tamás; Kállai, János; Abrahám, Hajnalka

    2012-09-01

    Calbindin expression of granule cells of the dentate gyrus is decreased in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) regardless of its etiology. In this study, we examined the relation between reduction of calbindin immunoreactivity and the verbal and visuo-spatial memory function of patients with TLE of different etiologies. Significant linear correlation was shown between calbindin expression and short-term and long-term percent retention and retroactive interference in auditory verbal learning test (AVLT) of patients including those with hippocampal sclerosis. In addition, we found significant linear regression between calbindin expression and short-term and long-term percent retention of AVLT in patients whose epilepsy was caused by malformation of cortical development or tumor and when no hippocampal sclerosis and substantial neuronal loss were detected. Together with the role of calbindin in memory established in previous studies on calbindin knock-out mice, our results suggest that reduction of calbindin expression may contribute to memory impairments of patients with TLE, particularly, when neuronal loss is not significant. PMID:22796338

  19. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

  20. Verbal recall and recognition in twins discordant for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Theo G.M.; Therman, Sebastian; Pirkola, Tiia; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Glahn, David C.; Bachman, Peter; Huttunen, Matti O.; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Hietanen, Marja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2008-01-01

    The nature, neural underpinnings, and etiology of deficits in verbal declarative memory in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. To examine the contributions of genes and environment to verbal recall and recognition performance in this disorder, the California Verbal Learning Test was administered to a large population-based Finnish twin sample, which included schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, their non-ill monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) co-twins, and healthy control twins. Compared with controls, patients and their co-twins showed relatively greater performance deficits on free recall compared with recognition. Intra-pair differences between patients and their non-ill co-twins in hippocampal volume and memory performance were highly positively correlated. These findings are consistent with the view that genetic influences are associated with reduced verbal recall in schizophrenia, but that non-genetic influences further compromise these abnormalities in patients who manifest the full-blown schizophrenia phenotype, with this additional degree of disease-related declarative memory deficit mediated in part by hippocampal pathology. PMID:18442861

  1. Comparison of Verbal Learning and Memory in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have deficits in verbal learning and recall. However, the specificity of these deficits has not been adequately tested. In the current study, verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder commonly seen in alcohol-exposed children. Methods Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test – Children's Version (CVLT-C) was examined in three groups of children (N=22/group): (1) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD (ALC), (2) nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD), and (3) nonexposed typically developing (CON). Groups were matched on age, sex, race, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Results Group differences were noted on learning trials (CON > ADHD > ALC). On the delayed recall trial, CON children performed better than both clinical groups, who did not differ from each other. Children in the ALC group demonstrated poorer recognition than children in the CON and ADHD groups, who did not differ from each other. Marginally significant group differences were noted on retention of previously learned material. Post hoc analyses indicated that ADHD children showed worse retention relative to the CON group, whereas retention in the ALC children remained intact. Conclusions These data suggest that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and nonexposed children with ADHD show differential patterns of deficit on the CVLT-C. Performance of alcohol-exposed children reflects inefficient encoding of verbal material, whereas performance of the ADHD group may be better characterized by a deficit in retrieval of learned material. Differences noted between clinical groups add to a growing neurobehavioral profile of FASD that may aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:21410480

  2. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60-85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  3. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  4. Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shallice; P. Fletcher; P. Grasby; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. J. Dolan

    1994-01-01

    IT is widely held that conscious recall of past experiences involves a specific system-episodic memory1. Patients with amnesia have gross impairments of episodic memory while other kinds of memory remain intact2,3, suggesting that a separable brain system underlies episodic memory. We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify components of this system in normal volunteers. A dual-task interference paradigm4

  5. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  6. The roles of verbal short-term memory and working memory in the acquisition of grammar by children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Byron F; Mervis, Carolyn B; Robinson, Bronwyn W

    2003-01-01

    The roles of verbal short-term and working memory were examined in a sample of children with Williams syndrome (mean chronological age 10 years, 2 months) and a sample of grammar-matched children who are developing normally. Forward digit span, nonword repetition, and backward span were all found to be correlated with receptive grammatical ability in the sample of children with Williams syndrome, but not in the sample of children who are developing normally. The relation between working memory, as measured by backward digit span, and grammatical ability was found to be significantly stronger in children with Williams syndrome than in the control group. This finding highlights the possibility that children with Williams syndrome may rely on their working memory to a greater extent than children who are developing normally to learn grammar. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated receptive vocabulary may mediate the relations among forward digit span, backward digit span, and grammatical ability for the children with Williams syndrome. Phonological short-term memory, however, contributed independently to grammatical ability even after receptive vocabulary was taken into account. PMID:12730018

  7. The influence of verbal and spatial working memory load on the time course of the Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Clouter, Andrew; Wilson, Ryan; Allen, Stefan; Klein, Raymond M; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-04-01

    The Simon effect refers to the relatively poorer response times and accuracy when responding to targets that appear in a task-irrelevant spatial location that is incongruent with the location of the correct response key, compared with targets that appear in spatially congruent locations. Like Stroop and flanker effects, the Simon effect is thought to result from conflict between an irrelevant response tendency and an intended response. Because attentional control has been linked to conflict resolution, the Simon task has been proffered as a possible tool for measuring the efficacy of executive control mechanisms. These mechanisms are also involved in working memory (WM) processes, and are thought to be responsible for maintaining information in the presence of continued processing or distraction. The present study investigated the interface between WM and attention by examining the time course of the Simon effect over the response time distributions under varying WM load conditions. Participants completed verbal 0-back, spatial 0-back, verbal 2-back, and spatial 2-back tasks. Results show that the Simon effect is diminished in high WM load tasks compared with low-load tasks, and that the Simon effect interacts with the spatial task domain such that the effect persists across the distribution of response times. In contrast, the Simon effect peaks and decays in verbal tasks. The results demonstrate that the Simon effect interacts with WM load and task domain. The results suggest that the effect is more modifiable than expected, and support a complex interface between WM and attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621577

  8. Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

  9. Vividness of Visual Imagery and Incidental Recall of Verbal Cues, When Phenomenological Availability Reflects Long-Term Memory Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30?min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories. PMID:23382719

  10. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  11. Verbal Working Memory Performance Correlates with Regional White Matter Structures in the Frontoparietal Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…

  12. Does Bilingualism Help Memory? Competing Effects of Verbal Ability and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodniecka, Zofia; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported that explore the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Following previous reports of a bilingual advantage in executive control that sometimes shows a greater advantage in older adults, we compared younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals on a memory paradigm that yielded separate measures of familiarity and…

  13. Intrinsic Default Mode Network Connectivity Predicts Spontaneous Verbal Descriptions of Autobiographical Memories during Social Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-01-01

    Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2?h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, “how does this person’s story make you feel?” We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (“semantic” AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (“episodic” AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest. PMID:23316178

  14. An Investigation of word encoding strategy and verbal short term memory in developmental dyslexia 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Hazel

    2006-01-01

    Dyslexic children have been shown to have poorer phonological awareness and phonological memory skills than normal readers. Evidence from a number of studies shows that normal readers show impaired recall for phonologically ...

  15. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Thomason, Moriah E.

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between ...

  16. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports.

    PubMed

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J

    2010-10-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with their mothers, children's narrative behavior was regulated best by maternal use of specific elaborative components, such as affirmations. In contrast, in children's independent recall, affective and behavioral qualities of maternal support were related to children's memory performance. Specifically, during free-recall, the dimensions of quality of instruction and respect for autonomy were significant predictors of children's narratives. In the context of prompted recall (supported by wh-questions), respect for autonomy was the only significant predictor of children's involvement in the conversations and of the amount of unique content they provided. The findings suggest that different aspects of maternal behavior facilitate different components of children's reminiscing skills, which children might apply depending on demands of the autobiographical memory conversation. PMID:21076657

  17. Nonword Repetition and Serial Recall: Equivalent Measures of Verbal Short-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn language are very closely related to one another has led to widespread interest in the cognitive processes underlying nonword repetition. One suggestion is that nonword repetition is a relatively pure measure of phonological short-term memory closely associated with other measures of…

  18. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  19. Morphometry and Connectivity of the Fronto-Parietal Verbal Working Memory Network in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2011-01-01

    Two distinctly different maturational processes--cortical thinning and white matter maturation--take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of…

  20. Selective deficits in verbal working memory associated with a known genetic etiology: The neuropsychological

    E-print Network

    : The neuropsychological profile of Duchenne muscular dystrophy VERONICA J. HINTON,1,2 DARRYL C. DE VIVO,2,3 NANCY E. NEREO January 3, 2000) Abstract Forty-one boys diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) were each: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Cognitive profile, Dystrophin, Developmental disability, Working memory

  1. Verbal Memory Associations with Cortical Thickness Sona Babakchanian1,2, Kristy S. Hwang1,2, Ellen Woo1, Amity E. Green3, Michael LaRocca4, Charleen Zoumalan1,

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    's severity in decline. The association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy can be measured usingVerbal Memory Associations with Cortical Thickness Sona Babakchanian1,2, Kristy S. Hwang1,2, Ellen brain imaging. Objective: To identify regional cortical thickness differences associated with verbal

  2. Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d?=?0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d?=?0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  3. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  4. Dual representation of item positions in verbal short-term memory: Evidence for two access modes

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Elke B.; Verhaeghen, Paul; Cerella, John

    2015-01-01

    Memory sets of N = 1~5 digits were exposed sequentially from left-to-right across the screen, followed by N recognition probes. Probes had to be compared to memory list items on identity only (Sternberg task) or conditional on list position. Positions were probed randomly or in left-to-right order. Search functions related probe response times to set size. Random probing led to ramped, “Sternbergian” functions whose intercepts were elevated by the location requirement. Sequential probing led to flat search functions—fast responses unaffected by set size. These results suggested that items in STM could be accessed either by a slow search-on-identity followed by recovery of an associated location tag, or in a single step by following item-to-item links in study order. It is argued that this dual coding of location information occurs spontaneously at study, and that either code can be utilised at retrieval depending on test demands.

  5. Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Zink, Nadine; Mock, Julia; Thiel, Christian; Vogt, Lutz; Abel, Cornelius; Kaiser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance.In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

  6. Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

  7. A Neural Dissociation within Language: Evidence that the Mental Dictionary Is Part of Declarative Memory, and that Grammatical Rules Are Processed by the Procedural System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ullman; Suzanne Corkin; Marie Coppola; Gregory Hickok; John H. Growdon; Walter J. Koroshetz; Steven Pinker

    1997-01-01

    Language comprises a lexicon for storing words and a grammar for generating rule-governed forms. Evidence is presented that the lexicon is part of a temporal-parietalhnedial-temporal declarative memory system and that granlmatical rules are processed by a frontamasal-ganglia procedural system. Patients produced past tenses of regular and novel verbs (looked and plagged), which require an -ed-suffixation rule, and irregular verbs (dug),

  8. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS), as well as an improvement in speech performance regardless of intervention received. While not statistically significant, participants who received an acceptance-based intervention exhibited larger improvements in observer-rated speech performance at post-treatment in comparison to tCBT (F (1,21) = 1.91, p =.18, etap2 = .08) such that individuals in the ABBT condition exhibited a considerably greater improvement in observer-rated speech performance than those in the tCBT condition. There was no differential impact of treatment condition on subjective speech anxiety or working memory task performance. Potential mediators and moderators of treatment were also examined. Results provide support for a brief 90-minute intervention for public speaking anxiety, but more research is needed in a study with a larger sample to fully understand the relationship between ABBT strategies and improvements in behavioral performance.

  9. Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

  10. The impact of verbal working memory on number-space associations.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Véronique; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Previtali, Paola; Fias, Wim; Gevers, Wim

    2014-07-01

    Spatial-numerical associations are observed when participants perform number categorization tasks. One such observation is the spatial numerical associations of response codes (SNARC) effect, showing an association between small numbers and the left-hand side and between large numbers and the right-hand side. It has long been argued that this spatial association is automatically activated by the long-term representation underlying numbers processing. Instead, van Dijck and Fias (2011) argued that this association is a short-term representation that is constructed during task execution. This argument was based on the observation of an association between the ordinal position of an item in working memory and response side (e.g., the ordinal position effect). Four different experiments were set up to systematically investigate this assumption. Our results indicate that the activation of the canonical order of numbers in working memory (e.g., 1, 2, 3, etc.) is indeed necessary to observe the SNARC effect. The activation of the standard sequence of numbers (e.g., from 1 to 9) can be overruled when a new random sequence is memorized. However, this is only observed when retrieval of the memorized sequence is required during the numbers classification task. PMID:24707784

  11. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  12. Serial recall of visuospatial and verbal information with and without material-specific interference: implications for contemporary models of working memory.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lynne C; Rane, Shruti; Hiscock, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    A longstanding question in working memory (WM) research concerns the fractionation of verbal and nonverbal processing. Although some contemporary models include both domain-specific and general-purpose mechanisms, the necessity to postulate differential processing of verbal and nonverbal material remains unclear. In the present two-experiment series we revisit the order reconstruction paradigm that Jones, Farrand, Stuart, and Morris (1995) used to support a unitary model of WM. Goals were to assess (1) whether serial position curves for dot positions differ from curves for letter names; and (2) whether selective interference can be demonstrated. Although we replicated Jones et al.'s finding of similar serial position curves for the two tasks, this similarity could reflect the demands of the order reconstruction paradigm rather than undifferentiated processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Both generalised and material-specific interference was found, which can be attributed to competition between primary and secondary tasks for attentional resources. As performance levels for the combined primary and secondary tasks exceed active WM capacity limits, primary task items apparently are removed from active memory during processing of the secondary list and held temporarily in maintenance storage. We conclude that active WM is multimodal but maintenance stores may be domain specific. PMID:23311456

  13. Relationships among selected physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers and four variables: Formal reasoning ability, working memory capacity, verbal intelligence, and field dependence/independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Leslie Little

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Further research should also focus on the detection of a broad range of science misconceptions among preservice elementary teachers.

  14. Identifying learning disabilities through a cognitive deficit framework: can verbal memory deficits explain similarities between learning disabled and low achieving students?

    PubMed

    Callinan, Sarah; Theiler, Stephen; Cunningham, Everarda

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, students with learning disabilities (LD) have been identified using an aptitude-achievement discrepancy or response to intervention approach. As profiles of the cognitive deficits of discrepancy-defined students with LD have already been developed using these approaches, these deficits can in turn be used to identify LD using the discrepancy approach as a benchmark for convergent validity. Australian Grade 3 (N = 172) students were administered cognitive processing tests to ascertain whether scores in these tests could accurately allocate students into discrepancy-defined groups using discriminant function analysis. Results showed that 77% to 82% of students could be correctly allocated into LD, low achievement, and regular achievement groups using only measures of phonological processing, rapid naming, and verbal memory. Furthermore, verbal memory deficits were found, along with phonological processing and rapid naming deficits, in students that would be designated as low achieving by the discrepancy method. Because a significant discrepancy or lack of response to intervention is a result of cognitive deficits rather than the other way around, it is argued that LD should be identified via cognitive deficits. PMID:23886581

  15. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  16. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100?mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  17. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…

  18. The Episodicity of Verbal Reports of Personally Significant Autobiographical Memories: Vividness Correlates with Narrative Text Quality More than with Detailedness or Memory Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N?=?168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N?=?27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  19. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  20. Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carney, Daniel P J; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Danielsson, Henrik; Brown, Janice H; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-10-01

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation. PMID:23920025

  1. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  2. Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benot Session 3: Non-Verbal Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benoît Session 3: Non Speech & Cognition Department, GIPSA-lab France {benjamin.roustan, marion (Mcneill, 1992; Kendon, 1997). The links between hand gestures and speech were mainly analyzed

  3. Enhancing dual-task performance with verbal and spatial working memory training: Continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics with NIRS

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    training Near infrared spectroscopy Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were differential effects in rostral prefrontal cortex with increased exposure to working memory training

  4. Developmental patterns of verbal and visuospatial spans.

    PubMed

    Nichelli, F; Bulgheroni, S; Riva, D

    2001-10-01

    This study presents developmental data for verbal and spatial memory tasks: Corsi's block-tapping test and Luria's verbal learning test. Norms have been collected from 275 primary and early secondary school children aged from 5 years, 4 months to 13 years, 6 months. Our results confirm a slow and constant improvement in performances over time, and the advantage of about 1.5 items of the verbal span over the spatial span supports the existence of developmental differences between separate memory systems. No significant sex difference was found even if a slight trend in verbal span favouring female subjects is present. PMID:11917975

  5. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. PMID:22480490

  6. 1134 nature neuroscience volume 3 no 11 november 2000 Memory engrams of declarative knowledge or experience are ulti-

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    memory task balanced the amount of visual input and motor activity of the two hemispheres. Third, we of Physiology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 2 Mind Articulation Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Yushima 4-9-2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

  7. A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

  8. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and serointensity are associated with hippocampal volume and verbal memory in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    memory in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Houenou Ja,b,c,d* , d'Albis MAa,b,c,e , Daban Ca latent in humans but has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cognitive deficits volume and cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methods: 102 healthy

  9. The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…

  10. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  11. Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H.; Townsley, Sarah; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions. PMID:25202255

  12. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  13. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    PubMed

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  14. Memory Consolidation in Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Vertes

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several lines of evidence refuting the hypothesis that procedural or declarative memories are processed\\/consolidated in sleep. One of the strongest arguments against a role for sleep in declarative memory involves the demonstration that the marked suppression or elimination of REM sleep in subjects on antidepressant drugs or with brainstem lesions produces no detrimental effects on cognition. Procedural memory,

  15. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  16. Slave to the Rhythm: Experimental Tests of a Model for Verbal Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Sequence Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitch, Graham J.; Flude, Brenda; Burgess, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. "Psychological…

  17. The effect of lorazepam on long-term verbal recall in heavy and light social drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Nichols; Frances Martin

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments investigated long-term verbal memory performance in groups of 20-year-old heavy (HSDs) and light social drinkers (LSDs), in the presence and absence of a pharmacological challenge (lorazepam 2 mg). In Experiment 1 (n = 13), a verbal learning task was presented visually and it was found that lorazepam significantly impaired delayed verbal recall performance in both groups. Experiment 2

  18. The similar effects of verbal and non-verbal intervening tasks on word recall in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II. PMID:24641093

  19. Vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling (VE-ASL) reveals elevated flow territory asymmetry in older adults with substandard verbal memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Manus J.; Hussey, Erin; Rane, Swati; Wilson, Tracy; van Osch, Matthias; Hartkamp, Nolan; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Ally, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate how flow-territory asymmetry and/or the distribution of blood through collateral pathways may adversely affect the brain’s ability to respond to age-related changes in brain function. These patterns have been investigated in cerebrovascular disease, however here we evaluated how flow-territory asymmetry related to memory generally in older adults. Materials and Methods A multi-faceted MRI protocol, including vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling capable of flow territory mapping, was applied to assess how flow territory asymmetry; memory performance (CERAD-Immediate Recall); cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter lesion (WML) count, and cortical gray matter volume were related in older healthy control volunteers (HC; n=15; age=64.5±7 yrs) and age-matched mild cognitive impairment volunteers (MCI; n=7; age=62.7±3.7 yrs). Results An inverse relationship was found between memory performance and flow territory asymmetry in HC volunteers (P=0.04), which reversed in MCI volunteers (P=0.04). No relationship was found between memory performance and cortical tissue volume in either group (P>0.05). Group-level differences for HC volunteers performing above vs. below average on CERAD-I were observed for flow-territory asymmetry (P<0.02) and cortical volume (P<0.05) only. Conclusion Findings suggest that flow-territory asymmetry may correlate more sensitively with memory performance than CBF, atrophy and WML count in older adults. PMID:23633160

  20. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    PubMed

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed. PMID:22582725

  1. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  2. Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecas, Jean-Francois; Mazaud, Anne-Marie; Reibel, Esther; Rey, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…

  3. Program Change/Declaration Program Change/Declaration (Student)

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    Program Change/Declaration Student #12;Program Change/Declaration (Student Change/Declaration (Student) ___________________________________________________________________ 10/08/2012 ©2012 Office of Information Technology 3 Table of Contents Program Change

  4. The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Maintenance of Verbal Working Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandakumar S. Narayanan; Vivek Prabhakaran; Silvia A. Bunge; Kalina Christoff; Eric M. Fine; John D. E. Gabrieli

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have been inconclusive in characterizing the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for maintaining increasingly larger amounts of information in working memory (WM). To address this question, the authors collected event-related functional MRI data while participants performed an item-recognition task in which the number of to-be-remembered letters was parametrically modulated. During maintenance of information in WM, the dorsolateral

  5. Behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of episodic coding, proactive interference, and list length effects in a running span verbal working memory task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley R. Postle; Jeffrey S. Berger; Jeremy H. Goldstein; Clayton E. Curtis; Mark D’Esposito

    2001-01-01

    Updating refers to (1) discarding items from, (2) repositioning items in, and (3) adding items to a running working memory\\u000a span. Our behavioral and fMRI experiments varied three factors: trial length, proactive interference (PI), and group integrity.\\u000a Group integrity reflected whether the grouping of items at the encoding stage was violated at discarding. Behavioral results\\u000a were consistent with the idea

  6. Pregnancy Declaration Form Date: ______________

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Pregnancy Declaration Form Date: ______________ To: Curtis Plotkin., Radiation Safety Officer From this pregnancy. * The NRC defines a declared pregnant woman as "a woman who has voluntarily informed her employer in writing of her pregnancy and estimated date of conception." 9/20/11 tw #12;

  7. Declarative Agent Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis C. Kakas; Paolo Mancarella; Fariba Sadri; Kostas Stathis; Francesca Toni

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we extend the architecture of agents (and robots) based upon fixed, one-size-fits-all cycles of operation, by providing a framework of declarative specification of agent control. Control is given in terms of cycle the- ories, which define in a declarative way the possible alternative behaviours of agents, depending on the particular circumstances of the (perceived) external en- vironment

  8. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  9. Prejudice verbalization among children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad Chyatte; Dorothy F. Schaefer; Martin Spiaggia

    1951-01-01

    The authors recorded the verbalization of prejudice against Jews and against Negroes which occurred during individual interviews with 70 northern boys, 70 northern girls, and 70 southern boys. Prejudice was verbalized significantly oftener by southern boys than by northern children of either sex. Northern children with fathers in a profession voiced less prejudice than did those with non-professional fathers. Some

  10. Improve Your Verbal Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Most teachers are well aware that verbal questioning can aid student learning. Asking questions can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal questioning is a lack of knowledge…

  11. The Impact of Visual Memory Deficits on Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Jessica Maria

    2011-01-01

    Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…

  12. The Hippocampus and Memory for Orderly Stimulus Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery A. Dusek; Howard Eichenbaum

    1997-01-01

    Human declarative memory involves a systematic organization of information that supports generalizations and inferences from acquired knowledge. This kind of memory depends on the hippocampal region in humans, but the extent to which animals also have declarative memory, and whether inferential expression of memory depends on the hippocampus in animals, remains a major challenge in cognitive neuroscience. To examine these

  13. Gender and Memory

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... effects of age, gender and genetics on memory, brain structure and brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers included ... were cognitively normal at the start. Participants underwent brain scans and took a series of verbal learning ...

  14. Subcortical hyperintensity volumetrics in Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly in the Sunnybrook Dementia Study: correlations with atrophy, executive function, mental processing speed, and verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subcortical hyperintensities (SHs) are radiological entities commonly observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal elderly controls. Although the presence of SH is believed to indicate some form of subcortical vasculopathy, pathological heterogeneity, methodological differences, and the contribution of brain atrophy associated with AD pathology have yielded inconsistent results in the literature. Methods Using the Lesion Explorer (LE) MRI processing pipeline for SH quantification and brain atrophy, this study examined SH volumes of interest and cognitive function in a sample of patients with AD (n?=?265) and normal elderly controls (n?=?100) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with AD were found to have less gray matter, less white matter, and more sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (all significant, P <0.0001). Additionally, patients with AD had greater volumes of whole-brain SH (P <0.01), periventricular SH (pvSH) (P <0.01), deep white SH (dwSH) (P <0.05), and lacunar lesions (P <0.0001). In patients with AD, regression analyses revealed a significant association between global atrophy and pvSH (P?=?0.02) and ventricular atrophy with whole-brain SH (P <0.0001). Regional volumes of interest revealed significant correlations with medial middle frontal SH volume and executive function (P <0.001) in normal controls but not in patients with AD, global pvSH volume and mental processing speed (P <0.01) in patients with AD, and left temporal SH volume and memory (P <0.01) in patients with AD. Conclusions These brain-behavior relationships and correlations with brain atrophy suggest that subtle, yet measurable, signs of small vessel disease may have potential clinical relevance as targets for treatment in Alzheimer’s dementia. PMID:25478020

  15. Ineffectiveness of an Italian NART-equivalent for the Estimation of Verbal Learning Ability in Normal Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Isella; M. L. Villa; E. Forapani; F. Piamarta; A. Russo; I. M. Appollonio

    2005-01-01

    Comparison between current and premorbid memory ability may be of help when trying to make a timely diagnosis of cognitive decline in questionable dementia. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of estimating episodic verbal memory scores at the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) from an irregular words reading task held to resist to deterioration, that is the

  16. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  17. The attentional boost effect with verbal materials.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro; Picklesimer, Milton

    2014-07-01

    Study stimuli presented at the same time as unrelated targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli presented with distractors. This attentional boost effect (ABE) has been found with pictorial (Swallow & Jiang, 2010) and more recently verbal materials (Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2013). The present experiments examine the generality of the ABE with verbal materials and critically assess the perceptual encoding hypothesis, the notion that the memory benefits are due to enhanced encoding of the perceptual properties of the study stimulus. Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated an ABE with visual study items, comparable in size whether the recognition test was visual or auditory. Experiments 2 and 3 established an ABE for auditory study stimuli that was again equivalent for auditory and visual recognition tests. Experiments 4 and 5 found an ABE on the test of free recall. Finally, the ABE was greater for high-frequency than low-frequency words. The results demonstrate the generality of the ABE over study and test modality, and over memory tests (recognition and free recall), while also documenting a moderating factor (word frequency). Importantly, the representational basis for the ABE with verbal materials appears to be abstract, or amodal, rather than modality specific. PMID:24611436

  18. Medical declarations on temperance.

    PubMed

    Crosfill, M L

    1998-06-01

    As early as 1736, the Royal College of Physicians submitted to Parliament a representation concerning the excessive consumption of spirituous liquors. No further authoritative statement was made for nearly a century, by which time the first Temperance and Total Abstinence societies had been formed. Many medical men were happy to support the call for moderation and a number of societies issued declarations signed by local practitioners; however, fear of losing patients meant that few doctors supported total abstinence. In addition, alcohol was widely used as a therapeutic agent. In spite of this, declarations were issued in 1839 and in 1847 which were essentially "teetotal" in tone. Most of the declarations were reported only in the temperance journals. That of 1871 was entirely different; it was circulated to every doctor on the medical register and publicised in full in all the national newspapers. It was signed by the Presidents of the Royal Colleges and by 233 others; it condemns the "inconsiderate prescription" of alcohol and questions its value as a food or as a medicine. The therapeutic arguments and the impact of the volte face of the medical establishment in supporting the declaration are examined, as is the reaction of the lay press. PMID:11620338

  19. 29 CFR 18.803 - Hearsay exceptions; availability of declarant immaterial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...condition. A statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind, emotion...motive, design, mental feeling, pain, and bodily health), but not including a statement of memory or belief...describing medical history, or past or...

  20. 29 CFR 18.803 - Hearsay exceptions; availability of declarant immaterial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...condition. A statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind, emotion...motive, design, mental feeling, pain, and bodily health), but not including a statement of memory or belief...describing medical history, or past or...

  1. 29 CFR 18.803 - Hearsay exceptions; availability of declarant immaterial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...condition. A statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind, emotion...motive, design, mental feeling, pain, and bodily health), but not including a statement of memory or belief...describing medical history, or past or...

  2. 29 CFR 18.803 - Hearsay exceptions; availability of declarant immaterial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...condition. A statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind, emotion...motive, design, mental feeling, pain, and bodily health), but not including a statement of memory or belief...describing medical history, or past or...

  3. Declarative interference affects off-line processing of motor imagery learning during both sleep and wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Castellani, Eleonora; Guillot, Aymeric; Giannotti, Veronica; Dimarco, Mattia; Sebastiani, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Retroactive interference from a declarative memory can prevent the consolidation of motor skill memories over wakefulness, but not over a night of sleep. Recently, motor imagery (MI) learning has been showed to allow for a stronger resistance against procedural interference rather than physical practice, but whether declarative interference might impact sleep-dependent consolidation process of an explicit finger tapping task learned with MI remains unknown. To address this issue, 57 subjects mentally rehearsed an explicit finger tapping sequence, and half of them were then requested to practice an interferential declarative task. All participants were re-tested on the initial procedural task either after a night of sleep or a similar daytime interval. The main findings provided evidence that declarative interference affected MI consolidation both over the night- and wakefulness intervals. These results extend our previous findings by underlying that declarative interference might impact more strongly explicit MI practice than physical practice, hence suggesting that MI might rely on declarative memory rather than exclusively on procedural memory system. The relationship between declarative and procedural memories during MI practice, as well as during off-line consolidation, is discussed. PMID:23103616

  4. Verbal-Non Verbal: Activites (Verbal and Non-Verbal Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalaron, Marie-Laure

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on nonverbal and extralinguistic activities as an aide to learning. Body language, movement, and action, simultaneously simple and omnipresent, are useful at the level of comprehension. These activities suggest images or result from verbal instigation. This visual imagery fills in the gaps between one's mother tongue and a foreign…

  5. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  6. Special Issue: Hippocampus and Memory An opportunistic theory of cellular

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    Special Issue: Hippocampus and Memory An opportunistic theory of cellular and systems consolidation that the consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memories rely on distinct mechanisms. Opinion Glossary Cellular, 9500 Gilman Drive #0109 La Jolla, CA 92093, USA Memories are often classified as hippocampus depen

  7. Verbal and memory skills in males with

    E-print Network

    ]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP);(n=23; DMD group age range 6­9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6 documented in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, in specific cell types (especially pyramidal and Purkinje

  8. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

  9. Sex Steroids Modify Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeri S. Janowsky; Bambi Chavez; Eric Orwoll

    2000-01-01

    In the last ten years, numerous mechanisms by which sex steroids modify cortical function have been described. For example, estrogen replacement improves verbal memory in women, and animal studies have shown effects of estrogen on hippocampal synaptogenesis and function. Little is known about sex steroid effects on other aspects of memory, such as frontal lobe-mediated working memory. We examined the

  10. Functional activation of the human ventrolateral frontal cortex during mnemonic retrieval of verbal information.

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, M; Alivisatos, B; Evans, A C

    1995-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography during the performance of a verbal free recall task, a verbal paired associate task, and tasks that required the production of verbal responses either by speaking or writing. Examination of the differences in regional cerebral blood flow between these conditions demonstrated that the left ventrolateral frontal cortical area 45 is involved in the recall of verbal information from long-term memory, in addition to its contribution to speech. The act of writing activated a network of areas involving posterior parietal cortex and sensorimotor areas but not ventrolateral frontal cortex. PMID:7597032

  11. Functional Activation of the Human Ventrolateral Frontal Cortex During Mnemonic Retrieval of Verbal Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrides, Michael; Alivisatos, Bessie; Evans, Alan C.

    1995-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography during the performance of a verbal free recall task, a verbal paired associate task, and tasks that required the production of verbal responses either by speaking or writing. Examination of the differences in regional cerebral blood flow between these conditions demonstrated that the left ventrolateral frontal cortical area 45 is involved in the recall of verbal information from long-term memory, in addition to its contribution to speech. The act of writing activated a network of areas involving posterior parietal cortex and sensorimotor areas but not ventrolateral frontal cortex.

  12. Darwin and the Declaration.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676

  13. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. PMID:25595115

  14. Aging and Memory in Humans A M Brickman and Y Stern, Columbia University,

    E-print Network

    Aging and Memory in Humans A M Brickman and Y Stern, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA ã 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Memory Systems Memory is the explicit or implicit recall of informa is divided into declarative and nondeclarative subcomponents. Declarative, or expli- cit, memory refers

  15. Memory ability and hippocampal volume in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Tracy; Cacic, Kelsey; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Scaletti, Laura A; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on memory performance and supporting brain structures (i.e., hippocampus) during adolescence. To achieve this goal, declarative memory ability and hippocampal volume were examined in a well-characterized sample of 138 adolescents (76 with a history of PDE and 62 from a non-exposed comparison group recruited from the same community, mean age=14 years). Analyses were adjusted for: age at time of the assessments, gender, IQ, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, and indices of early childhood environment (i.e., caregiver depression, potential for child abuse, and number of caregiver changes through 7 years of age). Results revealed that adolescents with a history of PDE performed worse on the California Verbal Learning Test-Child Version (CVLT-C), and story recall from the Children's Memory Scale (CMS), and had larger hippocampal volumes, even after covariate adjustment. Hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with memory performance on the CVLT-C, with lower memory scores associated with larger volumes. These findings provide support for long-term effects of PDE on memory function and point to neural mechanisms that may underlie these outcomes. PMID:22652523

  16. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  17. Differentiating between verbal and spatial encoding using eye-movement recordings.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elke B; Engbert, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Visual information processing is guided by an active mechanism generating saccadic eye movements to salient stimuli. Here we investigate the specific contribution of saccades to memory encoding of verbal and spatial properties in a serial recall task. In the first experiment, participants moved their eyes freely without specific instruction. We demonstrate the existence of qualitative differences in eye-movement strategies during verbal and spatial memory encoding. While verbal memory encoding was characterized by shifting the gaze to the to-be-encoded stimuli, saccadic activity was suppressed during spatial encoding. In the second experiment, participants were required to suppress saccades by fixating centrally during encoding or to make precise saccades onto the memory items. Active suppression of saccades had no effect on memory performance, but tracking the upcoming stimuli decreased memory performance dramatically in both tasks, indicating a resource bottleneck between display-controlled saccadic control and memory encoding. We conclude that optimized encoding strategies for verbal and spatial features are underlying memory performance in serial recall, but such strategies work on an involuntary level only and do not support memory encoding when they are explicitly required by the task. PMID:23472620

  18. Udaipur Lunar Declaration 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Bhandari, N.; Goswami, J. N.; Iceum6 Participants

    2008-07-01

    We report to COSPAR the "Udaipur Declaration" from the participants of Sixth ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (ICEUM6, 22-26 November 2004). Further information can be found on the ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg and publications in the Journal of Earth System Science [Bhandari, N. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon 22-26 November 2004, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114(6), 573-841, 2005].

  19. Non Verbal Communication in Business Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Vintean

    2007-01-01

    Everybody communicates on two levels, namely verbally and non-verbally. Verbal communication, or the spoken words we use, represent a very small portion (less than 10%) of our overall message. People can lie, misrepresent or mislead you with their words. Non-verbal language represents over 50% of our total message. Mastering the language of non verbal communication becomes more and more an

  20. Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the

  1. Commonwealth of Australia STATUTORY DECLARATION

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    Commonwealth of Australia STATUTORY DECLARATION Statutory Declarations Act 1959 1 Insert the name or Territory, or the High Court of Australia, as a legal practitioner (however described); or (3) a person who or place outside Australia; and (b) authorised under paragraph 3 (d) of the Consular Fees Act 1955; and (c

  2. Analyzing and animating declarative specifications

    E-print Network

    Mascolo, Cecilia

    Analyzing and animating declarative specifications S. Cimato and C. Mascolo Dipartimento di Scienze is a declarative, not executable specification language. We introduce two methods for formal analysis and testing of behavioral aspects of Z specifications. We define a chemical operational semantics, which supports

  3. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  4. Accelerated forgetting and memory consolidation in children with idiopathic generalised epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Shepley, Avril

    2011-11-23

    Long-term memory retention and learning of verbal and non-verbal material was investigated in children with idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) and healthy controls. Ten children with IGE were compared to 12 control children for their initial...

  5. Differential Effect of an Anticholinergic Antidepressant on Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered critical to the consolidation of procedural memory – the memory of skills and habits. Many antidepressants strongly suppress REM sleep, however, and procedural memory consolidation has been shown to be impaired in depressed patients on antidepressant therapy. As a result, it is important to determine whether antidepressive therapy can lead to amnestic impairment. We thus investigated the effects of the anticholinergic antidepressant amitriptyline on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five healthy men (mean age: 26.8 ± 5.6 y). Interventions: 75 mg amitriptyline versus placebo. Measurements/Results: To test memory consolidation, a visual discrimination task, a finger-tapping task, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were performed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Our findings show that amitriptyline profoundly suppressed REM sleep and impaired perceptual skill learning, but not motor skill or declarative learning. Conclusions: Our study is the first to demonstrate that an antidepressant can affect procedural memory consolidation in healthy subjects. Moreover, considering the results of a recent study, in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were shown not to impair procedural memory consolidation, our findings suggest that procedural memory consolidation is not facilitated by the characteristics of REM sleep captured by visual sleep scoring, but rather by the high cholinergic tone associated with REM sleep. Our study contributes to the understanding of potentially undesirable behavioral effects of amitriptyline. Citation: Goerke M, Cohrs S, Rodenbeck A, Kunz D. Differential effect of an anticholinergic antidepressant on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. SLEEP 2014;37(5):977-985. PMID:24790277

  6. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

  7. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  8. Sleep restores daytime deficits in procedural memory in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen; Ina Molzow; Manuel Munz; Ines Wilhelm; Kathrin Müller; Damaris Freytag; Christian D. Wiesner; Lioba Baving

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterised by a prefrontal hypoactivity. Therefore, we hypothesised that children with ADHD benefit from sleep

  9. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  10. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  11. Sleep after Learning Aids Memory Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Jan; Gais, Steffen; Lucas, Brian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the effect of sleep on memory consolidation has received considerable attention. In humans, these studies concentrated mainly on procedural types of memory, which are considered to be hippocampus-independent. Here, we show that sleep also has a persisting effect on hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. In two experiments, we…

  12. The Relationship between Semantic Organization and Memory in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thilo Deckersbach; Michael W. Otto; Cary R. Savage; Lee Baer; Michael A. Jenike

    2000-01-01

    Background: A variety of evidence suggests that frontostriatal dysfunction is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This evidence includes both neuroimaging findings and results from studies using neuropsychological assessments. Previous studies have documented nonverbal memory deficits in individuals with OCD, whereas verbal learning and memory were less affected. Methods: The present study examined both verbal and nonverbal memory in a sample

  13. Subvocalization in auditory-verbal imagery: just a form of motor imagery?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Aleman; Mascha van’t Wout

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence for subvocal rehearsal (“inner voice”) and phonological storage (“inner ear”) in auditory-verbal imagery. The question remains to be answered whether the inner voice mainly involves higher-order language systems, or primarily relies on motor systems associated with articulatory-kinesthetic processing. On the basis of models of auditory imagery and working memory, we predicted that, if auditory-verbal imagery

  14. Analysis of Mean Learning of Normal Participants on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poreh, Amir

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the mean performance of 58 groups of normal adults and children on the free-recall trials of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test shows that the mean auditory-verbal learning of each group is described by the function R1+Sln(t), where R1 is a measure of the mean immediate memory span, S is the slope of the mean logarithmic learning…

  15. Polish Declarations Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between Poland and the United States has existed for several centuries, as early as the Revolutionary War some of the key figures were great Polish military heroes, such as Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Continuing and strengthening the relationship between these two countries over the years are the many Poles who have immigrated to the United States. Recently, the Library of Congress digitized one of the most interesting (and little-known) documents in their collection, the Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States. The 111-volume collection was given to President Calvin Coolidge in 1926 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of US independence. These ornately decorated volumes were signed over an eight-month period by nearly one-sixth of Poland's population in 1926, totaling close to 5.5 million signatures. The Library of Congress has digitized the first eleven volumes, and placed them online here for consideration by genealogists, historians, and other interested parties. The first several volumes contain the signatures of government officials, artists (including full-size works of art), and signatures from three institutions of higher learning. Visitors can search the contents by keyword, geographic locations, and by title. Overall, this is a rather remarkable collection, and one that will merit several visits.

  16. United Nations Millennium Declaration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

  17. Differences between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2013-10-01

    New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above - 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873

  18. Differences between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above – 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873

  19. Making Memoization Memory MIT-LCS-CAG

    E-print Network

    Frank, Matthew I.

    · System hogs memory · System executes inefficiently Solution · Top-down evaluation with memoization ­ Good semantics ­ Asymptotically efficient · Garbage collection ­ Memoization for semantics vs. performance ­ Use will probably · · · · · This will automatically create Declarative is good... · Programmer says "what" · System

  20. A Memory Pacer for Improving Stimulus Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Ellen R.

    1983-01-01

    The Memory Tracer, which provides prompts by playing prerecorded appropriate messages, was effective in maintaining a low rate of negative verbalizations by six adolescents with autism, schizophrenia, and severe behavior problems. (CL) 4B

  1. Improving Memory Span in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, F. A.; Rosenquist, C. J.; Arnett, L.; Moore, M. S.; Hume, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by impaired memory span, particularly auditory verbal memory span. Memory span is linked developmentally to several language capabilities, and may be a basic capacity that enables language learning. If children with DS had better memory span, they might benefit more from language intervention. The…

  2. The Relationship Between Cortical Thickness and Verbal Memory Jennifer A. Eastman1,2, Kristy S. Hwang1,2, Sona Babakchanian1,2, Nicole Chow1,2, Leslie Ramirez2,3,

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in profound memory loss and dementia. MCI (mild cognitive impairment) is the intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. Amnestic MCI patients. This work was generously supported by the Easton Consortium for Alzheimer Drug Discovery and Biomarkers, NIA

  3. Functional Asymmetry of Human Prefrontal Cortex: Encoding and Retrieval of Verbally and Nonverbally Coded Information

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Bertram; Mecklinger, Axel; Friederici, Angela D.

    2000-01-01

    There are several views about the organization of memory functions in the human prefrontal cortex. One view assumes a process-specific brain lateralization according to different memory subprocesses, that is, encoding and retrieval. An alternative view emphasizes content-specific lateralization of brain systems involved in memory processes. This study addresses this apparent inconsistency between process- and content-specific lateralization of brain activity by investigating the effects of verbal and nonverbal encoding on prefrontal activations during encoding and retrieval of environmental novel sounds using fMRI. An intentional memory task was applied in which subjects were required either to judge the sounds' loudness (nonverbal encoding task) or to indicate whether or not a sound can be verbally described (verbal encoding task). Retrieval processes were examined in a subsequent yes/no recognition test. In the study phase the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was activated in both tasks. During verbal encoding additional activation of the left dorsolateral PFC was obtained. Retrieval-related fMRI activity varied as a function of encoding task: For the nonverbal task we detected an activation focus in the right posterior dorsolateral PFC whereas an activation in the left dorsolateral PFC was observed for the verbal task. These findings indicate that the right dorsolateral PFC is engaged in encoding of auditory information irrespective of encoding task. The lateralization of PFC activity during retrieval was shown to depend on the availability of verbal codes, with left hemispheric involvement for verbally and right hemispheric activation for nonverbally coded information. PMID:10753975

  4. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  5. Meaning: A verbal behavior account

    PubMed Central

    Lowenkron, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to their comprehension of the meanings of novel words, sentences and propositions. In response to this perceived deficiency, the notion of joint control is presented here. Joint control occurs when a verbal-operant topography, currently evoked by one stimulus, is additionally (i.e., jointly) evoked by a second stimulus. This event of joint stimulus control then sets the occasion for a response. This simple mechanism is shown here to have exceedingly broad explanatory properties: providing a coherent and rigorously behavioral account of various aspects of language ranging from meaning, reference and comprehension, to the development of abstraction in children's speech. PMID:22477291

  6. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  7. Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. AIMS: To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. METHODS: Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. RESULTS: A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

  8. Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. Aims To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. Methods Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. Results A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. Conclusions The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

  9. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072 Section 2.1072 Telecommunication...Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration...

  10. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  11. Attention and Material-Specific Memory in Children with Lateralized Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer A.; Smith, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is frequently associated with attention and memory problems. In adults, lateralization of seizure focus impacts the type of memory affected (left-sided lesions primarily impact verbal memory, while right-sided lesions primarily impact visual memory), but the relationship between seizure focus and the nature of the memory impairment is…

  12. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

  13. Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473

  14. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  15. Putting Declarative Meta Control to Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apollo Hogan; Reinhard Stolle; Elizabeth Bradley

    1998-01-01

    We present a logic programming system that accomplishes three impor- tant goals: equivalence of declarative and operational semantics, declarative specication of control information, and smoothness of interaction with non- logic-based programs. The language of the system is that of Generalized Horn Clause Intuitionistic Logic with negation as inconsistency. Meta level predi- cates are used to specify control information declaratively, compensating

  16. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015

  17. Unaccusative Syntax and Verbal Alternations

    E-print Network

    Embick, David

    5 Unaccusative Syntax and Verbal Alternations David Embick 5.1. INTRODUCTION Syntactic and lexico of `Linking' in theories of the inter- face between syntax and the lexicon; Pesetsky (1995) and Levin structures and syntactico-semantic features that are involved in unac- cusative syntax. `Unaccusative syntax

  18. Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains

    PubMed Central

    Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

  19. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  20. Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia. Fischman, and Stephan Heckers Background: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate poor verbal memory activ- ity in healthy adults and patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Twelve patients

  1. Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-06-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of semantic associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the semantic categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a semantic category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use semantic encoding. Using a semantic cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning. PMID:24611440

  2. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  3. Integrating Clinical Assessment With Cognitive Neuroscience: Construct Validation of the California Verbal Learning Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Delis; John Freeland; Joel H. Kramer; Edith Kaplan

    1988-01-01

    A long-standing criticism of intellectual and neuropsychological assessment instruments is that they measure global achievement only and, thus, fail to quantify the different strategies, processes, and errors an examinee may display that reflect how a given task is solved. In this study, we psychometrically explored the validity of a new clinical test of verbal memory that incorporates constructs from normal

  4. Mayo's Older African American Normative Studies: Auditory Verbal Learning Test norms for African American Elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanis J. Ferman; John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

    2005-01-01

    The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in clinical practice to assess for memory dysfunction in the elderly. As part of the Mayo Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS), we provide age and education adjusted normative data for the AVLT. The sample consists of 306 self-identified African Americans who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling and ranging in age from

  5. Aging and Semantic Cueing during Learning and Retention of Verbal Episodic Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Woo; Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of semantic cues provided at encoding and during retention for older adults' memory. For the California Verbal Learning Test-II, participants received semantic or nonsemantic cues that were varied across groups at encoding and during the retention interval. Provision of a semantic cue at encoding led to greater semantic clustering at

  6. Verbal Recall of Auditory and Visual Signals by Normal and Deficient Reading Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Maureen Julianne

    Verbal recall of bisensory memory tasks was compared among 48 9- to 12-year old boys in three groups: normal readers, primary deficit readers, and secondary deficit readers. Auditory and visual stimulus pairs composed of digits, which incorporated variations of intersensory and intrasensory conditions were administered to Ss through a Bell and…

  7. Does Green's Word Memory Test really measure memory?

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Multiple Choice, Paired Associates, Free Recall, and Long Delayed Free Recall subtests of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) were sensitive to memory impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 107 persons who passed performance validity criteria on the same instrument. Whereas several of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition indices demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with coma duration, and also showed statistically significant mean differences between TBI severity groups, none of the four WMT memory subtests did so. It is concluded that, although the WMT is an excellent performance validity test, it is not sensitive to memory impairment after TBI. PMID:23957844

  8. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  9. YOGA BREATHING THROUGH A PARTICULAR NOSTRIL INCREASES SPATIAL MEMORY SCORES WITHOUT LATERALIZED EFFECTS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Naveen; R. Nagarathna; H. R. Nagendra; Shirley Telles

    Summary- Uninostril breathing facilitates the performance on spatial and verbal cognitive tasks, said to be right and left brain functions, respectively. Since hemispheric memory functions are also known to be lateralized, the present study assessed the effects of uninostril breathing on the performance in verbal and spiritual memory tests. School children (N= 108 whose ages ranged from 10 to 17

  10. Verbal Mistreatment in Older Adults: A Look at Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Their Caregivers in the State of Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Vande Weerd; Gregory J. Paveza

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined verbal aggression in a sample of community dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) using the Risk and Vulnerability model as a means for identifying factors associated with verbal mistreatment in caregiver\\/patient dyads.Design and Methods. Subjects were recruited in the State of Florida through their association with state-funded memory disorder clinics or with local chapters of

  11. Memory and Neuropsychology in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Nadel, Lynn; Vicari, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses in both short-term and long-term memory in Down syndrome, and the implications of these patterns for both other aspects of cognitive development and underlying neural pathology. There is clear evidence that Down syndrome is associated with particularly poor verbal short-term memory performance, and…

  12. Genetic influences on memory performance in familial

    E-print Network

    twins,1-8 where the genetic component of verbal recall and recognition may be as high as 56%.9 Remarkably, memory re- mains under substantial genetic influence into old age as observed in twins over ageGenetic influences on memory performance in familial Alzheimer disease J.H. Lee, DrPH; A. Flaquer

  13. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  14. What drives successful verbal communication?

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Miriam; Toni, Ivan; Willems, Roel M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviors and intentions in communication: a behavior can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviors. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behavior of other agents (“mentalizing”) and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (“communicative motivation”). Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations. PMID:24101898

  15. Memory for action events: The power of enactment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Cohen

    1989-01-01

    Memory researchers have traditionally made use of verbal materials in their empirical studies. During the last decade or so, there has been a burgeoning interest in memory for other classes of materials — in particular, memory for action events. This report reviews briefly some of the research in this area. The emphasis is on the recall of series of instructions,

  16. Cohesion Failure as a Source of Memory Illusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal E. A. Kroll; Robert T. Knight; Janet Metcalfe; Elizabeth S. Wolf; Endel Tulving

    1996-01-01

    One source of “false” memories may be that often only memory fragments are retained. This would then result in a person being unable to distinquish a false conjunction, constructed of memory components, from what had been actually experienced. Experiment 1, employing two-syllable words in a continuous recognition paradigm, found that patients with left hippocampal damage classified more new verbal conjunctions

  17. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled “psychotic” is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal behavior. Similar to a previous study (Arntzen, Ro Tonnessen, & Brouwer, 2006), the results of the current study suggested that the procedure helped to establish a repertoire of appropriate functional vocal verbal behavior in the participant. Overall, the results suggested the effectiveness of an intervention based on training various classes of verbal behavior in decreasing aberrant verbal behavior. PMID:22754112

  18. Procedural Memory and Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Allain; Alain Lieury; Véronique Quemener; Véronique Thomas; Jean-Michel Reymann; Jean-Marc Gandon

    1995-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the mnestic deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) contributes to explaining the cognitive disorders and their well documented consequences. This study was designed to show that, in PD declarative as well as procedural memory is severely impaired. Three tests designed to explore this aspect of mnestic functioning were proposed to a group of 16 parkinsonian patients

  19. Pitch Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

  20. The Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire: a review.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, A; Giorgetti, M

    1998-02-01

    The psychometric properties of Richardson's 1977 Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire have been studied by analyzing papers in which this questionnaire was employed. Such review showed that the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire does not measure a unidimensional construct and does not predict the actual use of mental imagery in thinking. Further, a lack of long-term reliability of the questionnaire emerged. In conclusion, use of the questionnaire to assess the verbal-visual cognitive style appears questionable. PMID:9530739

  1. Preventing interference between different memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel A; Robertson, Edwin M

    2011-08-01

    When learned in quick succession, declarative and motor skill tasks interfere with one another and subsequent recall is impaired. Depending on the order of the tasks, we were able to prevent memory interference in humans by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation to either the dorsolateral prefrontal or the primary motor cortex, and neither memory was impaired. Our observations suggest that distinct mechanisms support the communication between different types of memory processing. PMID:21706019

  2. Declarative updates of relational databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weidong

    1995-03-01

    This article presents a declarative language, update calculus, of relational database updates. A formula in update calculus involves conditions for the current database, as well as assertions about a new database. Logical connectives and quantifiers become constructors of complex updates, offering flexible specification of database transformations. Update calculus can express all nondeterministic database transformations that are polynomial time. For set-at-a-time evaluation of updates, we present a corresponding updates algebra. Existing techniques of query processing can be incorporated into update evaluation. We show that updates in update calculus can be translated into expressions in update algebra and vice versa. 29 refs.

  3. The case for sensorimotor coding in working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The highly influential Baddeley and Hitch model of working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; see also Baddeley, 1986) posited\\u000a analogical forms of representation that can be broadly characterized as sensorimotor, both for verbal and for visuospatial\\u000a material. However, difficulties with the model of verbal working memory in particular have led investigators to develop alternative\\u000a models that avoid appealing either to

  4. False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

  5. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal

  6. 47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906 Telecommunication...General Provisions § 2.906 Declaration of Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the...

  7. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...collection requirement concerning the Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This request...information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  8. 76 FR 71057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...the Paperwork Reduction Act: Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This is...information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  9. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320...Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a...

  10. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements...Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.324 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements...responsible party shall include in the Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, the...

  11. Teaching the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The Declaration of Independence is the founding document of the United States. It is part of the social studies core curriculum in U.S. schools. By the time they graduate from high school, students are expected to know the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence and their significance. This digest discusses: (1) the origins of the…

  12. Combining Imperative and Declarative Hardware Descriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Todman; Wayne Luk

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for hardware development that involves both imperative and declarative de- scriptions. The imperative descriptions are mainly used for algo- rithm and application development; they are based on Cobble, a sequential imperative language extended with facilities for parallel computation and arbitrary-sized variables, similar to the Handel-C language. Operators in Cobble can be produced using the declarative

  13. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  14. Correlates of verbally aggressive communication in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Atkin; Sandi Smith; Anthony Roberto; Thomas Fediuk; Thomas Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This investigation identifies demographic, media, and social correlates of verbally aggressive communication in adolescence. Mail surveys were completed and returned by 2,300 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15. These adolescents were asked about the prevalence of verbal and physical aggression, the context in which it occurred, demographics, and the interpersonal and media influences in their lives. The results

  15. Verbal and Nonverbal Predictors of Spelling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…

  16. Extraversion-Introversion and Verbal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robert J.

    The data from verbal learning studies have been partially instrumental in the development of the theory of extraversion-introversion (E-I) relative to levels of cortical arousal. In most of the studies relating E-I to verbal learning, the approach was to determine if there was an overall superiority for one of the personality groups. Differences…

  17. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  18. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  19. Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults With Down Syndrome of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those differences in their expressive language profiles. KEY WORDS: Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, narrative

  20. Verbal?Behavioral Dissociations in Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline D. Woolley

    2006-01-01

    Verbal and behavioral measures of children's knowledge are frequently dissociated. These situations represent a largely untapped but important resource for furthering an understanding of human cognition. In this paper, verbal - behavioral dissociations in children are discussed and analyzed, drawing from a wide range of do- mains. The article explores what might lead to different responses in different modalities, and

  1. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

  2. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

  3. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

  4. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

  5. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

  6. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

  7. Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and high-income urban developmental contexts. Both low-income rural and low-income urban children showed working memory deficits compared with their high-income counterparts, but their deficits were distinct. Low-income urban children exhibited symmetrical verbal and visuospatial working memory deficits compared with their high-income urban counterparts. Meanwhile, low-income rural children exhibited asymmetrical deficits when compared with their high-income rural counterparts, with more extreme visuospatial working memory deficits than verbal working memory deficits. These results suggest that different types of poverty are associated with different working memory abilities. PMID:25554726

  8. The case for sensorimotor coding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M

    2001-03-01

    The highly influential Baddeley and Hitch model of working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; see also Baddeley, 1986) posited analogical forms of representation that can be broadly characterized as sensorimotor, both for verbal and for visuospatial material. However, difficulties with the model of verbal working memory in particular have led investigators to develop alternative models that avoid appealing either to sensory coding or to motoric coding, or to both. This paper examines the evidence for sensorimotor coding in working memory, including evidence from neuropsychology and from sign language research, as well as from standard working memory paradigms, and concludes that only a sensorimotor model can accommodate the broad range of effects that characterize verbal working memory. In addition, several findings that have been considered to speak against sensorimotor involvement are reexamined and are argued to be in fact compatible with sensorimotor coding. These conclusions have broad implications, in that they support the emerging theoretical viewpoint of embodied cognition. PMID:11340866

  9. Individual differences and models of memory span: A role for memory search rate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Puckett; Donald H. Kausler

    1984-01-01

    Individual differences in controlled memory search rate may partially account for individual differences in memory span, scanning rate, and verbal intelligence test performance. A within-Ss experiment is reported in which memory spans and scan rates were assessed for 3 familiar and 3 unfamiliar material types. 20 undergraduates served as Ss. 10 of 20 within-S span–scan correlations were significant, as was

  10. The Medial Entorhinal Cortex's role in temporal and working memory : characterization of a mouse lacking synaptic transmission in Medial Entorhinal Cortex Layer III

    E-print Network

    Rivest, Alexander Jay

    2011-01-01

    Declarative memory requires the integration and association of multiple input streams within the medial temporal lobe. Understanding the role each neuronal circuit and projection plays in learning and memory is essential ...

  11. Concurrent Use of Khat and Tobacco is Associated with Verbal Learning and Delayed Recall Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Aims The present study assessed whether cigarette smokers who are also regular khat users would demonstrate greater impairments in verbal learning and recall compared to both non-smokers who are khat users and control subjects. Design An independent measures, between-subjects design with two co-variates. Setting An outpatient, university research center in Taiz, Yemen. Participants Subjects were 175 Yemeni college students (90 men, 85 women) ranging in age from 18 to 38. Seventy-Five subjects were self-reported chronic cigarette smokers and khat users, 48 non-smoking subjects were self-reported to be chronic khat users and 52 non-smoking subjects reported no current use or history of khat use. Measurements Verbal learning and verbal memory recall was assessed by subject performance on the Arabic version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Findings There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) observed in RAVLT acquisition learning Trials 2–5 and on delayed recall measures between concurrent khat and cigarette users compared to both the khat only group and the control group of nonusers of khat and cigarettes. On each of these trials, concurrent users recalled fewer words, demonstrating a slowed rate of verbal learning. This same pattern of performance was also seen on delayed recall measures. Khat use alone did not affect immediate or delayed recall of previously learned words. Conclusions Khat users who smoke cigarettes have lower rate of verbal learning and delayed recall of previously learned verbal material than Khat users who do not smoke cigarettes. This may be due to pre-existing differences between these groups of subjects. PMID:23714286

  12. Effects of different forms of verbal processing on the formation of intrusions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pinchao; Jiang, Yijie; Dang, Xiaojiao; Huang, Yuesheng; Chen, Xuejun; Zheng, Xifu

    2013-04-01

    This study used the trauma film paradigm to investigate different forms of posttrauma verbal processing relevant to the formation of intrusive memories. We designed 3 experiments to investigate verbal processing that could help to reduce the formation of posttraumatic intrusions. Experiments 1 and 2 looked at the effect of several forms of verbal processing, varied in emotional foci and vantage points, on the formation of posttraumatic intrusions. Experiment 3 utilized event-related potential (ERP) technology to control emotional focus and to further examine the effect of verbal processing from different vantage points. Data produced by Experiment 1 showed that the "what-focus" group had fewer intrusions than the "why-focus" group. Experiment 2 produced no significant difference between first- and third-person vantage points. Results from the last experiment showed the what-focus group was faster to judge the colors of the words in the emotional Stroop task, and the amplitude and latency of P2 for negative words were greater than neutral words in the what-focus group. Based on the results of the experiments, participants who were led to verbalize their traumatic experiences using the what-focus and the first-person vantage point ended up with fewer intrusions. PMID:23526670

  13. Semantic and phonemic verbal fluency in blinds.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-06-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124 sighted people in verbal fluency task. The tasks were phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test that subjects should be generate as many word as possible in a limited amount of time for a given letter (Phonemic fluency) or a given category (Semantic fluency). Independent T Test was used to comparing blind with sighted. Findings show significant difference between two groups so that that sighted subjects have higher performance in semantic verbal fluency task (p = 0.000). Comparing sighted and blind subjects in phonemic verbal fluency task shows performance in sighted subjects (p = 0.000). Based on this study blinds have lower performance in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency task as a executive function of frontal lobe. PMID:19911280

  14. Beijing declaration on medical pathophysiology education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zdenko Kovac (University of Zagreb Pathophysiology)

    2007-07-27

    THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (ISP), at its fifth quadrennial conference in Beijing, China, in 2006, adopted a declaration related to pathophysiological teaching and learning issues (APPENDIX). The ISP Declaration is a blueprint document that refers to the present position of pathophysiology in medical education. Pathophysiology is not thought of at all medical universities as an independent course. All medical curricula, however, recognize the necessity and importance of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of disease for medical practice. The ISP Declaration outlines the rationale and didactic advantages of an integrative approach that is critical for the contemporary complexity of biomedical information and methodology.

  15. Reading Like a Historian: Declaration of Independence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stanford History Education Group

    2012-09-26

    In this lesson, students study primary and secondary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Founders write the Declaration of Independence? Students will examine contrasting views by two historians. Then they will read the preamble of the Declaration (2 versions of varying reading complexity are provided) and rewrite it in their own words. Students will also examine a simplified list of the grievances against King George specified in the Declaration. Finally, students and teacher attempt to answer the central question and determine which featured historian has the better argument.

  16. Exceptional verbal intelligence after hemispherotomy in a child with Rasmussen encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Grosmaitre, Catherine; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Dorfmuller, Georg; Rodrigo, Sebastian; Ville, Dorothée; Delalande, Olivier; Bulteau, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We report a longitudinal case study of a left-handed girl who underwent left hemispherotomy at 7 years for Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). Presurgical evaluation showed mild hemiparesis, no visual defect, and light neuropsychological impairment with short-term memory weakness. Language fMRI showed a right hemispheric dominance. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited right hemiplegia and hemianopsia but preserved intellectual capacities. She became seizure-free, and antiepileptic medication was discontinued. Long-term follow-up showed very high verbal intelligence at 11 years of age (VCI of 155) and improvement in working memory as well as language and reading abilities. Furthermore, a significant visuoverbal discrepancy became increasingly pronounced. Thus, early surgical treatment of epilepsy avoided the global cognitive deterioration usually associated with RE. Finally, such a high level of verbal functioning combined with low spatial reasoning with a single hemisphere provides additional information on the neurocognitive profile of children with RE after hemispherotomy. PMID:24471481

  17. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  18. Mechanisms of verbal memory impairment in four neurodevelopmental disorders

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    ; Developmental disorders; Brain lesions; Specific language impairment; Williams Syndrome; Down Syndrome 1 disorders: specific language impairment (SLI), Williams Syndrome (WMS), and Down Syndrome (DS). Because by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams

  19. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  20. Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2006-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

  1. The effect of retrieval enactment on recall of subject-performed tasks and verbal tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Kormi-Nouri; Lars Nyberg; Lars-Göran Nilsson

    1994-01-01

    The effect of retrieval enactment on memory for nouns (objects) or verbal phrases describing simple actions (e.g., “lift the\\u000a box”) was addressed in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the type of object involved in the actions was manipulated, with\\u000a three different types of object being used (body parts, laboratory-related objects, and external objects). In Experiment 2,\\u000a the integration between the

  2. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and declarations. 1.69 Section...Oath Or Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever...the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can...

  3. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and declarations. 1.69 Section...Oath Or Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever...the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can...

  4. Memory and executive functions in adolescents with posttreatment Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Patrick; Brassard, Marla R; Fallon, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Although adults with late stage posttreatment Lyme disease often experience difficulties in memory, little is known about the relationship between cognition and Lyme disease in children and adolescents. Twenty-five adolescents with late stage posttreatment Lyme disease (symptoms > 6 months) and 25 participants without Lyme disease (matched on gender, IQ, age, socioeconomic status) were assessed for neuropsychological functioning, depression, school functioning, and predisease academic achievement. The Lyme group had significant deficits in cognition (short-term visual memory, short-term and delayed verbal memory, all forms of recognition memory), as well as worse attendance, grades, and subjective reports of memory problems, without differing in predisease achievement or depression. Deficits in visual memory exceeded deficits in verbal memory-a striking difference from what is reported in adults. These results reveal that adolescents with a history of treated Lyme disease are at risk for long-term problems in cognition and school functioning. PMID:18726742

  5. 19 CFR 10.821 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.821 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

  6. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.804 Declaration...treatment specified for those goods in the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement; and This document consists...

  7. 37 CFR 41.203 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...patent judge declares the patent interference on behalf of...The involved applications, patents, and claims; (3) The accorded benefit for each count; and ...Redeclaration. An administrative patent judge may redeclare a...

  8. Relationships Between Need for Cognition, Knowledge, and Verbal Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S. Tidwell; Cyril J. Sadowski; Lia M. Pate

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships between need for cognition. knowledge, and verbal ability. Participants completed scales that measured their need for cognition, verbal ability, and knowledge about people and events that occurred during the Vietnam War era. Correlational analyses showed that the participants' need for cognition scores were modestly but positively correlated with verbal ability and knowledge and that verbal

  9. ushistory.org: The Declaration of Independence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This ushistory.org Website provides substantial information about the Declaration of Independence, its history, the men who signed it, and an online version of the famous document. Also included here is a lengthy excerpt from Thomas Jefferson's autobiography detailing the drafting of the Declaration, as well as profiles of all 56 signatories, information about the Graff House at the outskirts of Philadelphia where Jefferson wrote the document, and a short collection of annotated links.

  10. Alexithymia, verbal ability and emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Montebarocci, Ornella; Surcinelli, Paola; Rossi, Nicola; Baldaro, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Although previous studies seem to indicate that alexithymic individuals have a deficit in their ability to recognize emotional stimuli, none had studied the relationship between alexithymia and verbal and non verbal abilities and their possible role in emotion recognition. The aim of the present study is to further investigate the relationship between alexithymia and emotion recognition ability. In particular we studied whether this relationship is mediated by verbal ability. Thirty-five students were selected from a group of 91 University students previously screened for alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale; TAS-20). Participants were shown black and white slides depicting facial expression of the following emotions: anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, happiness and fear. Compared to low alexithymic participants, and, more importantly, taking verbal IQ into account, high alexithymic and low alexithymic participants did not differ in emotion recognition. PMID:21188637

  11. Intact Memory for Irrelevant Information Impairs Perception in Amnesia

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    memory system. Recent work has questioned these views, suggest- ing that amnesia can result from of damage to a dedicated declarative memory system, but in terms of impoverished representations., 2010; Cowan et al., 2004; Della Sala et al., 2005; Dewar et al., 2009; Loewenstein et al., 2004; Mc

  12. Rats Depend on Habit Memory for Discrimination Learning and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the circumstances in which rats engage either declarative memory (and the hippocampus) or habit memory (and the dorsal striatum). Rats with damage to the hippocampus or dorsal striatum were given three different two-choice discrimination tasks (odor, object, and pattern). These tasks differed in the number of trials required for…

  13. Memory Organization for Improved Data Cache Performance in Embedded Processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

    1996-01-01

    Code generation for embedded processors creates opportunities for several performance optimizations not applicable for traditional compilers. We present techniques for improving data cache performance by organizing variables declared in embedded code into memory, using specific parameters of the data cache. Our approach clusters variables to minimize compulsory cache misses, and solves the memory assignment problem to minimize conflict cache misses.

  14. A Memory-Based Model of Hick's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a memory-based model of Hick's law, the approximately linear increase in choice reaction time with the logarithm of set size (the number of stimulus-response alternatives). According to the model, Hick's law reflects a combination of associative interference during retrieval from declarative memory and occasional savings…

  15. Working Memory and Intelligence in Children: What Develops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the contribution of the phonological and executive working memory (WM) systems to 205 (102 girls, 103 boys, 6 to 9 years old) elementary school children's fluid and crystallized intelligence. The results show that (a) a 3-factor structure (phonological short-term memory [STM], visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) was comparable…

  16. Semantic Memory Functioning Across the Adult Life Span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Bäckman; Lars-Göran Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the first wave of data collection in the Betula project, this research examined semantic memory performance in adulthood and old age (N = 1000). The Betula project is a 10-year longitudinal study on memory and health that involves participants from 10 age groups: 35, 40, 45, …, and 80 years of age. Results from tests of verbal

  17. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met Polymorphism Affects Human Memory-Related Hippocampal Activity and Predicts Memory Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad R. Hariri; Terry E. Goldberg; Venkata S. Mattay; Bhaskar S. Kolachana; Joseph H. Callicott; Michael F. Egan; Daniel R. Weinberger

    between the BDNF val 66met genotype and the hippocampal response during encoding accounted for 25% of the total variation in recognition memory performance. These data implicate a specific genetic mechanism for substantial normal variation in human declar- ative memory and suggest that the basic effects of BDNF signaling on hippocampal function in experimental animals are important in humans.

  18. Is selective mutism associated with deficits in memory span and visual memory?: An exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Hanne; Oerbeck, Beate

    2006-01-01

    Our main aim in this study was to explore the association between selective mutism (SM) and aspects of nonverbal cognition such as visual memory span and visual memory. Auditory-verbal memory span was also examined. The etiology of SM is unclear, and it probably represents a heterogeneous condition. SM is associated with language impairment, but nonspecific neurodevelopmental factors, including motor problems, are also reported in SM without language impairment. Furthermore, SM is described in Asperger's syndrome. Studies on nonverbal cognition in SM thus merit further investigation. Neuropsychological tests were administered to a clinical sample of 32 children and adolescents with SM (ages 6-17 years, 14 boys and 18 girls) and 62 nonreferred controls matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. We used independent t-tests to compare groups with regard to auditory-verbal memory span, visual memory span, and visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), and employed linear regression analysis to study the impact of SM on visual memory, controlling for IQ and measures of language and motor function. The SM group differed from controls on auditory-verbal memory span but not on visual memory span. Controlled for IQ, language, and motor function, the SM group did not differ from controls on visual memory. Motor function was the strongest predictor of visual memory performance. SM does not appear to be associated with deficits in visual memory span or visual memory. The reduced auditory-verbal memory span supports the association between SM and language impairment. More comprehensive neuropsychological studies are needed. PMID:16411178

  19. Opposite Effects of Cortisol on Consolidation of Temporal Sequence Memory during Waking and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Memory functions involve three stages: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Modulating effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been consistently observed for declarative memory with GCs enhancing encoding and impairing retrieval, but surprisingly, little is known on how GCs affect memory consolidation. Studies in rats suggest a beneficial effect…

  20. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  1. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  2. Is the Binding of Visual Features in Working Memory Resource-Demanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard J.; Baddeley, Alan D.; Hitch, Graham J.

    2006-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory is assumed to play a role in the binding of features into chunks. A series of experiments compared memory for arrays of colors or shapes with memory for bound combinations of these features. Demanding concurrent verbal tasks were used to investigate the role of general attentional processes,…

  3. A Quantitative Measure of JS's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Shalom, Dorit; Faran, Yifat; Boucher, Jill

    2010-01-01

    JS is a highly able, well-educated 37 year old man with Asperger syndrome. A recent qualitative paper (Boucher, 2007) described his self-report of verbal and visual memory difficulties. The present paper used the WMS-III to compare the memory profile of JS to that of the adults with HFA in the Williams et al. (2005) WMS-III paper. Results show…

  4. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  5. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  6. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  7. Individual differences in spatial text processing: High spatial ability can compensate for spatial working memory interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Meneghetti; Valérie Gyselinck; Francesca Pazzaglia; Rossana De Beni

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task. To understand how individuals who differ

  8. Neural correlates of working memory performance in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nenad Vasic; Christina Lohr; Claudia Steinbrink; Claudia Martin; Robert Christian Wolf

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric verbal WM task which required the manipulation of verbal material.

  9. Evidence for a Specific Impairment of Serial Order Short-Term Memory in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Gestures on Memory for Foreign Language Words Trained in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedonia, Manuela; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Language and gesture are viewed as highly interdependent systems. Besides supporting communication, gestures also have an impact on memory for verbal information compared to pure verbal encoding in native but also in foreign language learning. This article presents a within-subject longitudinal study lasting 14 months that tested the use of…

  11. Memory in health and in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2013-01-01

    Memory is an important capacity needed for survival in a changing environment, and its principles are shared across species. These principles have been studied since the inception of behavioral science, and more recently neuroscience has helped understand brain systems and mechanisms responsible for enabling aspects of memory. Here we outline the history of work on memory and its neural underpinning, and describe the major dimensions of memory processing that have been evaluated by cognitive neuroscience, focusing on episodic memory. We present evidence in healthy populations for sex differences—females outperforming in verbal and face memory, and age effects—slowed memory processes with age. We then describe deficits associated with schizophrenia. Impairment in schizophrenia is more severe in patients with negative symptoms—especially flat affect—who also show deficits in measures of social cognition. This evidence implicates medial temporal and frontal regions in schizophrenia. PMID:24459407

  12. Working Memory Components and Intelligence in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Carin M.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, in children aged 6-13 years, how different components of the working memory (WM) system (short-term storage and executive processes), within both verbal and visuospatial domains, relate to fluid intelligence. We also examined the degree of domain-specificity of the WM components as well as the differentiation of storage…

  13. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Methodology/Principal Findings Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. Conclusions/Significance This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals. PMID:18648493

  14. Verbalization and problem solving: insight and spatial factors.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, K J; Fioratou, E; Henretty, N

    2010-02-01

    Two groups of participants attempted eight examples of each of four different problem types formed by combining insight versus non-insight and verbal versus spatial factors. The groups were given different verbalization instructions viz., Silent (N=40) or Direct Concurrent (N=40). There were significant differences between insight and non-insight tasks and between spatial and verbal tasks in terms of solution rates and latencies. Significant interactions between the verbal versus spatial factor and verbalization condition on solution rates and latencies reflected a greater (negative) effect of verbalizing on spatial as against verbal problems. However, no significant interactions of the insight versus non-insight factor with verbalization condition on solution rates or latencies were found. These results favoured the 'business as usual' view of insight problem solving as against the 'special process' view which predicted larger effects of verbalization for insight problems as against non-insight problems. PMID:19309537

  15. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components. PMID:21347920

  16. Maternal Scaffolding and Preterm Toddlers’ Visual-Spatial Processing and Emerging Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Hilgendorf, Amy E; Miller, Kyle; Lambert, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Objective?We examined longitudinal associations among neonatal and socioeconomic risks, maternal scaffolding behaviors, and 24-month visual-spatial processing and working memory in a sample of 73 toddlers born preterm or low birthweight (PT LBW).?Methods?Risk data were collected at hospital discharge and dyadic play interactions were observed at 16-months postterm. Abbreviated IQ scores, verbal/nonverbal working memory, and verbal/nonverbal visual-spatial processing data were collected at 24-months postterm. Results?Higher attention scaffolding and lower emotion scaffolding during 16-month play were associated with 24-month verbal working memory scores. A joint significance test revealed that maternal attention and emotion scaffolding during 16-month play mediated the relationship between socioeconomic risk and 24-month verbal working memory.?Conclusions?These findings suggest areas for future research and intervention with children born PT LBW who also experience high socioeconomic risk. PMID:19505998

  17. Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    1978-01-01

    Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

  18. Feelings Without Memory in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD’s effect on emotion. Objective: We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. Methods: A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. Results: As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. Conclusions: These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients’ memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences. PMID:25237742

  19. Constructs and Events in Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fryling, Mitch J.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis. PMID:23814375

  20. Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

  1. The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of that paper there has been an increase in the application of CEOs as independent variables in the teaching of verbal behavior in applied setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of clinical applications of the EO to the teaching of verbal behavior during the last 20 years. PMID:23814365

  2. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  3. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  4. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

  5. DECLARATION OF MINOR Name___________________________________ID #______________________________Class Year___________

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    _____Sociology _____Sports Management (SPMG) _____Theatre--Technical Theatre (TECT) _____Theatre CURRENTLY HAVE A DECLARED MAJOR? IF SO INDICATE: ___________________________________________________ Use:__________________________ ___Check if this was a previously declared major. ___Check if this is a third minor and indicate previously

  6. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  7. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Self-declarations. 26.209 Section 26.209 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an individual is...

  8. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8...FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.8 Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. (a) The...

  9. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8...FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.8 Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. (a) The...

  10. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8...FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.8 Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. (a) The...

  11. Memory for Details with Self-Referencing

    PubMed Central

    Serbun, Sarah J.; Shih, Joanne Y.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgments in reference to the self, a close other (one’s mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). Results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details as well. PMID:22092106

  12. Environmental product declarations for telecommunication products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Legarth; S. Hirsbak; J. Gregersen; H. Erichsen; E. Borch

    2000-01-01

    Several types of voluntary environmental claims have been developed during the last decade in response to a growing demand by public and commercial customers for insight into product life cycle environmental performance. Now almost fully standardized by the ISO 14020 series, these voluntary environmental claims appear as eco-labels and a variety of environmental declarations. This paper discusses a project underway

  13. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  14. Towards Declarative Debugging of Concurrent Constraint Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus P. J. Fromherz

    1993-01-01

    The concurrent constraint (cc) framework [17] describes a family of concurrent programming languages that use constraints for the synchronization of processes. In this paper, we describe an approach to the declarative debugging of cc programs. We develop the concept of observable and specified behaviors of cc processes, define incorrect processes based on differences between these behaviors, and present a top-down

  15. Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework Kenrick Kin1,2 Bj¨orn Hartmann1 Tony DeRose2 Maneesh Agrawala1 1 University of California, Berkeley 2 Pixar Animation Studios ABSTRACT Proton- sions of touch event symbols. It builds on the Proton frame- work by allowing developers to incorporate

  16. Payment of remuneration declaration Please note

    E-print Network

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    registered civil partnership divorced / marriage annulled or declared void widower IBAN, bank, BIC Have you of the following: · married · divorced and you have to pay maintenance · single or divorced and you accommodate, e. g. marriage certificate, operative provisions of the divorce decree including a note

  17. Mass. Declares a Red Tide Disaster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CBS; Associated Press

    This CBS news article provides very general information about the massive red tide outbreak in New England in 2005. The article states that the outbreak is costing the shellfish industry $3 million per week, forcing Massachusetts to declare a state of emergency. The article features related external links.

  18. Table of Contents o Declaring a Major

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    declaration form. Students can qualify in two ways: Advancement based on Prior Credit and Academic Performance: Student must have 7 credit hours or more of AP or prior college credit including at least 4 #12;2 credit of MATH 155, CHEM 115-116, PHYS111, or PHYS112 and pass all first semester MATH (155) and science

  19. Gas Source Declaration with a Mobile Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Lilienthal; Andreas Zell; Holger Ulmer; Holger Fröhlich; Andreas Stützle; Felix Werner

    2004-01-01

    As a sub-task of the general gas source localisation problem, gas source declaration is the process of determining the certainty that a source is in the immediate vicinity. Due to the turbulent character of gas transport in a natural indoor environment, it is not sufficient to search for instantaneous concentration maxima, in order to solve this task. Therefore, this paper

  20. Sudan Genocide Declaration Stirs the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    One week after Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the killings, rapes and other atrocities committed in Darfur amount to "genocide," in mid-September the United Nations' World Health Organization issued new figures saying 6,000 to 10,000 people are dying per month there in one of Africa's worst humanitarian crises. Powell had based his…

  1. International Symposium for Literacy: Declaration of Persepolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The full text of the Declaration of Persepolis, adopted by the International Symposium for Literacy, is presented. The Symposium considers literacy to be not only the process of attaining reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, but also a contribution to the liberation and development of the human race. (LH)

  2. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  3. Neuroimaging analyses of human working memory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward E.; Jonides, John

    1998-01-01

    We review a program of research that uses neuroimaging techniques to determine the functional and neural architecture of human working memory. A first set of studies indicates that verbal working memory includes a storage component, which is implemented neurally by areas in the left-hemisphere posterior parietal cortex, and a subvocal rehearsal component, which is implemented by left-hemisphere speech areas, including Broca’s area as well as the premotor and supplementary motor areas. We provide a number of neuroimaging dissociations between the storage and rehearsal areas. A second set of studies focuses on spatial working memory and indicates that it is mediated by a network of predominantly right-hemisphere regions that include areas in posterior parietal, occipital, and frontal cortex. We provide some suggestive evidence that these areas, too, divide into storage and rehearsal regions, with right-hemisphere posterior parietal and premotor regions subserving spatial rehearsal. In a final set of studies, we turn to “executive processes,” metaprocesses that regulate the processing of working-memory contents. We focus on the executive process of inhibition as it is used in verbal working memory. We provide evidence that such inhibition is mediated by the left-hemisphere prefrontal region and that it can be dissociated from verbal storage and rehearsal processes. PMID:9751790

  4. A Debugging Scheme for Declarative Equation Based Modeling Languages

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    A Debugging Scheme for Declarative Equation Based Modeling Languages Peter Bunus, Peter Fritzson in declarative equation based modeling lan- guages. We first give an introduction to declarative equation based lan- guages and the consequences equation based programming has for debug- ging. At the same time, we

  5. A Debugging Scheme for Declarative Equation Based Modeling Languages

    E-print Network

    Burns, Peter

    A Debugging Scheme for Declarative Equation Based Modeling Languages Peter Bunus and Peter Fritzson in declarative equation based modeling lan- guages. We first give an introduction to declarative equation based lan- guages and the consequences equation based programming has for debug- ging. At the same time, we

  6. THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act

  7. Retinoblastoma and Superior Verbal IQ Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen; Hill, John

    2010-01-01

    Experienced teachers have long asserted that children blind from retinoblastoma (Rb), a rare cancer of the eye, are of above average intelligence. To test this hypothesis, standardized verbal intelligence tests were administered to a sample of 85 children and adults, all diagnosed with the early infancy form of this condition. For 42 of the Rb…

  8. Social Class Differences in Spontaneous Verbal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The spontaneous language behavior of 100 mother-child pairs was observed in an effort to link it with social class membership. Results indicated that some differences in verbalizations existed and furnished support for the socio-linguistic theories of Basil Bernstein. (Author/SDH)

  9. Verbal Response Mode Correlates of Experiencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Compared specific verbal response mode (VRM) indices with the more global Experiencing (EXP) Scale. Stile's VRM taxonomy was used to code transcribed interviews published in the EXP manual. The strongest VRM correlate of EXP level was the percentage of utterances that were disclosure in form and intent. (Author)

  10. Recognizing Verbal Irony in Spontaneous Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Bryant; Jean E. Fox Tree

    2002-01-01

    We explored the differential impact of auditory information and written contextual information on the recognition of verbal irony in spontaneous speech. Based on rele- vance theory, we predicted that speakers would provide acoustic disambiguation cues when speaking in situations that lack other sources of information, such as a vi- sual channel. We further predicted that listeners would use this information,

  11. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  12. Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic A. Infante; Charles J. Wigley III

    1986-01-01

    Verbal agressiveness is conceptualized as a personality trait that predisposes persons to attack the self?concepts of other people instead of, or in addition to, their positions on topics of communication. This conception is positioned with respect to the trait structure of personality and also in relation to other aggressive personality traits: hostility, assertiveness, and argumentativeness. An interpersonal model is developed

  13. A Lexical Universe for Verbal Reasoning Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; Jones, Robert J.

    The usefulness of a "lexical universe" in the development of verbal reasoning tests was studied. The lexical universe, which is a comprehensive listing of words and their frequencies based on a collection of machine-readable texts exceeding 14 million words of running text, is an outcome of a 1987 College Board study of the language in materials…

  14. Non-Linguistic Responses to Verbal Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines children's responses to verbal instructions to place objects in, on, or under other objects according to the paradigm developed by Clark (1973). Also assesses children's comprehension of the spatial terms by asking them simply to point to objects in particular relationships without actually manipulating them. (SED)

  15. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  16. Working Memory Deficits in Children with Reading Difficulties: Memory Span and Dual Task Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shinmin; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the cause of the reported problems in working memory in children with reading difficulties. Verbal and visuospatial simple and complex span tasks, and digit span and reaction times tasks performed singly and in combination, were administered to 46 children with single word reading difficulties and 45 typically…

  17. Selective Effects of Triazolam on Memory for Emotional, Relative to Neutral, Stimuli: Differential Effects on Gist Versus Detail

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    semantic declarative memories intact (Curran, Gardiner, Java, & Allen, 1993). Studies in animals have shownSelective Effects of Triazolam on Memory for Emotional, Relative to Neutral, Stimuli: Differential College of Medicine Benzodiazepines are known to reduce learning and memory performance, presumably

  18. The molecular biology of memory: cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural) and explicit (declarative) memory. I here first trace the background for the clinical and behavioral studies of implicit memory that made a molecular biology of memory storage possible, and then detail the discovery and early history of these six molecular steps and their roles in explicit memory. PMID:22583753

  19. Derivational Morphology of the Early Irish Verbal Noun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Randall Clark

    2012-01-01

    As is well known, the Insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Breton and the now-extinct Manx and Cornish) utilize a class of verbal abstracts known as "verbal nouns" to perform the functions that are fulfilled in other Indo-European languages by infinitives and supines. Yet in many ways the Celtic verbal noun remains somewhat of an…

  20. Foreign Language Learning and SAT Verbal Scores Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas C.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Jahner, David; Webb, Elizabeth; Wilbur, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language learning and verbal ability in English as measured by the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Reasoning Test. Comparing foreign language students to nonforeign language students in this study, the effect of taking a foreign language on SAT verbal

  1. Verbal Communication: From Pedagogy to Make-Believe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melser, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This paper brings the concept of "acting in concert" to the aid of those wanting to understand the nature of verbal communication. Verbal communication is introduced as a form of concerted activity which has a management function vis-a-vis other concerted (and cooperative) activity. In the body of the paper, verbal communication is likened to…

  2. The N-Word: Reducing Verbal Pollution in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ericka J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the crisis of verbal pollution in our society. "Verbal pollution" refers to the use of words and comments that the majority agrees are offensive, are damaging, and may lead to the deterioration of social institutions. Verbal pollution encompasses hate speech, such as the derogatory words used by Michael…

  3. Discursive and Communicative Functions of Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip

    This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesic…

  4. Medial temporal lobe memory in childhood: Developmental transitions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore MTL-dependent memory across middle childhood. Children (6 – 10 years old) and adults completed two computerized tasks, place learning (PL) and transitive inference (TI), that each examined relational memory, as well as the flexible use of relational learning. Findings suggest that the development of relational memory precedes the development of the ability to use relational knowledge flexibly in novel situations. Implications for the development of underlying brain areas and ideas for future neuroimaging investigations are discussed. PMID:20712740

  5. Low HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for deficit and decline in memory in midlife: the Whitehall II study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Low HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for deficit and decline in memory in midlife: the Whitehall II lipids and short term verbal memory in middle aged adults. Methods Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and memory were measured twice, at mean ages 55 and 61, in 3673

  6. Episodic memory and organizational strategy in free recall in unipolar depression: The role of cognitive support and executive functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Taconnat; Alexia Baudouin; Séverine Fay; Naftali Raz; Badiâa Bouazzaoui; Wissam El-Hage; Michel Isingrini; Anne-Marie Ergis

    2010-01-01

    Executive functioning and memory impairment have been demonstrated in adults with depression. Executive functions and memory are related, mainly when the memory tasks require controlled processes (attentional resource demanding processes)—that is, when a low cognitive support (external aid) is provided. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 participants: 21 with depression, and 24 healthy controls matched for age, verbal

  7. How Many Declarations Do We Need? Inside the Drafting of the Bonn Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2009-01-01

    The Bonn Declaration, approved by the 900 participants at the UNESCO World Conference on Sustainable Development, differs from other conference declarations in that it is the first declaration to deal exclusively with education for sustainable development. It received input from official State representatives and, perhaps because of that, it is…

  8. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  9. Adolescent Self-Organization Predicts Midlife Memory in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60–64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  10. The Contribution of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order to Early Reading Acquisition: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Early reading acquisition skills have been linked to verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity. However, the nature of this relationship remains controversial because verbal STM, like reading acquisition, depends on the complexity of underlying phonological processing skills. This longitudinal study addressed the relation between STM and reading…

  11. Parental verbal affection and verbal aggression in childhood differentially influence psychiatric symptoms and wellbeing in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18-25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. PMID:24268711

  12. Parental Verbal Affection and Verbal Aggression in Childhood Differentially Influence Psychiatric Symptoms and Wellbeing in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18–25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. PMID:24268711

  13. Dissociating rehearsal and refreshing in the maintenance of verbal information in 8-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Gérome; Camos, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of working memory suggest that two systems are involved in verbal working memory: one is dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal, while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing (Camos et al., 2009; Baddeley, 2012). Previous studies provided evidence on the existence of these two maintenance systems, on their independence, and how they affect recall performance in adults. However, only one study had already explored the relationships between these two systems in children ( Tam et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to further examine how the two systems account for working memory performance in children. Eight-year-old children performed complex span tasks in which the availability of either the rehearsal or the refreshing was impeded by a concurrent articulation or an attention-demanding task, respectively. Moreover, the phonological similarity of the memoranda was manipulated. Congruently with studies showing that older children can used these maintenance systems, impeding any of the two systems reduced recall performance. Moreover, the manipulation of the two mechanisms did not interact, as previously observed in adults. This suggests that the two maintenance mechanisms are independent in 8-year-old children as they are in adults. However, the results concerning the phonological similarity effect (PSE) differed from what is observed in adults. Whereas the PSE relies only on the availability of rehearsal in adults, a more complex pattern appeared in children: the concurrent articulation as well as the concurrent task modulated the emergence of the PSE. PMID:25667577

  14. Investigation of Teachers' Verbal and Non-Verbal Strategies for Managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students' Behaviours within a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…

  15. Does Fatigue Complaint Reflect Memory Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jougleux-Vie, Caroline; Duhin, Emeline; Deken, Valerie; Outteryck, Olivier; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Fatigue and memory impairment are common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) and both may interact with cognition. This can contribute to making a complaint misrepresentative of the objective disorder. We sought to determine whether fatigue complaint in MS reflects memory impairment and investigated whether patients' subjective fatigue is associated with memory complaint. Methods. Fifty MS patients complaining of fatigue underwent subjective assessment of fatigue and memory complaint measured using self-assessment scales. Cognitive functions were assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a test of verbal episodic memory, the selective reminding test (SRT). Correlations were studied between subjective fatigue, memory complaint, and performance in verbal episodic memory. Results. Depression score, psychotropic and/or antiepileptic drug use, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and MS form were confounding factors. After adjusting for these confounding factors, neither fatigue complaint nor memory complaint was correlated with SRT performance. Subjective fatigue was significantly associated with memory complaint. Conclusion. Although complaint of fatigue in MS was correlated with memory complaint, subjective fatigue was not the expression of memory impairment. PMID:24724029

  16. The Effects of Conversational Goals on Parent-Child Memory Sharing and Children's Recollections of a Stressful Event

    E-print Network

    Sun, Shengkai

    2012-12-31

    less, but children's own fact talk predicted better memories. Also, children's emotional reactions and parent-child non-verbal interaction during the conversations predicted several parent conversation measures. These findings suggest that parents...

  17. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation via fludrocortisone on memory in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Janke, Katrin; Hinkelmann, Kim; Eckert, Franciska C; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In a previous study, we found that in contrast to healthy controls, hydrocortisone administration had enhancing effects on memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Because hydrocortisone acts on glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), it is unclear which receptor mediated these effects. The aim of the current study was to test whether more selective MR stimulation with fludrocortisone improves memory in BPD. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, within-subject, cross-over study, 39 medication-free women with BPD and 39 healthy women received placebo or 0.4mg fludrocortisone prior to cognitive testing. We measured verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and working memory. We found a significant group by fludrocortisone interaction on verbal memory and visuospatial memory. In both tests patients with BPD, but not healthy women, had impaired memory performance after fludrocortisone compared to placebo. In contrast, working memory was improved after fludrocortisone compared to placebo in both groups. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found impairing effects of MR stimulation on hippocampus-mediated verbal memory and visuospatial memory in BPD but not in healthy controls. In contrast, working memory, which depends more on the prefrontal cortex, was improved after MR stimulation across groups. Future studies should systematically disentangle beneficial and adverse effects of MR stimulation in health and disease. PMID:25732250

  18. Hippocampal amnesia disrupts verbal play and the creative use of language in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Hengst, Julie A.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2010-01-01

    Background While the neural substrates and cognitive components of creativity have received considerable attention in cognitive neuroscience, the creative use of language in social interaction has been less well studied. As part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use in individuals with hippocampal amnesia, we analyzed verbal play, a creative use of language that is pervasive in everyday communicative interaction. Aims To identify instances of creative uses of language in the protocols of social and collaborative interactions, to characterize the qualitative nature, and to determine the frequency of these interactions initiated by participants with hippocampal amnesia vs. comparison participants in order to ascertain whether amnesia impairs this aspect of social communication. Methods and Procedures This study uses quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis to analyze verbal play in the interactional discourse sessions of 4 participants with hippocampal amnesia and 4 healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants, each interacting with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task and with a researcher between task trials. Results All participants used verbal play. However, significantly fewer episodes were initiated in sessions with amnesia participants (312) and by participants with amnesia themselves (187) than in sessions with comparison participants (572) and by comparison participants (395). No significant group differences were observed for interactional forms, resources, or functions. Qualitative differences were also observed in amnesia sessions (e.g., more rotely produced episodes, lack of thematically linked episodes). Conclusions These findings suggest that hippocampal amnesia disrupts the creative use of language in social interaction and accord with our previous work pointing to impairments in language-and-memory-in-use more broadly. These findings highlight the interdependence of language and memory especially in the interactional aspects of communication. PMID:20300442

  19. Memory one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, D; Geraud, C; Julien, H; Baud, F; Dally, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Serious delayed neuropsychological sequelae may complicate carbon monoxide intoxication. The existence of minor manifestations, especially memory disturbances, is not well documented. Aims: To study several memory functions after carbon monoxide intoxication. Methods: In a prospective study, 32 poisoned patients without risk factors for cognitive disturbances were compared to 32 paired control subjects one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication (blood carbon monoxide concentration at least 1.0 mmol/l), who had been treated with standard conventional therapy. Psychometric tests included Buschke's verbal memory testing, verbal digit span, Corsi's visuospatial span, reaction times, Stroop's colours decoding test, and verbal fluency test. Results: (1) Memory functions in poisoned subjects were not worse than in the control group and were even better in some areas: learning, word recall, and quality of learning by Buschke's verbal memory testing. Attention was also better in the patients, in whom visual reaction time was shorter than in controls. (2) Results of several memory functions—quality of learning and immediate visual memory—were positively correlated with the initial carbon monoxide level. Conclusions: In a highly selected subset of patients devoid of risk factors for memory impairment, memory, objectively evaluated by psychometric testing, was not worse one month after carbon monoxide intoxication in patients undergoing standard treatment than in paired control subjects. PMID:12598670

  20. The relationship between deferred imitation, associative memory, and communication in 14-months-old children. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Emelie; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus; Heimann, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines behavioral observations of memory (deferred imitation, DI, after a brief delay of 30 min and after a long delay of 2–3 weeks) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials, ERPs) measures of associative memory, as well as parental reports of non-verbal and verbal communication in sixteen 14-months-old children. Results show that for DI, the children remembered the stimulus after the brief but not after the long delay. There was a clear electrophysiological response indicating associative memory. Furthermore, a correlation between DI and ERP suggests that both measures of memory (DI and associative memory) tap into similar mechanisms in 14-months-old children. There was also a statistically significant relation between parental report of receptive (verbal) language and the ERP, showing an association between receptive language skills and associative memory. PMID:25852588