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Purpose To determine the neurofunctional basis of verbalmemory dysfunction in women with metastatic breast cancer. This objective was based on previous research suggesting memory and other cognitive deficits in this population. We attempted to determine if verbalmemory impairments were related to the most commonly studied disease parameters including adjuvant chemotherapy and chronic stress-related disruption of limbic system structures. Experimental Design We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate significantly lower brain activation during a verbaldeclarativememory tasks compared to age and education-matched healthy female controls. We also assessed several stress-related variables including diurnal cortisol levels to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate higher stress and this would contribute to brain activation deficits during memory tasks. Results Women with breast cancer had significantly lower prefrontal cortex activation during the memory encoding condition compared to controls. However, the breast cancer group demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls during the recall condition in multiple, diffuse brain regions. There were no significant differences between the groups in stress-related variables. Women who were treated with CMF chemotherapy demonstrated lower prefrontal cortex activation during memory encoding. Conclusions These results suggest that women with metastatic breast cancer may be at risk for verbalmemory impairments as a result of altered functional brain activation profiles. These findings may be associated with chemotherapy type and/or other aspects of the breast cancer disease process.
Kesler, Shelli R.; Bennett, F. Chris; Mahaffey, Misty L.; Spiegel, David
Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbaldeclarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbaldeclarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504
Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D
According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarativememory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarativememory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarativememory for visual information, and at declarativememory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarativememory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarativememory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH.
Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.
The second year of life is marked by changes in the robustness of recall memory. Both retrieval and storage processes have been implicated as the major source of age-related improvements in recall. Children 13 to 20 months of age were matched for levels of learning of laboratory events (thereby eliminating encoding as a source of developmental difference) and tested for recall after delays as long as 6 months. In Experiment 1, 16-month-olds evidenced less loss of information and more relearning than 13-month-olds. In Experiment 2, 20-month-olds evidenced less loss of information and more relearning than 16-month-olds. Patterns of performance across test trials and in relearning implicate a decline in susceptibility to storage failure as the primary source of the observed developmental trend. PMID:15660850
Cognitive dysfunction, mainly memory impairment, characterizes congestive heart failure (CHF). Aim of this study was to verify whether: (1) CHF has differential effects on primary and secondary memory; (2) memory dysfunction can be diagnosed by a screening instrument. In a multicenter study we enrolled 369 patients with stable CHF who underwent a structured assessment of verbalmemory mechanisms and selected cognitive functions. Performance on some verbalmemory indexes (Recency, Rey's immediate and delayed recall, Learning efficiency) progressively decreased from II to IV New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Rate of forgetting was uniformly high across NYHA classes II-IV. Verbalmemory indexes were highly correlated with most nonverbal scores. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) had poor sensitivity and specificity versus primary or secondary verbalmemory dysfunction. Therefore, a deficit of both primary and secondary memory is relatively common in CHF but cannot be accurately recognized by a screening neuropsychological test. PMID:12607168
Verbal and spatial working memory were examined in high-functioning children, adolescents, and adults with autism compared to age and cognitive-matched controls. No deficit was found in verbal working memory in the individuals with autism using an "N"-back letter task and standardized measures. The distinction between the "N"-back task and others…
Verbal and spatial working memory were examined in high-functioning children, adolescents, and adults with autism compared to age and cognitive-matched controls. No deficit was found in verbal working memory in the individuals with autism using an N-back letter task and standardized measures. The distinction between the N-back task and others used previously to infer a working memory deficit in autism
Diane L. Williams; Gerald Goldstein; Patricia A. Carpenter; Nancy J. Minshew
It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarativememory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge relatively unaffected. The current study examined memory and language functioning in 13 Danish-speaking children with SLI and 20 typically developing (TD) children. Participants were administered tasks assessing declarative, procedural and verbal working memory as well as knowledge of past tense and vocabulary. The SLI group performed significantly poorer than the TD group on the measure of verbal working memory. Non-significant differences between groups were observed on the measure of declarativememory, after controlling for verbal working memory. The groups were found to perform at comparable levels on the procedural memory task. On the language measures, the SLI group performed significantly poorer than the TD group on the past tense and vocabulary tasks. However, the magnitude of the difference was larger on the task assessing past tense. These results indicate grammatical knowledge is relatively more affected than lexical knowledge in Danish speaking children with SLI. However, the results were not consistent with the proposal linking impaired grammar to impairments with procedural memory. At the same time, the study does not rule out that other aspects of procedural learning and memory contribute to the language problems in SLI. Learning outcomes: The reader will be introduced to (1) different memory systems, in particular the declarative, procedural and working memory systems and (2) also research examining the relationship between these different memory systems and language in children with SLI. PMID:22000901
The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms associated with the labilization-reconsolidation process, but little is known about its functionality from a biological standpoint. Indeed, two functions have been proposed. One suggests that destabilization of the original memory after the reminder allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory (memory updating), and the other suggests that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory (memory strengthening). We have previously reported the reconsolidation of human declarativememories, demonstrating memory updating in the framework of reconsolidation. Here we deal with the strengthening function attributed to the reconsolidation process. We triggered labilization-reconsolidation processes successively by repeated presentations of the proper reminder. Participants learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. Twenty-four hours later, the paired-associate verbalmemory was labilized by exposing the subjects to one, two or four reminders. The List-memory was evaluated on Day 3 showing that the memory was improved when at least a second reminder was presented in the time window of the first labilization-reconsolidation process prompted by the earlier reminder. However, the improvement effect was revealed on Day 3, only when at least two reminders were presented on Day2 and not as a consequence of only retrieval. Therefore, we propose central concepts for the reconsolidation process, emphasizing its biological role and the parametrical constrains for this function to be operative.
Forcato, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Maria L. C.; Pedreira, Maria E.
A characteristic usually attributed to declarativememory is that what is learned is accessible to awareness. Recently, the relationship between awareness and declarative (hippocampus-dependent) memory has been questioned on the basis of findings from transitive inference tasks. In transitive inference, participants are first trained on overlapping pairs of items (e.g., A+B?, B+C?, C+D?, and D+E?, where + and ? indicate correct and incorrect choices). Later, participants who choose B over D when presented with the novel pair BD are said to demonstrate transitive inference. The ability to exhibit transitive inference is thought to depend on the fact that participants have represented the stimulus elements hierarchically (i.e., A>B>C>D>E). We found that performance on five-item and six-item transitive inference tasks was closely related to awareness of the hierarchical relationship among the elements of the training pairs. Participants who were aware of the hierarchy performed near 100% correct on all tests of transitivity, but participants who were unaware of the hierarchy performed poorly (e.g., on transitive pair BD in the five-item problem; on transitive pairs BD, BE, and CE in the six-item problem). When the five-item task was administered to memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region, the patients were impaired at learning the training pairs. All patients were unaware of the hierarchy and, like unaware controls, performed poorly on the BD pair. The findings indicate that awareness is critical for robust performance on tests of transitive inference and support the view that awareness of what is learned is a fundamental characteristic of declarativememory.
According to a traditional assumption about working memory, participants retain a series of verbal items for immediate recall\\u000a using covert verbal rehearsal, without much need for attention. We reassessed this assumption by imposing a speeded, nonverbal\\u000a choice reaction time (CRT) task following the presentation of each digit in a list to be recalled. When the memory load surpassed\\u000a a few
According to a traditional assumption about working memory, participants retain a series of verbal items for immediate recall using covert verbal rehearsal, without much need for attention. We reassessed this assumption by imposing a speeded, nonverbal choice reaction time (CRT) task following the presentation of each digit in a list to be recalled. When the memory load surpassed a few items, performance on the speeded CRT task became increasingly impaired. This CRT task impairment depended only on attention-related components of working memory; it was not alleviated by the presence of an auditory memory trace that automatically helped the recall of items at the ends of spoken lists. We suggest that attention-demanding refreshing of verbal stimuli occurs along with any covert rehearsal.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive pediatric disorder that affects both muscle and brain. Children with DMD have mean IQ scores that are about one standard deviation lower than population means, with lower Verbal IQ than Performance IQ scores. For the present study, verbal skills and verbalmemory skills were examined in males with DMD with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 3rd edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. Performance of 50 males with DMD (age range 6–14y, mean 9y 4mo [SD 2y 1mo]) was compared to normative values. Two subsets of the probands were also compared with two comparison groups: unaffected siblings (n=24; DMD group age range 6–12y, mean 9y 1mo [SD 1y 8mo]; sibling age range 6–15y, mean 9y 11mo [SD 2y 4mo]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP);(n=23; DMD group age range 6–9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6–8y, mean 6y 8mo [SD 0y 8mo]). Results demonstrated that although males with DMD performed slightly more poorly than normative values, they performed comparably to the controls on most measures. Consistent deficits were observed only on tests requiring immediate repetition for verbal material (Recalling Sentences, and Concepts and Directions). On other language tasks, including tests of understanding and use of grammar, and understanding of semantic relationships, the males with DMD performed well. Moreover, the males with DMD performed well on multiple indices of verbal recall, and there was no evidence of declarativememory deficits. DMD is a single-gene disorder that is selectively associated with decreased verbal span capacity, but not impaired recall.
Hinton, V J; Fee, R J; Goldstein, E M; De Vivo, D C
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive pediatric disorder that affects both muscle and brain. Children with DMD have mean IQ scores that are about one standard deviation lower than population means, with lower Verbal IQ than Performance IQ scores. For the present study, verbal skills and verbalmemory skills were examined in males with DMD with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 3rd edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. Performance of 50 males with DMD (age range 6–14y, mean 9y 4mo [SD 2y 1mo]) was compared to normative values. Two subsets of the probands were also compared with two comparison groups: unaffected siblings (n=24; DMD group age range 6–12y, mean 9y 1mo [SD 1y 8mo]; sibling age range 6–15y, mean 9y 11mo [SD 2y 4mo]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP); (n=23; DMD group age range 6–9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6–8y, mean 6y 8mo [SD 0y 8mo]). Results demonstrated that although males with DMD performed slightly more poorly than normative values, they performed comparably to the controls on most measures. Consistent deficits were observed only on tests requiring immediate repetition for verbal material (Recalling Sentences, and Concepts and Directions). On other language tasks, including tests of understanding and use of grammar, and understanding of semantic relationships, the males with DMD performed well. Moreover, the males with DMD performed well on multiple indices of verbal recall, and there was no evidence of declarativememory deficits. DMD is a single-gene disorder that is selectively associated with decreased verbal span capacity, but not impaired recall.
Hinton, V J; BA, R J Fee; Goldstein, E M; De Vivo, D C
The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate
Sleep has been shown to stabilize memory traces and to protect against competing interference in both the procedural and declarativememory domain. Here, we focused on an interference learning paradigm by testing patients with primary insomnia (N?=?27) and healthy control subjects (N?=?21). In two separate experimental nights with full polysomnography it was revealed that after morning interference procedural memory performance (using a finger tapping task) was not impaired in insomnia patients while declarativememory (word pair association) was decreased following interference. More specifically, we demonstrate robust associations of central sleep spindles (in N3) with motor memory susceptibility to interference as well as (cortically more widespread) fast spindle associations with declarativememory susceptibility. In general the results suggest that insufficient sleep quality does not necessarily show up in worse overnight consolidation in insomnia but may only become evident (in the declarativememory domain) when interference is imposed.
|The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…
The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…
Verbalmemory impairment has been well explored in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether findings relate to the type of material to be learned or the component process required by the memory task. Also, sparse data on non-verbalmemory also open the question of how well schizophrenia patients encode this material. We tested whether episodic memory performance in schizophrenia varies
Joseph I Tracy; Robert Mattson; Christopher King; Thomas Bundick; Mary Anne Celenza; Guila Glosser
The aim of this study was to determine the neural correlates of different stages of episodic memory function and their modulation by Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Several decades of work have supported the role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in episodic memory function. However, more recent work, derived in part from functional neuroimaging studies, has suggested that other brain structures make up a large-scale network that appear to support successful encoding and retrieval of episodic memories. Furthermore, controversy exists as to whether dissociable MTL regions support qualitatively different aspects of memory (hippocampus: contextual memory or ‘recollection’; perirhinal/lateral entorhinal cortex: item memory or ‘familiarity’). There is limited neuropsychological support for these models and most work in AD only has examined free recall memory measures. We studied the relationship between performance on different stages of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), a 15-item word list learning task, and structural MRI measures in mild AD patients. Structural measures included hippocampal volume and cortical thickness of several ROIs known to undergo atrophy in AD. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, controlling for age, education, and gender, were performed in 146 mild AD patients (MMSE 23.3 ± 2.0). To evaluate the robustness of these relationships, similar analyses were performed with additional standardized verbalmemory measures. Early immediate recall trials (e.g. Trial 1 of the AVLT) were not associated with the size of MTL regions, but correlated most strongly with inferior parietal, middle frontal gyrus, and temporal pole ROIs. After repeated exposure (e.g. Trial 5 of the AVLT), immediate recall was correlated with both MTL and a similar distribution of isocortical structures, but most strongly the temporal pole. For delayed recall, only the hippocampus correlated with performance. In contrast, for delayed recognition discrimination, the perirhinal/entorhinal cortex correlated more strongly than hippocampus; no other isocortical regions were strongly associated with performance. Convergent results were found for immediate and delayed trials of the other memory tests. The current results suggest that a richer understanding of the memory deficits in AD can be gained by examining multiple measures, which tap different aspects of memory function. Furthermore, the present findings are consistent with models hypothesizing that different stages of verbal list learning map onto dissociable brain regions. These data have implications for understanding the anatomic basis of processes underlying episodic memory, particularly related to a division of labor within the medial temporal lobes and within the large-scale MTL-cortical memory network.
A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarativememory in humans. Thus, using our verbal learning task, we analyzed the effect of benzodiazepines on the re-stabilization of the declarativememory. On Day 1, volunteers learned an association between five cue- response-syllables. On Day 2, the verbalmemory was labilized by a reminder presentation, and then a placebo capsule or 0.25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbalmemory was evaluated on Day 3. The volunteers who had received the 0.25 mg clonazepam along with the specific reminder on Day 2, exhibited memory improvement. In contrast, there was no effect when the drug was given without retrieval, when the memory was simply retrieved instead of being reactivated or when short-term memory testing was performed 4 h after reactivation. We discuss the GABAergic role in reconsolidation, which shows a collateral effect on other memories when the treatment is aimed at treating anxiety disorders. Further studies might elucidate the role of GABA in the reconsolidation process associated with dissimilar scenarios. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22819624
Rodríguez, M L C; Campos, J; Forcato, C; Leiguarda, R; Maldonado, H; Molina, V A; Pedreira, M E
Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, “musical semantic memory” is defined as memory for “well-known” melodies without any knowledge of
M. Groussard; F. Viader; V. Hubert; B. Landeau; A. Abbas; B. Desgranges; F. Eustache; H. Platel
Verbal overshadowing is the later disruption of recognition memory resulting from prior verbal recall of the memory. Cognitive psychologists in the field of criminal justice have studied the effect since 1990 due to its ramifications in eyewitness testimony. Because of its short history of research, the effects of verbal overshadowing in the…
|The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…
The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which memory could decay, was manipulated via search set size. This manipulation increased retention interval by up to 100% without having any effect on recall accuracy. This result held with and without articulatory suppression. Two experiments using a dual-task paradigm showed that the visual search process required central attention. Thus, even when memory maintenance by central attention and by articulatory rehearsal was prevented, a large delay had no effect on memory performance, contrary to the decay notion. Most previous experiments that manipulated the retention interval and the opportunity for maintenance processes in complex span have confounded these variables with time pressure during processing periods. Three further experiments identified time pressure as the variable that affected recall. We conclude that time-based decay does not contribute to the capacity limit of verbal working memory. PMID:22866686
Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarativememory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these experiments show that declarativememory benefits mainly from sleep periods dominated by SWS, whereas there is no consistent benefit of this memory from periods rich in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. A main mechanism of declarativememory formation is believed to be the reactivation of newly acquired memory representations in hippocampal networks that stimulates a transfer and integration of these representations into neocortical neuronal networks. Consistent with this model, spindle activity and slow oscillation-related EEG coherence increase during early sleep after intense declarative learning in humans, signs that together point toward a neocortical reprocessing of the learned material. In addition, sleep seems to provide an optimal milieu for declarativememory reprocessing and consolidation by reducing cholinergic activation and the cortisol feedback to the hippocampus during SWS.
To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children's imitative behaviors. Thus, it would appear that maternal negative feedback to child-initiated behaviors is related to an increase in imitative behaviors that are most likely met with positive reinforcement. The continued pursuit of this positivity may impede the development of self-initiated behaviors; delayed development of self-initiated behavior has been linked to disorders of social competence (Landry, Smith, Miller-Loncar, & Swank, 1998). However, imitation has long been known to be a mechanism of learning (Piaget, 1962) and has become an accepted tool for assessment of declarativememory (Bauer, 2004). Whereas the adaptation to abuse posited by Valentino et al. (2006) may be detrimental to social development, our data for this same sample indicate that the reliance on imitative behavior exhibited by the abused children may afford them an advantage at 21 months of age in imitation paradigms. The neglected children are thus at a disadvantage relative to the abused children in the study reported here in that they were not reinforced by mothers for imitative behavior. It is important to note that all children in this sample were from low-income homes. Scores on these events for both target actions and ordered pairs are higher in samples of higher SES children (e.g., Bauer et al., 2000). Thus, the low SES of the families affected performance across the groups. It is possible that the factor responsible for the difference between the abused group and the neglected group is resilience in the face of poverty. Resilience is the ability to recover following a traumatic event or adversity (Masten, 2001), and has been related to child characteristics, such as general intelligence (Masten et al., 1988). It has been proposed that neural plasticity may be responsible for this recovery (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2006). Alternatively, as has been detailed earlier in this chapter, the advantage afforded abused children could arise from the strengthening of neural pathways. It would be adaptive to develop exceptional event memory so as to avoid the events that lead to abuse. Mechan
|Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarativememory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…
Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarativememory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…
During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarativememory. In fact, reactivating a declarativememory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarativememories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval-relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarativememory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586
|The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…
In spite of the acknowledged role that the thalamus plays in declarativememory, details about the precise memory processes it is involved in and which are the structures of the thalamus that contribute to these processes remain unknown. An overview is presented of human clinical and animal experimental findings showing the involvement of the thalamus, at the level of white matter tracts and separate nuclei, in aspects of memory functioning. The region in the thalamus that contributes to declarativememory is the anterior and medial division, containing the anterior nuclei, the medial dorsal nucleus and the intralaminar and midline nuclei. A lesion to the anterior nuclei or their afferent white matter tract, the mammillothalamic tract, results in deficits of encoding of new stimuli. Lesions to the medial dorsal nucleus affect executive processes pertaining to declarativememory, such as the use of memory strategies for retrieval; damage to the intralaminar and midline nuclei results in decreased arousal and thus affects the declarativememory process. Based on anatomical and functional data, a theory is proposed of how the thalamus might play a role at different levels of declarativememory functioning. Firstly, the anterior and mediodorsal nucleus are involved in processing the contents of the stimuli for storage and recall. The anterior nuclei influence the selection of material to be stored and remembered, whereas the mediodorsal nucleus is involved in the coordination and selection of the strategies used to retrieve material. Secondly, the intralaminar and midline nuclei and specifically the lateral and ventral components, maintain a necessary state of the cortical regions involved in the ongoing memory processes. The two types of function subserved by these groups of thalamic nuclei, focussing on contents vs. state, need to work in parallel to mediate and allow memory functioning, respectively. PMID:14584566
Van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Jolles, Jelle; Witter, Menno P; Uylings, Harry B M
The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarativememory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarativememory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of current knowledge about the brain systems that may underlie these memory processes. While changes in infants’ encoding may be attributed to rapid myelination during the first year of life, improvements in long-term retention and flexible retrieval are likely due to the prolonged development of the dentate gyrus. Future studies combining measures of brain and behavior are critical in improving our understanding of how brain development drives memory development during infancy and early childhood.
Priming is an unconscious (nondeclarative) form of memory whereby identification or production of an item is improved by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed that declarativememory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing a basis for familiarity judgments. In two experiments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired patients. All patients exhibited fully intact priming in tests of both free association (study tent; at test, provide an association to canvas) and category verification (study lemon; at test, decide: Is lemon a type of fruit?). Yet the 2 most severely amnesic patients performed at chance on matched tests of recognition memory. These findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments. We suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarativememory.
|Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…
|The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but…
Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector
The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not…
Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector
Three experiments used position emission tomography (PET) to study the neural basis of human working memory. These studies ask whether different neural circuits underly verbal and spatial memory. In Experiment 1, subjects had to retain for 3 sec. either the names of four letters (verbalmemory) or the positions of three dots (spatial memory). The PET results manifested a clear cut double dissociation, as the verbal task activated primarily left-hemisphere regions whereas the spatial task activated only right-hemisphere regions. In Experiment 2, the identical sequence of letters was presented in all conditions, and what varied was whether subjects had to remember the names of the letters (verbalmemory) or their positions in the display (spatial memory). In the verbal task, activation was concentrated more in the left than the right hemisphere; in the spatial task, there was substantial activation in both hemispheres, though in key regions, there was more activation in the right than the left hemisphere. Experiment 3 studied only verbalmemory, and showed that a continuous memory task activated the same regions as the discrete verbal task used in Experiment 1. Taken together, these results indicate that verbal and spatial working memory are implemented by different neural structures. PMID:8670634
|The short-term verbalmemory performance of 19 children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) was contrasted with that of two control groups. Results confirm the expected verbal short-term memory deficit in DS subjects and suggest that this deficit is specific to memory for verbal information and is not primarily caused by auditory or…
Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Phillips, Caroline E.
Despite evidence for diverse neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia, verbaldeclarativememory has emerged as a core deficit in the disorder. Similar but less marked impairments have been demonstrated in unaffected biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, but the nature and extent of the memory impairment in relatives compared to controls is unclear. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature investigating declarativememory in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenics and controls, with the aim of quantifying memory deficits in relatives. The standardised mean difference between groups was calculated for nine measures of declarativememory and two measures of intellectual ability, based on 21 studies of several hundred relatives of schizophrenics and controls. Unaffected relatives showed poorer performance relative to controls on all tests of memory examined. Small to moderate effect sizes, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals, were greatest on immediate (trial 1) list recall (0.65), followed by immediate (0.53) and delayed story recall (0.52). Verbal and general IQ showed smaller standardised mean differences as the latter tests, while the smallest standardised mean difference was shown on delayed visual recall (0.32). Results suggest greater deficits on tests of increasing memory load or which place demands on effective encoding processes but more studies with these tasks are needed. Investigation of sub-groups within these cohorts (e.g. age groups within or beyond the maximum age of risk) is recommended in order to identify deficits specific to the disease process. PMID:16006102
Whyte, Marie-Claire; McIntosh, Andrew M; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M
The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…
|The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…
We review research on the neural bases of verbal working memory, focusing on human neuroimaging studies. We first consider experiments that indicate that verbal working memory is composed of multiple components. One component involves the subvocal rehearsal of phonological information and is neurally implemented by left-hemisphere speech areas, including Broca's area, the premotor area, and the supplementary motor area. Other
Edward E. Smith; John Jonides; Christy Marshuetz; Robert A. Koeppe
An extensive animal literature suggests that excessive corticosteroid exposure is associated with changes in memory and the hippocampus. Agents that decrease glutamate attenuate corticosteroid effects on the hippocampus. Minimal data are available on preventing or reversing corticosteroid effects on the human hippocampus. We previously reported that open-label lamotrigine was associated with significant improvement in declarativememory in corticosteroid-treated patients. We now examine the impact of 24 weeks of randomized, placebo-controlled lamotrigine therapy on declarativememory (primary aim) and hippocampal volume (secondary aim) in 28 patients (n=16 for lamotrigine, n=12 for placebo) taking prescription corticosteroids. All participants with data from at least one post-baseline assessment (n=9 for lamotrigine, n=11 for placebo) were included in the analysis. Declarativememory was assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Hippocampal and total brain volumes were manually traced from MRI scans obtained at baseline and week 24. Based on an ANCOVA analysis, total words learned on the RAVLT at exit were significantly greater in the lamotrigine group (n= 8, missing data or dropouts n=8) compared to the placebo group (n=11, dropout n=1). RAVLT scores in the lamotrigine group increased from mildly impaired to average range. Hippocampal volume changes were small in both lamotrigine (n= 7) and placebo (n= 7) groups during the 24 week assessment period and between-group differences were not significant. Results suggest that lamotrigine may improve declarativememory in patients taking prescription corticosteroids although differential dropout rate in the two groups is a concern.
Neuropsychological findings together with recent advances in neuroanatomical and neuroimaging techniques have spurred the\\u000a investigation of cerebellar contributions to cognition. One cognitive process that has been the focus of much research is\\u000a working memory, in particular its verbal component. Influenced by Baddeley’s cognitive theory of working memory, cerebellar\\u000a activation during verbal working memory tasks has been predominantly attributed to the
Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarativememory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarativememory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…
|Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarativememory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarativememory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…
Caffeine, the world’s most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90 minutes) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarativeverbalmemory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition for unassociated words were tested after a 7hr retention period (with a between-session nap or drug intervention). A second, different, word list was administered post-intervention and memory was tested after a 20min retention period. The non-declarative tasks (finger tapping task and texture discrimination task) were trained before the intervention and then retested afterwards. Naps enhanced recall of words after a 7hr and 20min retention interval relative to both caffeine and placebo. Caffeine significantly impaired motor learning compared to placebo and naps. Napping produced robust perceptual learning compared with placebo; however, naps and caffeine were not significantly different. These findings provide evidence of the limited benefits of caffeine for memory improvement compared with napping. We hypothesize that impairment from caffeine may be restricted to tasks that contain explicit information; whereas strictly implicit learning is less compromised.
Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Kanady, Jennifer; Drummond, Sean P.A.
In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarativememories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over frontocortical areas. To experimentally induce widespread extracellular negative DC potentials, we applied anodal tDCS (0.26 mA) [correction] repeatedly (over 30 min) bilaterally at frontocortical electrode sites during a retention period rich in SWS. Retention of declarativememories (word pairs) and also nondeclarative memories (mirror tracing skills) learned previously was tested after this period and compared with retention performance after placebo stimulation as well as after retention intervals of wakefulness. Compared with placebo stimulation, anodal tDCS during SWS-rich sleep distinctly increased the retention of word pairs (p < 0.005). When applied during the wake retention interval, tDCS did not affect declarativememory. Procedural memory was also not affected by tDCS. Mood was improved both after tDCS during sleep and during wake intervals. tDCS increased sleep depth toward the end of the stimulation period, whereas the average power in the faster frequency bands (,alpha, and beta) was reduced. Acutely, anodal tDCS increased slow oscillatory activity <3 Hz. We conclude that effects of tDCS involve enhanced generation of slow oscillatory EEG activity considered to facilitate processes of neuronal plasticity. Shifts in extracellular ionic concentration in frontocortical tissue (expressed as negative DC potentials during SWS) may facilitate sleep-dependent consolidation of declarativememories. PMID:15525784
Marshall, Lisa; Mölle, Matthias; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan
We investigated structural brain damage in subjects who had suffered severe and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI), and examined its relationship with declarativememory impairment. Cortical thickness, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and volumetric and shape data of the hippocampus were assessed in a group of 26 adults with severe TBI in the chronic stage and 22 healthy matched controls. Declarativememory was evaluated by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). TBI patients performed significantly worse than controls on all RAVLT measures. The group comparison for cortical thickness and DTI revealed a pattern of widespread atrophy in TBI patients. In the TBI group DTI measures correlated with cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal regions, including the precuneus. Declarativememory correlated with both cortical thickness and DTI measures. However, although hippocampal volume was significantly decreased in TBI patients, no correlations were found. Multiple regression analysis of all the structural measures revealed that decreases in Fractional anisotropy (FA) and thinning of the left parietal region were the best predictors of memory impairment. In conclusion, cortical thickness reductions in the left hemisphere and a lack of white matter integrity are the main contributors to long-term impairment in declarativememory among patients suffering from severe and diffuse TBI. In this study the hippocampus did not make a significant contribution to memory dysfunctions, suggesting that damage to this structure is compensated for by other regions, with the definitive sequelae being mainly explained by alterations in cortico-subcortical connectivity. PMID:22482692
Palacios, Eva M; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junque, Carme; Fernandez-Espejo, Davinia; Roig, Teresa; Tormos, Jose M; Bargallo, Nuria; Vendrell, Pere
We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n?=?15) outperformed the control group (n?=?35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n?=?15) approached, but did not reach,
Stavroula Stavrakaki; Kalliopi Megari; Mary H. Kosmidis; Maria Apostolidou; Eleni Takou
Objective To study the neurocognitive profile and its relationship to prefrontal dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) with deficient haptic perception. Methods Twelve right-handed patients with PD and 12 healthy control subjects underwent thorough neuropsychological testing including Rey complex figure, Rey auditory verbal and figural learning test, figural and verbal fluency, and Stroop test. Test scores reflecting significant differences between patients and healthy subjects were correlated with the individual expression coefficients of one principal component, obtained in a principal component analysis of an oxygen-15-labeled water PET study exploring somatosensory discrimination that differentiated between the two groups and involved prefrontal cortices. Results We found significantly decreased total scores for the verbal learning trials and verbal delayed free recall in PD patients compared with normal volunteers. Further analysis of these parameters using Spearman's ranking correlation showed a significantly negative correlation of deficient verbal recall with expression coefficients of the principal component whose image showed a subcortical-cortical network, including right dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex, in PD patients. Conclusion PD patients with disrupted right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex function and associated diminished somatosensory discrimination are impaired also in verbalmemory functions. A negative correlation between delayed verbal free recall and PET activation in a network including the prefrontal cortices suggests that verbal cues and accordingly declarativememory processes may be operative in PD during activities that demand sustained attention such as somatosensory discrimination. Verbal cues may be compensatory in nature and help to non-specifically enhance focused attention in the presence of a functionally disrupted prefrontal cortex.
Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed examination of the process of verbal learning, recall, and recognition (California Verbal Learning Test—Children’s
Sharon Nichols; Wendy Jones; Mary J. Roman; Beverly Wulfeck; Dean C. Delis; Judy Reilly; Ursula Bellugib
|Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…
Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…
Neuroimaging studies of normal subjects and studies of pa- tients with focal lesions implicate regions of parietal cortex in verbal working memory (VWM), yet the precise role of parietal cortex in VWM remains unclear. Some evidence (Paulesu et al., 1993; Awh et al., 1996) suggests that the parietal cortex medi- ates the storage of verbal information, but these studies and
John Jonides; Eric H. Schumacher; Edward E. Smith; Robert A. Koeppe; Edward Awh; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Christy Marshuetz; Christopher R. Willis
|Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbalmemory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as…
Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.
A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbalmemory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present article, we review this line of research and
M. S. Franklin; K. Sledge Moore; C.-Y. Yip; J. Jonides; K. Rattray; J. Moher
|A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbalmemory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…
Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff
Selective atrophy of the hippocampus, in particular the left CA1 subregion, is detectable in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and is correlated with verbalmemory performance. We used novel high-resolution imaging techniques to assess the role that functional compensation and\\/or white matter integrity of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures may play in mediating verbalmemory performance in RRMS. High-resolution cortical unfolding of
Kyle C. Kern; Arne D. Ekstrom; Nanthia A. Suthana; Barbara S. Giesser; Michael Montag; Amrapali Arshanapalli; Susan Y. Bookheimer; Nancy L. Sicotte
Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarativememory and declarativememory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarativememory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems. PMID:22043868
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently accompanied by changes in verbalmemory. We hypothesized that administering an abbreviated California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) would detect verbalmemory problems in MS accurately, thus serving as a potential screening tool. We performed receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of three trials (trial 1, trial 2, and trial 1+2 combined) for raw data against standardized total scores. The results showed that at 1.5 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, the first two trials were 96.3% accurate, while at 2 SD from the mean, the first two trials combined were 97.5% accurate. We conclude that this study demonstrates than an abbreviated CVLT-II is a valid screening tool for verbalmemory impairments. PMID:22807235
Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Benedict, Ralph H B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Picone, Mary A; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W
Free recall for auditorially presented spatial information was examined in a patient with a large right cerebral infarction. Despite normal verbalmemory at immediate and 30-minute conditions, the patient exhibited a significant loss in verbal recall at 24 hours and a more severe deficit in the recall of the spatial components of prose passages across all delayed recall conditions. These results suggest that although the verbal code is important early in the learning process, spatial imagery exerts an increasing influence over time. Thus, reliance upon a left hemispheric mediated verbal encoding process may only allow for partial integration of linguistic and visuospatial properties. PMID:2249444
Martin, R C; Meador, K J; Loring, D W; Bowers, D; Heilman, K M
Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbalmemory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects) or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations). Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the ? (4–8 Hz), ? (9–12 Hz), ? (14–28 Hz), and ? (30–50 Hz) frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the ? band, over frontal and occipital areas in the ? and ? bands, and centrally in the ? band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced ? activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and ? activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal.
Semantic memory was evaluated in 124 epilepsy patients, including 84 with left (n=44) or right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (n=40) and 40 with left (n=25) or right frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) (n=15), in order to determine their verbal and visual deficits, and the neuroanatomical relationships between them. The controls were 35 healthy subjects. Semantic memory was assessed by means of
Anna Rita Giovagnoli; Alessandra Erbetta; Flavio Villani; Giuliano Avanzini
Study Objectives: Studies have shown that sleep shelters old verbalmemories from associative interference arising from new, more recently acquired memories. Our objective is to extend the forms of interference for which sleep provides a sheltering benefit to non-associative and prospective interference, and to examine experimental conditions and memory strengths for which sleep before or after learning particularly affects verbalmemory consolidation. Design: Acquiring paired word associates, retention across intervening sleep and wake, training on new, interfering word associates, and test recall of both sets. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Comparing recall before and after intervening periods of sleep versus wake, we found that: (i) Sleep preferentially shields weakly encoded verbalmemories from retroactive interference. (ii) Sleep immediately following learning helps shelter memory from associative and non-associative forms of retroactive interference. (iii) Sleep protects new verbalmemories from prospective interference. (iv) Word associations acquired for the first time in the evening after a day spent in the wake state are encoded more strongly than word associations acquired in the morning following a night of sleep. Conclusions: The findings extend the known sleep protection from interference to non-associative as well as prospective interference, and limit the protection to weakly encoded word associations. Combined, our results suggest that sleep immediately after verbal learning isolates newly formed memory traces and renders them inaccessible, except by specific contextual cues. Memory isolation in sleep is a passive mechanism that can reasonably account for several experimental findings. Citation: Sheth BR; Varghese R; Truong T. Sleep shelters verbalmemory from different kinds of interference. SLEEP 2012;35(7):985-996.
Two common measures used to evaluate verbal learning and memory are the Verbal Paired Associates (VPA) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales (WMS) and the second edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). For the fourth edition of the WMS, scores from the CVLT-II can be substituted for VPA; the present study sought to examine the validity of the
Justin B. Miller; Bradley N. Axelrod; Lisa J. Rapport; Robin A. Hanks; Jesse R. Bashem; Christian Schutte
Several critical neuroanatomical structures and pathways for memory performance are located in the third ventricle region. This led us to predict that verbalmemory abilities would be more impaired in children treated for third ventricle tumors compared to those treated for cerebellar tumors. Archival data was obtained from 24 pediatric patients with third ventricle region tumors and 18 pediatric patients
Tricia Z. King; Eileen B. Fennell; Lorna Williams; James Algina; Stephen Boggs; Bruce Crosson; Christiana Leonard
Criteria for amnestic MCI rely on the use of delayed recall tasks to establish the presence of memory impairment. This study applied the California Verbal Learning Test to detail memory performance in MCI patients (n?=?70), as compared to control subjects (n?=?92) and AD patients (n?=?21). Learning across the 5 trials was different among the 3 groups. Learning strategy was also
Working memory (WM) encompasses both short-term memory (storage) and executive functions that play an essential role in all forms of cognition. In this study, the genetic structure of storage and executive functions engaged in both a spatial and verbal WM span task is investigated using a twin sample. The sample consists of 143 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) Japanese
The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…
Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarativememory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarativememory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to
|Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarativememory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…
Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa
Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information.
Several studies have shown marked differences in the neural localization of language functions in the brains of left-handed individuals when compared with right-handers. Previous experiments involving functional lateralization have demonstrated cerebral blood flow patterns that differ concordantly with subject handedness while performing language-related tasks. The effect of handedness on function in specific stages of memory processing however is a largely unexplored area. We used a paired-associates verbalmemory task to elicit activation of neural areas related to declarativememory, examining the hypothesis that there are differences in activation in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) between handedness groups. 15 left-handed and 25 right-handed healthy adults were matched for all major demographic and neuropsychological variables. Functional and structural imaging data were acquired and analyzed for group differences within MTL subregions. Our results show that activation of the MTL during declarativememory processing varies with handedness. While both groups showed activation in left and right MTL subregions, the left-handed group showed a statistically significant increase in the left hippocampus and amygdala during both encoding and recall. No increases in activation were found in the right-handed group. This effect was found in the absence of any differences in performance on the verbalmemory task, structural volumetric disparities or functional asymmetries. This provides evidence of functional differences between left-handers and right-handers that extends to declarativememory processes.
Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Yassa, Michael A.; Verduzco, Guillermo; Honeycutt, Nancy A.; Scott, David J.; Bassett, Susan Spear
This study examined the contribution of verbal and visual memory to performance on the Family Pictures subtest of the Children's Memory Scale. This subtest purports to assess declarativememory functioning in the visual/nonverbal domain. A total of 115 nine-year-old children participated in this study. Fifty-eight had specific language impairment (SLI), whilst the remaining 57 were typically developing (TD), with no history of language difficulties. Results showed that the children with SLI, who had intact declarativememory for visual but not verbal information, obtained significantly lower scores on the Family Pictures subtest when compared to the TD group. Regression analyses revealed that across the entire sample, individual differences on the Family Pictures subtest was best predicted by a measure of verbal working memory. These results question whether the Family Pictures subtest can be considered a measure of visual memory in pediatric populations. These results have implications for the interpretation of scores on this subtest regarding the nature of the types of neurocognitive difficulties children may exhibit. PMID:23078276
Lum, Jarrad A G; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T
|Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…
|A latent-variable study examined whether verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity measures reflect a primarily domain-general construct by testing 236 participants in 3 span tests each of verbal WM. visuospatial WM, verbal short-term memory (STM), and visuospatial STM. as well as in tests of verbal and spatial reasoning and general…
Kane, Michael J.; Hambrick, David Z.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Wilhelm, Oliver; Payne, Tabitha W.; Engle, Randall W.
Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarativememories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarativememory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of the memory. Forgetting may represent a process that weakens the effect of strengthening. PMID:23658614
Forcato, Cecilia; Fernandez, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E
Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarativememories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarativememory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of the memory. Forgetting may represent a process that weakens the effect of strengthening.
Aims: To determine if verbal learning and memory requiring acquisition and retention of information is differentially affected by lead exposure. Methods: The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a test of verbal learning and memory, was administered to 256 English speaking lead smelter workers who had a mean (SD) age of 41 (9.4) years and employment duration of 17 (8.1) years. Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean (SD) current blood lead (PbB) of 28 (8.8) µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39 (12.3) µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728 (434.4) µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. Results: PbB was not associated with any of the RAVLT variables. However, TWA and IBL contributed significantly to the explanation of variance of measures of encoding/storage and retrieval but not to immediate memory span, attention, and learning. Grouping study participants by RAVLT performance according to three recognised clinical memory paradigms showed significantly higher TWA and IBL in the group with "generalised memory impairment" after adjusting for age and educational achievement. We examined recall mechanisms in each group by serial position in the word list and found stronger primacy (recall of words from the beginning of the list) in the "no impairment" and "retrieval difficulties" groups while the "generalised memory impairment" group had better performance on recency (recall of words from the end of the list). Conclusions: Lead exposure over years and not PbB interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material. Chronic lead exposure affects encoding/storage and retrieval of verbal information.
Bleecker, M; Ford, D; Lindgren, K; Hoese, V; Walsh, K; Vaughan, C
The aim of this study was to determine the neural correlates of different stages of episodic memory function and their modulation by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several decades of work has supported the role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in episodic memory function. However, a more recent work, derived in part from functional neuroimaging studies, has suggested that other brain
|Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed…
Nichols, Sharon; Jones, Wendy; Roman, Mary J.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Delis, Dean C.; Reilly, Judy; Bellugi, Ursula
What is remembered, and the speed of retrieval and systematic errors in retrieval depend on the coding of stimulus information at the time of storage in memory. The study attempted to manipulate the encoding modality of pictorial and verbal material by ma...
In previous fMRI research, we found that two subregions of the left inferior frontal cortex showed distinct patterns of activity during a verbal working memory task. Specifically, a more dorsal region tracked with performance, while a more ventral region was sensitive to lexical status. To test the veracity of this finding, we developed a new method for meta-analysis of neuroimaging
Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute video of a simulated healthcare consultation and completed free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory tasks. Differences
|The present study evaluated the interplay between two mechanisms of maintenance of verbal information in working memory, namely articulatory rehearsal as described in Baddeley's model, and attentional refreshing as postulated in Barrouillet and Camos's Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model. In four experiments using complex span paradigm, we…
The hypothesis that music training can improve verbalmemory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbalmemory improvement. Students who discontinued
The authors assessed developmental changes in verbalmemory from the beginning of elementary school to late adolescence on the basis of data from the Munich Longitudinal Study. Major issues concern the stability of individual differences in strategy use as well as interrelationships among different components of verbalmemory and the impact of educational context on verbalmemory development. Long-term stability
This study investigated episodic and procedural memory performance in early and late pregnancy. Twenty-six women in the third trimester of pregnancy, 20 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 24 nonpregnant controls were administered a battery of verbal and visual episodic memory tasks and two procedural memory tasks. Results indicated that compared to controls, both pregnant groups had reduced
Danielle L. Wilson; Maree Barnes; Lenore Ellett; Michael Permezel; Martin Jackson; Simon F. Crowe
Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LIs) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846
Selective atrophy of the hippocampus, in particular the left CA1 subregion, is detectable in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and is correlated with verbalmemory performance. We used novel high-resolution imaging techniques to assess the role that functional compensation and/or white matter integrity of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures may play in mediating verbalmemory performance in RRMS. High-resolution cortical unfolding of structural MRI in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize MTL activity in 18 early RRMS patients and 16 healthy controls during an unrelated word-pairs memory task. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) were used to assess the integrity of the fornix and the parahippocampal white matter (PHWM), the major efferents and afferents of the hippocampus. RRMS patients showed greater activity in hippocampal and extra-hippocampal areas during unrelated word-pair learning and recall. Increased hippocampal activity, particularly in the right anterior hippocampus and left anterior CA1 was associated with higher verbalmemory scores. Furthermore, increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fornix was correlated with both greater fMRI activity in this region and better memory performance. Altered hippocampal fMRI activity in RRMS patients during verbal learning may result from both structural damage and compensatory mechanisms. Successful functional compensation for hippocampal involvement in RRMS may be limited in part by white matter damage to the fornix, consistent with the critical role of this pathway in the clinical expression of memory impairment in MS. PMID:22001266
Kern, Kyle C; Ekstrom, Arne D; Suthana, Nanthia A; Giesser, Barbara S; Montag, Michael; Arshanapalli, Amrapali; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Sicotte, Nancy L
Glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol in human) are associated with impairments in declarativememory retrieval. Brain regions hypothesized\\u000a to mediate these effects are the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Our aim was to use fMRI in localizing the effects\\u000a of GCs during declarativememory retrieval. Therefore, we tested memory retrieval in 21 young healthy males in a randomized\\u000a placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants
Nicole Y. L. Oei; Bernet M. Elzinga; Oliver T. Wolf; Michiel B. de Ruiter; Jessica S. Damoiseaux; Joost P. A. Kuijer; Dick J. Veltman; Philip Scheltens; Serge A. R. B. Rombouts
|This study analyzed the relationship between verbalmemory and reading text comprehension in individuals with Down syndrome. The hypothesis that verbalmemory provides unique contribution to reading text comprehension after controlling for verbal skills was tested. Twenty-three individuals with Down syndrome (ages 11 years, 2 months-18 years, 1…
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and patient studies indicate cerebellar participation in verbal working memory. In particular, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed superior cerebellar activation during the initial encoding phase of the Sternberg task. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided trans- cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to test whether disruption of the right superior cerebellum (hemispheric lobule VI\\/Crus I)
John E. Desmond; S. H. Annabel Chen; Perry B. Shieh
The research reported in this talk involves comparisons of verbal and spatial memory tasks across groups of children (and\\u000a adults) with different types of learning difficulties. The research focuses on children with literacy acquisition problems\\u000a and investigates whether such problems are related to specific areas of deficit. In the first piece of research, children\\u000a with dyslexia (literacy learning problems) and
John Everatt; Sharman Jeffries; Gad Elbeheri; Ian Smythe; Kazuvire Veii
This study analyzed the relationship between verbalmemory and reading text comprehension in individuals with Down syndrome. The hypothesis that verbalmemory provides unique contribution to reading text comprehension after controlling for verbal skills was tested. Twenty-three individuals with Down syndrome (ages 11 years, 2 months-18 years, 1 month) were matched on reading text comprehension, which was the primary variable of interest, with 23 typically developing children (ages 6 years, 2 months-7 years, 1 month). The two groups were compared on verbal skills and verbalmemory. The results showed that working memory (concurrent storage and processing functions), but not short-term memory, predicted unique variance in reading text comprehension, after the verbal skills were controlled for. No group differences emerged in the relationship between verbalmemory and reading text comprehension. PMID:21381946
It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarativememory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…
|It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarativememory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…
|The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarativememory,…
A latent-variable study examined whether verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity measures reflect a primarily domain-general construct by testing 236 participants in 3 span tests each of verbal WM, visuospatial WM, verbal short-term memory (STM), and visuospatial STM, as well as in tests of verbal and spatial reasoning and general fluid intelligence (Gf). Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation
Michael J. Kane; David Z. Hambrick; Stephen W. Tuholski; Oliver Wilhelm; Tabitha W. Payne; Randall W. Engle
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep has recently garnered support for its role in consolidating hippocampus-based declarativememories in humans. We provide a brief review of the latest research on NREM sleep activity and its association with declarativememory consolidation. Utilizing empirical findings from sleep studies on schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and fibromyalgia, we argue that a significant reduction of slow-wave sleep and sleep spindle activity contribute to the development of deficits in declarativememory consolidation along with concomitant sleep disturbances commonly experienced in the aforementioned disorders. A tentative model is introduced to describe the mediating role of the thalamocortical network in disruptions of both declarativememory consolidation and NREM sleep. The hope is to stimulate new research in further investigating the intimate link between these two very important functions. PMID:21889375
Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal\\u000a material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory\\u000a and to identify a more central faculty as the source of a shared limitation. With a visual working memory task in which two
Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbalmemory using a task that used pseudowords (LTM) or syllables (STM). Results indicated impaired musical memory in AD patients relative to healthy controls. The deficit was found for both long-term and short-term memory. Furthermore, it was of the same magnitude for both musical and verbal domains whether tested with short-term or long-term memory tasks. No correlation was found between musical and verbal LTM. However, there was a significant correlation between verbal and musical STM in AD participants and healthy older adults, which suggests that the two domains may share common mechanisms. PMID:19398148
In schizophrenia there seems to be an inefficient activation of prefrontal and hippocampal regions. Patients tend to show worse cognitive performance in functions subserved by those regions as compared to healthy controls in spite of higher regional activation. However, the association between activation abnormalities and cognitive deficits remains without being understood. In the present study, we compared cerebral perfusion using single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in patients and controls to study the association between activation patterns and cognitive performance in this disease. The SPECT studies were simultaneously obtained with an electrophysiological recording during a P300 paradigm to elicit P3a and P3b components. We included 23 stable patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls that underwent clinical and cognitive assessments. Patients with schizophrenia showed an increased perfusion in the right hippocampus with respect to healthy controls, they also displayed a statistically significant inverse association between perfusion in the left hippocampus and verbalmemory performance. Healthy controls showed an inverse association between perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) region and working memory performance. P3b but not P3a amplitude was significantly lower in patients. The limbic overactivation in the patients may contribute to their cognitive deficits in verbalmemory. PMID:23490064
Background and Purpose: The Dichotic VerbalMemory Test (DVMT) is useful in detecting verbalmemory deficits and differences in memory function between the brain hemispheres. The purpose of this study was to prepare the Persian version of DVMT, to obtain its results in 18- to 25-yr-old Iranian individuals, and to examine the ear, gender, and serial position effect. Research Design: The Persian version of DVMT consisted of 18 10-word lists. After preparing the 18 lists, content validity was assessed by a panel of eight experts and the equivalency of the lists was evaluated. Then the words were recorded on CD in a dichotic mode such that 10 words were presented to one ear, with the same words reversed simultaneously presented to the other ear. Thereafter, it was performed on a sample of young, normal, Iranian individuals. Study Sample: Thirty normal individuals (no history of neurological, ontological, or psychological diseases) with ages ranging from 18 to 25 yr were examined for evaluating the equivalency of the lists, and 110 subjects within the same age range participated in the final stage of the study to obtain the normative data on the developed test. Results: There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the 18 developed lists (p > 0.05). The mean content validity index (CVI) score was .96. A significant difference was found between the mean score of the two ears (p < 0.05) and between female and male participants (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The Persian version of DVMT has good content validity and can be used for verbalmemory assessment in Iranian young adults. PMID:24131604
|Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…
The specialized role that sleep-specific brain physiology plays in memory processing is being rapidly clarified with a greater understanding of the dynamic, complex, and exquisitely orchestrated brain state that emerges during sleep. Behaviorally, the facilitative role of non-REM (NREM) sleep (primarily slow wave sleep) for declarative but not procedural memory performance in humans has been demonstrated in a number of
Matthew A. Tucker; Yasutaka Hirota; Erin J. Wamsley; Hiuyan Lau; Annie Chaklader; William Fishbein
Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.
|Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…
Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho
|This speech reports an experiment on memory and verbal ability. The study notes that in previous research, verbal ability has been found to correlate with sensitivity to order, an important component of intelligence. This relationship may be due largely to the greater word store of high verbal scorers. The author's experimental hypothesis is that…
Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as networks involved in serial order processing, underlie STM for both verbal and
Steve Majerus; Trecy Martinez Perez; Sanaâ Belayachi; Martial Van der Linden; Fabienne Collette; Eric Salmon; Ruth Seurinck; Wim Fias; Pierre Maquet
Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as networks involved in serial order processing, underlie STM for both verbal and
Steve Majerus; Arnaud D'Argembeau; Trecy Martinez Perez; Sanaâ Belayachi; Martial Van der Linden; Fabienne Collette; Eric Salmon; Ruth Seurinck; Wim Fias; Pierre Maquet
Patterns of memory performance were examined for 9 participants with HIV-associated dementia (HAD), 15 HIV-seropositive participants without dementia, and 15 HIV-seronegative controls. Episodic and semantic memory were assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, and Verbal Fluency tests. The HAD group showed deficits in episodic memory, with relative sparing of semantic memory. In addition, results suggest
DesirÉE A. White; Michael J. Taylor; Nelson Butters; Carol Mack; David P. Salmon; Guerry Peavy; Lee Ryan; Robert K. Heaton; J. Hampton Atkinson; James L. Chandler; Igor Grant
This study tested the hypothesis that children with autism are impaired in using verbal encoding and rehearsal strategies in the service of working memory. Participants were 24 high-ability, school-age children with autism and a comparison group matched on verbal and non-verbal IQ, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and visual memory. Working memory was assessed using verbal and non-verbal variants of a
Robert M. Joseph; Shelley D. Steele; Echo Meyer; Helen Tager-Flusberg
Assesses developmental changes in verbalmemory from the beginning of elementary school to late adolescence on the basis of data from the Munich Longitudinal Study. Suggests that overall, individual differences in verbalmemory performance develop very early in life and are relatively unaffected by differences in educational experiences. (Contains…
In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be
Evidence increasingly suggests individual differences in strategies adopted on reasoning tasks and that these are either verbal-propositional or visuospatial in nature. However, the cognitive foundations of these strategies remain uncertain. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between the use of working memory resources and strategy selection for syllogistic reasoning. Verbal and spatial strategy users did not differ on working memory capacity,
Alison M. Bacon; Simon J. Handley; Ian Dennis; Stephen E. Newstead
|Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…
This study investigated the relationships of processing capacity and knowledge to memory measures that varied in retrieval difficulty and reliance on verbal knowledge in an adult life-span sample (N?=?341). It was hypothesized that processing ability (speed and working memory) would have the strongest relationship to tasks requiring active retrieval and that knowledge (vocabulary ability) would be related to verbal fluency
Objective Impaired verbalmemory in schizophrenia is a key rate-limiting factor for functional outcome, does not respond to currently available medications, and shows only modest improvement after conventional behavioral remediation. The authors investigated an innovative approach to the remediation of verbalmemory in schizophrenia, based on principles derived from the basic neuroscience of learning-induced neuroplasticity. The authors report interim findings in this ongoing study. Method Fifty-five clinically stable schizophrenia subjects were randomly assigned to either 50 hours of computerized auditory training or a control condition using computer games. Those receiving auditory training engaged in daily computerized exercises that placed implicit, increasing demands on auditory perception through progressively more difficult auditory-verbal working memory and verbal learning tasks. Results Relative to the control group, subjects who received active training showed significant gains in global cognition, verbal working memory, and verbal learning and memory. They also showed reliable and significant improvement in auditory psychophysical performance; this improvement was significantly correlated with gains in verbal working memory and global cognition. Conclusions Intensive training in early auditory processes and auditory-verbal learning results in substantial gains in verbal cognitive processes relevant to psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. These gains may be due to a training method that addresses the early perceptual impairments in the illness, that exploits intact mechanisms of repetitive practice in schizophrenia, and that uses an intensive, adaptive training approach.
Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Merzenich, Michael M.; Vinogradov, Sophia
Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same\\/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbalmemory using a task that used pseudowords (LTM) or syllables
This study explored the structure of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children be- tween ages 4 and 11 years. Multiple tasks measuring 4 different memory components were used to capture the cognitive processes underlying working memory. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the processing component of working memory tasks was supported by a common resource pool, while storage
Tracy Packiam Alloway; Susan Elizabeth Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering
The hypothesis that music training can improve verbalmemory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbalmemory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbalmemory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe. PMID:12959510
ABSTRACT—Priming is an unconscious,(nondeclarative) form,of memory,whereby,identification or production,of an item is im- proved,by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed,that de- clarative memory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing,a basis for familiarity judgments. In two ex- periments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory,across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired,patients.
Declarativememories of personal experiences are a key factor in defining oneself as an individual, which becomes particularly evident when this capability is impaired. Assessing the physiological mechanisms of human declarativememory is typically restricted to patients with specific lesions and requires invasive brain access or functional imaging. We investigated whether the pupil, an accessible physiological measure, can be utilized to probe memories for complex natural visual scenes. During memory encoding, scenes that were later remembered elicited a stronger pupil constriction compared to scenes that were later forgotten. Thus, pupil size predicts success or failure of memory formation. In contrast, novel scenes elicited stronger pupil constriction than familiar scenes during retrieval. When viewing previously memorized scenes, those that were forgotten (misjudged as novel) still elicited stronger pupil constrictions than those correctly judged as familiar. Furthermore, pupil constriction was influenced more strongly if images were judged with high confidence. Thus, we propose that pupil constriction can serve as a marker of novelty. Since stimulus novelty modulates the efficacy of memory formation, our pupil measurements during learning indicate that the later forgotten images were perceived as less novel than the later remembered pictures. Taken together, our data provide evidence that pupil constriction is a physiological correlate of a neural novelty signal during formation and retrieval of declarativememories for complex, natural scenes. PMID:23397036
Naber, Marnix; Frässle, Stefan; Rutishauser, Ueli; Einhäuser, Wolfgang
There is considerable evidence in the literature for the presence of non-verbal and praxic memory deficits in OCD. Such deficits may represent the cognitive substrate of doubt-related phenomenon such as checking. Neuropsychological tests of non-verbalmemory functioning and memory for actions were administered to patients with OCD (whose predominant symptom was checking) and a group of matched healthy controls. Significant
The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms
Cecilia Forcato; María L. C. Rodríguez; María E. Pedreira
Retrieval of recently acquired declarativememories depends on the hippocampus, but with time, retrieval is increasingly sustainable by neocortical representations alone. This process has been conceptualized as system-level consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed over the course of three months how consolidation affects the neural correlates of memory retrieval. The duration of slow-wave sleep during a nap\\/rest period
A. Takashima; K. M. Petersson; F. Rutters; I. Tendolkar; O. Jensen; M. J. Zwarts; B. L. McNaughton; G. Fernandez
Retrieval of recently acquired declarativememories depends on the hippocampus, but with time, retrieval is increasingly sustainable by neocortical representations alone. This process has been conceptualized as system-level consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed over the course of three months how consolidation affects the neural correlates of memory retrieval. The duration of slow-wave sleep during a nap\\/rest period
A. Takashima; K. M. Petersson; F. Rutters; I. Tendolkar; O. Jensen; M. J. Zwarts; B. L. McNaughton; G. Fernández
Using event-related fMRI, we scanned young healthy subjects while they memorized real-world photographs and subsequently tried to recognize them within a series of new photographs. We confirmed that activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and inferior prefrontal cortex correlates with declarativememory formation as defined by the subsequent memory effect, stronger responses to subsequently remembered than forgotten items. Additionally,
Susanne Weis; Peter Klaver; Jürgen Reul; Christian E. Elger; G. S. E. Fernandez
|This study of infant declarativememory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…
The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…
Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison
|The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were…
Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison
The aim of this study was to show the positive effects of categorical organization on verbal working memory (WM), in a modified version of a double task, such as the Listening Span Test (LST) (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980). Two experiments were performed comparing sentences with the typical definitional format (i.e., superordinate term, copula, and specification) to sentences simply describing objects or events. The results of the two experiments, with participants from children aged 6 to adults, revealed that word recall was better in Categorical sentences than in Descriptive sentences and are interpreted in terms of retrieval facilitation, due to pre-existing organization in semantic memory, at least from the age of 8 onwards. Recall performance was also better with sentences giving True statements than those giving False statements. Furthermore, Categorical False sentences are more effective in enhancing recall than Descriptive False sentences since they violate well-established semantic expectations. Such variables were also found to act among participants with a lower WM span, by this confirming that pre-existing organized information may compensate for less efficient WM. PMID:21995746
Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential involvement of bilateral prefrontal cortex during episodic memory encoding and retrieval. The aim of the present study is to address the question whether left prefrontal model for encoding holds when highly non-verbal material is used, and which region of the brain is critically related to successful retrieval. To do this, seven normal subjects were
The aim of the present study was to investigate verbalmemory performance in a group of patients with remitted and partial remitted major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients and 31 healthy matched controls were included in the study. Results from the California Verbal Learning Test show intact verbalmemory performance in the patient group regarding learning, recall and recognition. However, patients had significantly poorer performance compared to healthy controls in immediate recall of the first trial in the verbalmemory test. In conclusion, the patient group showed intact memory performance, when material is presented more than once. These findings indicate that memory performance in MDD patients with partial remission and remission benefit from repetition of material. PMID:24115937
The aim of the present study was to investigate verbalmemory performance in a group of patients with remitted and partial remitted major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients and 31 healthy matched controls were included in the study. Results from the California Verbal Learning Test show intact verbalmemory performance in the patient group regarding learning, recall and recognition. However, patients had significantly poorer performance compared to healthy controls in immediate recall of the first trial in the verbalmemory test. In conclusion, the patient group showed intact memory performance, when material is presented more than once. These findings indicate that memory performance in MDD patients with partial remission and remission benefit from repetition of material.
Objective Efforts to understand specific effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on cognitive processing are hampered by high rates of concomitant alcohol use during pregnancy. We examined whether neurocognitive systems differed among children with differing prenatal teratogenic exposures when they engaged in a verbalmemory task. Patients and Methods Participants (7-15 years old) engaged in a verbal paired associate learning task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The MA group included 14 children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure, 12 of whom had concomitant alcohol exposure. They were compared to 9 children with prenatal alcohol but not methamphetamine exposure (ALC) and 20 unexposed controls (CON). Groups did not differ in age, gender, or socioeconomic status. Participants’ IQ and verbal learning performance were measured using standardized instruments. Results The MA group activated more diffuse brain regions, including bilateral medial temporal structures known to be important for memory, than both the ALC and the CON groups. These group differences remained after IQ was covaried. More activation in medial temporal structures by the MA group compared to the ALC group cannot be explained by performance differences because both groups performed at similar levels on the verbalmemory task. Conclusions More diffuse activation in the MA group during verbalmemory may reflect recruitment of compensatory systems to support a weak verbalmemory network. Differences in activation patterns between the MA and ALC groups suggest that prenatal MA exposure influences the development of the verbalmemory system above and beyond effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
Lu, Lisa H.; Johnson, Arianne; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Smith, Lynne M.; O'Connor, Mary J.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.
Recent behavioral evidence suggests that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities may be related (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993). Investigation of this relationship has considerable significance for under- standing of human language, of working memory, and of the relationship between short- and long-term memory systems. This paper presents a computational model of word learning, nonword repetition, and immediate
The report presents a functional model of memory based on verbal learning and physiological data. These diverse empirical data are used to describe several basic mechanisms of memory including: (a) separate mechanisms for short-term memory and for long-te...
Background Neuroimaging studies have proved that hippocampus relate to the deficient of memory in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many studies in healthy subjects also shown that insular cortex (IC) be involved in the declarativememory. This study was designed to investigate whether insular cortex is involved in declarativememory deficits in patients with PTSD. Methods Twelve subjects with PTSD and 12 subjects without PTSD victims underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects performed encoding and retrieval memory tasks during the fMRI session. Voxel-based morphometry method was used to analyze gray-matter volume, and the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) was used to analyze activated brain areas when performing tasks. Results Grey matter volume was significantly reduced bilaterally in the insular cortex of PTSD subjects than non-PTSD. PTSD group also had lower level of activation in insular cortex when performing word encoding and retrieval tasks than non-PTSD group. Conclusion The study provides evidence on structural and function abnormalities of the insular cortex in patients with PTSD. Reduced grey-matter volume in insular cortex may be associated with declarativememory deficits in patients with PTSD.
Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. A widely held model assumes that this is because newly encoded memories undergo covert reactivation during sleep. We cued new memories in humans during sleep by presenting an odor that had been presented as context during prior learning, and so showed that reactivation indeed causes memory consolidation during sleep. Re-exposure to the odor during slow-wave sleep (SWS) improved the retention of hippocampus-dependent declarativememories but not of hippocampus-independent procedural memories. Odor re-exposure was ineffective during rapid eye movement sleep or wakefulness or when the odor had been omitted during prior learning. Concurring with these findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant hippocampal activation in response to odor re-exposure during SWS. PMID:17347444
Rasch, Björn; Büchel, Christian; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan
Performance on the visual paired-comparison task depends on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in humans, monkeys, and, for an analogous task, in rats. The present study sought additional evidence in healthy volunteers concerning the nature of this task. We found that performance on the visual paired-comparison task was predictive of subsequent recognition memory performance whereas perceptual priming was unrelated to subsequent recognition memory performance. The results are consistent with the data from lesions and suggest that performance on the visual paired-comparison task measures a form of declarativememory.
Manns, Joseph R.; Stark, Craig E. L.; Squire, Larry R.
Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here, we report that administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarativememory enhancement for emotional items. Critically, this effect persists at a subsequent 24 h memory test, in the absence of propranolol. Thus, these findings extend our current understanding of the role of NE in emotional memory to encompass effects at retrieval, and provide face validity to clinical interventions using beta-adrenergic antagonists in conjunction with reactivation of unwanted memories in anxiety-related disorders. PMID:20237266
Kroes, Marijn C W; Strange, Bryan A; Dolan, Raymond J
|This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…
Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial
|Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d")…
The purposes of this study were to extend the literature on lateralization of perception of emotional verbal stimuli in normal individuals, including a test of both the right hemisphere and valence models, and to investigate predictions from these models regarding lateralization of memory for emotional verbal stimuli in normal individuals, an area that, to our knowledge, has not been investigated.
This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…
Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial
This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbalmemory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…
|This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbalmemory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled…
To assess memory problems associated with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) and reading disability (RD), nonverbal subspan, span, and supraspan measures was administered to 30 ADDH, 30 normal, and 24 RD boys, ages 7 to 12. Results from the supraspan verbal measures, which included word lists and related and unrelated paired associates, are reported. Across all verbal tasks, deficits
The study of the biological bases of memory has a long history. Based on research with patients with specific lesions and disease, animal models, and neuroimaging studies, the neural substrate that supports declarativememory in adults has been relatively well articulated. By contrast, studies of the neural bases of memory in development is in its infancy. Yet joint consideration of the processes involved in building a memory trace, and of the time course of development of the neural structures involved, has contributed to the generation of specific predictions regarding the sources of age-related change. Specifically, there are suggestions that in infancy and very early childhood, encoding and consolidation processes account for substantial age-related variance in long-term declarativememory. With development, the locus of age-related variability in the vulnerability of memory traces shifts to the later-stage processes of memory storage and retrieval. These insights are afforded by consideration of multiple levels of analysis, from the biological to the behavioral. PMID:18085555
We performed a delayed-item-recognition task to investigate the neural substrates of non-verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (‘Shape task’). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1,2 or 3 unnamable nonsense line drawings for 3 seconds (‘stimulus phase’ or STIM). Subsequently, the screen went blank for 7 seconds (‘retention phase’ or RET), and then displayed a probe stimulus for 3 seconds in which subject indicated with a differential button press whether the probe was contained in the studied shape-array or not (‘probe phase’ or PROBE). Ordinal Trend Canonical Variates Analysis (Habeck et al., 2005a) was performed to identify spatial covariance patterns that showed a monotonic increase in expression with memory load during all task phases. Reliable load-related patterns were identified in the stimulus and retention phase (p<0.01), while no significant pattern could be discerned during the probe phase. Spatial covariance patterns that were obtained from an earlier version of this task (Habeck et al., 2005b) using 1, 3, or 6 letters (‘Letter task’) were also prospectively applied to their corresponding task phases in the current non-verbal task version. Interestingly, subject expression of covariance patterns from both verbal and non-verbal retention phases correlated positively in the non-verbal task for all memory loads (p<0.0001). Both patterns also involved similar frontoparietal brain regions that were increasing in activity with memory load, and mediofrontal and temporal regions that were decreasing. Mean subject expression of both patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dL) in the Shape task (p<0.005). These findings point to similarities in the neural substrates of verbal and non-verbal rehearsal processes. Encoding processes, on the other hand, are critically dependent on the to-be-remembered material, and seem to necessitate material-specific neural substrates.
Memory research has in the last fifteen years been marked by a considerable interest in context effects. This review begins\\u000a by examining experimental manipulations of verbal and environmental context in verbalmemory. This is followed by a more extensive\\u000a review of episodic studies of face recognition that have examined the effects of varying the background in which a face is
Decrements in verbalmemory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbalmemory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n?=?29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n?=?25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC\\/STIMs, n?=?50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were
Rebecca Gilbertson; Jeff Boissoneault; Robert Prather; Sara Jo Nixon
Background Abnormal brain functioning during verbal working memory tasks has been shown in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Since adolescents with a familial history of alcoholism (FHP) are at high risk for developing an AUD, it is important to consider whether atypical brain activity during verbal working memory may help to explain FHP vulnerability toward developing alcoholism. Methods To that end, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain response during a verbal working memory 2-back task in 19 FHP adolescents and 16 age and gender-matched family history negative (FHN) controls. Results Despite no group differences in task accuracy, FHP youth had significantly slower average reaction time when making correct responses during the 2-back condition than FHN youth. In contrast to a vigilance control condition, while covarying for reaction time, FHP adolescents showed less activation during verbal working memory than FHN youth in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) – a brain region crucial to intact working memory skills. Conclusions These results suggest that even prior to heavy alcohol use, FHP adolescents show atypical executive brain functioning during verbal working memory, and that these differences are independent of slower working memory reaction time in FHP youth. Given the importance of working memory in numerous areas of day-to-day functioning, such as adaptive decision-making, these abnormalities may contribute to FHP youth vulnerability toward developing AUDs.
Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.
Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However, dissociating the memory impairment that occurs following thalamic injury as distinguished from that following hippocampal injury has proven difficult. This study examined relationships between MRI volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus and their contributions to prose and rote verbalmemory functioning in 18 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Results revealed that bilateral hippocampal and thalamic volume independently predicted delayed prose verbalmemory functioning. However, bilateral hippocampal, but not thalamic, volume predicted delayed rote verbalmemory functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that bilateral thalamic volume independently predicted immediate prose, but not immediate rote, verbal recall, whereas bilateral hippocampal volume was not associated with any of these immediate memory measures. These findings underscore the cognitive significance of thalamic atrophy in chronic TLE, demonstrating that hippocampal and thalamic volume make quantitatively, and perhaps qualitatively, distinct contributions to episodic memory functioning in TLE patients. They are also consistent with theories proposing that the hippocampus supports long-term memory encoding and storage, whereas the thalamus is implicated in the executive aspects of episodic memory. PMID:18599175
Stewart, Christopher C; Griffith, H Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Martin, Roy C; Knowlton, Robert K; Richardson, Elizabeth J; Hermann, Bruce P; Seidenberg, Michael
Whereas women generally outperform men in episodic-memory tasks, little is known as to how the genders compare with respect to basic working-memory operations. In reference to Baddeley's (1986) model, the present study searched for possible gender differences in terms of accuracy (but not speed) of working-memory processes. Men and women completed series of working-memory tasks respectively involving verbal and visuospatial
The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
|The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
The contributions of verbal, visual, and spatial working memory to written language production were investigated. Participants composed definitions for nouns while concurrently performing a task which required updating, storing, and retrieving information coded either verbally, visually, or spatially. The present study extended past findings by showing the linguistic encoding of planned conceptual content makes its largest demand on verbal working memory for both low and high frequency nouns. Kellogg, Olive, and Piolat in 2007 found that concrete nouns place substantial demands on visual working memory when imaging the nouns' referents during planning, whereas abstract nouns make no demand. The current study further showed that this pattern was not an artifact of visual working memory being sensitive to manipulation of just any lexical property of the noun prompts. In contrast to past results, writing made a small but detectible demand on spatial working memory. PMID:20391888
Raulerson, Bascom A; Donovan, Michael J; Whiteford, Alison P; Kellogg, Ronald T
Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50–60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed.
Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH) on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarativememory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone
Manfred Hallschmid; Ines Wilhelm; Christian Michel; Boris Perras; Jan Born
Summary There is a basic distinction between declarativememories, which can be stated verbally, and non-declarativememory, such\\u000a as how to ride a bicycle, which cannot be expressed in words. With age it is the performance of declarativememory, particularly\\u000a episodic memory that requires recall of events placed in time, that declines. As memory is not a unitary phenomenon, it should
David Benton; K. Wolfgang Kallus; Jeroen A. J. Schmitt
The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),
Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein
The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),
Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein
Ecstasy/MDMA use has been associated with various memory deficits. This study assessed declarative and procedural memory in ecstasy/MDMA users. Participants were tested in two sessions, 24?h apart, so that the memory consolidation function of sleep on both types of memory could also be assessed. Groups were: drug-naive controls (n?=?24); recent ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy/MDMA 2-3 days before the first testing session (n?=?25), and abstinent users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before testing (n?=?17). Procedural memory did not differ between groups, but greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy was associated with poorer procedural memory. Recent ecstasy/MDMA users who had taken other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48-24?h before testing exhibited poorer declarativememory than controls, but recent users who had not taken other drugs in this 48-24-h period did not differ from controls. Greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy, and of cocaine, were associated with greater deficits in declarativememory. These results suggest that procedural, as well as declarative, memory deficits are associated with the extent of past ecstasy use. However, ecstasy/MDMA did not affect the memory consolidation function of sleep for either the declarative or the procedural memory task. PMID:20615932
Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P; Jones, Katy A; Morgan, Michael J
Background Discourse cohesion and coherence gives our communication continuity. Deficits in cohesion and coherence have been reported in patients with cognitive-communication disorders (e.g., TBI, dementia). However, the diffuse nature of pathology and widespread cognitive deficits of these disorders have made identification of specific neural substrates and cognitive systems critical for cohesion and coherence challenging. Aims Taking advantage of a rare patient group with selective and severe declarativememory impairments, the current study attempts to isolate the contribution of declarativememory to the successful use of cohesion and coherence in discourse. Methods & Procedures Cohesion and coherence were examined in the discourse of six participants with hippocampal amnesia and six demographically matched comparison participants. Specifically, this study (1) documents the frequency, type, and completeness of cohesive ties; (2) evaluates discourse for local and global coherence; and (3) compares use of cohesive ties and coherence ratings in amnesia and healthy participants. Outcomes & Results Overall, amnesia participants produced fewer cohesive ties per T-unit, the adequacy of their ties were more often judged to be incomplete, and the ratings of their local coherence were consistently lower than comparison participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that declarativememory may contribute to the discursive use of cohesion and coherence. Broader notions of cohesion, or interactional cohesion, i.e., cohesion across speakers (two or more people), time (days, weeks), and communicative resources (gesture), warrant further study as the experimental tasks used in the literature, and here, may actually underestimate or overestimate the extent of impairment.
Past research has identified an event-related potential (ERP) marker for vocal emotional encoding and has highlighted vocal-processing differences between male and female listeners. We further investigated this ERP vocal-encoding effect in order to determine whether it predicts voice-related changes in listeners' memory for verbal interaction content. Additionally, we explored whether sex differences in vocal processing would affect such changes. To these ends, we presented participants with a series of neutral words spoken with a neutral or a sad voice. The participants subsequently encountered these words, together with new words, in a visual word recognition test. In addition to making old/new decisions, the participants rated the emotional valence of each test word. During the encoding of spoken words, sad voices elicited a greater P200 in the ERP than did neutral voices. While the P200 effect was unrelated to a subsequent recognition advantage for test words previously heard with a neutral as compared to a sad voice, the P200 did significantly predict differences between these words in a concurrent late positive ERP component. Additionally, the P200 effect predicted voice-related changes in word valence. As compared to words studied with a neutral voice, words studied with a sad voice were rated more negatively, and this rating difference was larger, the larger the P200 encoding effect was. While some of these results were comparable in male and female participants, the latter group showed a stronger P200 encoding effect and qualitatively different ERP responses during word retrieval. Estrogen measurements suggested the possibility that these sex differences have a genetic basis. PMID:23224782
Schirmer, Annett; Chen, Ce-Belle; Ching, April; Tan, Ling; Hong, Ryan Y
|A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…
Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan
Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…
Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. Working memory, thought, and action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007]. We explore the alternative hypothesis that maintenance in VWM
Daniel J. Acheson; Massihullah Hamidi; Jeffrey R. Binder; Bradley R. Postle
The utility of the concept of «subcortical dementia» was investigated by comparing the verbal learning and memory abilities of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with those of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Many similarities between the PD and HD groups emerged, including impaired immediate memory spans, inconsistency of recall across learning trials, deficient use of a semantic clustering learning strategy, elevated intrusion
Paul J. Massman; Dean C. Delis; Nelson Butters; Bonnie E. Levin; David P. Salmon
The present study investigated whether lexical codes contribute to retention of verbal information in working memory. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded while participants were performing a serial recall task to show differences in brain activity during retention of words or pseudowords. The effects of lexical status and memory load (task difficulty) upon ERP activity during retention also differed,
Daniel S. Ruchkin; Rita S. Berndt; Ray Johnson; Jordan Grafman; Walter Ritter; Howard L. Canoune
Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their
Age-related decline in working memory figures prominently in theories of cognitive aging. However, the effects of aging on the neural substrate of working memory are largely unknown. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate verbal and spatial short-term storage (3 sec) in older and younger adults. Previous investigations with younger subjects performing these same tasks have revealed asymmetries in
Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; John Jonides; Edward E. Smith; Alan Hartley; Andrea Miller; Christina Marshuetz; Robert A. Koeppe
|Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. "Working memory, thought, and action." New York, NY: Oxford University Press,…
Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.
|Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…
|Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6-…
|The authors report data from a longitudinal study that addresses the relations between working memory capacity and reading comprehension skills in children aged 8, 9, and 11 years. At each time point, the authors assessed children's reading ability, vocabulary and verbal skills, performance on 2 working memory assessments (sentence-span and digit…
Objective To test the hypothesis that hot flashes specifically relate to verbalmemory performance by examining the relationship between objective hot flashes and cognitive test performance in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. Design In an observational study, 29 midlife women (mean age, 53 y) with moderate to severe hot flashes provided measures of objective hot flashes with an ambulatory hot flash monitor, subjective hot flashes with a diary and questionnaire, and objective measures of verbalmemory and other cognitive functions with standardized neuropsychological tests. Results The mean number of objective hot flashes was 19.5 per day (range, 6 to 35), including 15.3 (range, 6 to 35) during waking hours and 4.2 (range, 0 to 9) during sleep. The mean sensitivity (ie, subjective detection of objectively measured hot flashes) was 60%. Regression analyses revealed that total number of objective hot flashes, sleep duration, and verbal knowledge were significant predictors of delayed verbalmemory. Verbal fluency correlated positively with objective daytime hot flashes. Hot flashes did not predict performance on any of the other secondary cognitive measures (ie, attention, working memory, visual memory), although poor sleep predicted worse performance on several outcome measures. Conclusions Highly symptomatic women underreport the number of objective hot flashes that they experience by 43%. Verbalmemory performance relates significantly to the objective number of hot flashes women experience but not to the number of hot flashes that they report. These findings suggest that physiological factors related to hot flashes, rather than psychological factors, predict poorer verbalmemory function.
Maki, Pauline M.; Drogos, Lauren L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Geller, Stacie E.
Abstract Traditionally, cognitive neuroscientists have represented long-term memory in terms of the structure of a neural network’s connections and short-term memory,in terms of the patterns of activation across the network (e.g.,Hebb , 1949;Caianiello , 1961). However, recent neural-network models of short-term verbal working memory (VWM) have used modifiable structural connections to encode item and order information (Hartley& Houghton, 1996; Burgess
Frontal lobe memory disorders are distinguished from hippocampal memory disorders by poor organization of encoding and retrieval, among other things. Because the verbal Selective Reminding Test (SRT) has a metamemory (“remembering-to-remember”) component, it may be useful in distinguishing frontal from temporal lobe memory disorders in patients with intractable epilepsy. Thirty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and 34 with temporal
Benjamin L. Johnson-Markve; Gregory P. Lee; David W. Loring; Kathryn M. Viner
|The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V[subscript 1]S[subscript 1], V[subscript 2]S[subscript 2], V[subscript 3]S[subscript 3], V[subscript 4]S[subscript 4]) were…
Maybery, Murray T.; Clissa, Peter J.; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Leung, Doris; Harsa, Grefin; Fox, Allison M.; Jones, Dylan M.
This study evaluated multiple constraints of verbal working memory in typically developing 7- to 11-year-olds. Multiple measures of verbal working memory and the predictors-short-term memory storage, general speed, and domain-general controlled attention were used. General linear modeling (GLM) showed that storage and the efficiency of controlled attention (i.e., speed of updating information during attention switching) contributed to significant variance in children's verbal working memory. In a secondary analysis verbal storage and domain-general attention (focus switching accuracy and speed of updating on switch) emerged as significant predictors. Results suggest domain-general attention and verbal storage mechanisms to be independent constraints of verbal working memory. PMID:22664317
Verbal information is coded naturally as ordered representations in working memory (WM). However, this may not be true for spatial information. Accordingly, we used memory-span tasks to test the hypothesis that serial order is more readily bound to verbal than to spatial representations. Removing serial-order requirements improved performance more for spatial locations than for digits. Furthermore, serial order was freely reproduced twice as frequently for digits as for locations. When participants reordered spatial sequences, they minimized the mean distance between items. Participants also failed to detect changes in serial order more frequently for spatial than for verbal sequences. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation in the binding of serial order to spatial vs. verbal representations. There may be separable domain-specific control processes responsible for this binding. Alternatively, there may be fundamental differences in how effectively temporal information can be bound to different types of stimulus features in WM.
Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is currently unclear which type of store is primarily responsible for maintaining objects that include components from multiple domains. In these studies, a spatial array of letters was followed by a single probe identical to an item in the array or differing systematically in spatial location, letter identity, or their combination. Concurrent verbal rehearsal suppression impaired memory in each of these trial types in a task that required participants to remember verbal-spatial binding, but did not impair memory for spatial locations if the task did not require verbal-spatial binding for a correct response. Thus, spatial information might be stored differently when it must be bound to verbal information. This suggests that a cross-domain store such as the episodic buffer of Baddeley (2000) or the focus of attention of Cowan (2001) might be used for integrated object storage, rather than the maintenance of associations between features stored in separate domain-specific buffers. PMID:19370452
While the consolidation of declarativememory is supported by slow wave sleep (SWS) in healthy subjects, it has been shown to be associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with insomnia. Sleep during a subject's first night in an unfamiliar environment is often disturbed, and this so-called first-night effect (FNE) has often been used as a model of transient insomnia. Additionally, sleeping for the first time in an unfamiliar environment can lead to increased cortisol secretion, and declarativememory consolidation likely depends on low cortisol levels, especially during the early part of the night. Accounting for intersubject variability in the FNE, we examined the relationship between sleep stages, cortisol secretion and declarativememory performance in 27 healthy young men. Declarativememory performance improved significantly after sleep. Whereas memory performance during the learning session and retrieval testing was strongly associated with cortisol secretion, the overnight gain was not. Post hoc analyses indicated that the overnight gain appears to be modulated by the extent of the FNE: a significant overnight improvement in memory performance was found only in subjects with a weak FNE (n=12). In these subjects, no association was found between any sleep stage and the improvement observed in their memory performance. In subjects with a strong FNE (n=12), however, the overnight change in memory performance was associated with the proportion of REM sleep and the total number of REMs. Disturbed sleep in an unfamiliar environment therefore appears to affect the memory consolidation process. PMID:23246326
Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been linked to learning and memory difficulties in a range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. In Huntington's disease (HD), both declines in learning and memory and HPA axis dysfunction are present early in the disease. However, the relationship between specific learning and memory deficits and HPA axis functioning in HD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in relation to verbal learning and memory in pre-diagnosed (pre-HD) participants and patients at the early stages of diagnosed HD (early-HD). Cortisol concentration was assayed in saliva samples from 57 participants (17 early-HD, 20 pre-HD, and 20 controls) at four time-points across a 24-h period. Verbalmemory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). We focused statistical analyses on the late evening cortisol concentration, and examined cortisol levels and verbalmemory function in relation to diagnostic group (control, pre-HD, early-HD), and in a separate set of analyses combining pre-HD and early-HD (and excluding controls) we also examined cortisol and verbalmemory performance in relation to the severity of HD-related motor signs. Of these two classification approaches, HD motor sign severity was more strongly associated with high evening cortisol levels and both reduced information encoding and memory retrieval. Separately, there was also a trend of higher cortisol levels in pre-HD. The findings suggest hypercortisolism and the underlying pathological changes may begin many years before a clinical diagnosis is made, but the memory decline associated with HPA axis disturbance may only become detectable once motor signs become pronounced. PMID:23180175
Shirbin, Christopher A; Chua, Phyllis; Churchyard, Andrew; Hannan, Anthony J; Lowndes, Georgia; Stout, Julie C
Retrieval of recently acquired declarativememories depends on the hippocampus, but with time, retrieval is increasingly sustainable by neocortical representations alone. This process has been conceptualized as system-level consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed over the course of three months how consolidation affects the neural correlates of memory retrieval. The duration of slow-wave sleep during a nap/rest period after the initial study session and before the first scan session on day 1 correlated positively with recognition memory performance for items studied before the nap and negatively with hippocampal activity associated with correct confident recognition. Over the course of the entire study, hippocampal activity for correct confident recognition continued to decrease, whereas activity in a ventral medial prefrontal region increased. These findings, together with data obtained in rodents, may prompt a revision of classical consolidation theory, incorporating a transfer of putative linking nodes from hippocampal to prelimbic prefrontal areas. PMID:16407110
Takashima, A; Petersson, K M; Rutters, F; Tendolkar, I; Jensen, O; Zwarts, M J; McNaughton, B L; Fernández, G
|Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…
Late-life minor depression (miD) is a prevalent but poorly understood illness. Verbal learning and memory profiles have commonly been used to characterize neuropsychiatric disorders. This study compared the performance of 27 older adults with miD on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with 26 age-matched individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 36 non-depressed controls. Results revealed that the miD group performed comparably with controls and significantly better than the MDD group on several CVLT indices. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, consistent with theoretical representations of “normal,” “subcortical,” and “cortical” verbal learning and memory profiles. The majority of the miD group showed “normal” profiles (74%), whereas most individuals with MDD displayed “subcortical” profiles (54%). The findings suggest that depression in the elderly is a heterogeneous entity and that the CVLT may be a useful tool for characterizing learning and memory in late-onset depressive disorders.
Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Zillmer, Eric A.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Kumar, Anand; Gur, Ruben C.; McAndrew, Lisa M.; Bilker, Warren B.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Moberg, Paul J.
Traditionally, working memory is held to comprise separate subcomponents dedicated to the temporary storage of visuospatial and verbal information. More recently, the addition of an episodic buffer has been proposed where information from multiple memory systems is integrated. We report an experiment designed to investigate the effects of providing additional visuospatial information in a verbal working memory task. When to-be-remembered digits were arranged in a horizontal line, performance was no better than when digits were presented in a single location. However, when digits were presented in a keyboard array, performance was significantly better. It is argued that this pattern is hard to reconcile with the traditional model of working memory, and that the "spatial bootstrapping" effect provides evidence towards models of working memory that incorporate an episodic buffer. PMID:19921598
The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbalmemory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbalmemory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model. PMID:12186247
Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721
Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A
Ecstasy\\/MDMA use has been associated with various memory deficits. This study assessed declarative and procedural memory in ecstasy\\/MDMA users. Participants were tested in two sessions, 24 h apart, so that the memory consolidation function of sleep on both types of memory could also be assessed. Groups were: drug-naive controls (n = 24); recent ecstasy\\/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy\\/MDMA 2—3
Mark Blagrove; Jennifer Seddon; Sophie George; Andrew C Parrott; Robert Stickgold; Matthew P Walker; Katy A Jones; Michael J Morgan
|Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbalmemory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbalmemory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…
Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbalmemory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbalmemory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether
Marilee A. Martens; Melissa K. Jungers; Anita L. Steele
|The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbalmemory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbalmemory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down…
It has been well established that working memory abilities decrease with advancing age; however, the specific time point in the adult life span at which this deficit begins and the rate at which it advances are still controversial. There is no agreement on whether working memory declines equally for visuospatial and verbal information, and the literature disagrees on how task difficulty may influence this decay. We addressed these questions in a lifespan sample of 1,500 participants between 21 and 80 years old. The n-back task was used, with letters and circles presented at different positions around an imaginary circle, to evaluate working memory in the verbal and visuospatial domains, respectively. The participants' task was to judge whether the current stimulus matched a stimulus that was shown n trials prior. Both domains were evaluated in two levels of difficulty: 1-back and 2-back. The comparison across decades showed that discrimination in the visuospatial and 1-back tasks started to decline earlier in women than in men; however, discrimination was equal between the sexes in the verbal and 2-back tasks. Performance on tasks in the visuospatial domain exhibited more pronounced decline than in those in the verbal domain. The rate of decline in working memory accuracy was superior in 2-back tasks than in 1-back tasks, independent of the domain. These results revealed that the effects of aging on working memory are less dependent on the type of information and more reliant on the resources demanded by the task. PMID:23558670
The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory task performance before and after an attention training period. In a comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals in the maintenance of information in working memory.
The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory task performance before and after an attention training period. In a comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals in the maintenance of information in working memory. PMID:22363281
|Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…
|The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
Background and methods This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on total and partial (early and late) declarativememory and activation in the areas of the brain involved in these activities. The study included two experiments. Experiment 1 included 40 male residents of an orphanage aged 16–19 years, who were divided into four groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to total sleep deprivation, normal sleep, early-night sleep deprivation, or late-night sleep deprivation. Experiment 2 included eight students from the same institution who were divided into the same four groups (n = 2) as in experiment 1. Declarativememory was tested using lists of associated word pairs in both experiments, and activation of the relevant brain regions was measured before and after retrieval by single-photon emission computed tomography for subjects in experiment 2 only. Results Students subjected to normal sleep had significantly higher scores for declarativememory retrieval than those subjected to total sleep deprivation (P = 0.002), early-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.005), or late-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.02). The left temporal lobe showed the highest rate of activity during memory retrieval after normal sleep, whereas the frontal, parietal, and right temporal lobes were more active after sleep deprivation. Conclusion Both slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep play an active role in consolidation of declarativememory, which in turn allows memory traces to be actively reprocessed and strengthened during sleep, leading to improved performance in memory recall.
Tantawy, Ahmed O; Tallawy, Hamdy N El; Farghaly, Hussein RS; Farghaly, Wafaa M; Hussein, Amr S
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in
|Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…
|Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…
Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial
The interaction between short- and long-term memory is studied within a model in which phonemic and (temporal) contextual information have separate influences on immediate verbal serial recall via connections with short- and long-term plasticity [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G.J. (1999). Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop and its timing. Psychological Review, 106, 551–581]. Long-term learning
It has been suggested that cocaine addiction affects the engagement of the frontoparietal networks in executive functions, such as attention and working memory. Thus, our objective was to investigate brain differences between cocaine-dependent subjects and healthy controls during the performance of a verbal working memory task. Nineteen comparison men and nineteen cocaine-dependent men performed a 2-back task. Data were acquired
Juan-Carlos Bustamante; Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales; Noelia Ventura-Campos; Ana Sanjuán; Juan-José Llopis; María-Antonia Parcet; César Ávila
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The performance of 25 children and adolescents with DS (mean age=12.5, SD=3.8) on five word span tasks was compared with that of two groups of typically developing children, matched for mental age (N=25; mean age=6.0, SD=.2) and for receptive vocabulary (N=25; mean age=4.0, SD=.8). Four of the five tasks varied in terms of input and output--verbal and/or visual--and the fifth task included a spatial component in addition to visual input and output. DS individuals performed equally bad in the pure verbal task and in those with visual components; however, there was a significant improvement when the spatial component was included in the task. The mental age matched group outperformed DS individuals in all tasks except for that with the spatial component; the receptive vocabulary matched group, outperformed DS individuals only in the pure verbal task. We found that visuospatial support improves verbal STM in individuals with DS. This result may have implications for intervention purposes. PMID:21530159
Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…
In healthy young and older adults, emotional information is often better remembered than neutral information. It is an open question, however, whether emotional memory enhancement is blunted or preserved in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies of emotional memory in AD have included small samples of patients. In addition, studies that failed to find an enhancement effect in AD used stimuli
Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Alberta Anderson; John H. Growdon; Suzanne Corkin
Objective To compare verbal and visual memory performances between patients with bipolar I disorder (BD I) and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD II) and to determine whether memory deficits were mediated by impaired organizational strategies. Methods Performances on the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in 37 patients with BD I, 46 patients with BD II and 42 healthy subjects were compared. Mediating effects of impaired organization strategies on poor delayed recall was tested by comparing direct and mediated models using multiple regression analysis. Results Both patients groups recalled fewer words and figure components and showed lower Semantic Clustering compared to controls. Verbalmemory impairment was partly mediated by difficulties in Semantic Clustering in both subtypes, whereas the mediating effect of Organization deficit on the visual memory impairment was present only in BD I. In all mediated models, group differences in delayed recall remained significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that memory impairment may be one of the fundamental cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders and that executive dysfunctions can exert an additional influence on memory impairments.
Ha, Tae Hyon; Kim, Ji Sun; Chang, Jae Seung; Oh, Sung Hee; Her, Ju Young; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Tae Sung; Shin, Soon Young
|Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…
Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus
|Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q 11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we…
Majerus, S.; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, M.; Eliez, S.
|To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a "Listening Word Span Task", whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with…
|Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…
This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbalmemory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…
Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard
|Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…
One of the primary characteristics of a specific language impairment (SLI) is a deficit in language learning. Insight into the basis of SLI may be obtained through research of the learning characteristics of these individuals. This study investigated the verbal learning and memory of 28 individuals with SLI (Mean age = 21 years, 8 months) and 28 controls (Mean age
Nancy L. Records; J. Bruce Tomblin; Paula R. Buckwalter
|Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…
Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) was administered to patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) (Group AD; n=13) and to a control group of normal older adults (Group NC; n=13) matched on age and education. Two measures were used to determine whether primary memory (PM) is impaired in early AD. One measure,
Eileen Simon; Larry Leach; Gordon Winocur; Morris Moscovitch
Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show normal patterns of regional cerebral blood flow during performance of subspan verbalmemory tasks, but appear to allocate new brain regions when performing supraspan recall tasks. To understand the relationships among these interconnected brain regions, their functional connectivity was considered using principal components analysis (PCA). AD patients and controls were scanned in four conditions: visual
A. N. Herbster; T. Nichols; M. B. Wiseman; M. A. Mintun; S. T. DeKosky; J. T. Becker
|The present study examined the verbalmemory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…
Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee
|In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…
|Purpose: An ongoing concern with the evaluation of auditory processing disorders is the extent that assessment instruments are influenced by higher order cognitive functions. This study examined the relationship between verbal working memory and performance on the Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children-Revised (SCAN-C; Keith, 2000b)…
|A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…
Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.
Attention switching between items being stored and manipulated in working memory (WM) is proposed to be an elementary executive function. Experiment 1 reveals a similar attentional limitation within and between verbal and visuospatial WM and identifies a supramodal switching process required for switching between WM items. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging, Experiment 2 investigated brain activation correlates of parametrically
A. Kubler; K. Murphy; J. Kaufman; E. A. Stein; H. Garavana
Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…
Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.
In the current study, we introduce the Item-Specific Deficit Approach (ISDA), a novel method for characterizing memory process deficits in list-learning data. To meet this objective, we applied the ISDA to California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) data collected from a sample of 132 participants (53 healthy participants and 79 neurologically compromised participants). Overall, the ISDA indices measuring encoding, consolidation, and
Matthew J. Wright; Ellen Woo; Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe; Charles H. Hinkin; Eric N. Miller; Amanda L. Gooding
This study examines the relationship between encoding and retrieval factors in producing the well-documented scopolamine-induced deficits in verbalmemory. Subjects were required to learn word lists of 10 items, and were given a total of 8 acquisition trials per list. While the placebo group achieved criterion within 4 acquisition trials, the group treated with scopolamine failed to reach criterion at
|This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbalmemory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…
Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard
|Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…
We modified the traditional (verbal) digit span task for administration via computer and the Internet. This online version collects data on the floor and ceiling of a subject's span capacity, rather than generating a rough estimate of capacity based on a 50% success rate, as the traditional version does. We compared the two versions within adult subjects in two cohorts: college-age normal readers and college-age reading-disabled readers. To explore the reliability of the online version as a research tool, we employed the Bland-Altman approach to examine agreement between instruments. The online version yielded spans similar to those yielded by the traditional version, tending toward smaller values at the high end and larger values at the low end of span sizes, in the typical readers. It differentiated between the better and poorer readers reliably, and to the same extent as does the verbal version. The online version of the digit span task is comparable to the traditional version in assessing verbal span capacity; the code with which to implement the task is available at www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183902
Psychological and pharmacological studies in humans suggest that emotional arousal enhances long-term memory. In this paper we used, in an Italian sample, an adaptation of a paradigm previously utilized in American samples to study the relationship between emotion and long-term memory. Seventy-two healthy adults from different educational backgrounds were randomly assigned either to a neutral group or to an emotional arousal group and then told a short story, presented audio-visually. In both groups, the slides shown and the slide sequence were the same, and the images were accompanied by a narrative. The two versions of the story differed primarily in their emotional content. Shortly after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative, and ten days later were submitted to a retention test. The emotionally-arousing version of the story was rated as more emotional than the neutral one. Compared with the members of the neutral group, the subjects in the arousal group recalled a significantly higher number of elements from the story. There was no overall difference between the two groups in performance on the recognition memory test. These results confirm that the emotional content of stimuli enhances long-term declarativememory of those stimuli, and indicate the possible usefulness of applying the paradigm utilized in this study to different clinical samples from various cultural backgrounds. PMID:16483453
Gasbarri, Antonella; Pompili, Assunta; Arnone, Benedetto; d'Onofrio, Armida; Marchetti, Arianna; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Tomaz, Carlos
Episodic and autobiographical memory are clearly related, yet in both the adult and developmental literatures it is difficult to compare them because of differences in how the constructs are assessed, including differences in content, levels of control, and time since experience. To address these issues, we directly compared children's and adults’ autobiographical and episodic memory using the same controlled paradigm.
Thanujeni Pathman; Zoe Samson; Kevin Dugas; Roberto Cabeza; Patricia J. Bauer
This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that distractors are encoded into memory in the same manner as
Stephan Lewandowsky; Sonja M. Geiger; Klaus Oberauer
Memory is the capacity to store, maintain, and retrieve events or information from the mind. Difficulties in verbal episodic memory commonly occur in healthy aging. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate verbal episodic memory in a group of 32 healthy older adults and in a group of 32 young subjects relative to a sham stimulation using a single-blind randomized controlled design. Each participant underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of sham stimulation. Overall, our results demonstrated that, in young and in older subjects, anodal tDCS applied during the retrieval phase facilitates verbal episodic memory. In particular, we found that tDCS applied over the left and right regions (DLPFC and PARC) induced better performance in young participants; only tDCS applied over the left regions (DLPFC and PARC) increased retrieval in older subjects. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate the long-term episodic memory capacities of young and older subjects.
Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Petesi, Michela; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria
Memory is the capacity to store, maintain, and retrieve events or information from the mind. Difficulties in verbal episodic memory commonly occur in healthy aging. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate verbal episodic memory in a group of 32 healthy older adults and in a group of 32 young subjects relative to a sham stimulation using a single-blind randomized controlled design. Each participant underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of sham stimulation. Overall, our results demonstrated that, in young and in older subjects, anodal tDCS applied during the retrieval phase facilitates verbal episodic memory. In particular, we found that tDCS applied over the left and right regions (DLPFC and PARC) induced better performance in young participants; only tDCS applied over the left regions (DLPFC and PARC) increased retrieval in older subjects. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate the long-term episodic memory capacities of young and older subjects. PMID:24062685
Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Petesi, Michela; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria
The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbalmemory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees/immigrants exposed to war and political violence who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for chronic PTSD compared with a control sample of 21 refugees/immigrants with similar exposure, but without PTSD. The California Verbal Learning Test was administered to examine differences in organizational strategies and memory. The semantic clustering score was slightly reduced in both groups, but the serial cluster score was significantly impaired in the PTSD group and they also reported more items from the recency region of the list. In addition, intrusive errors were significantly increased in the PTSD group. The data support an assumption of changed memory strategies in patients with PTSD associated with a specific impairment in executive control. However, memory impairment and the use of ineffective learning strategies may not be related to PTSD symptomatology only, but also to self-reported symptoms of depression and general distress. PMID:19058857
Background Working memory disturbances are a frequently replicated finding in schizophrenia and less consistent also in schizoaffective\\u000a disorder. Working memory dysfunctions have been shown to be heritable and have been proposed to represent a promising endophenotype\\u000a of schizophrenic psychoses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In the present study, we investigated the effects of familial loading on performance rates in circuit-specific verbal and\\u000a visuospatial working memory
David Zilles; Sarah Burke; Thomas Schneider-Axmann; Peter Falkai; Oliver Gruber
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM). WM tasks examined memory span through recall of the last item of a series of stimuli. Additionally, both verbal and visual-spatial tests had a dual-task condition assessing the effect of increasing demands on the central executive (CE). Inhibitory control processes in verbal WM were examined through intrusion errors. The TBI group (n = 73) performed more poorly on verbal and visual-spatial WM tasks than orthopedic-injured children (n = 30) and non-injured children (n = 40). All groups performed more poorly on the dual-task conditions, reflecting an effect of increasing CE load. This effect was not greater for the TBI group. There were no group differences in intrusion errors on the verbal WM task, suggesting that problems in WM experienced by children with TBI were not primarily due to difficulties in inhibitory control. Finally, injury-related characteristics, namely days to follow commands, accounted for significant variance in WM performance, after controlling for relevant demographic variables. Findings suggest that WM impairments in TBI are general rather than modality-specific and that severity indices measured over time are better predictors of WM performance than those taken at a single time point. PMID:22014162
Gorman, Stephanie; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul R; Prasad, Mary; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda
Objective To determine whether all boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a similar verbal and memory profile of skills, or whether only a subset is affected, and to determine whether the weak areas in their profile are substantially different from a control group. Methods Performance of patients with DMD on neuropsychological tests of verbal and memory skills was examined in two ways. Standardized test scores for 80 boys with DMD (estimated IQ range, 70 to 160) were ranked individually from worst to best, and the individual rankings were compared across the group using Friedman rank analysis. Additionally, performance of 41 boys with DMD was compared with that of their sibling control subjects of similar age and estimated IQ using multivariate analysis of variance. Results Individual cognitive profiles were significantly similar among the subjects with DMD, such that for most subjects digit span, story recall, and comprehension were the tests on which each performed most poorly. This finding remained true regardless of whether they were of high or low intellectual function. In contrast, no significant cognitive profile was found among their sibling control subjects, and when compared with their siblings, the DMD group scored significantly more poorly on digit span, comprehension, and story recall, but not on other verbal and memory measures. Conclusions Boys with DMD have a specific cognitive profile, regardless of their general level of cognitive function. Specifically, boys with DMD performed more poorly on tests requiring attention to complex verbal information than they did on other verbal or memory measures. The possibility that the missing dystrophin brain products may contribute to selective cognitive processing is considered.
Hinton, V.J.; De Vivo, D.C.; Nereo, N.E.; Goldstein, E.; Stern, Y.
The striatum has been shown to be a key region in the processing of reward-related information. The head of the caudate nucleus has been implicated in processing performance feedback, or in other words, information about the outcomes of one’s actions. However, feedback provides multiple types of information, and it is not clear which of these types of information drive a caudate response. We sought to determine whether the signal in the caudate differed when feedback was informative but only arbitrarily related to performance versus when it provided information about goal achievement. To do this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine caudate activation during a feedback-based paired associate word learning task. During an initial round of 60 distinct trials, participants chose one of two responses on each trial and received feedback about whether their responses were correct. On the subsequent two rounds, the 60 trials were repeated and participants chose their responses based on their memory of the correct answer. The caudate nuclei were strongly engaged only during the second two rounds, when feedback reflected the accuracy of memory. These results support the idea that feedback-based caudate activation is context dependent: the caudate can be engaged in feedback-based declarativememory tasks, but it is more strongly engaged when feedback is “earned” by performance than when it is informative but not tied to goal achievement.
This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus
Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level.
Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome relative to control participants. To answer these questions, two tasks were used: a discrimination task, in which memory load was as low as possible, and a short-term recognition task that used the same stimulus items. Individuals with Down syndrome were found to perform significantly better than a nonverbal-matched typically developing group on the discrimination task, but they performed significantly more poorly than that group on the recognition task. The Down syndrome group was outperformed by an additional vocabulary-matched control group on the discrimination task but was outperformed to a markedly greater extent on the recognition task. Taken together, the results strongly indicate that phonemic discrimination ability is not central to the verbal short-term memory deficit associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23454358
The present paper focuses on human studies attempting to relate sleep states to memory processes. These studies typically present learning material to participants and then examine their ability to recall this material after intervening post-training sleep or sleep deprivation. Most experiments utilize either sleep recording or sleep deprivation following task acquisition to reach their conclusions, although cueing and position emission
Imitation is an important means by which infants learn new behaviours. When infants do not have the opportunity to immediately reproduce observed actions, they may form a memory representation of the event which can guide their behaviour when a similar situation is encountered again. Imitation procedures can, therefore, provide insight into infant…
Over the past decade, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of working memory (WM) have made progress in distinguishing the neural substrates of central executive (CE) functions from substrates of temporary storage subsystems. However, the degree to which CE-related processes and their substrates may be further fractionated is less clear. The present study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) in a running memory paradigm, to study modality-specific CE-related processes in verbal and spatial WM. Participants were asked to remember either verbal (digit identity) or spatial (digit location) information for the first or last three items in a variable length sequence of spatially distributed digit stimuli. Modality-specific WM demand-sensitive ERP amplitude effects were selectively observed over left prefrontal areas under verbal WM performance and over right prefrontal areas under spatial WM performance. In addition, distinct patterns of item-by-item sensitivity under high-CE-demand conditions suggested qualitatively different processing strategies for verbal versus spatial tasks. These results suggest that both modality-specific and task-general CE-related processes are likely operational in many WM situations and that careful dissociative methods will be needed to properly further fractionate and characterize these component CE-related processes and their neurological substrates. PMID:20570659
Watter, Scott; Heisz, Jennifer J; Karle, James W; Shedden, Judith M; Kiss, Ivan
Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM) experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock) has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function) devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back) while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion–cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated with anxiety.
Vytal, Katherine E.; Cornwell, Brian R.; Letkiewicz, Allison M.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Grillon, Christian
Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as networks involved in serial order processing, underlie STM for both verbal and visual list information, with neural specificity restricted to sensory areas involved in processing the specific items to be retained. Participants were presented sequences of nonwords or unfamiliar faces, and were instructed to maintain and recognize order or item information. For encoding and retrieval phases, null conjunction analysis revealed an identical fronto-parieto-cerebellar network comprising the left intraparietal sulcus, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral cerebellum, irrespective of information type and modality. A network centered around the right intraparietal sulcus supported STM for order information, in both verbal and visual modalities. Modality-specific effects were observed in left superior temporal and mid-fusiform areas associated with phonological and orthographic processing during the verbal STM tasks, and in right hippocampal and fusiform face processing areas during the visual STM tasks, wherein these modality effects were most pronounced when storing item information. The present results suggest that STM emerges from the deployment of modality-independent attentional and serial ordering processes toward sensory networks underlying the processing and storage of modality-specific item information. PMID:19925207
Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Belayachi, Sanaâ; Van der Linden, Martial; Collette, Fabienne; Salmon, Eric; Seurinck, Ruth; Fias, Wim; Maquet, Pierre
Decrements in verbalmemory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbalmemory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent (ALCS N=29; 14 male), illicit stimulant (predominantly cocaine) dependent (STIMS N = 25; 15 male) and alcohol and illicit stimulant dependent (ALC/STIMS N = 50; 35 male) participants with co-morbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41(±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (~8–10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (High dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively or Low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale -Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbalmemory recall. Results indicated that STIMS receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMS who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMS demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory and, that considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval) underlying endpoint indicators (e.g. correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.
Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo
Decrements in verbalmemory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbalmemory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n?=?29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n?=?25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n?=?50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (?8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbalmemory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes. PMID:21526444
Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo
A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7–12 years) and adults (ages 20–29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads) of information to be
Moriah E. Thomason; Elizabeth Race; Brittany Burrows; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Gary H. Glover; John D. E. Gabrieli
A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7–12 years) and adults (ages 20–29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads) of information to be
Moriah E. Thomason; Elizabeth Race; Brittany Burrows; Susan L. Whitfield-gabrieli; Gary H. Glover; John D. E. Gabrieli
The neural bases of verbal (nonspatial) working memory (VWM) have been primarily examined using visual stimuli. Few studies have investigated the neural bases of VWM using auditory stimuli, and fewer have explored modality differences in VWM. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine similarities and differences between visual VWM (vis-VWM) and auditory VWM (aud-VWM) utilizing
The effects of verbal and pictorial elaboration on children's long-term memory were assessed in 2 experiments. A total of 124 2nd graders learned a 20-pair list of common nouns to a 16\\/20 correct criterion by the paired-associate method, and long-term retention was assessed after 7 days. Exp I was conducted with middle-socioeconomic-status White children. Exp II used low-socioeconomic-status Mexican-American children.
BACKGROUND: The effects of negative emotion on different processing periods in spatial and verbal working memory (WM) and the possible brain mechanism of the interaction between negative emotion and WM were explored using a high-time resolution event-related potential (ERP) technique and time-locked delayed matching-to-sample task (DMST). RESULTS: Early P3b and late P3b were reduced in the negative emotion condition for
Rationale Long-term heavy cannabis use can result in memory impairment. Adolescent users may be especially vulnerable to the adverse\\u000a neurocognitive effects of cannabis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives and methods In a cross-sectional and prospective neuropsychological study of 181 adolescents aged 16–20 (mean 18.3 years), we compared\\u000a performance indices from one of the most widely used measures of learning and memory—the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test—between\\u000a cannabis
Nadia Solowij; Katy A. Jones; Megan E. Rozman; Sasha M. Davis; Joseph Ciarrochi; Patrick C. L. Heaven; Dan I. Lubman; Murat Yücel
In this study, we used model-based functional MRI (fMRI) to locate two functions of the fronto-parietal network: declarativememory retrievals and updating of working memory. Because regions in the fronto-parietal network are by definition coherently active, locating functions within this network is difficult. To overcome this problem, we applied model-based fMRI, an analysis method that uses predictions of a computational model to inform the analysis. We applied model-based fMRI to five previously published datasets with associated computational cognitive models, and subsequently integrated the results in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that declarativememory retrievals correlated with activity in the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, whereas updating of working memory corresponded to activation in the inferior parietal lobule, as well as to activation around the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate.
A potential mechanism that enables intellectual preservation in cognitively normal elderly that harbor beta-amyloid (A?) pathology is heightened cerebral glucose metabolism. To investigate cross-sectional inter-relationships between A?, glucose metabolism, and cognition, 81 subjects (mean age: 75 ± 7 years) underwent [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound-B and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological testing. They were divided into low-A? (n = 53), intermediate-A? (n = 13) and high-A? (n = 15) groups as defined by their global cortical [(11)C]PIB retention. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a MetaROI mask that covers metabolically critical regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., posterior cingulate and bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyri). Previously validated factor scores for verbal and visual episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, and executive functioning were used to evaluate cognitive performances. Greater A? deposition in the precuneus was associated with higher metabolic activity (at trend level) and lower visual episodic memory scores. Glucose metabolism did not correlate with cognition across all subjects. However, heightened metabolic activity was associated with better verbal episodic memory performance in subjects with elevated amyloid levels. This preliminary study suggests that neural compensation, as a manifestation of brain reserve, enables elderly supposedly on the path to AD, at least temporarily, to preserve cognitive function. PMID:23537530
Ossenkoppele, Rik; Madison, Cindee; Oh, Hwamee; Wirth, Miranka; van Berckel, Bart N M; Jagust, William J
Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH) on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarativememory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg) that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ?12% (both P<0.05). The impairment of declarativememory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05). Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.
The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbalmemory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbalmemory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbalmemory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbalmemory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbalmemory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. PMID:22236632
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbalmemory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbalmemory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether music can enhance verbalmemory in individuals with WS. In Study 1, we presented a memory task of eight spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and identified its group name to 38 individuals with WS. Study 2, involving another group of individuals with WS (n=38), included six spoken or sung sentences that identified an animal group name. In both studies, those who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on the verbalmemory task when the sentences were sung than when they were spoken. Those who had not taken formal lessons showed no such benefit. We also found that increased enjoyment of music and heightened emotional reactions to music did not impact performance on the memory task. These compelling findings provide the first evidence that musical experience may enhance verbalmemory in individuals with WS and shed more light on the complex relationship between aspects of cognition and altered neurodevelopment in this unique disorder. PMID:21807007
Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K; Steele, Anita L
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy' has been associated with memory deficits during abstinence and intoxication. The human neuropharmacology of MDMA-induced memory impairment is unknown. This study investigated the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Ketanserin is a 5-HT2A receptor blocker and pindolol a 5-HT1A receptor blocker. It was hypothesized that pretreatment with ketanserin and pindolol would protect against MDMA-induced memory impairment. Subjects (N=17) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design involving six experimental conditions consisting of pretreatment (T1) and treatment (T2). T1 preceded T2 by 30?min. T1–T2 combinations were: placebo–placebo, pindolol 20?mg–placebo, ketanserin 50?mg–placebo, placebo–MDMA 75?mg, pindolol 20?mg–MDMA 75?mg, and ketanserin 50?mg–MDMA 75?mg. Memory function was assessed at Tmax of MDMA by means of a word-learning task (WLT), a spatial memory task and a prospective memory task. MDMA significantly impaired performance in all memory tasks. Pretreatment with a 5-HT2A receptor blocker selectively interacted with subsequent MDMA treatment and prevented MDMA-induced impairment in the WLT, but not in the spatial and prospective memory task. Pretreatment with a 5-HT1A blocker did not affect MDMA-induced memory impairment in any of the tasks. Together, the results demonstrate that MDMA-induced impairment of verbalmemory as measured in the WLT is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.
van Wel, J H P; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Bosker, W M; Bakker, K; Ramaekers, J G
According to linguistic and psycholinguistic models, language depends on a mental lexicon and a mental grammar. The former is a long-term memory store involving all words acquired by an individual, while the latter is responsible for the generation of regular forms through the application of linguistic rules. In an attempt to reconcile language with other memory functions, Ullman and colleagues
The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of the neural correlates of declarativememory formation as assessed by the subsequent memory effect, i.e. the difference in encoding activity between subsequently remembered and subsequently forgotten items. Different operations could account for these effects. In particular, it has been proposed that successful memory formation depends on the organization of the information at the time of encoding, an operation accomplished by the working memory system. Consequently, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have already shown that the very same regions that are involved in certain working memory processes are also involved in declarativememory formation. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate whether the subsequent memory effects in these regions are present throughout picture stimulus presentation, postulating ongoing working memory operations as an effective factor. The results showed that subsequent memory effects began to appear after about 300 ms post stimulus onset over bilateral temporal areas and left parietal regions and were sustained throughout the recording epoch (1000 ms). Roughly parallel to these effects, we identified a left frontal subsequent memory effect, which, however, was less sustained than the other effects. In addition, we revealed a late subsequent memory effect over the right occipital region, which has not been described previously in the event-related potential literature. These sustained subsequent memory effects are suggestive of working memory processes that may enable deep semantic and perceptual processing. Additionally, contextually constrained visual perception after top-down modulation may account for a more efficient encoding of the complex scene. PMID:16325347
Takashima, A; Jensen, O; Oostenveld, R; Maris, E; van de Coevering, M; Fernández, G
Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM. PMID:21765184
Development of working memory (WM) aptitude parallels structural changes in the frontal-parietal association cortices important for performance within this cognitive domain. The cerebellum has been proposed to function in support of the postulated phonological loop component of verbal WM, and along with frontal and parietal cortices, has been shown to exhibit linear WM load-dependent activation in adults. It is not known if these kinds of WM load-dependent relationships exist for cerebro-cerebellar networks in developmental populations, and whether there are age-related changes in the nature of load-dependency between childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The present study used fMRI and a verbal Sternberg WM task with three load levels to investigate developmental changes in WM load-dependent cerebro-cerebellar activation in a sample of 30 children, adolescents, and young adults between the ages of 7 and 28. The neural substrates of linear load-dependency were found to change with age. Among adolescents and adults, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions showed linear load-dependency, or increasing activation under conditions of increasing WM load. In contrast, children recruited only left ventral prefrontal cortex in response to increasing WM load. These results demonstrate that, while children, adolescents, and young adults activate similar cerebro-cerebellar verbal working memory networks, the extent to which they rely on parietal and cerebellar regions in response to increasing task difficulty changes significantly between childhood and adolescence.
O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Lu, Lisa H.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.
This study compared verbal learning and memory in patients with autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD). Twenty-four DLB patients, 24 PDD patients, and 24 normal comparison participants were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. The three groups were matched on demographic variables and the two patient groups were matched on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. The results indicated that DLB patients recalled less information than PDD patients on all but one recall measure and displayed a more rapid rate of forgetting. In contrast, the PDD patients committed a greater percent of perseveration errors than the DLB patients. The two groups did not differ in the percentage of recall intrusion errors or any measures of recognition. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) using short delay cued recall, percent perseveration errors, and list b recall, differentiated the DLB and PDD groups with 81.3% accuracy. The application of the DFA algorithm to another sample of 42 PDD patients resulted in a 78.6% correct classification rate. The results suggest that, despite equivalent levels of general cognitive impairment, patients with DLB or PDD exhibit a different pattern of verbal learning and memory deficits.
Vincent Filoteo, J.; Salmon, David P.; Schiehser, Dawn M.; Kane, Amy E.; Hamilton, Joanne M.; Rilling, Laurie M.; Lucas, John A.; Zizak, Vanessa; Galasko, Douglas R.
|Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbalmemory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…
|The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…
Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise
|For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired semantic memory as well as deficits in a wide range of language-related functions, such as verbal fluency, comprehension and production of complex sentences. Since language and memory disturbances may underlie some of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the present study investigated the specific association between alogia (i.e. poverty of speech, poverty of content of speech,
We tested the proposal that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning aref fundamentally different kinds of learning. Strings of one, two, three, or four trials with the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone and strings of one, two, three, or four trials with paired presentations of both the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US) occurred in such a way that the probability of a US was independent of string length. Before each trial, participants predicted the likelihood of the US on the next trial. During both delay (n = 20) and trace (n = 18) conditioning, participants exhibited high expectation of the US following strings of CS-alone trials and low expectation of the US following strings of CS-US trials--a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy. During delay conditioning, conditioned responses (CRs) were not influenced by expectancy but by the associative strength of the CS and US. Thus, CR probability was high following a string of CS-US trials and low following a string of CS-alone trials. The results for trace conditioning were opposite. CR probability was high when expectancy of the US was high and low when expectancy of the US was low: The results show that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning are fundamentally different phenomena. We consider how the findings can be understood in terms of the declarative and nondeclarative memory systems that support eyeblink classical conditioning. PMID:11476097
This is the first study of the effect of topiramate on linguistic behavior and verbal recall using a computational linguistics system for automated language and speech analysis to detect and quantify drug-induced changes in speech recorded during discourse level tasks. Healthy volunteers were administered a single, 100 mg oral dose of topiramate in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Subjects’ topiramate plasma levels ranged from 0.23–2.81ug/mL. We found a significant association between topiramate levels and impairment on measures of verbal fluency elicited during a picture description task, correct number of words recalled on a paragraph recall test, and reaction time recorded during a working memory task. Using the tools of clinical pharmacology and computational linguistics, we elucidated the relationship between the determinants of a drug’s disposition as reflected in plasma concentrations and their impact on cognitive functioning as reflected in spoken language discourse.
The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such “recency effects” have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength) of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and “expectancy” hypotheses, respectively – of the parietal lobe recency effect.
Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Ye, Donald; D'Esposito, Mark
This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age=81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical Memory (LM), Trail Making Test B (TMTB), Block Design (BD)) and provided blood samples for hormonal assays (total estradiol, total testosterone, calculated free testosterone index). Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, education, body mass index, and cardiovascular comorbidities indicated that men with high levels of total estradiol demonstrated better FCSRT verbalmemory performance (?=0.17, p<0.02) compared to men with lower levels of total estradiol. The results remained unchanged when the model was further adjusted for ethnicity. We did not detect an association between testosterone and cognitive performance. These findings indicate that high levels of total estradiol in older men are associated with better performance on a cue-based, controlled learning test of verbalmemory that is a sensitive predictor of dementia.
Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S.; Derby, Carol A.; Katz, Mindy J.; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel
An fMRI pitch memory task was administered to left and right anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) patients. The goal was to verify the neuroanatomical correlates of non-verbalmemory, and to determine if pitch memory tasks can identify cognitive risk prior to ATL. The data showed that the bilateral posterior superior temporal lobes implement pitch memory in both ATL patients and NCs (normal controls), indicating that the task can be accomplished with either anterior temporal lobe resected. NCs activate the posterior temporal lobes more strongly than ATL patients during highly accurate performance. In contrast, both ATL groups activate the anterior cingulate in association with accuracy. While our data clarifies the functional neuroanatomy of pitch memory, it also indicates that such tasks do not serve well to lateralize and functionally map potentially "at risk" non-verbalmemory skills prior to ATL. PMID:23031747
Tracy, Joseph I; Hernandez, R Nick; Mayekar, Sonal; Osipowicz, Karol; Corbett, Brian; Pascua, Mark; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D
The present randomized double blind study investigated the effects of a 2 week transdermal estradiol treatment on memory performance in 38 healthy elderly women. Cognitive performance was tested at baseline and after 2 weeks of estradiol or placebo treatment using verbal, semantic, and spatial memory tests as well as a mental rotation task and the Stroop. Initial results showed no
Oliver T. Wolf; Brigitte M. Kudielka; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Sonja Törber; Bruce S. McEwen; Clemens Kirschbaum
The first aim of the present study was to extend previous findings of similar cerebellar cortical areas being involved in verbal and spatial n-back working memory to the level of the cerebellar nuclei. The second aim was to investigate whether different areas of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei contribute to different working memory tasks (n-back vs. Sternberg tasks). Young and healthy subjects participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using a 7 T MR scanner with its increased signal-to-noise ratio. One group of subjects (n=21) performed an abstract and a verbal version of an n-back task contrasting a 2-back and 0-back condition. Another group of subjects (n=23) performed an abstract and a verbal version of a Sternberg task contrasting a high load and a low load condition. A block design was used. For image processing of the dentate nuclei, a recently developed region of interest (ROI) driven normalization method of the dentate nuclei was applied (Diedrichsen et al., 2011). Whereas activated areas of the cerebellar cortex and dentate nuclei were not significantly different comparing the abstract and verbal versions of the n-back task, activation in the abstract and verbal Sternberg tasks was significantly different. In both n-back tasks activation was most prominent at the border of lobules VI and Crus I, within lobule VII, and within the more caudal parts of the dentate nucleus bilaterally. In Sternberg tasks the most prominent activations were found in lobule VI extending into Crus I on the right. In the verbal Sternberg task activation was significantly larger within right lobule VI compared to the abstract Sternberg task and compared to the verbal n-back task. Activations of rostral parts of the dentate were most prominent in the verbal Sternberg task, whereas activation of caudal parts predominated in the abstract Sternberg task. On the one hand, the lack of difference between abstract and verbal n-back tasks and the lack of significant lateralization suggest a more general contribution of the cerebellum to working memory regardless of the modality. On the other hand, the focus of activation in right lobule VI in the verbal Sternberg task suggests specific cerebellar contributions to verbal working memory. The verbal Sternberg task emphasizes maintenance of stimuli via phonological rehearsal, whereas central executive demands prevail in n-back tasks. Based on the model of working memory by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), the present results show that different regions of the cerebellum support functions of the central executive system and one of the subsidiary systems, the phonological loop. PMID:22634219
Thürling, M; Hautzel, H; Küper, M; Stefanescu, M R; Maderwald, S; Ladd, M E; Timmann, D
Memory impairment following closed-head injury (CHI) in children is well documented. Characterization of the memory deficits of children with CHI could contribute to the prediction of academic performance and rehabilitation of these children. Twenty-five children who sustained closed-head injury and 25 matched controls were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). The advantage of this memory test is that
Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Judith Rochberg; Moshe Vardi
Two distinctly different maturational processes - cortical thinning and white matter maturation - take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of the left fronto-parietal network and the diffusion characteristics of the connecting pathway of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in accounting for verbal working memory performance were investigated, using a predefined regions of interest-approach. 108 healthy participants aged 8-19 years underwent MRI, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as cognitive testing using a digit span task. Radial diffusivity of the SLF, as well as cortical thickness of supramarginal gyrus and rostral middle frontal cortex, were negatively related to digit span forwards performance, independently of age. Radial diffusivity of the SLF was also negatively related to digit span backwards. A multi-modal analysis showed that cortical thickness and SLF microstructure were complementary in explaining working memory span. Furthermore, SLF microstructure and cortical thickness had different impact on working memory performance during the developmental period, suggesting a complex developmental interplay. The results indicate that cortical and white matter maturation each play unique roles in the development of working memory. PMID:22001853
Østby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B
This study evaluated the neural basis of verbal working memory (WM) function in a group of 20 children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and 20 typically developing comparison participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both groups showed prominent activation in the frontal-parietal-cerebellar network known to be important for verbal WM. Despite equivalent behavioral performance between groups, alcohol-exposed individuals showed increased activation relative to typically developing individuals in left dorsal frontal and left inferior parietal cortices, and bilateral posterior temporal regions during verbal WM. These effects remained even when group differences on IQ were statistically controlled. This pattern of increased activation coupled with equivalent behavioral performance between groups suggests that individuals with FASD recruit a more extensive network of brain regions during verbal WM relative to typically developing individuals. These findings may suggest that frontal-parietal processing during verbal WM is less efficient in alcohol-exposed individuals.
O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Lu, Lisa H.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Mattson, Sarah N.; O'Connor, Mary J.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.
The extended time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model suggested a working memory architecture in which an executive loop and a phonological loop could both support the maintenance of verbal information. The consequence of such a framework is that phonological effects known to impact the maintenance of verbal information, like the word length effect (WLE), should depend on the use of the phonological loop, but should disappear under the maintenance by the executive loop. In two previous studies, introducing concurrent articulation in complex span tasks barely affected WLE, contradicting the prediction from the TBRS model. The present study re-evaluated the WLE in a complex span task while controlling for time parameters and the amount of concurrent articulation. Specifically, we used a computer-paced span task in which participants remembered lists of either short or long words while concurrently either articulating or making a location judgment. Whereas the WLE appeared when participants remained silent, concurrent articulation eliminated the effect. Introducing a concurrent attention demand reduced recall, but did not affect WLE, and did not interact with concurrent articulation. These results support the existence of two systems of maintenance for verbal information. PMID:23894580
We explored the temporal dynamics of parietal and prefrontal cortex involvement in verbal working memory employing single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In six healthy volunteers the left or right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex was stimulated with the aid of a frameless stereotactic system. TMS was applied at 10 different time points 140-500 ms into the delay period of a two-back verbal working memory task. A choice reaction task was used as a control task. Interference with task accuracy was induced by TMS earlier in the parietal cortex than in the prefrontal cortex and earlier over the right than the left hemisphere. This suggests a propagation of information flow from posterior to anterior cortical sites converging in the left prefrontal cortex. Significant interference with reaction time was observed after 180 ms with left prefrontal cortex stimulation. These effects were not observed in the control task, underlining the task specificity of our results. We propose that the interference with right-sided prefrontal cortex stimulation leads to impaired performance due to disturbed input into the left prefrontal cortex, whereas left-sided TMS interferes directly with the final information processing. Left- and right-sided brain areas might be involved in parallel processing of semantic and object features of the stimuli, respectively. PMID:12667834
Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Krause, B J; Pascual-Leone, A
Material-specific memory impairments are a well-established consequence of unilateral medial temporal lobe damage. We used fMRI to investigate encoding and recognition of verbal and nonverbal stimuli using adaptations of tasks used successfully in clinical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied two patient groups, one with left TLE and one with right TLE, and one group of healthy subjects. Results from the healthy subjects indicated that initial and delayed recognition trials of the verbal task activated the left medial temporal lobe, and the same tasks of the nonverbal task activated the right, confirming the sensitivity to laterality of our clinical tasks. Patients tended to use the opposite hippocampus, but often the parahippocampal gyrus on the same side, compared to the healthy subjects. Since our patients and the healthy groups performed similarly on the memory tasks, we conclude that the patients' activation patterns represent an effective adaptation to the presence of an unhealthy hippocampus. PMID:22980080
Banks, Sarah Jane; Sziklas, Viviane; Sodums, Devin J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn
This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have broad language deficits (that are not restricted to measures of expressive language) and associated verbal short-term memory deficits. The profile of language skills in children with Down syndrome shows similarities to that seen in children with Specific Language Impairment. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21628091
Controlling the effects of proactive interference (PI), the deleterious effect of prior mental activity on current memory representations, is believed to be a key function of the prefrontal cortex. This view is supported by neuroimaging evidence for a correlation between the longer reaction times caused by high PI conditions of a working memory task and increased activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of the prefrontal cortex. An alternative that has never been ruled out, however, is that this left IFG effect may merely reflect sensitivity to such nonspecific factors as difficulty and/or time on task. To resolve this confound, we applied the interference methodology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left IFG and two control regions while subjects performed delayed letter recognition. rTMS was guided with high-resolution magnetic resonance images and was time-locked to the onset of the memory probe. The effect of rTMS, a disruption of accuracy restricted to high-PI probes, was specific to the left IFG. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, phasic disruption of the left IFG selectively disrupts control of responses to high-conflict verbal working memory probes, and they conclusively reject nonspecific alternative accounts. PMID:17151200
|Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…
Current theories suggest that disrupting cortical information integration may account for the mechanism of general anesthesia in suppressing consciousness. Human cognitive operations take place in hierarchically structured neural organizations in the brain. The process of low-order neural representation of sensory stimuli becoming integrated in high-order cortices is also known as cognitive binding. Combining neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, and anesthetic manipulation, we examined how cognitive networks involved in auditory verbalmemory are maintained in wakefulness, disrupted in propofol-induced deep sedation, and re-established in recovery. Inspired by the notion of cognitive binding, an functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided connectivity analysis was utilized to assess the integrity of functional interactions within and between different levels of the task-defined brain regions. Task-related responses persisted in the primary auditory cortex (PAC), but vanished in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and premotor areas in deep sedation. For connectivity analysis, seed regions representing sensory and high-order processing of the memory task were identified in the PAC and IFG. Propofol disrupted connections from the PAC seed to the frontal regions and thalamus, but not the connections from the IFG seed to a set of widely distributed brain regions in the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes (with exception of the PAC). These later regions have been implicated in mediating verbal comprehension and memory. These results suggest that propofol disrupts cognition by blocking the projection of sensory information to high-order processing networks and thus preventing information integration. Such findings contribute to our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms as related to information and integration in the brain. PMID:21932265
Liu, Xiaolin; Lauer, Kathryn K; Ward, Barney D; Rao, Stephen M; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G
Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister or control materials used in four tasks: reading aloud, immediate spoken recall, immediate typed recall, and serial recognition. Dependent measures from working memory (recall accuracy) and language production (speech errors) fields were used. Even though lists were identical except for item order, robust effects of tongue twisters were observed. Speech error analyses showed that errors were better described as phoneme rather than item ordering errors. The distribution of speech errors was comparable across all experiments and exhibited syllable-position effects, suggesting an important role for production processes. Implications for working memory and language production are discussed.
Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. A widely held model assumes that this is because newly encoded memories undergo covert reactivation during sleep. We cued new memories in humans during sleep by presenting an odor that had been presented as context during prior learning, and so showed that reactivation indeed causes memory consolidation during sleep. Re-exposure to the odor during slow-wave sleep
Björn Rasch; Christian Büchel; Steffen Gais; Jan Born
Many recent computational models of verbal short-term memory postulate a separation between processes supporting memory for the identity of items and processes supporting memory for their serial order. Furthermore, some of these models assume that memory for serial order is supported by a timing signal. We report an attempt to find evidence for such a timing signal by comparing an
Richard Henson; Tom Hartley; Neil Burgess; Graham Hitch; Brenda Flude
Episodic memory is frequently impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients but the exact nature of the disorder is controversial. It was initially thought to be due to a retrieval deficit but some studies have demonstrated an encoding deficit, which could be linked to a slowing of information processing speed or to a deficit in elaboration of strategies. The main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and the nature of verbal episodic memory (VEM) impairment in MS patients. We retrieved memory performances of 426 patients [314 F-112 M; mean age: 46.1 years; median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 3.1] from a neuropsychological data base. VEM was assessed using the 16 words RL-RI 16 test. 66% MS patients present at least one recall impaired in VEM (37.2% from 2 to 5 recall). 14.2% MS patients present an impairment in encoding phase. We observed that 5% of patients presented recognition difficulties. Correlations were observed between VEM performances and EDSS, and disease duration but no group effect (ANOVA) is observed between form of MS and VEM performances. These results confirm the high prevalence of VEM impairment in MS patients. Deficits affect mainly information retrieval in early stage MS patients and are then linked to encoding as disability increases. Storage disorders are infrequent, so cognitive rehabilitation with mental imaging could be effective in MS patients. PMID:22240715
|Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…
Context: Although cognitive complaints are common among menopausal women, it is debatable whether there is an objective decline in cognition with menopause that exceeds what is expected with normal aging. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether reproductive senescence is associated with an age-independent decline in verbalmemory. Design and Setting: The study was a 14-year, longitudinal, population-based cohort study of women who underwent yearly endocrine, behavioral, and cognitive assessments from pre- to postmenopause. Participants: Caucasian and African American premenopausal women (n = 403), who were enrolled in the Penn Ovarian Aging Study, participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Buschke Selective Reminding Test (immediate and delayed verbal recall), the digit symbol substitution task, and the symbol copy task were used to measure outcomes. Results: A total of 3958 assessments were conducted in this sample of 403 women. In models that were adjusted for age and important cofactors, immediate (P = .03) and delayed (P = .03) recall on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test declined from the pre- to postmenopausal stages. Further evaluation identified a significant decline (P < .002) in delayed recall early in the transition and immediate recall (P = .04) late in the transition. Race was a significant factor in performance on all tasks (all P < .0001) except the delayed verbal recall task (P = .06) in adjusted models. Endocrine measures were significantly associated with cognitive performance in unadjusted models. Conclusions: Certain cognitive domains are sensitive to the physiological changes of reproductive senescence independent of age. The differences in cognitive performance between African American and Caucasian women were not explained by factors examined in this study but are of important public health concern that warrants further investigation. PMID:23836935
Epperson, C Neill; Sammel, Mary D; Freeman, Ellen W
|This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…
Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.
|Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…
Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.
|The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…
Phonological processing abilities were studied in a patient who, following focal brain damage, showed selective impairment in non-word reading, writing, and repetition and also a severe short-term memory (STM) deficit specific for auditorily presented verbal material. The patient could execute tasks involving phonemic manipulation and awareness perfectly. Our data, in contrast with earlier observations in a case of developmental phonological
Patrizia S. Bisiacchi; Lisa Cipolotti; Gianfranco Denes
The nature of the representations maintained in verbal working memory is a topic of debate. Some authors argue for a modality-dependent code, tied to particular sensory or motor systems. Others argue for a modality-neutral code. Sign language affords a unique perspective because it factors out the effects of modality. In an fMRI experiment, deaf…
This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…
Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.
|This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…
The effects of repeated advertising exposures depend on the size of the interval, or space, between ad exposures. A meta-analysis of 97 verbal learning studies identified several stimulus characteristics and learning context factors that interact with stimulus spacing to facilitate memory for repeated information. The majority of the findings are consistent with the predictions of two enhanced processing explanations of
BackgroundAnimal studies have shown that early stressors result in lasting changes in structure and function of brain areas involved in memory, including hippocampus and frontal cortex. Patients with childhood abuse–related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have alterations in both declarative and nondeclarative memory function, and imaging studies in PTSD have demonstrated changes in function during stimulation of trauma-specific memories in hippocampus,
J. Douglas Bremner; Meena Vythilingam; Eric Vermetten; Steven M. Southwick; Thomas McGlashan; Lawrence H. Staib; Robert Soufer; Dennis S. Charney
Recent studies have shown that processing words according to a survival scenario leads to superior retention relative to control\\u000a conditions. Here, we examined whether a survival recall advantage could be elicited by using pictures. Furthermore, in Experiment\\u000a 1, we were interested in whether survival processing also results in improved memory for details. Undergraduates rated the\\u000a relevance of pictures in a
Functional memory disorder (FMD) is characterized by mnestic and attentional deficits without symptoms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. FMD usually develops in subjects with high psychosocial stress level and is classified to the somatoform disorders. We assessed memory performance (procedural mirror tracing task, declarative visual and verbalmemory task) and other cognitive functions before and after one night of sleep in 12 FMD patients (mean age: 51.7 yrs, 7 females) and 12 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and IQ. Memory performance and other neurocognitive tasks did not differ between the groups at baseline. After one night of sleep, FMD patients showed an impairment of declarativememory consolidation compared to healthy subjects (visual task: p=0.004; verbal task: p=0.039). Spectral analysis of sleep-EEG indicated an increased cortical excitation in FMD. We hypothesize that a hyperarousal state in FMD might contribute to sleep disturbance implicating negative effects on declarativememory consolidation. PMID:20955761
In Huntington's disease (HD) cognitive deficits co-exist with motor impairments, both contributing to the overall disease symptomology. Despite short-term and working memory impairments, learning and other non-motoric behavioral deficits arising from the damage to frontostriatal loop being common in HD patients, most of the experimental work with transgenic animals focuses on motor symptoms. The transgenic rat model (tgHD) recapitulates many hallmark HD-like symptoms, such as huntingtin aggregates, cellular loss and dysfunction, and motor, and some cognitive deficits. In the current study we tested tgHD rats in two different cognitive, water maze competition paradigms to learn more about the impact of the transgene on learning and memory processing using hippocampal- and striatal-based memory systems. The tgHD rats had early and robust cognitive deficits in learning and memory function in both paradigms. Specifically, the transgenic animals were impaired in task acquisition and committed more procedural errors with the strongest phenotype amongst the homozygote tgHD. Although the transgenic animals were capable of using both procedural and declarativememory, their response patterns were distinct from wild-type animals. Wide spread huntingtin aggregates were observed at 13 months, but neither PET nor autoradiography indicated neuronal loss or dysfunction in striatal dopamine receptor population. In summary, the homozygote tgHD showed a robust learning and memory impairment prior to any clear motor deficits, or striatal dysfunction. However, the data were not conclusive regarding how the memory systems were compromised and the precise nature and underlying mechanism of the cognitive deficit in the tgHD model requires further investigation. PMID:23137697
Kirch, Robert D; Meyer, Philipp T; Geisler, Stefanie; Braun, Friederike; Gehrig, Sebastian; Langen, Karl-Josef; von Hörsten, Stephan; Nikkhah, Guido; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Döbrössy, Máté D
Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking state but may become saturated after some time awake. Sleep, in this model, specifically favors restoration of
Nikolai Axmacher; Sven Haupt; Guillen Fernandez; Christian E. Elger; Juergen Fell
Objective. While physical activity can improve verbalmemory performance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD), there is large variability in response. Elevated cortisol production has been suggested to negatively affect verbalmemory performance, yet cortisol concentrations have not been assessed as a predictor of response to exercise intervention in those with CAD. Methods. CAD patients participating in a one-year cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. Memory was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test second edition at baseline and one year. Cortisol was measured from a 20?mg, 3.0?cm hair sample collected at baseline. Results. In patients with CAD (n = 56, mean?±?SD age?=?66 ± 11, 86% male), higher cortisol (hair cortisol concentrations???153.2?ng/g) significantly predicted less memory improvement (F1,50 = 5.50, P = 0.02) when controlling for age (F1,50 = 0.17, P = 0.68), gender (F1,50 = 2.51, P = 0.12), maximal oxygen uptake (F1,50 = 1.88, P = 0.18), and body mass index (F1,50 = 3.25, P = 0.08). Conclusion. Prolonged hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation may interfere with exercise-related improvements in memory in CAD.
Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Swardfager, Walter; Oh, Paul I.; Shammi, Prathiba; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Kiss, Alexander; Lanctot, Krista L.
The present study investigates selective attention and verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examines the contribution of selective attention, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval memory processes to patients' verbal free recall. We examined 22 non-demented patients with sporadic ALS and 22 demographically related controls using Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST; selective attention) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; immediate & delayed verbal free recall). The item-specific deficit approach (ISDA) was applied to RAVLT to evaluate encoding, consolidation, and retrieval difficulties. ALS patients performed worse than controls on SNST (p < .001) and RAVLT immediate and delayed recall (p < .001) and showed deficient encoding (p = .001) and consolidation (p = .002) but not retrieval (p = .405). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that SNST and ISDA indices accounted for: (a) 91.1% of the variance in RAVLT immediate recall, with encoding (p = .016), consolidation (p < .001), and retrieval (p = .032) significantly contributing to the overall model and the SNST alone accounting for 41.6%; and (b) 85.2% of the variance in RAVLT delayed recall, with consolidation (p < .001) and retrieval (p = .008) significantly contributing to the overall model and the SNST alone accounting for 39.8%. Thus, selective attention, encoding, and consolidation, and to a lesser extent of retrieval, influenced both immediate and delayed verbal free recall. Concluding, selective attention and the memory processes of encoding, consolidation, and retrieval should be considered while interpreting patients' impaired free recall. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10). PMID:22676844
Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis
Objective Much controversy exists and many questions remain unanswered about the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition in postmenopausal women. There is growing evidence suggesting that HT compounds containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) have negative effects on cognition whereas 17?-estradiol (17?-E) either has positive or neutral effects. The present study sought to further examine this issue in a sample of postmenopausal women with risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Cross-sectional neuropsychological evaluation, as part of a larger longitudinal study. Setting Academic research clinic. Participants 68 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49–68) receiving either 17?-E or CEE for at least one year and at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Measurements Neuropsychological test battery of the cognitive domains of attention/working memory/processing speed, verbalmemory, visual memory, and executive functioning. Results Women receiving 17?-E showed significantly better verbalmemory performance compared to women receiving CEE, regardless of age, IQ, years of education, risk factors for AD (including APOE-?4 carriership), duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure, concurrent progesterone use, or natural or surgical menopause status. Conclusions Verbalmemory performance was better in menopausal women receiving 17?-E compared to CEE in a sample population of women with risk factors for AD. Genetic risk for AD as well as other confounds did not affect this finding. The results suggest that differential effect of the type of HT on verbalmemory, with 17?-E being a preferential compound. Further evaluation of HT types, regimens and duration of use on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women in a controlled longitudinal design is warranted.
Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was associated with poorer utilization of study time, suggesting that age differences in study time allocation are qualitatively similar across material modality. Furthermore, age differences in how individuals allocated their study time partially mediated the age relations on memory performance in both tasks, indicating the importance of effective regulation of study time when learning information. Finally, age differences in study time allocation did not appear to be due to differences in awareness of performance. When a subset of participants was asked about their prior performance, awareness of previous performance was not associated with study time allocation on either task. Interestingly, asking participants about their prior performance tended to decrease recall performance. Overall, these results illustrate that how one allocates study time is related to subsequent memory performance in both a verbal and spatial modality, but knowledge about prior performance is not associated with study time utilization, and inquiring about past performance during study may disrupt rather than facilitate learning.
Two groups of children, with (n = 7) and without (n = 7) first-year histories of otitis media, were participants in a longitudinal study that included periodic audiological and medical evaluations during the first year of life. At age 9, these children were tested on a series of speech perception and verbal short-term memory tasks using stimuli of varying degrees of phonetic contrast. Although the otitis-positive group performed less accurately than the otitis-free group, the pattern of errors was the same for the two groups. The performances of the children with and without positive histories of otitis media were negatively affected by an increase in phonetic similarity of the stimulus items. The two groups, however, did not differ on identification or on temporal-order recall when the speech sounds were differentiated by multiple features. These findings provide evidence of subtle, long-term effects of early episodes of otitis media on phonological representations and on working memory. PMID:10515506
Estrogen is known to modulate certain cognitive functions, most notably improving working memory and verbalmemory. Soy foods contain isoflavones, phytoestrogens structurally similar to estrogen that weakly bind to estrogen receptors. We investigated the effects of natural variations in estrogen levels and short-term dietary supplementation with soy isoflavones on cognitive function in 28 young women. Performance was examined across a range of cognitive tasks on three occasions during separate menstrual cycles: during a menses phase (low estrogen), during a luteal phase (highest estrogen), and once during a menses phase after a 3-day phytoestrogen-rich dietary intervention. Soy supplementation during menses led to an improvement in working memory and verbalmemory. The menstrual cycle effects were mixed, with high estrogen improving performance on a verbalmemory task but not on working memory. Our results suggest that soy phytoestrogens may improve working memory through estrogen-independent mechanisms. PMID:19000378
Islam, Fariha; Sparkes, Cassandra; Roodenrys, Steven; Astheimer, Lee
The memory deficit or forgetfulness hypothesis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has received considerable attention and empirical effort over the past decades. The present study aimed to provide a fair test of its various formulations: (1) memory dysfunction in OCD is ubiquitous, that is, manifests irrespective of modality and material; (2) memory dysfunction is found for nonverbal but not verbal material,
Steffen Moritz; Martin Kloss; Francesca Vitzthum von Eckstaedt; Lena Jelinek
Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing).
Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents
Johannes Holz; Hannah Piosczyk; Nina Landmann; Bernd Feige; Kai Spiegelhalder; Dieter Riemann; Christoph Nissen; Ulrich Voderholzer
|To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarativememory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35-80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions,…
Estradiol has been shown to interact with the cholinergic system to affect cognition in postmenopausal women. This study further investigated the interaction of estradiol and cholinergic system functioning on verbalmemory and attention in two groups of healthy younger (ages 50–62) and older (ages 70–81) postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were randomly and blindly placed on 1 mg of 17-beta estradiol
Julie Dumas; Catherine Hancur-Bucci; Magdalena Naylor; Cynthia Sites; Paul Newhouse
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal\\u000a working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen\\u000a patients were recruited
Farzin Irani; Lawrence H. Sweet; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Beth A. Jerskey; Richard C. Mulligan; Angela L. Jefferson; Athena Poppas; Ronald A. Cohen
Studies of sentence comprehension deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients suggest that language processing involves circuits connecting subcortical and cortical regions. Anatomically segregated neural circuits appear to support different cognitive and motor functions. To investigate which functions are implicated in PD comprehension deficits, we tested comprehension, verbal working memory span, and cognitive set-switching in a non-linguistic task in 41 PD
Jesse Hochstadt; Hiroko Nakano; Philip Lieberman; Joseph Friedman
Episodic memories allow us to remember not only that we have seen an item before but also where and when we have seen it (context). Sometimes, we can confidently report that we have seen something (familiarity) but cannot recollect where or when it was seen. Thus, the two components of episodic recall, familiarity and recollection, can be behaviorally dissociated. It is not clear, however, whether these two components of memory are represented separately by distinct brain structures or different populations of neurons in a single anatomical structure. Here, we report that the spiking activity of single neurons in the human hippocampus and amygdala [the medial temporal lobe (MTL)] contain information about both components of memory. We analyzed a class of neurons that changed its firing rate to the second presentation of a previously novel stimulus. We found that the neuronal activity evoked by the presentation of a familiar stimulus (during retrieval) distinguishes stimuli that will be successfully recollected from stimuli that will not be recollected. Importantly, the ability to predict whether a stimulus is familiar is not influenced by whether the stimulus will later be recollected. We thus conclude that human MTL neurons contain information about both components of memory. These data support a continuous strength of memory model of MTL function: the stronger the neuronal response, the better the memory.
Rutishauser, Ueli; Schuman, Erin M.; Mamelak, Adam N.
In the continuum of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal controls, a possible association of verbalmemory and endogenous estradiol (E2) levels was investigated. Verbal episodic memory was measured with a german version of the California verbalmemory test (CVLT). Results were controlled for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) phenotype. We studied 37 controls, 32 MCIs and 117 ADs. Groups differed in all trials of the CVLT (P < 0.001) and in E2 levels (P < 0.001). E2 levels differed significantly between groups only among females (P < 0.001). In females correcting for age and ApoE, there was an overall correlation between CVLT delayed recall and level of E2 (P = 0.025). Stepwise regression analyses found E2 level to be a significant predictor for CVLT delayed recall (P < 0.001). It may be concluded that lower E2 levels occur more in the course of the disease than may be considered as a risk factor per se.
Adaptive training of working memory (WM) using the Cogmed-RM intervention has recently shown some efficacy as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but this intervention may not be optimally designed. A recent component analysis of WM has suggested that maintenance in primary memory (PM) appears to be largely intact whereas recall from secondary memory (SM) appears to be deficient in ADHD relative to age-matched controls. However, extrapolating from basic research, there is reason to believe that Cogmed-RM may target the PM component more than the SM component; though training with spatial exercises may target the SM component more than training with verbal exercises. To investigate, participants diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either a verbal training condition (n = 24) or a spatial training condition (n = 23) using a randomized, controlled design, and both groups were instructed to complete at least 20 days of training. The PM and SM components of WM were assessed immediately before and after training using both verbal and spatial free recall tasks. The main findings showed that both versions of the intervention enhanced the maintenance of information in PM regardless of test modality, but not the recall of information from SM. Therefore, the component of WM that is improved by Cogmed-RM is not the same component of WM that is deficient in ADHD. PMID:21390920
Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Steeger, Christine M; Dobrzenski, Bradley A; Morrissey, Rebecca A
Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16–17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n?=?25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n?=?25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarativememories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.
While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarativememory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment. PMID:20536334
Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper
Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood. PMID:23137723
Bipolar disorder (BPD) and stimulant use are both associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with BPD and substance use disorders have poorer cognition than patients with only BPD. No longitudinal studies have examined the impact of improvement in mood and reduction in substance use on cognition, specifically memory, in patients with BPD and substance abuse. We previously reported positive effects of
I. Julian Osuji; Elizabeth Tucker; E. Sherwood Brown
Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…
One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…
OBJECTIVE: To study the neurocognitive profile and its relationship to prefrontal dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) with deficient haptic perception. METHODS: Twelve right-handed patients with PD and 12 healthy control subjects underwent thorough neuropsychological testing including Rey complex figure, Rey auditory verbal and figural learning test, figural and verbal fluency, and Stroop test. Test scores reflecting significant differences between
Stephan Bohlhalter; Eugenio Abela; Dorothea Weniger; Bruno Weder
The functional significance of sleep spindles for overnight memory consolidation and general learning aptitude as well as the effect of four 10-minute sessions of spindle frequency (11.6–16 Hz, sigma) neurofeedback-training on subsequent sleep spindle activity and overnight performance change was investigated. Before sleep, subjects were trained on a paired-associate word list task after having received either neurofeedback training (NFT) or pseudofeedback
I. Berner; M. Schabus; T. Wienerroither; W. Klimesch
|The nonword phonotactic frequency effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) is characterized by superior recall for nonwords containing familiar as opposed to less familiar phoneme associations. This effect is supposed to reflect the intervention of phonological long-term memory (LTM) in STM. However the lexical or sublexical nature of this LTM…
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden; Martial; Mulder, Ludivine; Meulemans, Thierry; Peters, Frederic
This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing phonological information in memory. Results showed
Christopher Jarrold; Annabel S. C. Thorn; Emma Stephens
The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…
Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai
|Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…
|The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…
Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai
We have used functional MRI to determine the effects of ketamine on brain systems activated in association with a working memory task. Healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of placebo, ketamine at 50 ng\\/ml plasma concentration, and ketamine at 100 ng\\/ml. They were scanned while carrying out a verbal working memory task in which we varied the executive requirements (manipulation vs
R A E Honey; G D Honey; C O'Loughlin; S R Sharar; D Kumaran; E T Bullmore; D K Menon; T Donovan; V C Lupson; R Bisbrown-Chippendale; P C Fletcher
We have examined language processing using ambiguous words (homographs like panel or toast) and rapid or slow presentation rates while recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Homographs allow for tracking the train of thought at points of lexical ambiguity and detecting modulation of associative threads by previous context. Rapid presentation rates stress automatic semantic activation, and slow rates stress controlled verbal working memory contextual modulation. In conjunction with reaction times and performance, ERPs allow for objective measurement of activity related to language processing from word presentation through overt behavioral response. Smaller N400 to related and unrelated items at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the presence of a semantic bias, and large N400 to related and unrelated items at long SOAs are present in schizophrenia. We describe a model of initial semantic memory hyper-priming and subsequent decay of information in verbal working memory stores, the activation-maintenance model of schizophrenic thought disorder hypothesized to underlie the thought disorder in schizophrenia.
Objectives: To investigate whether application of cutoff levels in an episodic memory test (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT) is a useful method for identifying patients at high and low risk of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia. Methods: 224 patients with memory complaints (mean age = 60.7 years, mean MMSE = 28.2) followed-up at a memory clinic over ≈3 years
Christin Andersson; Maria Lindau; Ove Almkvist; Peter Engfeldt; Sven-Erik Johansson; Maria Eriksdotter Jönhagen
We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbalmemory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbalmemory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbalmemory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.
Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.
Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether
IT is widely held that conscious recall of past experiences involves a specific system-episodic memory1. Patients with amnesia have gross impairments of episodic memory while other kinds of memory remain intact2,3, suggesting that a separable brain system underlies episodic memory. We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify components of this system in normal volunteers. A dual-task interference paradigm4
T. Shallice; P. Fletcher; P. Grasby; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. J. Dolan
Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However, dissociating the memory impairment that occurs following thalamic
Christopher C. Stewart; H. Randall Griffith; Ozioma C. Okonkwo; Roy C. Martin; Robert K. Knowlton; Elizabeth J. Richardson; Bruce P. Hermann; Michael Seidenberg
Background: Despite many studies demonstrating memory and executive impairments in young and old depressed patients, the relationships between age, executive functioning and memory have not been evaluated in depression. The aim of this study was to investigate if older patients were more vulnerable than younger patients to the impact of depression on memory and if the differences between young and
Philippe Fossati; Françoise Coyette; Anne-Marie Ergis; Jean-François Allilaire
The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…
We studied to what extent immediate and delayed recall in an auditory verbal learning paradigm was affected by basic information processing speed (digit copying) and hearing acuity (average hearing acuity at 1, 2 and 4 KHz at the better ear). A group of 453 individuals in the age between 23 and 82 years with no overt hearing pathology was recruited
M. P. J. van Boxtel; C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt; P. J. Houx; L. J. C. Anteunis; J. F. M. Metsemakers; J. Jolles
The study attempted to manipulate the encoding modality, pictorial or verbal, of schematic faces with well-learned names by manipulating S's expectations of the way the material was to be used. On every trial, a single name or face was presented, followed...
|The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy’ has been associated with memory deficits during abstinence and intoxication. The human neuropharmacology of MDMA-induced memory impairment is unknown. This study investigated the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Ketanserin is a 5-HT2A receptor blocker and pindolol a 5-HT1A receptor blocker. It was hypothesized that pretreatment with ketanserin and pindolol would protect
J H P van Wel; K P C Kuypers; E L Theunissen; W M Bosker; K Bakker; J G Ramaekers; JHP van Wel
Several studies suggest that emotional arousal can promote memory storage. We report two studies evaluating the ef fects of emotional content on declarativememory, conducted with healthy subjects and cephalgic patients. We utilized an adaptation of two versions of the same story, with different arousing properties (neutral or emotional), which have been already employed in experiments involving the enhancing effects
A. Gasbarri; B. Arnone; A. Pompili; A. Marchetti; P. Di Fabrizio; S. Saad Calil; M. C. Tavares; C. Tomaz
Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation). Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of
Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen; Justin C. Hulbert; Ying Jiang; Robert Stickgold; Naomi Rogers
Reports two experiments on mechanism of interference in working memory. Experiment 1 shows that a target word in a memory list, which bears high similarity to one of 4 words read aloud in the retention interval, is recalled less well than a control word. A second target word, not similar to any word read aloud but with all its phonemes repeated…
Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…
Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael
Neuroimaging studies of working memory have revealed two sites in the left supramarginal gyrus that may support the short-term storage of phonological information. Activation in the left dorsal aspect of the inferior parietal cortex (DIPC) has been observed in contrasts of working memory load, whereas activation in the ventral aspect of the inferior parietal cortex (VIPC) has been found primarily
Susan M. Ravizza; Mauricio R. Delgado; Jason M. Chein; James T. Becker; Julie A Fiez
This study contrasts memory functions with emotional words between two groups of patients presenting with symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD)—20 patients with a comorbid diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 20 patients without BPD—and a group of 20 community adult controls. BPD patients showed poorer recall and recognition memory performances than controls, while MDD patients and controls did
When multiple items in working memory need to be accessed and manipulated, the internal attention should switch between them and, this switching process is time consuming (H. Garavan. Serial attention within working memory. Mem. Cognit. 26 (1998) 263–276). However, it is not clear how much of this switching cost is due to the existence or absence of the stimulus identification
Zhihao Li; Min Bao; Xiangchuan Chen; Daren Zhang; Shihui Han; Sheng He; Xiaoping Hu
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working
|Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…
Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial
|This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…
Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma
e recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed) are also related to gray and white matter volume, and whether any of
Daniëlle Posthuma; W. F. C. Baare; Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol; René S. Kahn; Dorret I. Boomsma; Geus de E. J. C
|The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…
Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo
Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2?h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, “how does this person’s story make you feel?” We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (“semantic” AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (“episodic” AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.
Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
Background Ecstasy use is commonly linked with memory deficits in abstinent ecstasy users. Similar impairments are being found during ecstasy intoxication after single doses of ± 3,4 metylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The concordance of memory impairments during intoxication and abstinence suggests a similar neuropharmacological mechanism underlying acute and chronic memory impairments. The mechanism underlying this impairment is to date not known. We hypothesized that cortisol might play an important role in this mechanism as cortisol, implicated in the regulation of memory performance, can be brought out of balance by stressors like MDMA. Methods In the present study, we aimed to block the MDMA-induced acute memory defect by giving participants a cortisol synthesis inhibitor (metyrapone) together with a single dose of MDMA. Seventeen polydrug MDMA users entered this placebo-controlled within subject study with four treatment conditions. The treatments consisted of MDMA (75 mg) and metyrapone (750 mg), alone and in combination, and double placebo. Pre-treatment with metyrapone or Placebo occurred 1 h prior to MDMA or Placebo administration. Memory performance was tested at peak drug concentrations by means of several memory tests. Cortisol levels were determined in blood and oral fluid; this served as a control measure to see whether manipulations were effective. Results Main findings indicated that whereas treatment with metyrapone blocked the expected MDMA-induced increase in cortisol levels in blood, it did not prevent the MDMA-induced memory deficit from happening. Conclusion We therefore conclude that MDMA-induced increments in cortisol concentrations are not related to MDMA-induced memory impairments.
Kuypers, KPC; Torre, R; Farre, M; Pujadas, M; Ramaekers, JG
Introduction The endogenous cannabinoid system is sensitive to the introduction of exogenous cannabinoids such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol,\\u000a which are known to impact upon memory functioning. We sought to examine the impact of chronic cannabis use upon memory-related\\u000a brain function via examination of the subsequent memory effect (SME) of the event-related potential (ERP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The SME is predictive of recall outcome and originates in
Robert A. Battisti; Steven Roodenrys; Stuart J. Johnstone; Colleen Respondek; Daniel F. Hermens; Nadia Solowij
|Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…
|Two distinctly different maturational processes--cortical thinning and white matter maturation--take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions…
Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.
Long-term, episodic memory processing is supposed to involve the prefrontal cortex asymmetrically. Here we investigate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in encoding and retrieval of semantically related or unrelated word pairs. Subjects were required to perform a task consisting of two parts: a study phase (encoding), in which word pairs were presented, and a test phase (retrieval),
Marco Sandrini; Stefano F. Cappa; Simone Rossi; Paolo M. Rossini; Carlo Miniussi
Two distinctly different maturational processes – cortical thinning and white matter maturation – take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of the left fronto-parietal network and the diffusion
Ylva Østby; Christian K. Tamnes; Anders M. Fjell; Kristine B. Walhovd
|A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…
Sixty?eight extremely low birthweight children, of whom 41 sustained damage to the periventricular region of the brain in the perinatal period, completed language and memory tasks at 6 years of age. Their performance was compared to that of 20 children, born at term, who were matched to the preterm children in terms of age and socioeconomic status as measured by
Previous studies have shown that self-generated information is better remembered than information that has been read passively. To further examine this subsequent memory effect, we investigated the effect of five different linguistic relationships on memory encoding. Ninety subjects were administered 60 paired associates during an encoding condition: 30 of the second words from each pair were to be read aloud and 30 were to be self-generated from clues as to the correct word. Word pairs were composed of five linguistic relationships: category, rhyme, opposite, synonym, and association. Subsequently, subjects were presented with the words that were read or generated in a forced recognition memory task. Overall, reading accuracy was higher than generation accuracy during the encoding phase (all P < 0.001). During the recognition phase, subjects' performance was better on the generate than on the read conditions for opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships (all P < 0.05), with no difference in the rhyme relationship. These results confirm previous findings that self-generated information is better remembered than read information and suggest that this advantage may be mediated by using opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships, while rhyme relationship may not extend such an advantage. These findings may have implications for future studies of memory interventions in healthy controls and subjects with cognitive impairments.
Siegel, Miriam; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lindsell, Christopher J; Vannest, Jennifer; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
Working memory (WM) and visual selection processes interact in a reciprocal fashion based on overlapping representations ed from the physical characteristics of stimuli. Here, we assessed the neural basis of this interaction using facial expressions that conveyed emotion information. Participants memorized an emotional word for a later recognition test and then searched for a face of a particular gender presented
Alessandro Grecucci; David Soto; Raffaella Ida Rumiati; Glyn W. Humphreys; Pia Rotshtein
Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI)
Elisabeth A. Wilde; Mary R. Newsome; Erin D. Bigler; Jon Pertab; Tricia L. Merkley; Gerri Hanten; Randall S. Scheibel; Xiaoqi Li; Zili Chu; Ragini Yallampalli; Jill V. Hunter; Harvey S. Levin
People tend to close their eyes when trying to retrieve an event or a visual image from memory. However the brain mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that during visual mental imagery, auditory areas show a much more robust deactivation than during visual perception. Here we ask whether this is a special case of a more general phenomenon involving retrieval of intrinsic, internally stored information, which would result in crossmodal deactivations in other sensory cortices which are irrelevant to the task at hand. To test this hypothesis, a group of 9 sighted individuals were scanned while performing a memory retrieval task for highly abstract words (i.e., with low imaginability scores). We also scanned a group of 10 congenitally blind, which by definition do not have any visual imagery per se. In sighted subjects, both auditory and visual areas were robustly deactivated during memory retrieval, whereas in the blind the auditory cortex was deactivated while visual areas, shown previously to be relevant for this task, presented a positive BOLD signal. These results suggest that deactivation may be most prominent in task-irrelevant sensory cortices whenever there is a need for retrieval or manipulation of internally stored representations. Thus, there is a task-dependent balance of activation and deactivation that might allow maximization of resources and filtering out of non relevant information to enable allocation of attention to the required task. Furthermore, these results suggest that the balance between positive and negative BOLD might be crucial to our understanding of a large variety of intrinsic and extrinsic tasks including high-level cognitive functions, sensory processing and multisensory integration. PMID:19326203
The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs. manipulation). Subjects performed three independent experiments (1-back and 2-back tasks) while
Marco Sandrini; Paolo Maria Rossini; Carlo Miniussi
Associations between polymorphisms in the T102C and A-1438G loci of the 5-HTR2A and the P1763 and P1578 markers of the DTNBP1\\u000a gene with the overall productivity and individual subprocesses of shortterm verbalmemory were studied in 4–5 patients with\\u000a schizophrenia and 290 healthy subjects. Subjects were asked to reproduce immediately two lists of 10 words. The overall productivity\\u000a of reproduction
M. V. Alfimova; M. V. Monakhov; L. I. Abramova; S. A. Golubev; V. E. Golimbet
Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3. Relative to a control group with no history of
Steve Majerus; Pierre Amand; Vincent Boniver; Jean-Pierre Demanez; Laurent Demanez; Martial Van der Linden
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method of modulating cortical excitability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-duration tDCS (1.6 seconds per trial) on memory performance, and whether the effects were affected by stimulation administered early or late in a trial. Participants memorize words under anodal and cathodal tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in two separate sessions in no-stimulation, early stimulation, and late stimulation trials. Early stimulation occurred during word presentation, whereas late stimulation occurred after word presentation. Early anodal tDCS led to significantly better accuracy and speed in a subsequent recognition test compared to anodal late or no-stimulation conditions. Early cathodal tDCS, on the other hand, led to significantly worse accuracy and speed in a subsequent recognition test compared with cathodal late or no-stimulation conditions. The results of this study suggest that short-duration tDCS can modulate memory performance and highlight the importance of period of stimulation. PMID:21962975
Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Cheng, Paul; Walsh, Vincent
Background This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma), given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. Methods We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects) and one control (twelve subjects). The learning types in these groups were assessed by two experimental tasks evaluating procedural-implicit and declarativememory. A Serial Reaction-Time Task was used to measure procedural sequence learning, and the Spanish version  of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version- CVLT-  to measure declarative-explicit learning. The learning capacity was assessed considering only the blocks that represent learning, and were compared with MANOVA in clinical and normal subjects. The Raven, simple reaction-time, finger-tapping test, and grooved pegboard tests were used to assess the overall functioning of subjects. The results were compared with those from a control group of the same age, and with Spanish norm-referenced tools where available Results The results indicate the absence of procedural-implicit learning in both clinical groups, whereas declarative-explicit learning is maintained in both groups. Conclusion The clinical groups showed a conservation of declarative learning and a clear impairment of procedural learning. The results support the role of the cerebellum in the early phase of procedural learning.
Quintero-Gallego, Eliana A; Gomez, Carlos M; Casares, Encarnacion Vaquero; Marquez, Javier; Perez-Santamaria, Fco Javier
Many survivors of breast cancer show significant cognitive impairments, including memory deficits. Inflammation induced by chemotherapy may contribute to hippocampal changes that underlie these deficits. In this cross-sectional study, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes from high-resolution magnetic resonance images in 42 chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and 35 healthy female controls. Patients with breast cancer were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.4 years off-therapy. In a subset of these participants (20 breast cancer, 23 controls), we quantified serum cytokine levels. Left hippocampal volumes and memory performance were significantly reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to controls. In the breast cancer group, lower left hippocampal volume was associated with higher levels of TNF? and lower levels of IL-6 with a significant interaction between these two cytokines suggesting a potential modulatory effect of IL-6 on TNF?. Verbalmemory performance was associated with cytokine levels and left hippocampal volume in both groups. These findings provide evidence of altered hippocampal volume and verbalmemory difficulties following breast cancer chemotherapy that may be mediated by TNF? and IL-6. PMID:22698992
Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a subset of children. Confirming previous findings, children with TBI had decreased cortical thickness and volume as compared to the OI group. Although the findings did not confirm the predicted relation of decreased frontal lobe cortical thickness and volume to SIRT performance, left parietal volume was negatively related to reaction time (RT). In contrast, cortical thickness was positively related to SIRT accuracy and RT in the OI group, particularly in aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, but these relationships were less robust in the TBI group. We attribute these findings to disrupted fronto-parietal functioning in attention and WM. fMRI results from a subsample demonstrated fronto-temporal activation in the OI group, and parietal activation in the TBI group, and DTI findings reflected multiple differences in white matter tracts that engage fronto-parietal networks. Diminished white matter integrity of the frontal lobes and cingulum bundle as measured by DTI was associated with longer RT on the SIRT. Across modalities, the cingulate emerged as a common structure related to performance after TBI. These results are discussed in terms of how different imaging modalities tap different types of pathologic correlates of brain injury and their relationship with WM. PMID:21565227
Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a subset of children. Confirming previous findings, children with TBI had decreased cortical thickness and volume as compared to the OI group. Although the findings did not confirm the predicted relation of decreased frontal lobe cortical thickness and volume to SIRT performance, left parietal volume was negatively related to reaction time (RT). In contrast, cortical thickness was positively related to SIRT accuracy and RT in the OI group, particularly in aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, but these relationships were less robust in the TBI group. We attribute these findings to disrupted fronto-parietal functioning in attention and WM. fMRI results from a subsample demonstrated fronto-temporal activation in the OI group, and parietal activation in the TBI group, and DTI findings reflected multiple differences in white matter tracts that engage fronto-parietal networks. Diminished white matter integrity of the frontal lobes and cingulum bundle as measured by DTI was associated with longer RT on the SIRT. Across modalities, the cingulate emerged as a common structure related to performance after TBI. These results are discussed in terms of how different imaging modalities tap different types of pathologic correlates of brain injury and their relationship with WM.
Does normal aging inexorably lead to diminished motor learning abilities? This article provides an overview of the literature on the question, with particular emphasis on the functional dissociation between two sets of memory processes: declarative, effortful processes, and non-declarative, automatic processes. There is abundant evidence suggesting that aging does impair learning when past memories of former actions are required (episodic memory) and recollected through controlled processing (working memory). However, other studies have shown that aging does not impair learning when motor actions are performed non verbally and automatically (tapping procedural memory). These findings led us to hypothesize that one can minimize the impact of aging on the ability to learn new motor actions by favouring procedural learning. Recent data validating this hypothesis are presented. Our findings underline the importance of developing new motor learning strategies, which "bypass" declarative, effortful memory processes. PMID:22182823
Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.
A longstanding question in working memory (WM) research concerns the fractionation of verbal and nonverbal processing. Although some contemporary models include both domain-specific and general-purpose mechanisms, the necessity to postulate differential processing of verbal and nonverbal material remains unclear. In the present two-experiment series we revisit the order reconstruction paradigm that Jones, Farrand, Stuart, and Morris (1995) used to support a unitary model of WM. Goals were to assess (1) whether serial position curves for dot positions differ from curves for letter names; and (2) whether selective interference can be demonstrated. Although we replicated Jones et al.'s finding of similar serial position curves for the two tasks, this similarity could reflect the demands of the order reconstruction paradigm rather than undifferentiated processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Both generalised and material-specific interference was found, which can be attributed to competition between primary and secondary tasks for attentional resources. As performance levels for the combined primary and secondary tasks exceed active WM capacity limits, primary task items apparently are removed from active memory during processing of the secondary list and held temporarily in maintenance storage. We conclude that active WM is multimodal but maintenance stores may be domain specific. PMID:23311456
The Stockholm Declaration was adopted on 21 January 1988 in Stockholm by the President of Argentina, the Prime Minister of Greece, the Prime Minister of India, the President of Mexico, the Prime Minister of Sweden and the President of the United Republic ...
A standard approach to describe pictures is the use of formal grammars. This, and the strong link between definite clause grammars and logic programming, motivates the design of the declarative picture specification language presented here. The language is relational and rule based. A specification is akin to a definite clause grammar and may be executed bottom-up for picture recognition or
|The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…
Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel
Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2) and after (Post) extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR). Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1) no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly contribute to the long-term persistence of memory traces. PMID:21589884
The ability to maintain information over short periods of time (i.e., working memory) is critically important in a variety of cognitive functions including language, planning, and decision-making. Recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) research with healthy adults has shown that brain activations evoked during the delay interval of working memory tasks can be reduced by the presentation of distracting emotional events, suggesting that emotional events may take working-memory processes momentarily offline. Both executive function and emotional processing are disrupted in schizophrenia, and here we sought to elucidate the effect of emotional distraction upon brain activity in schizophrenic and healthy adults performing a verbal working memory task. During the delay period between the memoranda and memory probe items, emotional and neutral distractors differentially influenced brain activity in these groups. In healthy adults, the hemodynamic response from posterior cingulate, orbital frontal cortex, and the parietal lobe strongly differentiated emotional from neutral distractors. In striking contrast, schizophrenic adults showed no significant differences in brain activation when processing emotional and neutral distractors. Moreover, the influence of emotional distractors extended into the memory probe period in healthy, but not schizophrenic, adults. The results suggest that although emotional items are highly salient for healthy adults, emotional items are no more distracting than neutral ones to individuals with schizophrenia.
Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based
Georg Groen; Alexander N. Sokolov; Christina Jonas; Robert Roebling; Manfred Spitzer; Yong He
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen patients were recruited from a cohort participating in an ongoing prospective study examining the effects of CVD on cognitive function in the elderly. Participants were diagnosed with CVD (age 68±8) and completed a 2-back VWM task in a 1.5T fMRI paradigm. CO and EF were calculated from echocardiogram measures. Task-related activation was averaged in a priori regions of interest. The relationship between CO, EF, and 2-back-related activity was modeled using partial correlations (two-tailed p<.05) controlling for age and 2-back accuracy. All participants were globally cognitively intact as indicated by Mini-Mental Status Exam and Dementia Rating Scale scores. Mean accuracy on the 2-back was 78±9% while reaction time averaged 1,027±192 ms. Mean CO and EF values showed a large range (CO: 3.55 to 6.31; EF: 0.36 to 0.76) but average values were within the normal range. After controlling for age and 2-back accuracy, lower EF was related to decrease in left insula activity (r=0.61, p=0.03). There were trends for EF to be related to accuracy (r=0.47, p=0.09) and reaction time (r=?0.48, p=0.09). CO was also related to insula activity (r=0.60, p=0.04) and activity in the supplementary motor area activity (r=0.66, p=0.01). Cardiac performance was related to decreased efficiency in task related brain areas and tended to be related to performance on a VWM task in elderly patients with CVD. Results have implications for a line of investigation indicating that cardiac and systemic vascular indices could be used as proxy measures to examine mechanisms of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the elderly.
Irani, Farzin; Haley, Andreana P.; Gunstad, John J.; Jerskey, Beth A.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Poppas, Athena; Cohen, Ronald A.
The memory deficit or forgetfulness hypothesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received considerable attention and empirical effort over the past decades. The present study aimed to provide a fair test of its various formulations: (1) memory dysfunction in OCD is ubiquitous, that is, manifests irrespective of modality and material; (2) memory dysfunction is found for nonverbal but not verbal material, (3) memory dysfunction is secondary to executive impairment; and (4) memory dysfunction affects meta-memory rather than memory accuracy. Participants comprised 43 OCD patients and 46 healthy controls who were tested on the Picture Word Memory Test (PWMT), which provides several unconfounded parameters for nonverbal and verbalmemory accuracy and confidence measures across different time-points. In addition, the Trail-Making Test B was administered to test assumption number 3. Replicating earlier work of our group, samples displayed similar performance on all indices. None of the different formulations of the memory deficit hypothesis were supported. In view of waning evidence for a global memory deficit in OCD, neuropsychological research on OCD should more thoroughly investigate moderators and triggers of occasional instances of impaired performance, particularly cognitive biases such as perfectionism and an inflated sense of responsibility. PMID:19285350
Moritz, Steffen; Kloss, Martin; von Eckstaedt, Francesca Vitzthum; Jelinek, Lena
How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N?=?168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N?=?27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories.
The objective of this study is to explore the potential for developing IRT-based working memory scales for assessing specific working memory components in children (8-13 years). These working memory scales should measure cognitive abilities reliably in the upper range of ability distribution as well as in the normal range, and provide a…
Adaptive training of working memory (WM) using the Cogmed-RM intervention has recently shown some efficacy as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but this intervention may not be optimally designed. A recent component analysis of WM has suggested that maintenance in primary memory (PM) appears to be largely intact whereas recall from secondary memory (SM) appears to be deficient in ADHD
Bradley S. Gibson; Dawn M. Gondoli; Ann C. Johnson; Christine M. Steeger; Bradley A. Dobrzenski; Rebecca A. Morrissey
It is remarkable that working memory (WM) capacity for numbers of items remains modest, at approximately 7+/-2 (the so-called "magical number"), across a wide variety of kinds of material. Indeed, consideration of radial maze studies together with more traditional memory research shows that WM capacity remains fairly constant whether the items are verbal or visuospatial, and that this same capacity is true of other species as of humans. In contrast to their limited numerousness, WM items are extremely flexible in ways that are here brought under the heading of "dimensionality." Therefore, the physical items represented in WM, can vary widely in any quantitative characteristic and in the temporal pace at which they are encountered. Combinatorial considerations suggest that WM numerousness results from evolution of a middle ground between a sterile parsimony and an overwhelming excess, for organizing neurocognitive associations. Such natural selection seems likely to have worked opportunistically to yield diverse characteristics of neuronal tissue, from subcellular components to properties of ensembles, which converge on the required cognitive properties of WM. Priming and implicit memory may play supporting roles with WM. These intermediate-term memory phenomena allow certain kinds of background information to be accumulated at higher volume than seems possible from the textbook, "modal model" of memory. By expediting attentional focus on subsets of information already in long-term memory, priming may help WM chunks to emerge in limited number as appropriately scaled "figures" from the primed "ground." The larger neuronal dynamic patterns that embody these cognitive phenomena must regulate their microscopic component systems, automatically selecting those having parameters of temporal persistence, rhythm, and connectivity patterns that are pertinent to the current task. Relevant neural phenomena may include "Hebbian" associativity and persistence of firing patterns in prefrontal or hippocampal neurons. A conceivable basis for scaling and normalizing WM representations, along arbitrarily long or short ranges of any cognitive dimension, involves harmonic multiplier relationships among brain electrical rhythms and/or among topographical spatial periodic representations. PMID:10372508
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices showing abnormal activation among individuals with schizophrenia during working mem- ory tasks are associated with either 1) phonological coding processes that may be specific to verbal tasks (i.e., ventral pre- frontal and parietal cortices) or 2) do- main-general executive processes en- gaged
Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function. PMID:23249350
Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function.
We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men.
Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth
|Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood…
|M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…
Verbaldeclarativememory is one of the most reliably impaired cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Important issues are whether the problem is reversible, and which brain regions underlie improvement. We showed previously that glucose administration improved declarativememory in patients with schizophrenia, and sought in this pilot study to identify whether glucose affects the location or degree of activation of brain regions involved in a verbal encoding task. Seven clinically stable and medicated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who showed deficits on a clinical test of memory, participated in the study. Subjects served as their own controls in a double-blind, crossover protocol that consisted of two sessions about a week apart. In each session, subjects ingested a beverage flavored with lemonade that contained 50 g of glucose on one occasion, and saccharin on the other. Blood glucose was measured before and 15, 50, and 75 min after ingestion. After ingesting the beverage, they performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed significantly greater activation of the left parahippocampus during novel sentence encoding in the glucose condition, compared to the saccharin condition, despite no change in memory performance. A trend towards greater activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p<.07) was also evident in the glucose condition. These pilot findings emphasize the sensitivity of both the medial temporal and prefrontal regions to effects of glucose administration during encoding, and are consistent with the hypothesis that these regions also participate in declarativememory improvements following glucose administration. PMID:15607689
Stone, William S; Thermenos, Heidi W; Tarbox, Sarah I; Poldrack, Russell A; Seidman, Larry J
Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation. PMID:23920025
Carney, Daniel P J; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Danielsson, Henrik; Brown, Janice H; Rönnberg, Jerker
Working memory (WM) impairment is a promising candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia that could facilitate the identification of susceptibility genes for this disorder. The validity of this putative endophenotype was assessed by determining whether 149 probands with schizophrenia and 337 of their first-degree relatives demonstrated WM impairment as compared to 190 unaffected community comparison subjects. Subjects were participants in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) project, a seven-site research network that was established to investigate the genetic architecture of endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Participants received comprehensive clinical assessments and completed two verbal WM tasks, one requiring transient on-line storage and another requiring maintenance plus complex manipulation of information by reordering the stimuli. Schizophrenia probands performed worse than the other groups on both tasks, with larger deficits found for the more challenging reordering WM task. The probands’ relatives performed more poorly than community comparison subjects on both tasks, but the difference was significant only for the more challenging maintenance plus complex manipulation WM task. This WM impairment was not attributable to diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, mood disorders, or substance use disorders in the relatives. In conjunction with evidence that WM abilities are substantially heritable, the current results support the validity and usefulness of verbal WM impairments in manipulation of information as endophenotypes for schizophrenia in large-scale genetic linkage and association studies.
Horan, William P.; Braff, David L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Mintz, James; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allan D.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debbie W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Green, Michael F.
Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbaldeclarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. PMID:22480490
Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe
Working memory refers to the temporary maintenance and processing of information and involves executive processes that manipulate the contents of the working memory. The role of the executive function in the human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) was explored using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after confirming the LDLPFC activation using fMRI. We applied double-pulse TMS having a 100-ms inter-pulse interval
Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.
Christensen, Thomas A.; Almryde, Kyle R.; Fidler, Lesley J.; Lockwood, Julie L.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Plante, Elena
The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.
A multi-marker haplotype within GRIN2B, a gene coding for a subunit of the ionotropic glutamate receptor, has recently been found to be associated with variation in human memory performance [de Quervain and Papassotiropoulos, 2006]. The gene locus is located within a region that has been linked to a phonological memory phenotype in a recent genome scan in families with dyslexia [Brkanac et al., 2008]. These findings may indicate the involvement of GRIN2B in memory-related aspects of human cognition. Memory performance is one of the cognitive functions observed to be disordered in dyslexia patients. We therefore investigated whether genetic variation in GRIN2B contributes to specific quantitative measures in a German dyslexia sample by genotyping 66 SNPs in its entire genomic region. We found supportive evidence that markers in intron 3 are associated with short-term memory in dyslexia, and were able to demonstrate that this effect is even stronger when only maternal transmission is considered. These results suggest that variation within GRIN2B may contribute to the genetic background of specific cognitive processes which are correlates of the dyslexia phenotype. PMID:19591125
Ludwig, Kerstin U; Roeske, Darina; Herms, Stefan; Schumacher, Johannes; Warnke, Andreas; Plume, Ellen; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Remschmidt, Helmut; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nöthen, Markus M; Hoffmann, Per
The roles of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) in task selection and task performance processes were examined when individuals were asked to voluntarily choose which of two tasks to perform on each trial randomly. Consistent with previous voluntary task-switching (VTS) research, we hypothesized that vSTM would support random task selection by maintaining a sequence of previously executed tasks that would be used by a representativeness heuristic. Furthermore, because using a representativeness heuristic requires sufficient time for updating and comparison processes, we expected that vSTM would have a greater effect on task selection when more time was available. Participants completed VTS under concurrent articulatory suppression and foot tapping at short and long response-to-stimulus intervals (RSIs). Task selection in VTS was more repetitive under suppression than under foot tapping, but this effect did not vary with RSI, suggesting that vSTM does not maintain the sequence of executed tasks to guide task selection. Instead, vSTM is critical for maintaining the intended task and ensuring that it is carried out. In contrast to the finding that a working memory load impairs task performance, we found no difference in reaction times and no switch costs between suppression and foot-tapping conditions, suggesting that vSTM is not critical for task performance. PMID:23263900
In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability
Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories
Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach
The effects of verbal intelligence, sex, age, and education on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were investigated. The RAVLT is a widely used instrument for assessing memory dysfunction. Healthy volunteers (N = 114) between the ages of 40 and 84 years participated. In the best?fitting regression model, verbal intelligence and sex accounted for a significant proportion of the
Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…
|Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…
Background: Working memory (WM) has gained recent attention as a cognitive construct that may account for language comprehension deficits in persons with aphasia (PWA) (Caspari, Parkinson, LaPointe, & Katz, 1998; Martin, Kohen, & Kalinyak?Fliszar, 2008; Wright, Downey, Gravier, Love, & Shapiro, 2007). However, few studies have investigated individual differences in performance on sentence comprehension tasks as a function of WM
Jee Eun Sung; Malcolm R. McNeil; Sheila R. Pratt; Michael Walsh Dickey; William D. Hula; Neil J. Szuminsky; Patrick J. Doyle
Which brain regions are implicated when words are retrieved under divided attention, and what does this tell us about attentional and memory processes needed for retrieval? To address these questions we used fMRI to examine brain regions associated with auditory recognition performed under full and divided attention (DA). We asked young adults to encode words presented auditorily under full attention
Myra A. Fernandes; Morris Moscovitch; Marilyne Ziegler; Cheryl Grady
The aim of this study is to look for correlation between a physiological variable (skin conductance, SCL) and cognitive variables (reaction time, RT and productivity score) obtained in a memory task. Subjects were 17 females, including 7 patients and 10 controls. Patients were recruited among women who went to a clinic for alimentary disorders because of obesity and volunteered for
M. Fioravanti; C. M. Polzonetti; D. Nocca; G. Spera; S. Falcone; R. Lazzari; A. Colosimo
Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarativememory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients
M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the experiments found a reduction in proactive interference over time, which they interpreted as evidence against time-based decay. However, it is possible that decay actually occurred over a shorter time period than was tested in this study, wherein the shortest decay interval was 3,300 ms. By reducing the time scale, the 2 experiments reported in the current commentary revealed a sharp decrease in proactive interference over time, with this reduction reaching a plateau in less than 3 s. This pattern suggests that decay operates in the early stages, whereas subsequent forgetting is likely to be due to interference. PMID:22746956
BackgroundUsing the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Conant et al. (1999) observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM) span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children . The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children.MethodIn
Michael J. Boivin; Paul Bangirana; Rebecca C. Smith; Antonio Verdejo García
Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location
Nicole D. Anderson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Warren P. Mason; Fuqiang Gao; Malcolm A. Binns; Gordon Winocur
Background: The five-word test (FWT) uses semantic clues to optimize the encoding and retrieval of 5 items. Our objective was to assess the validity of the FWT as a measure of episodic memory when compared with the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), and its ability to distinguish participants with any dementia and especially Alzheimer disease (AD) from those
The large number of primary Spanish speakers both in the United States and the world makes it imperative that appropriate neuropsychological assessment instruments be available to serve the needs of these populations. In this article we describe the norming process for Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised.
M. Cherner; P. Suarez; D. Lazzaretto; L. Artiola i Fortuny; Monica Rivera Mindt; S. Dawes; Thomas Marcotte; I. Grant; R. Heaton
|Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…
|Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critique constructively and complement the Talloires Declaration with a focus on social and cultural elements that shape action. These elements are important to achieving the needed response to the environmental issues that the Talloires Declaration highlights. While the Talloires Declaration has been…
This case study reports attempts to improve the recall performance of an adolescent (GC) who had suffered a closed-head injury. GC had a very limited range of ways of processing both spoken and written information and showed significant recall problems. Initial training in the use of strategies for list learning resulted in improvement in paired-associate recall but showed that initiation and use of the newly learned strategies would not occur without prompting. Executive strategy training was provided to improve GC's ability to identify a memory problem and to initiate a general plan for dealing with that problem. This training involved consideration of task analysis, strategy selection and initiation, and monitoring of strategy use. Evidence of long-term maintenance of improvement in level of recall on both paired-associate and free recall tests was noted following the executive strategy training. PMID:2592526
Explored validity of new clinical test of verbalmemory incorporating constructs from normal and pathological memory research, to quantify the ways examinees learn verbal material. Factor analyses of normal subjects and neurological patients indicated that verbalmemory consisted of a number of component factors, reflecting learning strategy,…
Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins VerbalMemory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.
Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.
Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins VerbalMemory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demogra