Sample records for verbal declarative memory

  1. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  2. Investigation of the component processes involved in verbal declarative memory function in bipolar disorder: utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised.

    PubMed

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    Evidence suggests that standard learning and recall indexes are sensitive markers of verbal declarative memory ability in bipolar disorder (BD), but no study has examined performance across the full range of component process measures on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R) in a BD cohort. As the HVLT-R is part of a widely used battery of cognitive functioning backed by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration as the accepted battery for use in pro-cognitive trials assessing cognitive-enhancing drugs in the related disorder schizophrenia, estimating the utility of its measures in BD is important. Forty-nine BD patients and 51 healthy controls completed the HVLT-R, which was scored for 13 variables of interest, across 4 indices: recall and learning, recognition, strategic organization, and errors. BD patients had greater difficulty in learning the HVLT-R word list compared to controls. They also demonstrated impairment in delayed recall/recognition. There were no differences between the groups in terms of their slope of learning, retrieval index, retention percentage, semantic or serial clustering, errors, or level of retrieval. This pattern was consistent across symptomatic and euthymic patients. The HVLT-R has some utility in characterizing the component processes involved in memory function in BD, such that memory impairments appear to be attributable to deficient encoding processes during the acquisition phase of learning. In the case of planning pro-cognitive clinical trials, the encoding deficits in BD observed here may be sensitive enough to potentially respond to medications designed to enhance the verbal memory performance. PMID:24870365

  3. Inverted-U Function Between Salivary Cortisol and Retrieval of Verbal Memory After Hydrocortisone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Domes; Julia Rothfischer; Ursula Reichwald; Martin Hautzinger

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a single oral dose of hydrocortisone (cortisol) on retrieval of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory. Fifty-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to either receive 25 mg cortisol or a placebo 45 min before retrieval in a standardized memory test procedure. There was no global effect of cortisol on either verbal or nonverbal memory.

  4. Declarative memory and WCST-64 performance in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn J. Egan; Wendy Hasenkamp; Lisette Wilcox; Amanda Green; Nancy Hsu; William Boshoven; Barbara Lewison; Megan D. Keyes; Erica Duncan

    2011-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a set-switching task used extensively to study impaired executive functioning in schizophrenia. Declarative memory deficits have also been associated with schizophrenia and may affect WCST performance because continued correct responding depends on remembering the outcome of previous responses. This study examined whether performance in visual and verbal declarative memory tasks were associated with

  5. Comparing the benefits of caffeine, naps and placebo on verbal, motor and perceptual memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara C. Mednick; Denise J. Cai; Jennifer Kanady; Sean P. A. Drummond

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine, the world's most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90min) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills,

  6. Striatal contributions to declarative memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Jason M.; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    Declarative memory is known to depend on the medial temporal lobe memory system. Recently, there has been renewed focus on the relationship between the basal ganglia and declarative memory, including the involvement of striatum. However, the contribution of striatum to declarative memory retrieval remains unknown. Here, we review neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the involvement of the striatum in declarative memory retrieval. From this review, we propose that, along with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the striatum primarily supports cognitive control of memory retrieval. We conclude by proposing three hypotheses for the specific role of striatum in retrieval: (1) Striatum modulates the re-encoding of retrieved items in accord with their expected utility (adaptive encoding), (2) striatum selectively admits information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive gating), and (3) striatum enacts adjustments in cognitive control based on the outcome of retrieval (reinforcement learning). PMID:22884322

  7. Declarative memory and WCST-64 performance in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Egan, Glenn J; Hasenkamp, Wendy; Wilcox, Lisette; Green, Amanda; Hsu, Nancy; Boshoven, William; Lewison, Barbara; Keyes, Megan D; Duncan, Erica

    2011-07-30

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a set-switching task used extensively to study impaired executive functioning in schizophrenia. Declarative memory deficits have also been associated with schizophrenia and may affect WCST performance because continued correct responding depends on remembering the outcome of previous responses. This study examined whether performance in visual and verbal declarative memory tasks were associated with WCST performance. Subjects comprised 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ) and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CON) who were tested on the WCST, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). SCZ subjects showed significant correlations between visual and verbal declarative memory and performance on the WCST-64 that were in the hypothesized direction such that worse memory performance was associated with worse performance on the WCST. CON subjects did not show a significant relationship between visual or verbal memory and WCST-64 performance. Fisher's r to z transformations indicated that the associations between declarative memory and WCST-64 performance in the SCZ subjects differed significantly from those of CON subjects. The findings suggest that interpretations of WCST-64 scores for subjects with schizophrenia should be considered in light of their declarative memory functioning. PMID:21481945

  8. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally grounded explanation. Finally, the model also provided an explanation as to why some studies have failed to report verbal overshadowing. Thus, the present study suggests it is not constructive to discuss whether verbal overshadowing exists or not in an all-or-none manner, and instead suggests a better experimental paradigm to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:26061046

  9. Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…

  10. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

  11. Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

  12. Auditory working memory and verbal recall memory in schizotypy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F Lenzenweger; J. M Gold

    2000-01-01

    Deficits on verbal memory tasks, as well as on spatial and auditory working memory tasks, have been observed in schizophrenia patients. A useful strategy in the determination of the premorbid indicator status of specific cognitive and memory deficits observed in patients is to examine those persons at increased biological risk for schizophrenia (e.g. first-degree relatives), schizotypal personality disorder patients, and\\/or

  13. Declarative memory in unaffected adult relatives of patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claire Whyte; Andrew M. McIntosh; Eve C. Johnstone; Stephen M. Lawrie

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence for diverse neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia, verbal declarative memory has emerged as a core deficit in the disorder. Similar but less marked impairments have been demonstrated in unaffected biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, but the nature and extent of the memory impairment in relatives compared to controls is unclear. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis

  14. Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…

  15. Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory: Multiple Brain Systems Supporting Learning and Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire

    1992-01-01

    The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate

  16. A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

  17. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  18. Verbal Short-term Memory and Vocabulary Learning in Polyglots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Papagno; G. Vallar M. D

    1995-01-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words.

  19. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  20. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  1. Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Megari, Kalliopi; Kosmidis, Mary H; Apostolidou, Maria; Takou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n = 15) outperformed the control group (n = 35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n = 15) approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. Our findings suggest that, while proficiency in a foreign language may enhance fluency and working memory skills, simultaneous interpreters have semantic processing and working memory capacities greater than those expected from mere proficiency in a foreign language. PMID:22436006

  2. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders? four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  3. Verbal memory retrieval engages visual cortex in musicians.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, Z; Dong, G; Wu, J; Chan, A S; Weng, X

    2010-06-16

    As one major line of research on brain plasticity, many imaging studies have been conducted to identify the functional and structural reorganization associated with musical expertise. Based on previous behavioral research, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of superior verbal memory performance in musicians. Participants with and without musical training performed a verbal memory task to first encode a list of words auditorily delivered and then silently recall as many words as possible. They performed in separate blocks a control task involving pure tone pitch judgment. Post-scan recognition test showed better memory performance in musicians than non-musicians. During memory retrieval, the musicians showed significantly greater activations in bilateral though left-lateralized visual cortex relative to the pitch judgment baseline. In comparison, no such visual cortical activations were found in the non-musicians. No group differences were observed during the encoding stage. The results echo a previous report of visual cortical activation during verbal memory retrieval in the absence of any visual sensory stimulation in the blind population, who are also known to possess superior verbal memory. It is suggested that the visual cortex can be recruited to serve as extra memory resources and contributes to the superior verbal memory in special situations. While in the blind population, such cross-modal functional reorganization may be induced by sensory deprivation; in the musicians it may be induced by the long-term and demanding nature of musical training to use as much available neural resources as possible. PMID:20303392

  4. Reconsolidation of Declarative Memory in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not…

  5. The role of sleep in human declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Alger, Sara E; Chambers, Alexis M; Cunningham, Tony; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-01-01

    Through a variety of methods, researchers have begun unraveling the mystery of why humans spend one-third of their lives asleep. Though sleep likely serves multiple functions, it has become clear that the sleeping brain offers an ideal environment for solidifying newly learned information in the brain. Sleep , which comprises a complex collection of brain states, supports the consolidation of many different types of information. It not only promotes learning and memory stabilization, but also memory reorganization that can lead to various forms of insightful behavior. As this chapter will describe, research provides ample support for these crucial cognitive functions of sleep . Focusing on the declarative memory system in humans, we review the literature regarding the benefits of sleep for both neutral and emotionally salient declarative memory . Finally, we discuss the literature regarding the impact of sleep on emotion regulation . PMID:25227928

  6. Verbal memory processes in schizophrenia patients and biological relatives of schizophrenia patients: intact implicit memory, impaired explicit recollection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Sponheim; Vaughn R. Steele; Kathryn A. McGuire

    2004-01-01

    Verbal memory deficits are arguably the most common cognitive abnormalities in biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Because verbal memory is a complex cognitive function, it is necessary to differentiate its intact and compromised aspects in order to reveal aberrant neural systems that reflect genetic risk in relatives of schizophrenia patients. Using an experimental verbal memory task, we examined encoding, free-recall,

  7. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  8. Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    Bleecker, M; Ford, D; Lindgren, K; Hoese, V; Walsh, K; Vaughan, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine if verbal learning and memory requiring acquisition and retention of information is differentially affected by lead exposure. Methods: The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a test of verbal learning and memory, was administered to 256 English speaking lead smelter workers who had a mean (SD) age of 41 (9.4) years and employment duration of 17 (8.1) years. Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean (SD) current blood lead (PbB) of 28 (8.8) µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39 (12.3) µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728 (434.4) µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. Results: PbB was not associated with any of the RAVLT variables. However, TWA and IBL contributed significantly to the explanation of variance of measures of encoding/storage and retrieval but not to immediate memory span, attention, and learning. Grouping study participants by RAVLT performance according to three recognised clinical memory paradigms showed significantly higher TWA and IBL in the group with "generalised memory impairment" after adjusting for age and educational achievement. We examined recall mechanisms in each group by serial position in the word list and found stronger primacy (recall of words from the beginning of the list) in the "no impairment" and "retrieval difficulties" groups while the "generalised memory impairment" group had better performance on recency (recall of words from the end of the list). Conclusions: Lead exposure over years and not PbB interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material. Chronic lead exposure affects encoding/storage and retrieval of verbal information. PMID:15723883

  9. Music Training Improves Verbal but Not Visual Memory: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Explorations in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yim-Chi Ho; Mei-Chun Cheung; Agnes S. Chan

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued

  10. Verbal Positional Memory in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Mehler, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory is a fundamental prerequisite for language learning. This study investigated 7-month-olds' (N = 62) ability to remember the identity and order of elements in a multisyllabic word. The results indicate that infants detect changes in the order of edge syllables, or the identity of the middle syllables, but fail to encode the order…

  11. Stress selectively affects the reactivated components of a declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Dorskind, Joelle M

    2014-10-01

    When long-term memories are reactivated, they can reenter a transient plastic state in which they are vulnerable to interference or physiological manipulations. The present study attempted to directly affect reactivated memories through a stress manipulation, and compared the effects of stress on reactivated and nonreactivated components of a declarative memory in a within-subject design. We presented image pairs that consisted of an image of an animal and an image of an unrelated object. Participants were instructed to memorize the object images. Forty-eight hours later, we presented half of the animal images again in an unrelated task to indirectly reactivate the associated object images. Immediately after reactivation, participants were exposed to cold pressor stress or a warm water control condition. Forty-eight hours later, we assessed memory for the object images with a free recall test. Reactivation boosted memory performance in the control condition, such that reactivated items were better recalled than nonreactivated items. This memory-enhancing effect of reactivation was completely abolished by cold pressor stress. Importantly, stress selectively impacted only the reactivated items while leaving memory for the nonreactivated items unaffected. The present study shows that it is possible to selectively reactivate and modulate specific parts of a declarative memory. PMID:24956014

  12. Long-term consolidation of declarative memory: insight from temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Guedj, Eric; Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2011-03-01

    Several experiments carried out with a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have demonstrated normal memory performance at standard delays of recall (i.e. minutes to hours) but impaired performance over longer delays (i.e. days or weeks), suggesting altered long-term consolidation mechanisms. These mechanisms were specifically investigated in a group of five adult-onset pharmaco-sensitive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, exhibiting severe episodic memory complaints despite normal performance at standardized memory assessment. In a first experiment, the magnitude of autobiographical memory loss was evaluated using retrograde personal memory tasks based on verbal and visual cues. In both conditions, results showed an unusual U-shaped pattern of personal memory impairment, encompassing most of the patients' life, sparing however, periods of the childhood, early adulthood and past several weeks. This profile was suggestive of a long-term consolidation impairment of personal episodes, adequately consolidated over 'short-term' delays but gradually forgotten thereafter. Therefore, in a subsequent experiment, patients were submitted to a protocol specifically devised to investigate short and long-term consolidation of contextually-bound experiences (episodic memory) and context-free information (semantic knowledge and single-items). In the short term (1 h), performance at both contextually-free and contextually-bound memory tasks was intact. After a 6-week delay, however, contextually-bound memory performance was impaired while contextually-free memory performance remained preserved. This effect was independent of task difficulty and the modality of retrieval (recall and recognition). Neuroimaging studies revealed the presence of mild metabolic changes within medial temporal lobe structures. Taken together, these results show the existence of different consolidation systems within declarative memory. They suggest that mild medial temporal lobe dysfunction can impede the building and stabilization of episodic memories but leaves long-term semantic and single-items mnemonic traces intact. PMID:21354976

  13. Impaired Emotional Declarative Memory Following Unilateral Amygdala Damage

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie

    2000-01-01

    Case studies of patients with bilateral amygdala damage and functional imaging studies of normal individuals have demonstrated that the amygdala plays a critical role in encoding emotionally arousing stimuli into long-term declarative memory. However, several issues remain poorly understood: the separate roles of left and right amygdala, the time course over which the amygdala participates in memory consolidation, and the type of knowledge structures it helps consolidate. We investigated these questions in eight subjects with unilateral amygdala damage, using several different measures. For comparison, our main task used stimuli identical to those used previously to investigate emotional declarative memory in patients with bilateral amygdala damage. Contrasts with both brain-damaged and normal control groups showed that subjects with left amygdala damage were impaired in their memory for emotional stimuli, despite entirely normal memory for neutral stimuli (because of a number of caveats, the findings from subjects with right amygdala damage were less clear). Follow-up experiments suggested that the normal facilitation of memory for emotional stimuli may develop over an extended time course (>30 min), consistent with prior findings, and that the specific impairment we report may depend in part on the lexical nature of the task used (written questionnaire). We stress the complex and temporally extended nature of memory consolidation and suggest that the amygdala may influence specific components of this process. PMID:10837507

  14. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. PMID:25913892

  15. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Diana A.; Kronemer, Sharif I.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Desmond, John E.; Marvel, Cherie L.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters), in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords) and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters) visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times (RTs) on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword) vs. low (real word) phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex (VC). Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance. PMID:25309402

  16. SLEEP, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2012 985 Verbal Memory and Sleep--Sheth et al INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    are vulnerable to interference and rather than providing merely a temporary respite, sleep consolidates memories MEMORY AND INTERFERENCE http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1966 Sleep Shelters Verbal Memory from Different that sleep shelters old verbal memories from associative interference arising from new, more recently

  17. Sleep smart—optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B.; Diekelmann, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spurt of new publications documenting sleep's essential contribution to the brains ability to form lasting memories. For the declarative memory domain, slow wave sleep (the deepest sleep stage) has the greatest beneficial effect on the consolidation of memories acquired during preceding wakefulness. The finding that newly encoded memories become reactivated during subsequent sleep fostered the idea that reactivation leads to the strengthening and transformation of the memory trace. According to the active system consolidation account, trace reactivation leads to the redistribution of the transient memory representations from the hippocampus to the long-lasting knowledge networks of the cortex. Apart from consolidating previously learned information, sleep also facilitates the encoding of new memories after sleep, which probably relies on the renormalization of synaptic weights during sleep as suggested by the synaptic homeostasis theory. During wakefulness overshooting potentiation causes an imbalance in synaptic weights that is countered by synaptic downscaling during subsequent sleep. This review briefly introduces the basic concepts and central findings of the research on sleep and memory, and discusses implications of this lab-based work for everyday applications to make the best possible use of sleep's beneficial effect on learning and memory. PMID:26029150

  18. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  19. The Relationship Between Age, Verbal Working Memory, and Language Comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayle DeDe; David Caplan; Karen Kemtes; Gloria Waters

    2004-01-01

    A structural modeling approach was used to examine the relationships between age, verbal working memory (vWM), and 3 types of language measures: online syntactic processing, sentence comprehension, and text comprehension. The best-fit model for the online-processing measure revealed a direct effect of age on online sentence processing, but no effect mediated through vWM. The best-fit models for sentence and text

  20. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. PMID:25639372

  1. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  2. When visual and verbal memories compete: Evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice C. Morey; Nelson Cowan

    2004-01-01

    Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal\\u000a material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory\\u000a and to identify a more central faculty as the source of a shared limitation. With a visual working memory task in which two

  3. Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

  4. Visuospatial Support for Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…

  5. Altered intrinsic hippocmapus declarative memory network and its association with impulsivity in abstinent heroin dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Tian-Ye; Shao, Yong-Cong; Xie, Chun-Ming; Ye, En-Mao; Zou, Feng; Fu, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zheng-Guo; Li, Shi-Jiang; Yang, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Converging evidence suggests that addiction can be considered a disease of aberrant learning and memory with impulsive decision-making. In the past decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that drug addiction is involved in multiple memory systems such as classical conditioned drug memory, instrumental learning memory and the habitual learning memory. However, most of these studies have focused on the contributions of non-declarative memory, and declarative memory has largely been neglected in the research of addiction. Based on a recent finding that hippocampus, as a core functioning region of declarative memory, was proved biased the decision-making process based on past experiences by spreading associated reward values throughout memory. Our present study focused on the hippocampus. By utilizing seed-based network analysis on the resting-state functional MRI datasets with the seed hippocampus we tested how the intrinsic hippocampal memory network altered toward drug addiction, and examined how the functional connectivity strength within the altered hippocampal network correlated with behavioral index 'impulsivity'. Our results demonstrated that HD group showed enhanced coherence between hippocampus which represents declarative memory system and non-declarative reward-guided learning memory system, and also showed attenuated intrinsic functional link between hippocampus and top-down control system, compared to the CN group. This alteration was furthered found to have behavioral significance over the behavioral index 'impulsivity' measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). These results provide insights into the mechanism of declarative memory underlying the impulsive behavior in drug addiction. PMID:25008351

  6. Verbal And Visual Memory Binding In Patients With Unilateral Temporal Lobectomy 

    E-print Network

    Hunter, Matthew

    2011-11-23

    = 12, controls = 53). Subjects underwent a binding paradigm to assess short-term memory (STM), learning, and long-term memory (LTM) for unitized visual representations (shapes and patterns versus shape-pattern combinations) and inter-item verbal...

  7. When Do Visual and Verbal Memories Conflict?: The Importance of Working-Memory Load and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Candice C.; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Examinations of interference between verbal and visual materials in working memory have produced mixed results. If there is a central form of storage (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then cross-domain interference should be obtained. The authors examined this question with a visual-array comparison task (S. J. Luck & E. K. Vogel,…

  8. Processing Speed: A Strong Predictor of Verbal Memory Performance in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gildas Brébion; Anthony S. David; Rodrigo A. Bressan; Lyn S. Pilowsky

    2006-01-01

    The role of slowing of processing speed in verbal memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia was investigated. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy control subjects were administered a verbal memory task involving free recall of three lists of words, which varied in their degree of semantic organization. Standard processing speed tests were administered as well. Regression analyses were conducted

  9. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  10. Neonatal Cerebral Abnormalities and Later Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory Abilities of Children Born Very Preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caron A. C. Clark; Lianne J. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, 103 very preterm children underwent structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term equivalent age and an assessment of verbal (Digit Span) and visuospatial (Corsi Blocks) working memory at 6 years corrected age. Compared to children born full term (N = 108), very preterm children were characterized by poorer verbal and visuospatial working memory

  11. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability.

    PubMed

    Cordi, Maren J; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness) benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After 3 h of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS) rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles, or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores. PMID:25225474

  12. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness) benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After 3 h of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS) rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles, or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores. PMID:25225474

  13. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  14. Metabolic connectivity as index of verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Zou, Na; Chetelat, Gael; Baydogan, Mustafa G; Li, Jing; Fischer, Florian U; Titov, Dmitry; Dukart, Juergen; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Yakushev, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) data are commonly analyzed in terms of regional intensity, while covariant information is not taken into account. Here, we searched for network correlates of healthy cognitive function in resting state PET data. PET with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and a test of verbal working memory (WM) were administered to 35 young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity was modeled at a group level using sparse inverse covariance estimation. Among 13 WM-relevant Brodmann areas (BAs), 6 appeared to be robustly connected. Connectivity within this network was significantly stronger in subjects with above-median WM performance. In respect to regional intensity, i.e., metabolism, no difference between groups was found. The results encourage examination of covariant patterns in FDG-PET data from non-neurodegenerative populations. PMID:25785830

  15. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899

  16. A "snapshot" of declarative memory: Differing developmental trajectories in episodic and autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Samson, Zoe; Dugas, Kevin; Cabeza, Roberto; Bauer, Patricia J

    2011-11-01

    Episodic and autobiographical memory are clearly related, yet in both the adult and developmental literatures it is difficult to compare them because of differences in how the constructs are assessed, including differences in content, levels of control, and time since experience. To address these issues, we directly compared children's and adults' autobiographical and episodic memory using the same controlled paradigm. Participants engaged in a photo-taking activity in a museum (autobiographical encoding) and viewed others' photographs of the same museum exhibits (episodic encoding). At test, participants classified photos as ones they took, viewed, or novel. In the autobiographical condition older children and adults performed similarly; younger children's performance was lower than adults'. In contrast, in the episodic condition both groups of children performed more poorly than adults. The findings suggest the developmental primacy of autobiographical relative to episodic memory, and that traditional episodic tasks may underestimate older children's declarative memory abilities. PMID:21942825

  17. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  18. Effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on verbal memory revealed with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lisa H.; Johnson, Arianne; O’Hare, Elizabeth D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Smith, Lynne M.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Efforts to understand specific effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on cognitive processing are hampered by high rates of concomitant alcohol use during pregnancy. We examined whether neurocognitive systems differed among children with differing prenatal teratogenic exposures when they engaged in a verbal memory task. Patients and Methods Participants (7-15 years old) engaged in a verbal paired associate learning task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The MA group included 14 children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure, 12 of whom had concomitant alcohol exposure. They were compared to 9 children with prenatal alcohol but not methamphetamine exposure (ALC) and 20 unexposed controls (CON). Groups did not differ in age, gender, or socioeconomic status. Participants’ IQ and verbal learning performance were measured using standardized instruments. Results The MA group activated more diffuse brain regions, including bilateral medial temporal structures known to be important for memory, than both the ALC and the CON groups. These group differences remained after IQ was covaried. More activation in medial temporal structures by the MA group compared to the ALC group cannot be explained by performance differences because both groups performed at similar levels on the verbal memory task. Conclusions More diffuse activation in the MA group during verbal memory may reflect recruitment of compensatory systems to support a weak verbal memory network. Differences in activation patterns between the MA and ALC groups suggest that prenatal MA exposure influences the development of the verbal memory system above and beyond effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:19525715

  19. Neural Substrates of Verbal Memory Impairments in Adults with T2DM

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Po Lai; Kluger, Alan; Borod, Joan C.; Convit, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal memory impairment is well documented in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but to date, the neural substrates remain unclear. The present study evaluated verbal memory and ascertained the degree of frontal and temporal lobe involvement in the anticipated verbal memory impairment among adults with T2DM. Methods Forty-six late middle-aged and elderly adults with T2DM and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched adults without T2DM underwent medical evaluation, verbal memory assessment, and brain MRI evaluations. Results As anticipated, participants with T2DM had clear verbal memory impairments. Consistent with prior reports, we found volume reductions restricted to the hippocampus. Our diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed that participants with T2DM had extensive cerebral gray and white matter microstructural abnormalities predominantly in the left hemisphere, with a larger concentration present in the temporal lobe. In contrast, we uncovered mostly non-specific microstructural abnormalities in the absence of tissue loss in the frontal lobe. Of great importance, we present the first evidence among participants with T2DM linking verbal memory impairment and compromised microstructural integrity of the left parahippocampal gyrus, a key memory-relevant structure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM. The parahippocampal gyrus in particular may play a crucial role in the verbal memory impairments frequently reported in T2DM. Future studies should employ methods such as resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging tractography to better characterize network connectivity, which may help further characterize the verbal memory impairment frequently reported in T2DM. PMID:24417611

  20. The role of visuospatial and verbal working memory in perceptual category learning.

    PubMed

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Maddox, W Todd

    2007-09-01

    The role of verbal and visuospatial working memory in rule-based and information-integration category learning was examined. Previously, Maddox, Ashby, Ing, and Pickering found that a sequentially presented verbal working memory task did not affect information-integration learning, but disrupted rule-based learning when the rule was on the spatial frequency of a Gabor stimulus. This pattern was replicated in Experiment 1, in which the same category structures were used, but in which the verbal working memory task was replaced with a visuospatial analog. Experiment 2A examined rule-based learning on an oblique orientation and also found both verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks disrupting learning. Experiment 2B examined rule-based learning on a cardinal orientation and found a minimal effect of the verbal working memory task, but a large effect of the visuospatial working memory task. The conceptual significance of cardinal orientations and the role of visuospatial and verbal working memory in category learning are discussed. PMID:18035635

  1. Cerebral correlates of declarative memory dysfunctions in early traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Serra-Grabulosa; C Junque?; K Verger; P Salgado-Pineda; C Man?eru; J M Mercader

    2005-01-01

    We investigated residual brain damage in subjects who suffered severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood, and its relationship with declarative memory impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data and memory performance were compared between 16 adolescents with antecedents of severe TBI and 16 matched normal controls. Volumes of grey matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus, and caudate nuclei

  2. A daytime nap containing solely non-REM sleep enhances declarative but not procedural memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Tucker; Yasutaka Hirota; Erin J. Wamsley; Hiuyan Lau; Annie Chaklader; William Fishbein

    2006-01-01

    The specialized role that sleep-specific brain physiology plays in memory processing is being rapidly clarified with a greater understanding of the dynamic, complex, and exquisitely orchestrated brain state that emerges during sleep. Behaviorally, the facilitative role of non-REM (NREM) sleep (primarily slow wave sleep) for declarative but not procedural memory performance in humans has been demonstrated in a number of

  3. Contributions of the Medial Temporal Lobe to Declarative Memory Retrieval: Manipulating the Amount of Contextual Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira; Arnold, Jennifer; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Weis, Susanne; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernandez, Guillen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how the hippocampus and its adjacent mediotemporal structures contribute to contextual and noncontextual declarative memory retrieval by manipulating the amount of contextual information across two levels of the same contextual dimension in a source memory task. A first analysis identified medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures…

  4. Research Report Control processes in verbal working memory: An event-related

    E-print Network

    Shedden, Judith M.

    to dissociate control from storage/maintenance processes in verbal working memory (WM). Increased ERP negativity regions reflected initiation of required rehearsal/maintenance of memory set contents, with progressive activity to resist proactive interference effects. These findings are consistent with a left frontal

  5. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

  6. A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF VERBAL WORKING MEMORY BASED ON TRANSITORY ACTIVATION

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    1 A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF VERBAL WORKING MEMORY BASED ON TRANSITORY ACTIVATION PATTERNS* Shane T of the structure of a neural network's connections and short-term memory in terms of the patterns of activation across the network (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Caianiello, 1961). However, recent neural-network models of short

  7. Verbal Memory in Drug-Naive, Newly Diagnosed Parkinson's Disease. The Retrieval Deficit Hypothesis Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kolbjørn Brønnick; Guido Alves; Dag Aarsland; Ole-Bjørn Tysnes; Jan Petter Larsen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The retrieval deficit hypothesis on memory impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) implies a selective impairment in recall of learned material with normal encoding, retention, and recognition. This hypothesis has been challenged by new data. We have therefore investigated verbal memory and learning in a large sample of newly diagnosed, drug naïve, non-demented patients with PD. Method: From

  8. A Common Neural Substrate for Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. "Working memory, thought, and action." New York, NY: Oxford University Press,…

  9. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  10. The sleeping brain's influence on verbal memory: boosting resistance to interference.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Hulbert, Justin C; Jiang, Ying; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation). Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of interference that would otherwise accrue during wakefulness. To evaluate the potentially active role of sleep for verbal memory, we compared memory recall after sleep, with and without interference before testing. We demonstrated that recall performance for verbal memory was greater after sleep than after wakefulness. And when using interference testing, that difference was even more pronounced. By introducing interference after sleep, this study confirms an experimental paradigm that demonstrates the active role of sleep in consolidating memory, and unmasks the large magnitude of that benefit. PMID:19127287

  11. Verbal and visual-spatial working memory and mathematical ability in different domains throughout primary school.

    PubMed

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2015-04-01

    The relative importance of visual-spatial and verbal working memory for mathematics performance and learning seems to vary with age, the novelty of the material, and the specific math domain that is investigated. In this study, the relations between verbal and visual-spatial working memory and performance in four math domains (i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) at different ages during primary school are investigated. Children (N = 4337) from grades 2 through 6 participated. Visual-spatial and verbal working memory were assessed using online computerized tasks. Math performance was assessed at the start, middle, and end of the school year using a speeded arithmetic test. Multilevel Multigroup Latent Growth Modeling was used to model individual differences in level and growth in math performance, and examine the predictive value of working memory per grade, while controlling for effects of classroom membership. The results showed that as grade level progressed, the predictive value of visual-spatial working memory for individual differences in level of mathematics performance waned, while the predictive value of verbal working memory increased. Working memory did not predict individual differences between children in their rate of performance growth throughout the school year. These findings are discussed in relation to three, not mutually exclusive, explanations for such age-related findings. PMID:25377509

  12. Visuospatial bootstrapping: long-term memory representations are necessary for implicit binding of verbal and visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Darling, Stephen; Allen, Richard J; Havelka, Jelena; Campbell, Aileen; Rattray, Emma

    2012-04-01

    It has recently been shown that presenting additional visuospatial information alongside to-be-remembered numbers in a digit span task enhances participants' memory for those items. However, the mechanisms behind this visuospatial bootstrapping effect have remained unspecified. In this article, we report evidence that this effect involves an integration of information from verbal and visuospatial temporary memory with long-term-memory (LTM) representations and that the existence of a relevant LTM representation is necessary for bootstrapping to occur. PMID:22258818

  13. Verbal working memory and planning: learning to compare movement durations of objects.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2010-12-01

    Relations between duration judgments and verbal or visual working memory, between duration judgments and effect of learning to plan the processing of information about such judgments were investigated. A computer monitor was used to present images of two cars traveling in the same direction for various durations and distances. Participants (N=30) were asked to identify the car that had traveled for the longer duration. Then, participants learned how to solve Piagetian tasks logically. After the learning, they tried to solve the duration judgments task again. Finally, their verbal and visual working memory capacities were assessed. Results indicated the following: (a) numbers of correct answers on the Piagetian tasks were correlated with verbal and visual working memory capacity; (b) the correlations did not significantly decrease after the participants learned how to solve the Piagetian tasks. PMID:21319624

  14. Visuospatial bootstrapping: evidence for binding of verbal and spatial information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Darling, Stephen; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, working memory is held to comprise separate subcomponents dedicated to the temporary storage of visuospatial and verbal information. More recently, the addition of an episodic buffer has been proposed where information from multiple memory systems is integrated. We report an experiment designed to investigate the effects of providing additional visuospatial information in a verbal working memory task. When to-be-remembered digits were arranged in a horizontal line, performance was no better than when digits were presented in a single location. However, when digits were presented in a keyboard array, performance was significantly better. It is argued that this pattern is hard to reconcile with the traditional model of working memory, and that the "spatial bootstrapping" effect provides evidence towards models of working memory that incorporate an episodic buffer. PMID:19921598

  15. KIBRA gene polymorphism has no association with verbal or visual episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Franks, Katherine H; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual variability in memory performance has been suggested to result, in part, from genetic differences in the coding of proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study examined the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) on episodic memory performance, using multiple measures of verbal and visual episodic memory. A total of 256 female and 130 male healthy, older adults (mean age = 60.86 years) were recruited from the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP), undergoing both neuropsychological and genetic testing. The current study showed no significant effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Logical Memory test, Paired Associates Learning test or Rey Complex Figure Task. The results suggest there is little to no functional significance of KIBRA genotype on episodic memory performance, regardless of modality. PMID:25339899

  16. Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Cahill; James L. McGaugh

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site

  17. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (?=?1.07, p<0.001) and delayed episodic memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (?=?1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

  18. The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

  19. Beyond Capacity Limitations: Determinants of Word Recall Performance on Verbal Working Memory Span Tasks in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that…

  20. Retroactive interference in visuo-spatial and verbal memory 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    of memory traces over time. This account of forgetting suggested that decay was perhaps a natural consequence of the passage of time. But a competing theory of memory postulated interference as the culprit of forgetting: either prior learning (proactive...

  1. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ? 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  2. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  3. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  4. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Verbal short-term (STM) and working (WM) memory skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single endpoint outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of verbal STM/WM and speech-language skills. This study investigated relations between profiles of verbal STM/WM development and speech-language development over time. Method Profiles of verbal STM/WM development were identified using group-based trajectory analysis of repeated digit span measures over at least a two-year time period in a sample of 66 children (age 6-16 years) with CIs. Subjects also completed repeated assessments of speech and language skills during the same time period. Results Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal STM (digit span forward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and language comprehension skills over time. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal WM (digit span backward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and spoken word recognition skills over time. Conclusions Different patterns of development of verbal STM/WM capacity predict the dynamic process of development of speech and language skills in this clinical population. PMID:23275401

  5. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  6. Encoding: The Keystone to Efficient Functioning of Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like "blonterstaping". The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of…

  7. The Development of Verbal and Visual Working Memory Processes: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…

  8. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  9. Functional Developmental Similarities and Differences in the Neural Correlates of Verbal and Nonverbal Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…

  10. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  11. Effects of Verbal Coding on Learning Disabled and Normal Readers Visual Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    The hypothesis that reading difficulty of learning disabled (LD) children is attributable to deficiencies in verbal encoding was investigated with 60 LD and normal children (mean CA=9.1, mean IQ=103.5). Ss were compared on recall of a serial short-term memory task after pre-training of named and unnamed stimulus conditions. Data suggested that…

  12. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  13. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  14. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  15. Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments in Bipolar I and II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Hyon; Kim, Ji Sun; Chang, Jae Seung; Oh, Sung Hee; Her, Ju Young; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Tae Sung; Shin, Soon Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare verbal and visual memory performances between patients with bipolar I disorder (BD I) and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD II) and to determine whether memory deficits were mediated by impaired organizational strategies. Methods Performances on the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in 37 patients with BD I, 46 patients with BD II and 42 healthy subjects were compared. Mediating effects of impaired organization strategies on poor delayed recall was tested by comparing direct and mediated models using multiple regression analysis. Results Both patients groups recalled fewer words and figure components and showed lower Semantic Clustering compared to controls. Verbal memory impairment was partly mediated by difficulties in Semantic Clustering in both subtypes, whereas the mediating effect of Organization deficit on the visual memory impairment was present only in BD I. In all mediated models, group differences in delayed recall remained significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that memory impairment may be one of the fundamental cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders and that executive dysfunctions can exert an additional influence on memory impairments. PMID:23251197

  16. Benchmarking a computerized test of immediate verbal memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle E. Tractenberg; Colin E. Freas

    2007-01-01

    We modified the traditional (verbal) digit span task for administration via computer and the Internet. This online version\\u000a collects data on the floor and ceiling of a subject’s span capacity, rather than generating a rough estimate of capacity based\\u000a on a 50% success rate, as the traditional version does. We compared the two versions within adult subjects in two cohorts:

  17. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  18. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  19. Antiretroviral Non-Adherence is Associated With a Retrieval Profile of Deficits in Verbal Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Obermeit, Lisa C; Morgan, Erin E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-02-01

    HIV-associated deficits in verbal episodic memory are commonly associated with antiretroviral non-adherence; however, the specific aspects of memory functioning (e.g., encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) that underlie this established relationship are not well understood. This study evaluated verbal memory profiles of 202 HIV+ participants who underwent a 30-day electronic monitoring of antiretroviral adherence. At the group level, non-adherence was significantly associated with lower scores on immediate and delayed passage recall and word list learning. Retention and recognition of passages and word lists were not related to adherence. Participants were then classified as having either a normal verbal memory profile, a "subcortical" retrieval profile (i.e., impaired free recall with relatively spared recognition), or a "cortical" encoding profile (e.g., cued recall intrusions) based on the Massman et al. ( 1990 ) algorithm for the California Verbal Learning Test. HIV+ participants with a classic retrieval deficit had significantly greater odds of being non-adherent than participants with a normal or encoding profile. These findings suggest that adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in HIV+ individuals due to deficits in the complex process of efficiently accessing verbal episodic information with minimal cues. A stronger relationship between non-adherence and passage (vs. word list) recall was also found and may reflect the importance of contextual features in remembering to take medications. Targeted interventions for enhancing and supporting episodic memory retrieval processes may improve antiretroviral adherence and overall health outcomes among persons living with HIV. PMID:25781903

  20. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production.

    PubMed

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  1. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  2. Verbal Memory Declines More Rapidly with Age in HIV Infected versus Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Luo, Xi; Gongvatana, Assawin; Devlin, Kathryn N.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Chasman, Jesse D.; Yan, Peisi; Tashima, Karen T.; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment, the number of older adults living with HIV is rapidly increasing. This study investigated the combined influence of age and HIV infection on longitudinal changes in verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Methods In this longitudinal, case-control design, 54 HIV seropositive and 30 seronegative individuals aged 40–74 received neurocognitive assessments at baseline visits and again one year later. Assessment included tests of verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Linear regression was used to predict baseline performance and longitudinal change on each test using HIV serostatus, age, and their interaction as predictors. MANOVA was used to assess the effects of these predictors on overall baseline performance and overall longitudinal change. Results The interaction of HIV and age significantly predicted longitudinal change in verbal memory performance, as did HIV status, indicating that although the seropositive group declined more than the seronegative group overall, the rate of decline depended on age such that greater age was associated with a greater decline in this group. The regression models for visuospatial learning and memory were significant at baseline, but did not predict change over time. HIV status significantly predicted overall baseline performance and overall longitudinal change. Conclusions This is the first longitudinal study focused on the effects of age and HIV on memory. Findings suggest that age and HIV interact to produce larger declines in verbal memory over time. Further research is needed to gain a greater understanding of the effects of HIV on the aging brain. PMID:24645772

  3. Verbal overshadowing of face memory does occur in children too!

    PubMed Central

    Dehon, Hedwige; Vanootighem, Valentine; Brédart, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of unfamiliar faces have been found to impair later identification of these faces in adults, a phenomenon known as the “verbal overshadowing effect” (VOE). Although determining whether children are good at describing unfamiliar individuals and whether these descriptions impair their recognition performance is critical to gaining a better understanding children's eyewitness ability, only a couple of studies have examined this dual issue in children and these found no evidence of VOE. However, as there are some methodological criticisms of these studies, we decided to conduct two further experiments in 7–8, 10–11, and 13–14-year-old children and in adults using a more optimal method for the VOE to be observed. Evidence of the VOE on face identification was found in both children and adults. Moreover, neither the accuracy of descriptions, nor delay nor target presence in the lineup was found to be associated with identification accuracy. The theoretical and developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24399985

  4. Intact implicit verbal relational memory in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    PubMed

    Verfaelllie, Mieke; LaRocque, Karen F; Keane, Margaret M

    2012-07-01

    To elucidate the role of the hippocampus in unaware relational memory, the present study examined the performance of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions on a cued category-exemplar generation task. In contrast to a prior study in which amnesic patients showed impaired performance (Verfaellie et al., Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 2006, 6, 91-101), the current study employed a task that required active processing of the context word at test. In this version of the task, amnesic patients, like control participants, showed enhanced category exemplar priming when the context word associated with the target at study was reinstated at test. The finding of intact implicit memory for novel associations following hippocampal lesions in a task that requires flexible use of retrieval cues is inconsistent with a relational memory view that suggests that the hippocampus is critical for all forms of relational memory, regardless of awareness. Instead, it suggests that unaware memory for within-domain associations does not require MTL mediation. PMID:22609574

  5. Stress and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Kirschbaum; O. T Wolf; M May; W Wippich; D. H Hellhammer

    1996-01-01

    Two studies investigated the association between cortisol levels and memory performance in healthy adults. In a first study, 13 subjects were exposed to a brief psychosocial laboratory stress (“Trier Social Stress Test”) with a subsequent test of declarative memory performance. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between stress-induced cortisol levels and performance in the memory Task, I.e. subjects with high

  6. An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

  7. The Effects of Verbalization and the Presence of a Memory Aid on Concept Learning in Educable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkin, Liora; Reid, D. Kim

    Three conjunctive concept-learning problems were presented to 70 educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (9 to 14 years old) and 76 controls (7 to 10 years old) to assess the effects of four verbalization conditions and the presence or absence of a memory aid on concept attainment. Verbalization conditions were the following. (1) no…

  8. Accelerated long-term forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy: verbal, nonverbal and autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Jwala; Duncan, Rod; Greene, John; Leach, John-Paul; Razvi, Saif; McLean, John; Evans, Jonathan J

    2012-12-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often present with memory complaints despite performing within normal limits on standard memory tests. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). The present study investigated material-specific ALF in patients with unilateral TLE and also examined whether ALF could be demonstrated on a novel, standardized anterograde autobiographical memory (ABM) task. Fourteen patients with TLE and 17 controls were administered verbal, nonverbal and ABM event memory tasks. The participants were tested for immediate recall, recall and recognition at 30-minute delay, and recall and recognition after four weeks. The extent of ALF was calculated based on the percentage decay of memory from the 30-minute delay trial to the four-week delay trial. Patients with left TLE showed significantly greater ALF for verbal material and a trend towards greater forgetting of ABM. Patients with right TLE showed a non-significant trend towards greater ALF for nonverbal material. Patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormalities showed greater ALF compared to patients without hippocampal abnormalities. Patients with seizures that generalize had more global memory deficits and greater ALF. We conclude that patients with unilateral TLE show material-specific ALF, which appears to be more pronounced with an abnormal hippocampus or seizures that secondarily generalize. PMID:23200623

  9. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  10. Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. PMID:24150105

  11. The effects of spatial representation on memory for verbal navigation instructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Immanuel Barshi; Alice F. Healy

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated effects of mental spatial representation on memory for verbal navigation instructions. The\\u000a navigation instructions referred to a grid of stacked matrices displayed on a computer screen or on paper, with or without\\u000a depth cues, and presented as two-dimensional diagrams or a three-dimensional physical model. Experimental instructions either\\u000a did or did not promote a three-dimensional mental representation of

  12. Functional developmental similarities and differences in the neural correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali B. Brahmbhatt; Tara McAuley; Deanna M. Barch

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across multiple domains. The present study used an n-back task and functional magnetic resonance

  13. Functional MRI of auditory verbal working memory: long-term reproducibility analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingchang Wei; Seung-Schik Yoo; Chandlee C. Dickey; Kelly H. Zou; Charles R. G. Guttmann; Lawrence P. Panych

    2004-01-01

    Although functional MRI (fMRI) has shown to be a tool with great potential to study the normal and diseased human brain, the large variability in the detected hemodynamic responses across sessions and across subjects hinders a wider application. To investigate the long-term reproducibility of fMRI activation of verbal working memory (WM), eight normal subjects performed an auditory version of the

  14. Verbal and Visual-Spatial Memory Impairment in Youth at Familial Risk for Schizophrenia or Affective Psychosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Silvia; Pousada, Andrea; Stone, William S.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Manschreck, Theo C.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia and affective psychoses share several common biological origins, particularly genetic susceptibility. Kraepelin posited that differing clinical expressions in these disorders reflect different etiopathologies. We tested a neuropsychological component of this hypothesis by evaluating verbal and visual memory performance in nonpsychotic youth at familial risk for psychosis, taking into account contributions to memory dysfunction including executive processing and psychopathology. Methods Teenage and young adults (ages 13-25) at familial high-risk (FHR) for schizophrenia (HR-SCZ, n=41) or affective psychosis (HR-AFF, n=24) were compared to community controls (CC, n=54) on verbal (Miller-Selfridge Context Memory) and visual (Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure) memory tests in which the roles of strategy and contextual processing on distinct recall domains could be assessed. Effects of psychopathology, vigilance and working memory were investigated to determine their influence on memory performance. Results HR-AFF and HR-SCZ exhibited similarly impaired memory profiles and elevated levels of psychopathology compared to CC. HR-SCZ were significantly impaired on both verbal and visual-spatial memory, while HR-AFF in verbal memory only. However, effect sizes, in the medium range, were largely comparable between the two HR groups. Deficits in verbal recall and in visual memory organization remained significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Youth at FHR for psychosis present relatively common memory deficits across both visual-spatial and verbal modalities that are not explained by current psychopathology, vigilance or working memory deficits. Deficits in organizing information to be recalled represent a promising trait of psychosis vulnerability. PMID:23312552

  15. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. PMID:22940641

  16. FMRI hypoactivation during verbal learning and memory in former high school football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Terry, Douglas P; Adams, T Eric; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Multiple concussions before the age of 18 may be associated with late-life memory deficits. This study examined neural activation associated with verbal encoding and memory retrieval in former athletes ages 40-65 who received at least two concussions (median = 3; range = 2-15) playing high school football and a group of former high school football players with no reported history of concussions matched on age, education, and pre-morbid IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during a modified verbal paired associates paradigm indicated that those with concussive histories had hypoactivation in left hemispheric language regions, including the inferior/middle frontal gyri and angular gyrus compared with controls. However, concussive history was not associated with worse memory functioning on neuropsychological tests or worse behavioral performance during the paradigm, suggesting that multiple early-life concussions may be associated with subtle changes in the verbal encoding system that limits one from accessing higher-order semantic networks, but this difference does not translate into measurable cognitive performance deficits. PMID:25903375

  17. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  18. Modeling Learning and Memory Using Verbal Learning Tests: Results From ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Alden L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. Method. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Results. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen’s d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p < .001). Findings were replicated using the HVLT (decline in initial recall, d = 0.60, p = .01; pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning, d = 3.10, p < .001). Because of the immediate training boost, the memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. Discussion. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning. PMID:22929389

  19. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:19200606

  20. Enhanced working and verbal memory after lamotrigine treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Mohammed, Tahseen; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the treatment impact of lamotrigine on the neurocognitive profile of patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method Healthy controls (HC) (n = 24; mean age = 12.4 ± 3.3 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic, mixed or hypomanic episodes (n = 34; mean age = 13 ± 3.1 years) were matched for IQ, age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and again after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated with lamotrigine. Results Clinical symptoms improved with treatment in the patient group with significant change from baseline to follow-up on the Young Mania Rating Scale (p < 0.001) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (p < 0.001). Global neurocognitive function improved with lamotrigine in PBD patients over time relative to that in HC, although overall performance remained impaired. Working memory and verbal memory significantly improved with treatment in patients, and deficits in these domains were no longer significantly impaired relative to HC at follow-up. Executive function significantly improved with treatment in the patient group, but still lagged behind HC at follow-up. Performance on attention tests did not improve with treatment. Conclusions There appears to be significant improvement in cognitive abilities in PBD patients treated with lamotrigine that is most prominent in the areas of working memory and verbal memory and that occurs along with mood stabilization. PMID:20402714

  1. Enhancing dual-task performance with verbal and spatial working memory training: continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics with NIRS.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Ryan; Ayaz, Hasan; Olmstead, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-15

    To better understand the mechanisms by which working memory training can augment human performance we continuously monitored trainees with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while they performed a dual verbal-spatial working memory task. Linear mixed effects models were used to model the changes in cerebral hemodynamic response as a result of time spent training working memory. Nonlinear increases in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were observed with increased exposure to working memory training. Adaptive and yoked training groups also showed differential effects in rostral prefrontal cortex with increased exposure to working memory training. There was also a significant negative relationship between verbal working memory performance and bilateral VLPFC activation. These results are interpreted in terms of decreased proactive interference, increased neural efficiency, reduced mental workload for stimulus processing, and increased working memory capacity with training. PMID:23727530

  2. Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

    2004-07-01

    The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information. PMID:15648409

  3. Verbal short-term memory and cerebellum: evidence from a patient with congenital cerebellar vermis hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Misciagna, Sandro; Iuvone, Laura; Mariotti, Paolo; Silveri, Maria Caterina

    2010-04-01

    The impairment of phonological short-term memory has been reported in adults with cerebellar lesions. At the same time, a role of the cerebellum in speech production has been hypothesized. Cerebellar malformations have been related to developmental problems and language acquisition in children. We describe a 5-year-old male child with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia who presented a severe linguistic deficit. On language testing, verbal production was almost absent, while comprehension was partially spared. Digit span was markedly reduced. An extensive examination of phonological short-term memory confirmed a deficit at this level. Positron Emission Tomography revealed hypometabolism both in the cerebellum and the supratentorial areas involved in language function. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cerebellum is included in a cerebro-cerebellar network, that underlies the phonological short-term memory, whose integrity is necessary for language acquisition. PMID:19927261

  4. The Extent of Working Memory Deficits Associated with Williams Syndrome: Exploration of Verbal and Spatial Domains and Executively Controlled Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…

  5. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  6. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  7. Reversibility of the effects of acute ovarian hormone suppression on verbal memory and prefrontal function in pre-menopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Craig; Paul C. Fletcher; Eileen M. Daly; Janice Rymer; Mick Brammer; Vincent Giampietro; Pauline M. Maki; Declan G. M. Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background: Whilst acute loss of ovarian function is associated with memory deficits, the biological basis of this is poorly understood. We have previously reported that acute loss of function during Gonadotropin Hormone Releasing Hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment is associated with impaired verbal memory and a disruption of corresponding left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) during the encoding stage. In the

  8. The deferred imitation task as a nonverbal measure of declarative memory.

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, L; Mandler, J M; McKee, R D; Squire, L R

    1995-01-01

    We tested amnesic patients, patients with frontal lobe lesions, and control subjects with the deferred imitation task, a nonverbal test used to demonstrate memory abilities in human infants. On day 1, subjects were given sets of objects to obtain a baseline measure of their spontaneous performance of target actions. Then different event sequences were modeled with the object sets. On day 2, the objects were given to the subjects again, first without any instructions to imitate the sequences, and then with explicit instructions to imitate the actions exactly as they had been modeled. Control subjects and frontal lobe patients reproduced the events under both uninstructed and instructed conditions. In contrast, performance by the amnesic patients did not significantly differ from that of a second control group who had the same opportunities to handle the objects but were not shown the modeled actions. These findings suggest that deferred imitation is dependent on the brain structures essential for declarative memory that are damaged in amnesia, and they support the view that infants who imitate actions after long delays have an early capacity for long-term declarative memory. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7638234

  9. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality—spoken or signed—rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875

  10. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  11. Verbal memory and plasma drug concentrations in elderly depressives treated with nortriptyline.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Mattis, S; Alexopoulos, G S; Meyers, B S; Shindledecker, R D; Dhar, A K

    1991-01-01

    Performance on a verbal memory task and affective state were assessed in geriatric major depressives before and during 6 weeks of treatment with nortriptyline (NT) in a fixed-dose design study. Higher plasma NT concentration was associated with poorer free recall but better affective outcome. In contrast, higher plasma Z-10-hydroxynortriptyline (Z-10-OH-NT) concentration was associated with more efficient free recall. Concentration-effect relationships were noted in patients later classified as cognitively unimpaired using the Dementia Rating Scale after optimal treatment, rather than in those with residual cognitive impairment. PMID:1775601

  12. Differential verbal working memory effects on linguistic production in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Gentili, Cinzia; Molteni, Massimo; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-12-01

    Deficits in verbal working memory (vWM) have often been reported in children with Specific Language Impairments (SLIs) and might significantly contribute to their linguistic difficulties. The linguistic and narrative skills of a group of children with diagnosis of SLI were compared to those of a group of children with typical development. The linguistic assessment included a comprehensive analysis of their lexical, grammatical and narrative abilities. Overall, the participants with SLI had difficulties at all three levels of linguistic processing. The effect of vWM was marginal on lexical processing, significant on grammatical structuring, and null on narrative construction. PMID:25240219

  13. An empirical test of the independence between declarative and procedural working memory in Oberauer's (2009) theory.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Corbin, Lucie; Dagry, Isabelle; Camos, Valérie

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that working memory could be conceived as two symmetrical subsystems with analogous structure and processing principles: a declarative working memory storing objects of thought available for cognitive operations, and a procedural working memory holding representations of what to do with these objects (Oberauer, Psychology of learning and motivation 51: 45-100, 2009). Within this theoretical framework, the two subsystems are thought to be independent and fueled by their own capacity. The present study tested this hypothesis through two experiments using a complex span task in which participants were asked to maintain consonants for further recall while performing response selection tasks. In line with Oberauer's conception, the load of the procedural working memory was varied by manipulating the number of stimulus-response mappings of the response selection task. Increasing the number of these mappings had a strong detrimental effect on recall performance. Besides contradicting Oberauer's proposal, this finding supports models that assume a resource-sharing between processing and storage in working memory. PMID:25504458

  14. Visuospatial bootstrapping: implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Darling, Stephen; Parker, Mary-Jane; Goodall, Karen E; Havelka, Jelena; Allen, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding-a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal binding (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospatial bootstrapping in adults (n=18) and 9-year-old children (n=15) but not in 6-year-old children (n=18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of bootstrapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the episodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood. PMID:24287442

  15. Evidence relating human verbal memory to hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Thomas; Beck, Heinz; Lehnertz, Klaus; Blümcke, Ingmar; Pezer, Nico; Kurthen, Martin; Fernández, Guillen; Van Roost, Dirk; Heinze, Hans J.; Kutas, Marta; Elger, Christian E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates have linked the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the hippocampus to animals’ performance on memory-related tasks. However, whether these receptors are similarly essential for human memory is still an open question. Here we present evidence suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors, most likely within the CA1 region, do participate in human verbal memory processes. Words elicit a negative event-related potential (ERP) peaking around 400 ms within the anterior mesial temporal lobe (AMTL-N400). Ketamine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, reduces the amplitude of the AMTL-N400 (in contrast to other hippocampal potentials) on initial presentation, eliminates the typical AMTL-N400 amplitude reduction with repetition, and leads to significant memory impairment. Of the various hippocampal subfields, only the density of CA1 neurons correlates with the word-related ERPs that are reduced by ketamine. Altogether, our behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological results indicate that hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in human memory. PMID:10518580

  16. Verbal Short-Term Memory Development and Spoken Language Outcomes in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Gao, Sujuan; Hoen, Helena M.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implants (CIs) help many deaf children achieve near normal speech and language (S/L) milestones. Nevertheless, high levels of unexplained variability in S/L outcomes are limiting factors in improving the effectiveness of CIs in deaf children. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) capacity as a progress-limiting source of variability in S/L outcomes following CI in children. Design Longitudinal study of 66 children with CIs for pre-lingual severe-to-profound hearing loss. Outcome measures included performance on Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), and four conventional S/L measures that examined spoken word recognition (PBK), receptive vocabulary (PPVT), sentence recognition skills (HINT), and receptive and expressive language functioning (CELF). Results Growth curves for DSF and DSB in the CI sample over time were comparable in slope, but consistently lagged in magnitude relative to norms for normal-hearing peers of the same age. For DSF and DSB, 50.5% and 44.0%, respectively, of the CI sample scored >1 SD below the normative mean for raw scores across all ages. The first (baseline) DSF score significantly predicted all endpoint scores for the four S/L measures, and DSF slope (growth) over time predicted CELF scores. DSF baseline and slope accounted for an additional 13%–31% of variance in S/L scores after controlling for conventional predictor variables such as: chronological age at time of testing, age at time of implantation, communication mode (AOC vs. TC), and maternal education. Only DSB baseline scores predicted endpoint language scores on PPVT and CELF. DSB slopes were not significantly related to any endpoint S/L measures. DSB baseline scores and slopes taken together accounted for an additional 4%–19% of variance in S/L endpoint measures after controlling for the conventional predictor variables. Conclusions Verbal STM/WM scores, process measures of information capacity, develop at an average rate in the years following cochlear implantation, but were found to consistently lag in absolute magnitude behind those reported for normal hearing peers. Baseline verbal STM/WM predicted long-term endpoint S/L outcomes, but verbal STM slopes predicted only endpoint language outcomes. Verbal STM/WM processing skills reflect important underlying core elementary neurocognitive functions and represent potential intervention targets for improving endpoint S/L outcomes in pediatric CI users. PMID:23000801

  17. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  18. fMRI of verbal and nonverbal memory processes in healthy and epileptogenic medial temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah Jane; Sziklas, Viviane; Sodums, Devin J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2012-09-01

    Material-specific memory impairments are a well-established consequence of unilateral medial temporal lobe damage. We used fMRI to investigate encoding and recognition of verbal and nonverbal stimuli using adaptations of tasks used successfully in clinical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied two patient groups, one with left TLE and one with right TLE, and one group of healthy subjects. Results from the healthy subjects indicated that initial and delayed recognition trials of the verbal task activated the left medial temporal lobe, and the same tasks of the nonverbal task activated the right, confirming the sensitivity to laterality of our clinical tasks. Patients tended to use the opposite hippocampus, but often the parahippocampal gyrus on the same side, compared to the healthy subjects. Since our patients and the healthy groups performed similarly on the memory tasks, we conclude that the patients' activation patterns represent an effective adaptation to the presence of an unhealthy hippocampus. PMID:22980080

  19. The Color Object Association Test (COAT): The Development of a New Measure of Declarative Memory for 18- to 36-Month-Old Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Jordan; Andrea L. Johnson; Steven J. Hughes; Elsa G. Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Few methods exist to measure declarative (explicit) memory in children during the toddler and preschool stages of development. We report the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of declarative memory for this age group, the Color Object Association Test (COAT). In pilot testing and large scale application of the test, the COAT was demonstrated to be a reliable

  20. Entorhinal cortex structure and functional MRI response during an associative verbal memory task

    PubMed Central

    Braskie, Meredith N.; Small, Gary W.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2009-01-01

    Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbal memory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure. PMID:19507155

  1. Manipulability impairs association-memory: revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

  2. Ceramides predict verbal memory performance in coronary artery disease patients undertaking exercise: a prospective cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with verbal memory decline, although deterioration may be mitigated in individuals undertaking exercise interventions. Ceramide sphingolipids, suggested to play a role in pathological neurodegeneration, have been associated with the development and progression of CAD but their relationship with cognitive response to exercise has not been assessed. In this study, concentrations of very long chain ceramides (C22:0 and C24:0) were assessed as predictors of changes in verbal memory performance over 1 year in subjects with CAD undertaking cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods Verbal memory was measured using the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd Ed. (CVLT-II), from which Z-scores were calculated based on age, gender and education matched norms. Baseline plasma C22:0 and C24:0 ceramide concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Repeated measures general linear models were used to determine the association between baseline plasma ceramides and the change in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). Results In patients with CAD (n?=?33, mean age?=?62?±?9 years, 84.8% male, years of education?=?17?±?3 years), higher baseline plasma C22:0 (F1, 29?=?5.30, p?=?0.03) and C24:0 (F1, 29?=?4.04, p?=?0.05) concentrations significantly predicted less improvement in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions Plasma ceramide concentrations should be further examined as potential predictors of cognitive response to exercise and worse cognitive outcomes in patients with CAD. Trial registration NCT01625754 PMID:24330446

  3. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794

  4. Immediate as well as delayed post learning sleep but not wakefulness enhances declarative memory consolidation in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Backhaus; Ralf Hoeckesfeld; Jan Born; Fritz Hohagen; Klaus Junghanns

    2008-01-01

    While there is mounting evidence for the importance of sleep for declarative memory consolidation in adults, so far this issue has not been investigated in children despite considerable differences in sleep duration and sleep architecture between children and adults. Here, 27 children (aged between 9 and 12yr) were examined on two conditions: on the Sleep–Wake condition, subjects learned word pairs

  5. There are Multiple Contributors to the Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficit in Children with Developmental Reading Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Y. Kibby

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has put forth at least four possible contributors to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities (RD): poor phonological awareness that affects phonological coding into VSTM, a less effective phonological store, slow articulation rate, and fewer\\/poorer quality long-term memory (LTM) representations. This project is among the first to test the four suppositions in

  6. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  7. Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benot Session 3: Non-Verbal Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benoît Session 3: Non-Verbal between speech and hand related to the gesture produced (communicative vs. non communicative)? (2) Is coordination between speech and hand dependent on the type of communicative gesture (deictic vs. non deictic

  8. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  9. Neural Substrates for Verbal Working Memory in Deaf Signers: fMRI Study and Lesion Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley; Pickell, Bert; Love, Tracy; Hatrak, Marla; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the representations maintained in verbal working memory is a topic of debate. Some authors argue for a modality-dependent code, tied to particular sensory or motor systems. Others argue for a modality-neutral code. Sign language affords a unique perspective because it factors out the effects of modality. In an fMRI experiment, deaf…

  10. From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…

  11. The Impact of Semantic Impairment on Verbal Short-Term Memory in Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…

  12. Non-verbal memory measured by Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B: normative data.

    PubMed

    Luzzi, Simona; Pesallaccia, Martina; Fabi, Katia; Muti, Marco; Viticchi, Giovanna; Provinciali, Leandro; Piccirilli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    One of the major problems that clinical neuropsychology has had in memory clinics is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can make the diagnosis of dementia both precocious and reliable. Often the choice of the best neuropsychological test is hard because of a number of variables that can influence a subject's performance. In this regard, tests originally devised to investigate cognitive functions in healthy adults are not often appropriate to analyze cognitive performance in old subjects with low education because of their intrinsically complex nature. In the present paper, we present normative values for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B Test (ROCF-B) a simple test that explores constructional praxis and visuospatial memory. We collected normative data of copy, immediate and delayed recall of the ROCF-B in a group of 346 normal Italian subjects above 40 years. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effect of age, sex, and education on the three tasks administered to the subjects. Age and education had a significant effect on copying, immediate recall, and delayed recall as well as on the rate of forgetting. Correction grids and equivalent scores with cut-off values relative to each task are available. The availability of normative values can make the ROCF-B a valid instrument to assess non-verbal memory in adults and in the elderly for whom the commonly used ROCF-A is too demanding. PMID:21630034

  13. Using model-based functional MRI to locate working memory updates and declarative memory retrievals in the fronto-parietal network

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used model-based functional MRI (fMRI) to locate two functions of the fronto-parietal network: declarative memory retrievals and updating of working memory. Because regions in the fronto-parietal network are by definition coherently active, locating functions within this network is difficult. To overcome this problem, we applied model-based fMRI, an analysis method that uses predictions of a computational model to inform the analysis. We applied model-based fMRI to five previously published datasets with associated computational cognitive models, and subsequently integrated the results in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that declarative memory retrievals correlated with activity in the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, whereas updating of working memory corresponded to activation in the inferior parietal lobule, as well as to activation around the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate. PMID:23319628

  14. Exploring Memory in Infancy: Deferred Imitation and the Development of Declarative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2006-01-01

    Imitation is an important means by which infants learn new behaviours. When infants do not have the opportunity to immediately reproduce observed actions, they may form a memory representation of the event which can guide their behaviour when a similar situation is encountered again. Imitation procedures can, therefore, provide insight into infant…

  15. Causal Evidence Supporting Functional Dissociation of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory in the Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Peter J.; Rushmore, R. Jarrett; Moss, Mark B.; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is crucial for monitoring and manipulating information in working memory, but whether such contributions are domain-specific remains unsettled. Neuroimaging studies have shown bilateral dlPFC activity associated with working memory independent of stimulus domain, but the causality of this relationship cannot be inferred. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has the potential to test whether the left and right dlPFC contribute equally to verbal and spatial domains, however this is the first study to investigate the interaction of task domain and hemisphere using offline rTMS to temporarily modulate dlPFC activity. In separate sessions, twenty healthy right-handed adults received 1Hz-rTMS to left dlPFC, right dlPFC, plus the vertex as a control site. Working memory performance was assessed pre- and post-rTMS using both verbal-‘letter’ and spatial-‘location’ versions of the 3-back task. Response times were faster post-rTMS, independent of task domain or stimulation condition, indicating the influence of practice or other nonspecific effects. For accuracy, rTMS of the right dlPFC, but not the left dlPFC or vertex, led to a transient dissociation: reducing spatial, but increasing verbal accuracy. A post-hoc correlation analysis found no relationship between these changes indicating the substrates underlying verbal and spatial domains are functionally independent. Collapsing across time, there was a trend towards a double dissociation, suggesting a potential laterality in functional organization of verbal and spatial working memory. At a minimum, these findings provide human evidence for domain-specific contributions of the dlPFC to working memory and reinforce the potential of rTMS to ameliorate cognition. PMID:24713032

  16. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M.; Henry, Owen S.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18–22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  17. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities. PMID:24742190

  19. Hippocampal dysfunction during declarative memory encoding in schizophrenia and effects of genetic liability.

    PubMed

    Pirnia, Tara; Woods, Roger P; Hamilton, Liberty S; Lyden, Hannah; Joshi, Shantanu H; Asarnow, Robert F; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Narr, Katherine L

    2015-02-01

    Declarative memory (DM) impairments are reported in schizophrenia and in unaffected biological relatives of patients. However, the neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful encoding, mediated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, and the influence of disease-related genetic liability remain under explored. This study employed an event-related functional MRI paradigm to compare activations for successfully and unsuccessfully encoded associative face-name stimuli between 26 schizophrenia patients (mean age: 33, 19m/7f), 30 controls (mean age: 29, 24m/6f), and 14 unaffected relatives of patients (mean age: 40, 5m/9f). Compared to controls or unaffected relatives, patients showed hyper-activations in ventral visual stream and temporo-parietal cortical association areas when contrasting successfully encoded events to fixation. Follow-up hippocampal regions-of-interest analysis revealed schizophrenia-related hyper-activations in the right anterior hippocampus during successful encoding; contrasting successful versus unsuccessful events produced schizophrenia-related hypo-activations in the left anterior hippocampus. Similar hippocampal hypo-activations were observed in unaffected relatives during successful versus unsuccessful encoding. Post hoc analyses of hippocampal volume showed reductions in patients, but not in unaffected relatives compared to controls. Findings suggest that DM encoding deficits are attributable to both disease-specific and genetic liability factors that impact different components of the MTL memory system. Hyper-activations in temporo-occipital and parietal regions observed only in patients suggest the influence of disease-related factors. Regional hyper- and hypo-activations attributable to successful encoding occurring in both patients and unaffected relatives suggest the influence of schizophrenia-related genetic liability factors. PMID:25497222

  20. "I know your name, but not your number" - Patients with verbal short-term memory deficits are impaired in learning sequences of digits.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Seyboth, Margret; Umarova, Roza; Weiller, Cornelius

    2015-06-01

    Studies on verbal learning in patients with impaired verbal short-term memory (vSTM) have revealed dissociations among types of verbal information. Patients with impaired vSTM are able to learn lists of known words but fail to acquire new word forms. This suggests that vSTM is involved in new word learning. The present study assessed both new word learning and the learning of digit sequences in two patients with impaired vSTM. In two experiments, participants were required to learn people's names, ages and professions, or their four digit 'phone numbers'. The STM patients were impaired on learning unknown family names and phone numbers, but managed to acquire other verbal information. In contrast, a patient with a severe verbal episodic memory impairment was impaired across information types. These results indicate verbal STM involvement in the learning of digit sequences. PMID:25823999

  1. A randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept, crossover trial of phenytoin for hydrocortisone-induced declarative memory changes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Lu, Hanzhang; Denniston, Daren; Uh, Jinsoo; Thomas, Binu P.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Auchus, Richard J.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Tamminga, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Corticosteroid excess is associated with declarative memory impairment and hippocampal atrophy. These findings are clinically important because approximately 1% of the population receives prescription corticosteroids at any time, and major depressive disorder is associated with elevated cortisol levels and hippocampal atrophy. In animals, hippocampal changes with corticosteroids are blocked by phenytoin. The objective of the current study was to extend these preclinical findings to humans. We examined whether phenytoin attenuated the effects of hydrocortisone on declarative memory. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessed task-related hippocampal activation. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover study was conducted in 17 healthy adult volunteers. Participants received hydrocortisone (2.5 days), phenytoin (3.5 days), both medications together, or placebo, with 21-day washouts between conditions. Differences between treatments were estimated using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis. Results Fifteen participants had data from at least two treatment conditions and were used in the analysis. Basal cortisol levels negatively correlated with fMRI BOLD activation in the para-hippocampus with a similar trend observed in the hippocampus. Decrease in declarative memory with hydrocortisone was blocked with concomitant phenytoin administration. Relative to the placebo condition, a significant decrease in hippocampal BOLD activation was observed with hydrocortisone and phenytoin alone, and the two medications in combination. Declarative memory did not show significant correlations with hippocampal activation. Limitations The modest sample size, which limited our statistical power, was a limitation. Conclusions Findings from this pilot study suggest phenytoin attenuated effects of corticosteroids memory in humans, but potentiated the reduction in hippocampal activation. PMID:23453674

  2. Measures of Working Memory Span and Verbal Rehearsal Speed in Deaf Children after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David B.; Cleary, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Large individual differences in spoken word recognition performance have been found in deaf children after cochlear implantation. Recently, Pisoni and Geers (2000) reported that simple forward digit span measures of verbal working memory were significantly correlated with spoken word recognition scores even after potentially confounding variables were statistically controlled for. The present study replicates and extends these initial findings to the full set of 176 participants in the CID cochlear implant study. The pooled data indicate that despite statistical “partialling-out” of differences in chronological age, communication mode, duration of deafness, duration of device use, age at onset of deafness, number of active electrodes, and speech feature discrimination, significant correlations still remain between digit span and several measures of spoken word recognition. Strong correlations were also observed between speaking rate and both forward and backward digit span, a result that is similar to previously reported findings in normalhearing adults and children. The results suggest that perhaps as much as 20% of the currently unexplained variance in spoken word recognition scores may be independently accounted for by individual differences in cognitive factors related to the speed and efficiency with which phonological and lexical representations of spoken words are maintained in and retrieved from working memory. A smaller percentage, perhaps about 7% of the currently unexplained variance in spoken word recognition scores, may be accounted for in terms of working memory capacity. We discuss how these relationships may arise and their contribution to subsequent speech and language development in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants. PMID:12612485

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. PMID:24601893

  4. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. PMID:24601893

  5. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing). PMID:22791930

  6. The Relationship between Visual-Spatial and Auditory-Verbal Working Memory Span in Senegalese and Ugandan Children

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michael J.; Bangirana, Paul; Smith, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Conant et al. (1999) observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM) span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children [1]. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. Method In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements) and auditory (Number Recall) WM along with education and physical development (weight/height) as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. Results Both the younger (<8.5 yrs) and older (>8.5 yrs) Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall) that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory) was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. Conclusions It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM. PMID:20111706

  7. Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children's mathematical abilities.

    PubMed

    Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that children's performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4-6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children's performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306

  8. Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

  9. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with “optimal outcomes” (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the average range or above on all measures and showed few differences from the TD group. The HFA group performed within the average range but showed significantly lower mean performance than the other groups on multiple language measures, even when controlling for VIQ. Results also indicate that OO individuals show strong language abilities in all areas tested, but that their language may show greater reliance on verbal memory. PMID:23982487

  10. Lobular Patterns of Cerebellar Activation in Verbal Working Memory and Finger-Tapping Tasks as Revealed by Functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Desmond; John D. E. Gabrieli; Anthony D. Wagner; Bruce L. Ginier; Gary H. Glover

    1997-01-01

    The lobular distributions of functional activation of the cerebellum during verbal working-memory and finger movement tasks were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Relative to a rest control, finger tapping of the right hand produced ipsilateral-increased activation in HIV\\/HV (Roman numeral desig- nations based on Larsell's (Larsell and Jansen, 1972) nomencla- ture) and HVI and weaker activation in HVIII

  11. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  12. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = ?0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  13. The relationship between language production and verbal short-term memory: the role of stress grouping.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jane L; Edwards, Stephanie; Wheeldon, Linda R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of stress grouping on verbal short-term memory (STM). English speakers show a preference to combine syllables into trochaic groups, both lexically and in continuous speech. In two serial recall experiments, auditory lists of nonsense syllables were presented with either trochaic (STRONG-weak) or iambic (weak-STRONG) stress patterns, or in monotone. The acoustic correlates that carry stress were also manipulated in order to examine the relationship between input and output processes during recall. In Experiment 1, stressed and unstressed syllables differed in intensity and pitch but were matched for spoken duration. Significantly more syllables were recalled in the trochaic stress pattern condition than in the iambic and monotone conditions, which did not differ. In Experiment 2, spoken duration and pitch were manipulated but intensity was held constant. No effects of stress grouping were observed, suggesting that intensity is a critical acoustic factor for trochaic grouping. Acoustic analyses demonstrated that speech output was not identical to the auditory input, but that participants generated correct stress patterns by manipulating acoustic correlates in the same way in both experiments. These data challenge the idea of a language-independent STM store and support the notion of separable phonological input and output processes. PMID:23745759

  14. Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…

  15. The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

  16. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement. PMID:25595984

  17. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  18. Verbal short-term memory reflects the sublexical organization of the phonological language network: Evidence from an incidental phonotactic learning paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Majerus; Martial Van der Linden; Ludivine Mulder; Thierry Meulemans; Frédéric Peters

    2004-01-01

    The nonword phonotactic frequency effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) is characterized by superior recall for nonwords containing familiar as opposed to less familiar phoneme associations. This effect is supposed to reflect the intervention of phonological long-term memory (LTM) in STM. However the lexical or sublexical nature of this LTM support is still debated. We explored this question by using

  19. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  20. Not all declarative memories are created equal: Fast Mapping as a direct route to cortical declarative representations.

    PubMed

    Merhav, Maayan; Karni, Avi; Gilboa, Asaf

    2015-08-15

    Memory formation for newly acquired associations typically depends on hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Through the process of system-consolidation, the mnemonic binding role of the hippocampus is subsequently replaced by cortical hubs, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) or the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Here, using BOLD-fMRI, we compared retrieval of semantic associations acquired through Fast Mapping (FM), an incidental, exclusion-based learning procedure, to retrieval of similar associations that were intentionally acquired through Explicit Encoding (EE). Despite an identical retrieval task, the encoding histories of the retrieved semantic associations (FM vs. EE) induced distinct neural substrates and disparate related neural dynamics in time. Retrieval of associations acquired through EE engaged the expected hippocampal and vmPFC related networks. Furthermore, retrieval intentionally encoded associations gave rise to a typical overnight increase in engagement of the vmPFC and increased vmPFC-hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. On the other hand, retrieval of associations acquired through FM immediately engaged an ATL related network that typically supports well-established semantic knowledge, a network that did not engage the hippocampus and the vmPFC. Moreover, FM learning was associated with minimal overnight changes in the BOLD responses and in the functional connectivity. Our findings indicate that FM may induce a direct, ATL-mediated acquisition and retention of novel arbitrary associations, bypassing the initial hippocampal-cortical representation phase. A direct, ATL-mediated vocabulary acquisition through FM could support the learning and retention of new associations in young children with presumably an immature hippocampal system, and possibly even in amnesic adults with hippocampal lesions. PMID:25988227

  1. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  2. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

  3. Nonverbal and verbal learning: a comparative study of children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome, non-syndromal Nonverbal Learning Disorder and memory disorder.

    PubMed

    Lepach, A C; Petermann, F

    2011-12-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder, and a Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is considered as a predominant part of the phenotype. The focus of our study was to investigate the role of learning in this NLD characteristic. We compared results of children and adolescents with 22q11 DS; with non-syndromal NLD and with memory disorders on multi-trial verbal and nonverbal learning tests. Better verbal and worse nonverbal IQs were significantly discrepant for the 22q11 DS sample and for the NLD sample; the memory sample had a FS-IQ in the normal range with lower verbal IQ. General IQ was lowest for the 22q11 DS group. Similar differences in normal verbal and worse nonverbal learning resulted for the 22q11 sample and NLD-sample, while memory sample showed low performances on both tasks. Error analysis in the visual learning task indicated that lacking integration of visual-spatial information affected impaired visual memory performances in 22q11 DS and NLD. Our results reflected a common neurological basis with visual-spatial and visual memory deficits in NLD and in the 22q11 DS sample. To further investigate the issue of cross modal novelty learning deficits we recommend the use of abstract verbal learning material. PMID:21598176

  4. Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution. PMID:20083211

  5. The Swedish Hayling task, and its relation to working memory, verbal ability, and speech-recognition-in-noise.

    PubMed

    Stenbäck, Victoria; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn; Larsby, Birgitta

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive functions and speech-recognition-in-noise were evaluated with a cognitive test battery, assessing response inhibition using the Hayling task, working memory capacity (WMC) and verbal information processing, and an auditory test of speech recognition. The cognitive tests were performed in silence whereas the speech recognition task was presented in noise. Thirty young normally-hearing individuals participated in the study. The aim of the study was to investigate one executive function, response inhibition, and whether it is related to individual working memory capacity (WMC), and how speech-recognition-in-noise relates to WMC and inhibitory control. The results showed a significant difference between initiation and response inhibition, suggesting that the Hayling task taps cognitive activity responsible for executive control. Our findings also suggest that high verbal ability was associated with better performance in the Hayling task. We also present findings suggesting that individuals who perform well on tasks involving response inhibition, and WMC, also perform well on a speech-in-noise task. Our findings indicate that capacity to resist semantic interference can be used to predict performance on speech-in-noise tasks. PMID:25819210

  6. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  7. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60-85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  8. The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

  9. Sex and Cultural Differences in Children's Spatial and Verbal Memory Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Arturo; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Spatial span (Corsi's block tapping) and verbal span (Wechsler Digits Forward) were measured in 1113 children (ages 4-10) from urban and rural districts of Italy. The urban group performed significantly better on both tests. Sex differences, favoring boys, were found only on the spatial span test. (Author/SJL)

  10. Sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation--unaffected after blocking NMDA or AMPA receptors but enhanced by NMDA coagonist D-cycloserine.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gordon B; Lange, Tanja; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Sleep has a pivotal role in the consolidation of declarative memory. The coordinated neuronal replay of information encoded before sleep has been identified as a key process. It is assumed that the repeated reactivation of firing patterns in glutamatergic neuron assemblies translates into plastic synaptic changes underlying the formation of longer-term neuronal representations. Here, we tested the effects of blocking and enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission during sleep on declarative memory consolidation in humans. We conducted three placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind studies in which participants learned a word-pair association task. Afterwards, they slept in a sleep laboratory and received glutamatergic modulators. Our first two studies aimed at impairing consolidation by administering the NMDA receptor blocker ketamine and the AMPA receptor blocker caroverine during retention sleep, which, paradoxically, remained unsuccessful, inasmuch as declarative memory performance was unaffected by the treatment. However, in the third study, administration of the NMDA receptor coagonist D-cycloserine (DCS) during retention sleep facilitated consolidation of declarative memory (word pairs) but not consolidation of a procedural control task (finger sequence tapping). Administration of DCS during a wake interval remained without effect on retention of word pairs but improved encoding of numbers. From the overall pattern, we conclude that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory during sleep relies on NMDA-related plastic processes that differ from those processes leading to wake encoding. We speculate that glutamatergic activation during sleep is not only involved in consolidation but also in forgetting of hippocampal memory with both processes being differentially sensitive to DCS and unselective blockade of NMDA and AMPA receptors. PMID:23887151

  11. Age differences in brain activity related to unsuccessful declarative memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; St-Laurent, Marie; Burianová, Hana

    2015-07-01

    Although memory recall is known to be reduced with normal aging, little is known about the patterns of brain activity that accompany these recall failures. By assessing faulty memory, we can identify the brain regions engaged during retrieval attempts in the absence of successful memory and determine the impact of aging on this functional activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age differences in brain activity associated with memory failure in three memory retrieval tasks: autobiographical (AM), episodic (EM) and semantic (SM). Compared to successful memory retrieval, both age groups showed more activity when they failed to recall a memory in regions consistent with the salience network (SLN), a brain network also associated with non-memory errors. Both groups also showed strong functional coupling among SLN regions during incorrect trials and in intrinsic patterns of functional connectivity. In comparison to young adults, older adults demonstrated (1) less activity within the SLN during unsuccessful AM trials; (2) weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between SLN nodes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (3) less differentiation of SLN functional connectivity during incorrect trials across memory conditions. These results suggest that the SLN is engaged during recall failures, as it is for non-memory errors, which may be because errors in general have particular salience for adapting behavior. In older adults, the dedifferentiation of functional connectivity within the SLN across memory conditions and the reduction of functional coupling between it and prefrontal cortex may indicate poorer inter-network communication and less flexible use of cognitive control processes, either while retrieval is attempted or when monitoring takes place after retrieval has failed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. PMID:25541365

  12. The Magnitude, Generality, and Determinants of Flynn Effects on Forms of Declarative Memory and Visuospatial Ability: Time-Sequential Analyses of Data from a Swedish Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2008-01-01

    To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarative memory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35-80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions,…

  13. Declarative aspects of memory management in the concurrent collections parallel programming model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Budimlic; Aparna M. Chandramowlishwaran; Kathleen Knobe; Geoff N. Lowney; Vivek Sarkar; Leo Treggiari

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent Collections (CnC)(8) is a declarative parallel language that allows the application developer to express their parallel appli- cation as a collection of high-level computations called steps that communicate via single-assignment data structures called items. A CnC program is specified in two levels. At the bottom level, an existing imperative language implements the computations within the individual computation steps. At

  14. Declarative aspects of memory management in the concurrent collections parallel programming model (abstract only)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Budimlic; Aparna M. Chandramowlishwaran; Kathleen Knobe; Geoff N. Lowney; Vivek Sarkar; Leo Treggiari

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent Collections (CnC) is a declarative parallel language that allows the application developer to express their parallel application as a collection of high-level computations called steps that communicate via single-assignment data structures called items. A CnC program is specified in two levels. At the bottom level, an existing imperative language implements the computations within the individual computation steps. At the

  15. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  16. Verbal Working Memory Performance Correlates with Regional White Matter Structures in the Frontoparietal Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…

  17. Verbal Recall in Learning Disabled Children with Memory Dysfunctions: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anderson J.; Frumkin, Yvette J.

    In this pilot study, the effect of experimenter cuing on recall and organization of response was analyzed and compared between subjects identified as learning disabled with an isolated memory impairment (LDMI), learning disabled without an isolated memory impairment (LDO), and normal controls (N). Six subjects were selected for each group after…

  18. Does Bilingualism Help Memory? Competing Effects of Verbal Ability and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodniecka, Zofia; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported that explore the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Following previous reports of a bilingual advantage in executive control that sometimes shows a greater advantage in older adults, we compared younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals on a memory paradigm that yielded separate measures of familiarity and…

  19. The Sleeping Brain's Influence on Verbal Memory: Boosting Resistance to Interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen; Justin C. Hulbert; Ying Jiang; Robert Stickgold; Naomi Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation). Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of

  20. Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

  1. Successful Computer-based Visual Training Specifically Predicts Visual Memory Enhancement over Verbal Memory Improvement in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Toral S.; Corbera, Silvia; Bella, Morris D.; Wexler, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether improved early visual processing on cognitive remediation (CR) exercises generalizes to visual and auditory learning and information manipulation in schizophrenia. Fourteen participants received neuropsychological testing before and after CR consisting of visual, auditory and cognitive control training. Achievement on visual training exercises was strongly and significantly correlated with improved visual learning, but not improved verbal learning or increased ability to manipulate visual information. Improvement in training, not training time, predicted cognitive gain. Implications for improving cognitive outcomes from CR include ensuring the trained task is learned and providing exercises of multiple modalities. PMID:21795025

  2. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment. PMID:20536334

  3. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer's disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ?6 years and met psychometric criteria either for "cognitively healthy" (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26025231

  4. Declarative Aspects of Memory Management in the Concurrent Collections Parallel Programming Model

    E-print Network

    Budimliæ, Zoran

    items. A CnC program is specified in two levels. At the bottom level, an existing imperative language of standard CnC without memory management. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.3.4 [Programming Lan- guages the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model, which builds on past work on TStreams [9]. In the CnC model

  5. 559.2MR CORRELATES OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE WITH VARIED COGNITIVE DECLINE

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    on neuropsychological tests, neurological evaluations, and IQCODE scores (a measure of function). Normal Cog Imp Neuropsychological Testing Subjects were given a neuropsychological battery which included the following memory were each traced by a single rater with test-retest correlation > .87 - temporal lobe volumes traced

  6. The effects of linguistic relationships among paired associates on verbal self-generation and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Miriam; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lindsell, Christopher J; Vannest, Jennifer; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-generated information is better remembered than information that has been read passively. To further examine this subsequent memory effect, we investigated the effect of five different linguistic relationships on memory encoding. Ninety subjects were administered 60 paired associates during an encoding condition: 30 of the second words from each pair were to be read aloud and 30 were to be self-generated from clues as to the correct word. Word pairs were composed of five linguistic relationships: category, rhyme, opposite, synonym, and association. Subsequently, subjects were presented with the words that were read or generated in a forced recognition memory task. Overall, reading accuracy was higher than generation accuracy during the encoding phase (all P < 0.001). During the recognition phase, subjects' performance was better on the generate than on the read conditions for opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships (all P < 0.05), with no difference in the rhyme relationship. These results confirm previous findings that self-generated information is better remembered than read information and suggest that this advantage may be mediated by using opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships, while rhyme relationship may not extend such an advantage. These findings may have implications for future studies of memory interventions in healthy controls and subjects with cognitive impairments. PMID:23170241

  7. Equivalent Effects of Grouping by Time, Voice, and Location on Response Timing in Verbal Serial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Maybery, Murray T.

    2008-01-01

    The grouping of list items is known to improve serial memory accuracy and constrain the nature of temporal errors. A recent study (M. T. Maybery, F. B. R. Parmentier, & D. M. Jones, 2002) showed that grouping results in a temporal organization of the participants' responses that mimics the list structure but not the timing of its presentation.…

  8. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  9. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  10. Recoding, storage, rehearsal and grouping in verbal short-term memory: an fMRI studyp

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    - term memory (VSTM) for sequences of visual stimuli. Speci®cally, the brain areas underlying (i regions, supramarginal gyri, Broca's area and dorsolateral premotor cortex. The results are discussed of rehearsal, whereas Broca's area supports the articulatory processes required for phonological recoding

  11. Is the Hippocampus Necessary for Visual and Verbal Binding in Working Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, Alan; Allen, Richard; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…

  12. Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

  13. Brain imaging correlates of verbal working memory in children following traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth A. Wilde; Mary R. Newsome; Erin D. Bigler; Jon Pertab; Tricia L. Merkley; Gerri Hanten; Randall S. Scheibel; Xiaoqi Li; Zili Chu; Ragini Yallampalli; Jill V. Hunter; Harvey S. Levin

    2011-01-01

    Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI)

  14. Apathy, poor verbal memory and male gender predict lower psychosocial functioning one year after the first treatment of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    AnnFaerden; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Friis, Svein; Finset, Arnstein; R.Marder, Stephen; Ventura, Joseph; A.Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Apathy is a negative symptom associated with poor psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia but has not been sufficiently studied as predictor of poor functioning in first episode psychosis (FEP). Objective The main aim of the current study was to evaluate if apathy predicts poor functioning after 1 year in FEP patients in the context of other clinical variables with influence on outcome. Method Sixty-four FEP patients completed an extensive clinical and neuro-psychological test battery at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS), apathy with the shortened Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-C-12) and psychosocial functioning with the functioning score from the split version of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-F). Results High levels of apathy, poor verbal memory and being male were the baseline variables that best predicted poor functioning at 1-year follow-up, explaining 34% of the variance in GAF-F. When PANSS negative factor was included in the analysis, the significance of AES-C-12 diminished. Conclusion These findings points to a robust role for apathy among the negative symptoms in the development of persisting psychosocial dysfunction in FEP and supports the current effort in targeting motivation to improve functioning. PMID:23489592

  15. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

  16. How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

  17. Two Modality Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Sentence Recall

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Martin, Randi C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms underlying the standard modality effect (i.e., better recall performance for auditorily presented than for visually presented materials), and the modality congruency effect (i.e., better memory performance if the mode of recall and presentation are congruent rather than incongruent, Rummer, Schweppe, & Martin, 2009). We tested the assumption that the standard modality effect is restricted to the most recent word(s) of the sentences but occurs in both verbatim and gist recall (Experiments 1 and 2), whereas the modality congruency effect should be evident for the rest of the sentence when using verbatim recall (Experiment 3) but not when using gist recall (Experiment 4). All experiments used the Potter-Lombardi intrusion paradigm (Potter & Lombardi, 1990). When the target word was the most recent word of the sentence, a standard modality effect was found with both verbatim recall and gist recall. When the target word was included in the middle of the sentences, a modality congruency effect was found with verbatim recall but not with gist recall. PMID:23894695

  18. Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments Among Young Offspring and Healthy Adult Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Selective Generational Patterns Indicate Different Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Maziade, Michel; Rouleau, Nancie; Mérette, Chantal; Cellard, Caroline; Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Jomphe, Valérie; Gilbert, Elsa; Achim, Amélie; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Paccalet, Thomas; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Roy, Marc-André

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Memory deficits have been shown in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP)/mood disorder. We recently reported that young high-risk offspring of an affected parent were impaired in both verbal episodic memory (VEM) and visual episodic memory (VisEM). Understanding better the trajectory of memory impairments from childhood to adult clinical status in risk populations is crucial for early detection and prevention. In multigenerational families densely affected by SZ or BP, our aim was to compare the memory impairments observed in young nonaffected offspring with memory functioning in nonaffected adult relatives and patients. Methods: For 20 years, we followed up numerous kindreds in the Eastern Québec population. After having characterized the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders phenotypes, we assessed cognition (N = 381) in 3 subsamples in these kindreds and in controls: 60 young offspring of a parent affected by SZ or BP, and in the adult generations, 92 nonaffected adult relatives and 40 patients affected by SZ or BP. VEM was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test and VisEM with the Rey figures. Results: The VEM deficits observed in the offspring were also found in adult relatives and patients. In contrast, the VisEM impairments observed in the young offspring were present only in patients, not in the adult relatives. Conclusion: Implications for prevention and genetic mechanisms can be drawn from the observation that VEM and VisEM would show distinct generational trajectories and that the trajectory associated with VisEM may offer a better potential than VEM to predict future risk of developing the disease. PMID:20410238

  19. Relationships among selected physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers and four variables: Formal reasoning ability, working memory capacity, verbal intelligence, and field dependence/independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Leslie Little

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Further research should also focus on the detection of a broad range of science misconceptions among preservice elementary teachers.

  20. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  1. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…

  2. Verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior. PMID:16812395

  3. Some Measures of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory in Eight- and Nine-Year-Old Hearing-Impaired Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.; Geers, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine working memory for sequences of auditory and visual stimuli in prelingually deafened pediatric cochlear implant users with at least 4 yr of device experience. Design Two groups of 8- and 9-yr-old children, 45 normal-hearing and 45 hearing-impaired users of cochlear implants, completed a novel working memory task requiring memory for sequences of either visual-spatial cues or visual-spatial cues paired with auditory signals. In each sequence, colored response buttons were illuminated either with or without simultaneous auditory presentation of verbal labels (color-names or digit-names). The child was required to reproduce each sequence by pressing the appropriate buttons on the response box. Sequence length was varied and a measure of memory span corresponding to the longest list length correctly reproduced under each set of presentation conditions was recorded. Additional children completed a modified task that eliminated the visual-spatial light cues but that still required reproduction of auditory color-name sequences using the same response box. Data from 37 pediatric cochlear implant users were collected using this modified task. Results The cochlear implant group obtained shorter span scores on average than the normal-hearing group, regardless of presentation format. The normal-hearing children also demonstrated a larger “redundancy gain” than children in the cochlear implant group—that is, the normal-hearing group displayed better memory for auditory-plus-lights sequences than for the lights-only sequences. Although the children with cochlear implants did not use the auditory signals as effectively as normal-hearing children when visual-spatial cues were also available, their performance on the modified memory task using only auditory cues showed that some of the children were capable of encoding auditory-only sequences at a level comparable with normal-hearing children. Conclusions The finding of smaller redundancy gains from the addition of auditory cues to visual-spatial sequences in the cochlear implant group as compared with the normal-hearing group demonstrates differences in encoding or rehearsal strategies between these two groups of children. Differences in memory span between the two groups even on a visual-spatial memory task suggests that atypical working memory development irrespective of input modality may be present in this clinical population. PMID:11605947

  4. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  5. Verbal Working Memory Impairments in Individuals with Schizophrenia and Their First-Degree Relatives: Findings From the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Braff, David L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Mintz, James; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allan D.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debbie W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairment is a promising candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia that could facilitate the identification of susceptibility genes for this disorder. The validity of this putative endophenotype was assessed by determining whether 149 probands with schizophrenia and 337 of their first-degree relatives demonstrated WM impairment as compared to 190 unaffected community comparison subjects. Subjects were participants in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) project, a seven-site research network that was established to investigate the genetic architecture of endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Participants received comprehensive clinical assessments and completed two verbal WM tasks, one requiring transient on-line storage and another requiring maintenance plus complex manipulation of information by reordering the stimuli. Schizophrenia probands performed worse than the other groups on both tasks, with larger deficits found for the more challenging reordering WM task. The probands’ relatives performed more poorly than community comparison subjects on both tasks, but the difference was significant only for the more challenging maintenance plus complex manipulation WM task. This WM impairment was not attributable to diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, mood disorders, or substance use disorders in the relatives. In conjunction with evidence that WM abilities are substantially heritable, the current results support the validity and usefulness of verbal WM impairments in manipulation of information as endophenotypes for schizophrenia in large-scale genetic linkage and association studies. PMID:18406578

  6. Evidence for Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Commentary on Berman, Jonides, and Lewis (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…

  7. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  8. Neural correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia and their high-risk siblings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali B. Brahmbhatt; Kristen Haut; John G. Csernansky; Deanna M. Barch

    2006-01-01

    Impaired working memory and functional brain activation deficits within prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia. This study compared working memory and PFC activation in individuals with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and healthy comparison participants. We administered a “2back” version of the “nback” task. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity. Nineteen individuals with DSM-IV

  9. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

  10. OPPOSING EFFECTS OF DHEA REPLACEMENT IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS ON DECLARATIVE MEMORY AND ATTENTION AFTER EXPOSURE TO A LABORATORY STRESSOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver T. Wolf; Brigitte M. Kudielka; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Juliane Hellhammer; Clemens Kirschbaum

    1998-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by a continuous decline of the adrenal steroid hormone DHEA and its ester DHEAS. Results from studies in rodents have demonstrated that DHEA(S) administration can enhance memory in several test paradigms. However studies from this laboratory did not find positive effects of DHEA treatment on cognitive performance in young and elderly humans. With respect to a possible

  11. 1134 nature neuroscience volume 3 no 11 november 2000 Memory engrams of declarative knowledge or experience are ulti-

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    memory task balanced the amount of visual input and motor activity of the two hemispheres. Third, we of Physiology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 2 Mind Articulation Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Yushima 4-9-2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

  12. The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…

  13. A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

  14. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  15. The Role of Attention in the Development of Short-Term Memory: Age Differences in the Verbal Span of Apprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Nugent, Lara D.; Elliott, Emily M.; Ponomarev, Igor; Saults, J. Scott

    1999-01-01

    This study examined ability of first and fourth graders and adults to recall digits they heard while they were carrying out a visual task. Results suggested that each individual has a core memory capacity limit that can be observed in circumstances in which it cannot be supplemented by mnemonic strategies. The capacity limit increases with age…

  16. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirstin Daalman; Martine van Zandvoort; Florian Bootsman; Marco Boks; René Kahn; Iris Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute

  17. Content-Specificity in Verbal Recall: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirk-Sadowski, Jan; Szucs, Denes; Holmes, Joni

    2013-01-01

    In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general. PMID:24223963

  18. Right Frontal Lobe Mediation of Recollection and Familiarity-based Verbal Recognition Memory: Evidence from Patients with Tumor Resections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole D. Anderson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Warren P. Mason; Fuqiang Gao; Malcolm A. Binns; Gordon Winocur

    2011-01-01

    Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location

  19. Differential influence of hippocampal subfields to memory formation: insights from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Coras, Roland; Pauli, Elisabeth; Li, Jinmei; Schwarz, Michael; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Hamer, Hajo; Stefan, Hermann; Blumcke, Ingmar

    2014-07-01

    To clarify the anatomical organization of human memory remains a major challenge in clinical neuroscience. Experimental data suggest dentate gyrus granule cells play a major role in memory acquisition, i.e. pattern separation and rapid pattern completion, whereas hippocampal CA1 neurons are implicated in place memory and autobiographical memory retrieval. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy present with a broad spectrum of memory impairment, which can be assessed during clinical examination. Although long seizure histories may contribute to a pathophysiological reorganization of functional connectivity, surgical resection of the epileptic hippocampus offers a unique possibility to anatomically study the differential contribution of hippocampal subfields to compromised learning and memory in humans. Herein, we tested the hypothesis of hippocampal subfield specialization in a series of 100 consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy submitted to epilepsy surgery. Memory profiles were obtained from intracarotid amobarbital testing and non-invasive verbal memory assessment before surgery, and correlated with histopathologically quantified cell loss pattern in hippocampal subfields obtained from the same patients using the new international consensus classification for hippocampal sclerosis proposed by the International League against Epilepsy (HS ILAE). Interestingly, patients with CA1 predominant cell loss (HS ILAE Type 2; n = 13) did not show declarative memory impairment and were indistinguishable from patients without any hippocampal cell loss (n = 19). In contrast, 63 patients with neuronal loss affecting all hippocampal subfields including CA1, CA4 and dentate gyrus (HS ILAE Type 1), or predominant cell loss in CA4 and partially affecting also CA3 and dentate gyrus (HS ILAE Type 3, n = 5) showed significantly reduced declarative memory capacities (intracarotid amobarbital testing: P < 0.001; verbal memory: P < 0.05). Our results suggested an alternative model of how memory processing can be organized amongst hippocampal subfields, and that CA1 pyramidal cells are less critically involved in declarative human memory acquisition compared to dentate gyrus granule cells or CA4/CA3 pyramidal cells. PMID:24817139

  20. Striatal iron content predicts its shrinkage and changes in verbal working memory after two years in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of non-heme iron in the brain has been proposed as a harbinger of neural and cognitive decline in aging and neurodegenerative disease, but support for this proposal has been drawn from cross-sectional studies, which do not provide valid estimates of change. Here, we present longitudinal evidence of subcortical iron accumulation in healthy human adults (age 19-77 at baseline). We used R2* relaxometry to estimate regional iron content twice within a 2 year period, measured volumes of the striatum and the hippocampus by manual segmentation, and assessed cognitive performance by working memory tasks. Two-year change and individual differences in the change of regional volumes, regional iron content, and working memory were examined by latent change score models while taking into account the age at baseline and metabolic risk indicators. Over the examined period, volume reduction occurred in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, but iron content increased only in the striatum, where it explained shrinkage. Higher iron content in the caudate nucleus at baseline predicted lesser improvement in working memory after repeat testing. Although advanced age and elevated metabolic syndrome risk were associated with greater iron content in the putamen at baseline, neither age nor metabolic risk influenced change in any variable. Thus, longitudinal evidence supports the notion that accumulation of subcortical iron is a risk factor for neural and cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:25926451

  1. A case of rapid conversion to psychosis of delusional misidentification associated with derealisation, verbal memory impairment and FDG-PET imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Comparelli, Anna; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Di Pietro, Simone; Del Casale, Antonio; De Carolis, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The delusional misidentification syndromes, occurring within the context of different nosological settings, such as schizophrenia, are psychopathological phenomena related to the experience of depersonalisation/derealisation. Extensive research indicates that individuals meeting specific "prodromal" criteria, such as attenuated psychotic symptoms, brief intermittent psychotic symptoms, or functional decline and family history of schizophrenia have increased risk for impending psychosis. Despite depersonalisation and/or derealisation often precede psychotic onset, they are not included among the prodromal criteria of the Australian-American approach. A 17-year-old boy with acute agitation, violent behaviour and aggression, and dissociative amnesia had a mild verbal memory impairment and temporo-limbic hypometabolism on the positron-emission tomography. The patient was assessed with both the ultra-high risk (UHR) and the basic symptom approaches and was not found to be prodromal with imminent risk of transition to psychosis. He was hospitalised briefly and 2 weeks after discharge he developed delusional misidentification. This case shows that even the integration of both UHR and basic symptoms criteria may give false negatives in the prediction of psychosis, especially in those cases in which a long prodromal phase is absent. PMID:23652421

  2. Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H.; Townsley, Sarah; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions. PMID:25202255

  3. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  4. Memory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire; Donald Chai

    1998-01-01

    Two recent findings are summarized here that bear on the organization of memory and brain systems. First, the capacity for simple recognition of familiarity (a form of declarative memory) depends on the hippocampal region in both humans and nonhuman primates. Second, probabilistic classification learning (a form of nondeclarative memory akin to habit learning) depends on the caudate nucleus and putamen.

  5. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  6. Cultural differences on the children's memory scale 

    E-print Network

    Cash, Deborah Dyer

    2009-05-15

    Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

  7. Selective sparing of topographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, E.; Cipolotti, L.

    1998-01-01

    The case of a 61 year old patient with Pick's disease involving predominantly the left temporal lobe, who has been studied over a 5 year period, is reported. She presented with a grave impairment of both verbal and non-verbal memory functions. Her non-verbal memory deficits included profound impairments on the recognition of unfamiliar faces and the recall of abstract designs. Remarkably, her visual recognition memory performance for unknown buildings, landscapes, and outdoor scenes was preserved. Strikingly, her ability to recall familiar routes and learn new ones through a complex virtual reality town was also entirely normal. This seems to be the first case documenting the selective preservation of topographical memory in the context of severe non-verbal and verbal memory impairments. These findings imply that topographical memory and non-verbal memory are subserved by separable neural systems.?? PMID:9854968

  8. The Accumulative Effect of Trauma Exposure on Short-Term and Delayed Verbal Memory in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Female Rape Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald D. V. Nixon; Pallavi Nishith; Patricia A. Resick

    2004-01-01

    The accumulative effect of prior high-magnitude trauma exposure on memory was examined in 73 rape victims, 92% of whom had current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were administered the Logical Memory component of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Quick Test to obtain an estimate of intelligence, and were assessed for prior traumatic experiences. Prior exposure to high-magnitude stressors (e.g., child

  9. Relationship of reading achievement to verbal processing abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet L. de Soto; Clinton B. de Soto

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between reading achievement and ability to process verbal information in 67 achieving and 67 nonachieving readers drawn from 4th-grade classes. Verbal processing abilities were evaluated with 10 instruments, which included measures of memory span, associative learning, semantic association, automatic word processing, and time taken to name pictures, read words, and recode (pronounce) pseudowords. Achieving readers performed better

  10. Etiquette of Verbal Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Bruce

    1970-01-01

    Explores role of ambiguity in producing verbal conditioning by using two E types and two S types. Six college students were assigned to "crafty Es. Results revealed that certain types of ambiguity increase verbal compliance. (Author)

  11. Examining Visual Verbal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A.

    A few of the relationships between visual and verbal components are explored. Visuals are considered to be things that can be seen, visible things other than printed words that are used in a communication process. The term verbal applies to written or spoken words. The natural tendency for visual and verbal components to be mutually supportive has…

  12. Verbal recoding of visual stimuli impairs mentalimagetransformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria A. Brandimonte; Graham J. Hitch; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that verbal recoding of visual stimuli in short-term memory influences\\u000a long-term memory encoding and impairs subsequent mental image operations. Easy and difficult-to-name stimuli were used. When\\u000a rotated 90° counterclockwise, each stimulus revealed a new pattern consisting of two capital letters joined together. In both\\u000a experiments, subjects first learned a short series

  13. The effect of lorazepam on long-term verbal recall in heavy and light social drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Nichols; Frances Martin

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments investigated long-term verbal memory performance in groups of 20-year-old heavy (HSDs) and light social drinkers (LSDs), in the presence and absence of a pharmacological challenge (lorazepam 2 mg). In Experiment 1 (n = 13), a verbal learning task was presented visually and it was found that lorazepam significantly impaired delayed verbal recall performance in both groups. Experiment 2

  14. Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecas, Jean-Francois; Mazaud, Anne-Marie; Reibel, Esther; Rey, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…

  15. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  16. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  17. Role of the hippocampus in event memory in the rat 

    E-print Network

    Langston, Rosamund Fay

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the role of the hippocampus in declarative memory through the development of animal behavioural models of episodic memory for laboratory rats. Episodic memory- memory for unique events or ...

  18. Pregnancy Declaration Form Date: ______________

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Pregnancy Declaration Form Date: ______________ To: Curtis Plotkin., Radiation Safety Officer From this pregnancy. * The NRC defines a declared pregnant woman as "a woman who has voluntarily informed her employer in writing of her pregnancy and estimated date of conception." 9/20/11 tw #12;

  19. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  20. Improve Your Verbal Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Most teachers are well aware that verbal questioning can aid student learning. Asking questions can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal questioning is a lack of knowledge…

  1. The Impact of Visual Memory Deficits on Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Jessica Maria

    2011-01-01

    Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…

  2. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p.?2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  3. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students in Political Science will demonstrate an understanding of concepts, theories, and facts about political structures and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    . COMMUNICATION (Written Communication): Students in Political Science will write about political science Communication): Students in Political Science will verbally convey political ideas and arguments CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students in Political Science will demonstrate

  4. Sex differences in clustering and switching in verbal fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Ragland, J Daniel; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Delazer, Margarete

    2006-07-01

    Sex differences in executive speech tasks, favoring women, have been noted in behavioral studies and functional imaging studies. In the present study, the clustering and switching components of semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests were examined in 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women. Possible sex differences in the influence of cognitive factors such as speed of information processing, word knowledge, and/or verbal long-term memory on these verbal fluency factors were also assessed. The results showed that women switched more often between categories in the phonemic fluency test, whereas men showed a trend toward a larger cluster size leading to a smaller total number of words generated. Additionally, higher performance on the Digit Symbol test was associated with better performance on the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency test in men, whereas in women, better memory performance was associated with better performance on these verbal fluency tests. Our data indicate that men and women are using different processing strategies for phonemic verbal fluency tests to optimize verbal fluency task performance. In the current study, women adopted a more successful strategy of balancing clustering and switching in the phonemic fluency task. PMID:16981602

  5. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults. PMID:25247611

  6. Memory for Faces Dissociates from Memory for Location Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Glosser, Guila

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the right and left mesial temporal lobes are specialized for processing different types of information for long-term memory (LTM). Although findings have been consistent in regard to the dominant role of the left mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in verbal memory, the role of the right MTL in non-verbal memory remains…

  7. Subcortical hyperintensity volumetrics in Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly in the Sunnybrook Dementia Study: correlations with atrophy, executive function, mental processing speed, and verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subcortical hyperintensities (SHs) are radiological entities commonly observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal elderly controls. Although the presence of SH is believed to indicate some form of subcortical vasculopathy, pathological heterogeneity, methodological differences, and the contribution of brain atrophy associated with AD pathology have yielded inconsistent results in the literature. Methods Using the Lesion Explorer (LE) MRI processing pipeline for SH quantification and brain atrophy, this study examined SH volumes of interest and cognitive function in a sample of patients with AD (n?=?265) and normal elderly controls (n?=?100) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with AD were found to have less gray matter, less white matter, and more sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (all significant, P <0.0001). Additionally, patients with AD had greater volumes of whole-brain SH (P <0.01), periventricular SH (pvSH) (P <0.01), deep white SH (dwSH) (P <0.05), and lacunar lesions (P <0.0001). In patients with AD, regression analyses revealed a significant association between global atrophy and pvSH (P?=?0.02) and ventricular atrophy with whole-brain SH (P <0.0001). Regional volumes of interest revealed significant correlations with medial middle frontal SH volume and executive function (P <0.001) in normal controls but not in patients with AD, global pvSH volume and mental processing speed (P <0.01) in patients with AD, and left temporal SH volume and memory (P <0.01) in patients with AD. Conclusions These brain-behavior relationships and correlations with brain atrophy suggest that subtle, yet measurable, signs of small vessel disease may have potential clinical relevance as targets for treatment in Alzheimer’s dementia. PMID:25478020

  8. Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction

    E-print Network

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    's features: · Declarative modelling · Rich expressive power (close to human one) · Computational and Formal the poison), i.e. that he is mortal. Can we conclude anything? #12;12 Reasoning for Declarative Problem

  9. Capturing doping attitudes by self-report declarations and implicit assessment: A methodology study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Petróczi; Eugene V Aidman; Tamás Nepusz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding athletes' attitudes and behavioural intentions towards performance enhancement is critical to informing anti-doping intervention strategies. Capturing the complexity of these attitudes beyond verbal declarations requires indirect methods. This pilot study was aimed at developing and validating a method to assess implicit doping attitudes using an Implicit Associations Test (IAT) approach. METHODS: The conventional IAT evaluation task (categorising 'good'

  10. Towards declarative GIS analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Aquilino; Chiara Renso; Franco Turini

    1996-01-01

    The paper proposes an integration between GIS technology and deductive databases technology. The integration provides the user with a declarative language to support GIS analysis. The language is based on a well established theory of logic program algebras developed by the authors in recent years as an exten sion of deductive databases. An example of application is provided to show

  11. Australia declared polio free

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rennie M. D'Souza; Margery Kennett; Charles Watson

    For Australia to be declared polio free, evidence of the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus was required by the Regional Commission for the Certification of Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the Western Pacific in August 2000. Data on surveillance of poliomyelitis, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), vaccine associated paralytic polio and enteroviruses were provided to document the absence of circulation of

  12. Analyzing Verbal Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryspin, William J.; Feldhusen, John F.

    This textbook on verbal classroom interaction is designed to be used as one unit in an educational psychology course at the postsecondary level. The book is divided into three sections which discuss the Flanders' Interaction Analysis System (FIAS), the categories in the system, and the use of the system. The first section gives the underlying…

  13. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  14. Ten years of research into avian models of episodic-like memory and its implications for developmental and comparative cognition.

    PubMed

    Salwiczek, Lucie H; Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2010-12-31

    Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember specific personal events from the past. Ever since Tulving first made the distinction between episodic memory and other forms of declarative memory in 1972, most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have assumed that episodic recall is unique to humans. The seminal paper on episodic-like memory in Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) by Clayton and Dickinson [4] has inspired a number of studies and in a wide range of species over the past 10 years. Here we shall first review the avian studies of what-where-when memory, namely in the Western scrub-jays, magpies, black-capped chickadees and pigeons; we shall then present an alternative approach to studying episodic-like memory also tested in pigeons. In the second and third section we want to draw attention to topics where we believe the bird model could prove highly valuable, namely studying development of episodic-memory in pre-verbal children, and the evolution and ontogeny of brain areas subserving episodic(-like) memory. PMID:20600352

  15. The Structure of Verbal Abilities in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner

    2001-01-01

    Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\

  16. The Relation Between Working Memory Components and ADHD Symptoms From a Developmental Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin Tillman; Lilianne Eninger; Linda Forssman; Gunilla Bohlin

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6–16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal

  17. Verbal and memory skills in males with

    E-print Network

    ]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP);(n=23; DMD group age range 6­9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6 documented in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, in specific cell types (especially pyramidal and Purkinje

  18. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

  19. Verbal dyspraxia and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Amy Leigh; Singh, Rani H; Kennedy, Mary Jane; Elsas, Louis J

    2003-03-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from deficient galactose-1-phosphateuridyl transferase (GALT) activity. Verbal dyspraxia is an unusual outcome in galactosemia. Here we validated a simplified breath test of total body galactose oxidation against genotype and evaluated five potential biochemical risk indicators for verbal dyspraxia in galactosemia: cumulative percentage dose (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in breath, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, highest erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, mean urinary galactitol, and erythrocyte GALT activity. Thirteen controls and 42 patients with galactosemia took a (13)C-galactose bolus, and the (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in expired air was determined. Patients with <5% CUMPCD had mutant alleles that severely impaired human GALT enzyme catalysis. Patients with > or =5% CUMPCD had milder mutant human GALT alleles. Twenty-four patients consented to formal speech evaluation; 15 (63%) had verbal dyspraxia. Dyspraxic patients had significantly lower CUMPCD values (2.84 +/- 5.76% versus 11.51 +/- 7.67%; p < 0.008) and significantly higher mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate (3.38 +/- 0.922 mg/dL versus 1.92 +/- 1.28 mg/dL; p = 0.019) and mean urinary galactitol concentrations (192.4 +/- 75.8 mmol/mol creatinine versus 122.0 +/- 56.4; p = 0.048) than patients with normal speech. CUMPCD values <5%, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate levels >2.7 mg/dL, and mean urinary galactitol levels >135 mmol/mol creatinine were associated with dyspraxic outcome with odds ratios of 21, 13, and 5, respectively. We conclude that total body oxidation of galactose to CO(2) in expired air reflects genotype and that this breath test is a sensitive predictor of verbal dyspraxia in patients with galactosemia. PMID:12595586

  20. Variable Declaration var x: T P

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    Variable Declaration var x: T· P 1/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable x with type T and scope P 2/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable x with type T and scope P = x, x: T· P 3/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable

  1. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness. PMID:23778263

  2. Effects of anxiety on memory storage and updating in young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Visu-Petra; Lavinia Cheie; Oana Benga; Tracy Packiam Alloway

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between trait anxiety and memory functioning in young children was investigated. Two studies were conducted, using tasks tapping verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (Study 1) and working memory (Study 2) in preschoolers. On the verbal storage tasks, there was a detrimental effect of anxiety on processing efficiency (duration of preparatory intervals) on Word Span. Performance effectiveness (memory span)

  3. An Integrated Theory of List Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson; Dan Bothell; Christian Lebiere; Michael Matessa

    1998-01-01

    The ACT-R theory (Anderson, 1993; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) is applied to the list memory paradigms of serial recall, recognition memory, free recall, and implicit memory. List memory performance in ACT-R is determined by the level of activation of declarative chunks which encode that items occur in the list. This level of activation is in turn determined by amount of

  4. Multiple memory systems and extinction 

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Amanda

    2005-08-29

    anterograde amnesia. Although H.M. was unable to form new declarative memories, he could still learn procedural tasks without any recollection of doing so (Scoville & Milner, 1957). This striking difference between impairment of conscious recollection (or... of H.M. (Scoville & Milner, 1957). Similarly, Parkinson?s patients with neostriatal damage show impairments in a weather-predicting probabilistic classification task but were able to accurately answer a questionnaire based on declarative memories...

  5. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing...operations, such as responses to natural disasters or national or civil...

  6. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing...operations, such as responses to natural disasters or national or civil...

  7. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section...emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing...operations, such as responses to natural disasters or national or civil...

  8. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not necessarily entirely exposed to scientists writing visualization queries, facilitates the automated construction of visualization pipelines. VisKo queries have been successfully used in support of visualization scenarios from Earth Science domains including: velocity model isosurfaces, gravity data raster, and contour map renderings. Our synergistic environment provided by our CYBER-ShARE initiative at the University of Texas at El Paso has allowed us to work closely with Earth Science experts that have both provided us our test data as well as validation as to whether the execution of VisKo queries are returning visualizations that can be used for data analysis. Additionally, we have employed VisKo queries to support visualization scenarios associated with Giovanni, an online platform for data analysis developed by NASA GES DISC. VisKo-enhanced visualizations included time series plotting of aerosol data as well as contour and raster map generation of gridded brightness-temperature data.

  9. Cross-hemispheric Alternating Current Stimulation During a Nap Disrupts Slow Wave Activity and Associated Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Garside, Peter; Arizpe, Joseph; Lau, Chi-Ieong; Goh, Crystal; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Slow Wave Activity (SWA), the low frequency (<4 Hz) oscillations that characterize Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) are thought to relate causally to declarative memory consolidation during nocturnal sleep. Evidence is conflicting relating SWA to memory consolidation during nap however. Objective/hypothesis We applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) – which, with a cross-hemispheric electrode montage (F3 and F4 – International 10:20 EEG system), is able to disrupt brain oscillations–to determine if disruption of low frequency oscillation generation during afternoon nap is causally related to disruption in declarative memory consolidation. Methods Eight human subjects each participated in stimulation and sham nap sessions. A verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task measured memory changes. During each nap period, five 5-min stimulation (0.75 Hz cross-hemispheric frontal tACS) or sham intervals were applied with 1-min post-stimulation intervals (PSI's). Spectral EEG power for Slow (0.7–0.8 Hz), Delta (1.0–4.0 Hz), Theta (4.0–8.0 Hz), Alpha (8.0–12.0 Hz), and Spindle-range (12.0–14.0) frequencies was analyzed during the 1-min preceding the onset of stimulation and the 1-min PSI's. Results As hypothesized, power reduction due to stimulation positively correlated with reduction in word-pair recall post-nap specifically for Slow (P < 0.0022) and Delta (P < 0.037) frequency bands. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence suggesting a causal and specific role of SWA in declarative memory consolidation during nap. PMID:25697588

  10. Abstract Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Robert

    Abstract Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before · Metamemory · Declarative · Introspection · Memory awareness Introduction In humans, stored information is sometimes accessible to conscious awareness and sometimes not. Conscious ac- cess to memory gives humans

  11. Commonwealth of Australia STATUTORY DECLARATION

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    Commonwealth of Australia STATUTORY DECLARATION Statutory Declarations Act 1959 1 Insert the name or Territory, or the High Court of Australia, as a legal practitioner (however described); or (3) a person who or place outside Australia; and (b) authorised under paragraph 3 (d) of the Consular Fees Act 1955; and (c

  12. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  13. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Catholijn M In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication communication processes: a non-verbal communication process that adds and modifies content to a verbal

  14. Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the

  15. Verbal Regulation of Motivational States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Sonsoles; Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    The motivational function exerted by verbal antecedents has been extensively approached from a theoretical perspective and within the direct conditioning paradigm. However, there is little research concerning the alteration of the motivational function via verbal means. The current study presents 2 consecutive experiments in which the role of the…

  16. Accelerated forgetting and memory consolidation in children with idiopathic generalised epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Shepley, Avril

    2011-11-23

    Long-term memory retention and learning of verbal and non-verbal material was investigated in children with idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) and healthy controls. Ten children with IGE were compared to 12 control children for their initial...

  17. Reversible neural inactivation reveals hippocampal particin several memory processesipation 

    E-print Network

    Riedel, G; Micheau, J; Lam, A G M; Roloff, E.v.L.; Martin, Stephen J; Bridge, H; de Hoz, L; Poeschel, B; McCulloch, J; Morris, Richard G M

    Studies of patients and animals with brain lesions have implicated the hippocampal formation in spatial, declarative/relational and episodic types of memory. These and other types of memory consist of a series of ...

  18. Interactions between Declarative and Procedural-Learning Categorization Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Crossley, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether declarative and procedural memory systems operate independently or inhibit each other during perceptual categorization. Both experiments used a hybrid category-learning task in which perfect accuracy could be achieved if a declarative strategy is used on some trials and a procedural strategy is used on others. In the two experiments, only 2 of 53 participants learned a strategy of this type. In Experiment 1, most participants appeared to use simple explicit rules, even though control participants reliably learned the procedural component of the hybrid task. In Experiment 2, participants pre-trained either with the declarative or procedural component and then transferred to the hybrid categories. Despite this extra training, no participants in either group learned to categorize the hybrid stimuli with a strategy of the optimal type. These results are inconsistent with the most prominent single-and multiple-system accounts of category learning. They also cannot be explained by knowledge partitioning, or by the hypothesis that the failure to learn was due to high switch costs. Instead, these results support the hypothesis that declarative and procedural memory systems interact during category learning. PMID:20304078

  19. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  20. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

  1. General Qualification Regulations (Declared Qualifications)

    E-print Network

    Bandara, Arosha

    General Qualification Regulations (Declared Qualifications) Revised July 2012, effective from 1 August 2012 The General Qualification Regulations should not be read in isolation. It is important that you read them in conjunction with the following documents. · Module Regulations · The regulations

  2. Interaction with virtual environment using verbal\\/non-verbal communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Ozaki; Kazuaki Tanaka; Norihiro Abe

    1999-01-01

    Verbal\\/non-verbal communication between a human and a computer system in a virtual space is proposed. As a concrete example, we have applied it to the field of mechanical assembly domain. The system accepts questions\\/commands from a user in a spoken language and is successful in the correct interpretation of the user's intentions and in the maintenance of the communication between

  3. United Nations Millennium Declaration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

  4. Effects of Anxiety on Memory Storage and Updating in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between trait anxiety and memory functioning in young children was investigated. Two studies were conducted, using tasks tapping verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (Study 1) and working memory (Study 2) in preschoolers. On the verbal storage tasks, there was a detrimental effect of anxiety on processing efficiency…

  5. Sleep after Learning Aids Memory Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Jan; Gais, Steffen; Lucas, Brian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the effect of sleep on memory consolidation has received considerable attention. In humans, these studies concentrated mainly on procedural types of memory, which are considered to be hippocampus-independent. Here, we show that sleep also has a persisting effect on hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. In two experiments, we…

  6. Differences between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above – 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873

  7. Spatial Memory for Chinese and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Nader T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated spatial memory for written words as a behavioral consequence of verbal processing differences. Across three experiments with Chinese and U.S. college students, spatial memory for real and nonsense words was greater for Chinese logographs than for alphabetic English words. This spatial memory advantage was absent for pictures and…

  8. The Development of Brain Systems Associated with Successful Memory Retrieval of Scenes

    E-print Network

    Ofen, Noa

    Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful ...

  9. Reduced working memory span in Parkinson's disease: Evidence for the role of frontostriatal system in working and strategic memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. E. Gabrieli; Jaswinder Singh; Glenn T. Stebbins; Christopher G. Goetz

    1996-01-01

    Working and strategic memory were examined in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease who had neither depression nor dementia. The patients, relative to control participants, had reduced working memory spans for verbal and arithmetic material. They also had impairment on strategic memory tests of free recall, temporal ordering, and self-ordered pointing, but no impairment on tests of recognition memory and semantic

  10. Meaning: A verbal behavior account

    PubMed Central

    Lowenkron, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to their comprehension of the meanings of novel words, sentences and propositions. In response to this perceived deficiency, the notion of joint control is presented here. Joint control occurs when a verbal-operant topography, currently evoked by one stimulus, is additionally (i.e., jointly) evoked by a second stimulus. This event of joint stimulus control then sets the occasion for a response. This simple mechanism is shown here to have exceedingly broad explanatory properties: providing a coherent and rigorously behavioral account of various aspects of language ranging from meaning, reference and comprehension, to the development of abstraction in children's speech. PMID:22477291

  11. Structure and pragmatics of a self-theory of memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome R. Sehulster

    1981-01-01

    Eight hundred ninety-three students completed statements from a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of their memory\\u000a abilities. Twenty-nine memory domains and experiences, such as memory for smells or memory for names, were distributed across\\u000a 60 statements in the questionnaire. A factor analysis yielded three meaningful factors: (1) a verbal memory factor, which\\u000a included memory for names, trivia, and words; (2)a personal

  12. Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Savage, C R; Deckersbach, T; Wilhelm, S; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Reid, T; Jenike, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD. PMID:10674806

  13. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...and Light Duty Trucks, Magnet Wire, Flatwood Paneling, Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetic Manufacturing Operations, Rubber Tire...

  14. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...and Light Duty Trucks, Magnet Wire, Flatwood Paneling, Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetic Manufacturing Operations, Rubber Tire...

  15. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...and Light Duty Trucks, Magnet Wire, Flatwood Paneling, Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetic Manufacturing Operations, Rubber Tire...

  16. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Seaway Transit Declaration Form. (d) A Weight-Scale Certificate or similar document issued in the place of...declaration form. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2135-0003) (68 Stat....

  17. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Seaway Transit Declaration Form. (d) A Weight-Scale Certificate or similar document issued in the place of...declaration form. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2135-0003) (68 Stat....

  18. [Helsinki Declaration--next version].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Authors of the new version of The Helsinki Declaration reorganized the document, and for the first time, included the issue of compensation and treatment for participants who are harmed as a result of participating in research, they provided unified and better protection for vulnerable groups, and more precisely described requirements for post-study arrangements and the use of placebos. Despite this, more consideration should be taken regarding research on human biological material and data, because the new version of The Helsinki Declaration still does not provide an acceptable level of protection for the rights and interests of donors of human biological materials. Although the new version of The Helsinki Declaration confirmed that when using identifiable human materials and data in medical research, informed consent must be obtained for its use and reuse, the obligation for the assessment of each project of medical research using human biological materials (identifiable and unidentifiable) by Research Ethics Committees was not implemented. Anonymisation is not an ethically neutral procedure. Moreover, the Helsinki Declaration does not explain the meaning of the term "anonymisation," which means that the criteria for the procedure might be provided by local stakeholders and because of this, these criteria may push into ethically unacceptable ranges. PMID:24964503

  19. Declarative Automated Cloud Resource Orchestration

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    InfrastructureasaService (IaaS) cloud computing is increasingly attractive 2 #12;To Build IaaS Cloud Cloud resourceDeclarative Automated Cloud Resource Orchestration 1 Changbin Liu, Boon Thau Loo, Yun Mao* 1 · Complex! ­ Large scale and distributed datacenters ­ Resources in wide diversity · Compute, storage

  20. Supplementary pension declaration Please note

    E-print Network

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    Supplementary pension ­ declaration Please note: 1. The following information is required to pay number/area of work 2. Details regarding supplementary old-age pension and survivors' pension 2.1 Fill der Länder ­ VBL (Pension Institution of the Federal Republic and the Länder) I am /was insured

  1. Sentence Comprehension and Memory Load: The Operational Character of Working Memory in Aphasia 

    E-print Network

    Learmonth, Gemma

    2012-11-28

    Objectives: Sentence comprehension requires linguistic information to be maintained in a verbal working memory store whilst thematic role assignment is being undertaken. A current divisive issue in psycholinguistic research ...

  2. Impaired event memory and recollection in a case of developmental amnesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Rosenbaum; N. Carson; N. Abraham; B. Bowles; D. Kwan; S. Köhler; E. Svoboda; B. Levine; B. Richards

    2011-01-01

    A current debate in the literature is whether all declarative memories and associated memory processes rely on the same neural substrate. Here, we show that H.C., a developmental amnesic person with selective bilateral hippocampal volume loss, has a mild deficit in personal episodic memory, and a more pronounced deficit in public event memory; semantic memory for personal and general knowledge

  3. The Chinese Verbal Learning Test Specifically Assesses Hippocampal State

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard M.; Leong, Josiah K.; Dutt, Shubir; Chang, Chiung Chih; Lee, Allen K.; Chao, Steven Z.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Tse, Marian; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the Chinese Verbal Learning Test (ChVLT) was developed to assess episodic memory in Chinese speakers. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether memory consolidation as measured by the ChVLT was specifically associated with hippocampal volume in patients with cognitive impairment. Methods We administered the ChVLT to 22 Chinese-speaking patients with mild cognitive impairment and 9 patients with dementia and obtained hippocampal and cortical volumes from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Results Linear regression revealed that hippocampal volume explained 9.9% of the variance in delayed memory (P = .018) after controlling for the effects of age, education, immediate recall after the last learning trial, overall level of cognitive impairment, and volumes of other cortical regions. conclusion These results indicate that the ChVLT is specifically correlated with hippocampal volume, supporting its utility for detecting hippocampal disease and monitoring hippocampal state over time. PMID:25270640

  4. Attention and Material-Specific Memory in Children with Lateralized Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer A.; Smith, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is frequently associated with attention and memory problems. In adults, lateralization of seizure focus impacts the type of memory affected (left-sided lesions primarily impact verbal memory, while right-sided lesions primarily impact visual memory), but the relationship between seizure focus and the nature of the memory impairment is…

  5. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  6. Declarative Processing for Computer Games Walker White

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Declarative Processing for Computer Games Walker White Cornell University wmwhite@cs.cornell.edu Alan Demers Cornell University ademers@cs.cornell.edu Abstract Most game developers think of databases of declarative processing. In this paper we demonstrate how declarative processing can be applied to computer

  7. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473

  9. "I see what you're saying": intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; Näring, Gérard; Holmes, Emily A; Becker, Eni S

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intrusive visual images could develop from listening to a traumatic verbal report. Eighty-six participants listened to a traumatic verbal report under one of three conditions: while shaping plasticine (visuospatial condition), while performing articulatory suppression (verbal condition), or with no extra task (control condition). Results showed that intrusive visual images developed from listening to the traumatic report. In line with the idea that central executive processes guide encoding of information, intrusion frequency was reduced in both the visuospatial and the verbal condition compared to the no task control condition. Overall, this pattern is similar to intrusive images from a traumatic film as found in earlier studies. This study provides a valuable addition to models of posttraumatic stress disorder and autobiographical memory. Additionally, the results have potential implications for therapists working with traumatized individuals. PMID:19864108

  10. An Inductive Analysis of Verbal Immediacy: Alternative Conceptualization of Relational Verbal Approach/Avoidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottet, Timothy P.; Richmond, Virginia P.

    Two studies investigated inductively the verbal immediacy construct in the interpersonal context. Specifically, the studies explored whether or not verbal immediacy is an autonomous and distinct linguistic verbal code that people use to approach and avoid relationship formation, or part of a much larger repertoire of verbal relational strategies…

  11. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  12. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  13. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

  14. Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia. Fischman, and Stephan Heckers Background: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate poor verbal memory activ- ity in healthy adults and patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Twelve patients

  15. Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of semantic associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the semantic categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a semantic category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use semantic encoding. Using a semantic cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning. PMID:24611440

  16. Verbal recoding of visual stimuli impairs mental image transform.ations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIA A. BRANDIMONTE; GRAHAM J. HITCH; DOROTHY V. M. BISHOP

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that verbal recoding of visual stimuli in short-term memory influences long-term memory encoding and impairs subsequent mental image operations. Easy and difficult-to-name stimuli were used. Whenrotated 900 counterclock- wise, each stimulus revealed a new pattern consisting of two capital letters joined together. In both experiments, subjects first learned a short series

  17. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  18. ADAPT: A Developmental, Asemantic, and Procedural Model for Transcoding From Verbal to Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Camos, Valerie; Perruchet, Pierre; Seron, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new model of transcoding numbers from verbal to arabic form. This model, called ADAPT, is developmental, asemantic, and procedural. The authors' main proposal is that the transcoding process shifts from an algorithmic strategy to the direct retrieval from memory of digital forms. Thus, the model is evolutive, adaptive, and…

  19. Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina M. Voglmaier; Larry J. Seidman; Margaret A. Niznikiewicz; Chandlee C. Dickey; Martha E. Shenton; Robert W. McCarley

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The authors contrasted ver- bal and nonverbal measures of atten- tion and memory in patients with DSM- IV-defined schizotypal personality disor- der in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizo- typal personality disorder. Method: Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men

  20. Verbal Recall of Auditory and Visual Signals by Normal and Deficient Reading Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Maureen Julianne

    Verbal recall of bisensory memory tasks was compared among 48 9- to 12-year old boys in three groups: normal readers, primary deficit readers, and secondary deficit readers. Auditory and visual stimulus pairs composed of digits, which incorporated variations of intersensory and intrasensory conditions were administered to Ss through a Bell and…

  1. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Neural Correlates of Visual and Verbal Cognitive Styles

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    and verbal working memory. In the present study, we explore this hypothesis using func- tional magnetic adults reason in everyday life. There is no direct evidence to date, however, linking these cognitive involving both word-based and picture-based feature matching conditions that was designed to permit the use

  2. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  3. The development of young children's memory strategies: Evidence from the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schneider; Veronika Kron-Sperl; Michael Hünnerkopf

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings of the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focused on children's verbal memory development. The study started with 100 kindergarten children who were tested on various memory measures, including sort-recall, text recall, short-term memory capacity, and metamemory. Assessments were repeated nine times, with adjacent measurement points separated by 6-month time intervals. The main goals of the study

  4. Mediated satiation in verbal transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon A. Jakobovits; Wallace E. Lambert

    1962-01-01

    The present study was concerned with mediation in verbal transfer where generalized inhibition could be observed from one learning task to another. A proactive interference paradigm was arranged  Assuming that mediation follows the sequence B?C?D, Ss first learned an A-B list, then the meaning of the inferred mediator, C, was reduced by a satiation procedure, and finally an A-D list

  5. Verbal response-effect compatibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iring Koch; Wilfried Kunde

    2002-01-01

    Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated\\u000a effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a\\u000a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect\\u000a on the screen. In different groups, the

  6. Anxiety, working memory, gender, and math performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Miller; Jacqueline Bichsel

    2004-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the relations between visual and verbal working memory; state, trait, and math anxiety; gender; and applied and basic math performance in 100 adults. The design tested predictions regarding which subsystem of working memory is associated with both math anxiety and math performance. The study also tested whether the Processing Efficiency Theory and the Arousal-Performance Function apply to

  7. Memory and Neuropsychology in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Nadel, Lynn; Vicari, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses in both short-term and long-term memory in Down syndrome, and the implications of these patterns for both other aspects of cognitive development and underlying neural pathology. There is clear evidence that Down syndrome is associated with particularly poor verbal short-term memory performance, and…

  8. Sex differences in episodic memory: Minimal influence of estradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Yonker; Elias Eriksson; Lars-Göran Nilsson; Agneta Herlitz

    2003-01-01

    Sex differences exist for several cognitive tasks and estrogen has been suggested to influence these differences. Eighteen men and 18 women were matched on age and estradiol level. Potential sex differences were assessed in episodic memory, semantic memory, verbal fluency, problem solving, and visuospatial ability. Significant sex differences, favoring women, were found for tasks assessing episodic memory. Correlations between estradiol

  9. Influence of estradiol on functional brain organization for working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane E. Joseph; Joshua E. Swearingen; Christine R. Corbly; Thomas E. Curry; Thomas H. Kelly

    Working memory is a cognitive function that is affected by aging and disease. To better understand the neural substrates for working memory, the present study examined the influence of estradiol on working memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pre-menopausal women were tested on a verbal n-back task during the early (EF) and late follicular (LF) phases of the menstrual cycle.

  10. A Cortical Mechanism for Binding in Visual Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino Raffone; Gezinus Wolters

    2001-01-01

    Luck and Vogel (1997) showed that the storage capacity of visual working memory is about four objects and that this capacity does not depend on the number of features making up the objects. Thus, visual working memory seems to process integrated objects rather than individual features, just as verbal working memory handles higher-order chunks instead of individual features or letters.

  11. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

  12. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

  13. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

  14. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

  15. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. ...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.203...

  16. Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  17. Hippocampus, microcircuits and associative memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilis Cutsuridis; Thomas Wennekers

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied brain region. One of its functional roles is the storage and recall of declarative memories. Recent hippocampus research has yielded a wealth of data on network architecture, cell types, the anatomy and membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons, and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the functional roles of different families of hippocampal

  18. Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

    1984-01-01

    Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

  19. The Effects of Ageing on Memory and Thinking 

    E-print Network

    Ford, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to examine the effects of ageing on memory and thinking by examining verbal fluency performance. More specifically looking at the differences between older and younger people, to ...

  20. Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Deckersbach, T; Savage, C R; Phillips, K A; Wilhelm, S; Buhlmann, U; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Jenike, M A

    2000-09-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is receiving increasing empirical attention, very little is known about neuropsychological deficits in this disorder. The current study investigated the nature of memory dysfunction in BDD, including the relationship between encoding strategies and verbal and nonverbal memory performance. We evaluated 17 patients with BDD and 17 healthy controls using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). BDD patients differed significantly from healthy controls on verbal and nonverbal learning and memory indices. Multiple regression analyses revealed that group differences in free recall were statistically mediated by deficits in organizational strategies in the BDD cohort. These findings are similar to patterns previously observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), suggesting a potential relationship between OCD and BDD. Studies in both groups have shown that verbal and nonverbal memory deficits are affected by impaired strategic processing. PMID:11011514

  1. Memory and Executive Function Impairment Predict Dementia in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    We analyzed the association of neuropsychological test impairment at baseline with the development Manhattan, NY was followed annually with neurological and neuropsychological evaluations. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal and nonverbal memory, orientation, visuospatial ability, language

  2. Non-verbal Communication for Correlational Characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Gillies; Mel Slater

    2005-01-01

    Social interaction is a key element of modern virtual environments. This paper discusses how non-verbal communication (or body language) is vital to real world social interaction, and how it is important to carry it over to virtual environments. It is not sufficient for a character to passively exhibit non-verbal communication; non-verbal communication should be a genuine interaction between a real

  3. REM Sleep, Prefrontal Theta, and the Consolidation of Human Emotional Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Nishida; Jori Pearsall; Randy L. Buckner; Matthew P. Walker

    2008-01-01

    Both emotion and sleep are independently known to modulate declarative memory. Memory can be facilitated by emotion, leading to enhanced consolidation across increasing time delays. Sleep also facilitates offline memory processing, resulting in superior recall the next day. Here we explore whether rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and aspects of its unique neurophysiology, underlie these convergent influences on memory. Using

  4. Pitch Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

  5. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren G. Collins; Anne Schrimmer; James Diamond; Janice Burke

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveCommunication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric

  6. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards

    \\u000a In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and\\u000a their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and\\u000a mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different\\u000a types of interaction between verbal and non-verbal

  7. Preventing interference between different memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel A; Robertson, Edwin M

    2011-01-01

    When learned in quick succession declarative and motor skill tasks interfere with one another, and subsequent recall is impaired. Depending upon the order of the tasks, we prevented memory interference in humans by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation to either the dorsolateral prefrontal or the primary motor cortex, and neither memory was impaired. Our observations suggest that distinct mechanisms support the communication between different types of memory processing. PMID:21706019

  8. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  9. Visual and Verbal ReasoningMethods Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ)

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    : Visualizer - Verbalizer -- Component Matrix Component N=80 1 2 Verbal Stroop Conflict .14 .38 Non - Similarities - Information · Perceptual Organization Index - Picture Completion - Block Design - Matrix et al., 2001 · Non-Verbal Moving Dots Task - Respond to direction of dots - Conflict entirely

  10. An Executable Modal of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different types of interaction between verbal and

  11. Memories of Morocco: The Influence of Age, Schooling, and Environment on Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships of structural features of memory (e.g., short-term store) and of control processes in memory (e.g., verbal rehearsal) were compared according to age, rural-urban differences, and amount of education. Culturally-specific skills were also investigated in Moroccan rug sellers and Koranic students, and in American college students.…

  12. 76 FR 71057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...the Paperwork Reduction Act: Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This is...information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  13. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...collection requirement concerning the Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This request...information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  14. 76 FR 13655 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

  15. 78 FR 27984 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

  16. 76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

  17. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

  18. Declarative\\/Logic-Based Computational Cognitive Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selmer Bringsjord

    This chapter is an esemplastic systematization of declarative computational cognitive modeling, a field that cuts across cognitive modeling based on cognitive architectures (such as ACT-R, Soar, and Clar- ion), human-level artificial intelligence (AI), logic itself, and psychology of reasoning (especially of the computational kind). The hallmarks of declarative computational cognitive modeling are the following two intertwined constraints: (1) The central

  19. Declarative Network Verification Anduo Wang1

    E-print Network

    Loo, Boon Thau

    settings. Keywords: declarative networking, network protocol verification, domain- specific languages-based query language called Network Datalog (NDlog). In prior work, it has been shown that traditional routingDeclarative Network Verification Anduo Wang1 Prithwish Basu2 Boon Thau Loo1 Oleg Sokolsky1 1

  20. Communication Growth in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    E-print Network

    Mucchetti, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    or adult. Adult non-verbal cues for communication (such asthat non-verbal cognitive ability at age 2 and communicationnon-verbal mental age, receptive language, ADOS score and joint engagement as predictors of communication

  1. 37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (a) The affidavit or declaration filed under section 15 of the Act may also be used as the affidavit or declaration required by section 8, if the affidavit or declaration meets the requirements of both sections 8 and...

  2. 37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    (a) The affidavit or declaration filed under section 15 of the Act may also be used as the affidavit or declaration required by section 8, if the affidavit or declaration meets the requirements of both sections 8 and...

  3. 37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    (a) The affidavit or declaration filed under section 15 of the Act may also be used as the affidavit or declaration required by section 8, if the affidavit or declaration meets the requirements of both sections 8 and...

  4. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  5. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  6. Verbal Interference Suppresses Exact Numerical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…

  7. Using Concurrent Verbalization to Measure Math Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Cathryn Colley

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…

  8. Mental imagery verbal processes: A developmental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara D. Forisha

    1975-01-01

    Administered a battery of 9 tests, including verbal and imaginal measures, to 200 children in Grades 1-5 at 2 private suburban elementary schools. Results reveal that verbal processes and mental imagery developed in a curvilinear manner with parallel rates of change. Factor analyses also showed that the 2 components of imagery (cognitive and subjective) were distinct from each other and

  9. Verbal-Behavioral Dissociations in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2006-01-01

    Verbal and behavioral measures of children's knowledge are frequently dissociated. These situations represent a largely untapped but important resource for furthering an understanding of human cognition. In this paper, verbal-behavioral dissociations in children are discussed and analyzed, drawing from a wide range of domains. The article explores…

  10. Personality Correlates of Verbal and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, K.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Undergraduates, divided into three groups--high verbal-low spatial (HiV-LoS), intermediate, and a high spatial-low verbal group (HiS-LoV)-- ties test. For males at least, the groups differed significantly on certaintook Cattell's 16PF questionnaire and Thurston's Primary Mental Abili personality variables involving response to social stimuli.…

  11. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  12. Constructs and Events in Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of…

  13. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  14. Disturbed cortico-amygdalar functional connectivity as pathophysiological correlate of working memory deficits in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Usher, Juliana; Trost, Sarah; Henseler, Ilona; Tost, Heike; Rietschel, Marcella; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder show deficits in working memory functions. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed an abnormal hyperactivity of the amygdala in bipolar patients during articulatory rehearsal in verbal working memory. In the present study, we investigated the dynamic neurofunctional interactions between the right amygdala and the brain systems that underlie verbal working memory in both bipolar patients and healthy controls. In total, 18 euthymic bipolar patients and 18 healthy controls performed a modified version of the Sternberg item-recognition (working memory) task. We used the psychophysiological interaction approach in order to assess functional connectivity between the right amygdala and the brain regions involved in verbal working memory. In healthy subjects, we found significant negative functional interactions between the right amygdala and multiple cortical brain areas involved in verbal working memory. In comparison with the healthy control subjects, bipolar patients exhibited significantly reduced functional interactions of the right amygdala particularly with the right-hemispheric, i.e., ipsilateral, cortical regions supporting verbal working memory. Together with our previous finding of amygdala hyperactivity in bipolar patients during verbal rehearsal, the present results suggest that a disturbed right-hemispheric "cognitive-emotional" interaction between the amygdala and cortical brain regions underlying working memory may be responsible for amygdala hyperactivation and affects verbal working memory (deficits) in bipolar patients. PMID:25119145

  15. The Medial Entorhinal Cortex's role in temporal and working memory : characterization of a mouse lacking synaptic transmission in Medial Entorhinal Cortex Layer III

    E-print Network

    Rivest, Alexander Jay

    2011-01-01

    Declarative memory requires the integration and association of multiple input streams within the medial temporal lobe. Understanding the role each neuronal circuit and projection plays in learning and memory is essential ...

  16. The Memory Fitness Program: Cognitive Effects of a Healthy Aging Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Gaines, Jean M.; Parrish, John M.; Ercoli, Linda M.; Marx, Katherine; Ronch, Judah; Pilgram, Barbara; Burke, Kasey; Barczak, Nancy; Babcock, Bridget; Small, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Context Age-related memory decline affects a large proportion of older adults. Cognitive training, physical exercise, and other lifestyle habits may help to minimize self-perception of memory loss and a decline in objective memory performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-week educational program on memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy diet led to improved memory performance in older adults. Design A convenience sample of 115 participants (mean age: 80.9 [SD: 6.0 years]) was recruited from two continuing care retirement communities. The intervention consisted of 60-minute classes held twice weekly with 15–20 participants per class. Testing of both objective and subjective cognitive performance occurred at baseline, preintervention, and postintervention. Objective cognitive measures evaluated changes in five domains: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, retention of verbal information, memory recognition, and verbal fluency. A standardized metamemory instrument assessed four domains of memory self-awareness: frequency and severity of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use. Results The intervention program resulted in significant improvements on objective measures of memory, including recognition of word pairs (t[114] = 3.62, p < 0.001) and retention of verbal information from list learning (t[114] = 2.98, p < 0.01). No improvement was found for verbal fluency. Regarding subjective memory measures, the retrospective functioning score increased significantly following the intervention (t[114] = 4.54, p < 0.0001), indicating perception of a better memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that a 6-week healthy lifestyle program can improve both encoding and recalling of new verbal information, as well as self-perception of memory ability in older adults residing in continuing care retirement communities. PMID:21765343

  17. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  18. Ten years of research into avian models of episodic-like memory and its implications for developmental and comparative cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie H. Salwiczek; Arii Watanabe; Nicola S. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember specific personal events from the past. Ever since Tulving first made the distinction between episodic memory and other forms of declarative memory in 1972, most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have assumed that episodic recall is unique to humans. The seminal paper on episodic-like memory in Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) by Clayton and

  19. A Comparison of Declarative and Hybrid Declarative-Procedural Models for Rover Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Lenda, Matthew; Maldague, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The MAPGEN [2] (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) planning system is a great example of a hybrid procedural/declarative system where the advantages of each are leveraged to produce an effective planner/scheduler for Mars Exploration Rover tactical planning. We explore the adaptation of the same domain to an entirely declarative planning system (ASPEN [4] Activity Scheduling and Planning ENvironment), and demonstrate that, with some translation, much of the procedural knowledge encoding is amenable to a declarative knowledge encoding.

  20. Declarative-Procedural Memory Interaction in Learning Agents

    E-print Network

    Tan, Ah-Hwee

    into au- tonomous reinforcement learning agents. Our experiments based on the Toad and Frog puzzle problem do- mains: (1) the Toad and Frog puzzle and (2) a strategic game known as Starcraft Broodwar. Our

  1. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Requests for major disaster declarations. 206.36 Section...Declaration Process § 206.36 Requests for major disaster declarations. (a) When...Governor in his/her absence, may request a major disaster declaration. The...

  2. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Requests for major disaster declarations. 206.36 Section...Declaration Process § 206.36 Requests for major disaster declarations. (a) When...Governor in his/her absence, may request a major disaster declaration. The...

  3. ushistory.org: The Declaration of Independence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This ushistory.org Website provides substantial information about the Declaration of Independence, its history, the men who signed it, and an online version of the famous document. Also included here is a lengthy excerpt from Thomas Jefferson's autobiography detailing the drafting of the Declaration, as well as profiles of all 56 signatories, information about the Graff House at the outskirts of Philadelphia where Jefferson wrote the document, and a short collection of annotated links.

  4. Declarative Language Design for Interactive Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Heer; Michael Bostock

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the design of declarative, domain-specific languages for constructing interactive visualizations. By sep- arating specification from execution, declarative languages can simplify development, enable unobtrusive optimization, and sup- port retargeting across platforms. We describe the design of the Protovis specification language and its implementation within an object-oriented, statically-typed programming language (Java). We demonstrate how to support rich visualizations without requiring

  5. Mechanisms of verbal memory impairment in four neurodevelopmental disorders

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed examination; Developmental disorders; Brain lesions; Specific language impairment; Williams Syndrome; Down Syndrome 1 disorders: specific language impairment (SLI), Williams Syndrome (WMS), and Down Syndrome (DS). Because

  6. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  7. Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2006-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

  8. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  9. The Impact of Non-verbal Communication on Lexicon Formation

    E-print Network

    Vogt, Paul

    The Impact of Non-verbal Communication on Lexicon Formation Paul Vogt Universiteit Maastricht. The exper- iments investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation. Non-verbal, infants receive little or no feedback, are there other non-verbal cues available to the child? One cue

  10. The Relationship between Verbal Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Joan

    1988-01-01

    Identifies verbal teacher immediacy behaviors which relate to increased learning, finding that the impact of both verbal and non-verbal behaviors on learners is enhanced as class size increases. Provides empirical definition of a specific set of low-inference verbal variables which, combined with previously identified nonverbal variables, clarify…

  11. The contribution of verbalization to action.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Suchy, Yana

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbalization, in the form of self-guided instruction, is an effective cognitive strategy used to enhance motor skill acquisition and performance. However, past research has not explicitly examined which aspects of motor output are affected (whether beneficially or deleteriously) by verbalization. In the current study, we conducted two separate experiments in which a total of 80 healthy participants, aged 18-27, completed a novel motor sequence learning task. Half of the participants in each experiment were pre-trained in the sequence using verbalization, while the other half was either trained motorically, or not trained at all. Rote memorization of verbal labels facilitated motor sequence learning, motor control, and action maintenance, but not action planning of the motor sequence. Potential underlying mechanisms as well as clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24941914

  12. Verbal concept “mediators” as simple operants

    PubMed Central

    Verplanck, William S.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments is summarized, in historical rather than logical order. The results of these experiments indicate that one type of verbal operant, the notate, a discriminated verbal response1 by a subject to stimuli experimentally presented, occurs in at least four kinds of situations, “concept-identification,” “problem-solving,” “association” and “conditioning.” In two of these it becomes chained with other such operants, to form the notant—a fuller verbal statement about the environment, or the monent—a self-administered instruction, that is, an SD for further behavior. All three classes of operant, each behaving slightly differently from one another in behavior, seem to constitute the behavioral basis of statements about “hypotheses.” Unlike “mediating responses,” or “processes,” these verbal behaviors are not theoretically inferred, or indirectly manipulated, but rather are subject to direct experimental investigation. The relationship of their strength to the strength of the behaviors that they control is demonstrable. PMID:22477046

  13. Article 7: Measures of digit span and verbal rehearsal speed in deaf children following more than 10 years of cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David; Kronenberger, William; Roman, Adrienne; Geers, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Precis This paper reports results on the development of immediate memory capacity and verbal rehearsal speed in 112 children with more than ten years of CI use. We found less than half of the sample showed increases in both forward and backward digit spans suggesting disturbances in basic mechanisms related to storage or rehearsal of verbal information. Both spans and verbal rehearsal speeds in elementary school were found to be correlated with speech and language outcomes in high school. These developmental results provide new insights in the elementary neurocognitive information processes associated with high variability in speech and language outcomes. PMID:21832890

  14. SOME PERSPECTIVES ON NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Braun, Elizabeth V.

    1970-04-01

    SOME PERSPECTIVES ON NON-VERBALCO}~ruNICATION Elizabeth V. Braun University of Kansas Through non-verbal communication man may demonstrate behavior as meaningfully as he does through spoken language. Non-verbal language may be communicated..., in societies, and within himself. The threatening gesture is a symbol of defense; the ill-men dialogue relates the "gener'al.Lzed other" toa~lrovedor disapproved behaviors pertaining to acquired moral norms. 90 Exploitation 0 This category refers to man...

  15. Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Vrankin; Mowlot Kazati; Manisha Rajadhyaksha

    2002-01-01

    Non-verbal communication across cultures is one of the under-rated aspects of multicultural and language training. This communication across cultures can prepare students, Peace Corps and NGO volunteers, professionals and consultants for their cultural immersion experiences. Not understanding the importance of non-verbal communication, especially in inter-cultural settings, can cause serious adjustment problems to the person entering another culture. This is reflected

  16. Gaining Compliance through Non-Verbal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Peters

    2012-01-01

    This article will examine the often de-emphasized and overlooked nonverbal aspects of communication. Understanding the impact of non-verbal messages sharpens one's ability to view seemingly superficial mannerisms and movements as potential cues. Further, this article is designed to prompt individual assessment and increase awareness of one's personal non-verbal mannerisms. This article is intended to encourage members of the ADR and

  17. A Memory-Based Model of Hick's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a memory-based model of Hick's law, the approximately linear increase in choice reaction time with the logarithm of set size (the number of stimulus-response alternatives). According to the model, Hick's law reflects a combination of associative interference during retrieval from declarative memory and occasional savings…

  18. Rats Depend on Habit Memory for Discrimination Learning and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the circumstances in which rats engage either declarative memory (and the hippocampus) or habit memory (and the dorsal striatum). Rats with damage to the hippocampus or dorsal striatum were given three different two-choice discrimination tasks (odor, object, and pattern). These tasks differed in the number of trials required for…

  19. Memory Organization for Improved Data Cache Performance in Embedded Processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

    1996-01-01

    Code generation for embedded processors creates opportunities for several performance optimizations not applicable for traditional compilers. We present techniques for improving data cache performance by organizing variables declared in embedded code into memory, using specific parameters of the data cache. Our approach clusters variables to minimize compulsory cache misses, and solves the memory assignment problem to minimize conflict cache misses.

  20. Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

    1999-01-01

    Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

  1. Working Memory and Intelligence in Children: What Develops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the contribution of the phonological and executive working memory (WM) systems to 205 (102 girls, 103 boys, 6 to 9 years old) elementary school children's fluid and crystallized intelligence. The results show that (a) a 3-factor structure (phonological short-term memory [STM], visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) was comparable…

  2. Multiple Systems of Spatial Memory: Evidence from Described Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent models in spatial cognition posit that distinct memory systems are responsible for maintaining transient and enduring spatial relations. The authors used perspective-taking performance to assess the presence of these enduring and transient spatial memories for locations encoded through verbal descriptions. Across 3 experiments, spatial…

  3. DECLARATION OF LOST OR DESTROYED UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS CHECK I, , Employee ID # declare that

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    DECLARATION OF LOST OR DESTROYED UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS ­ CHECK Check No: Amount: Dated: I the same for cancellation to the Accounting Office, University of California, Davis, California 95616. 6. I, , Employee ID # declare that: 1. I have been informed that a check drawn by The Regents of The University

  4. INTRODUCTION The beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation is well

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    -dependent declarative forms of memory, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in memory for motor performance. The processes3981 INTRODUCTION The beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation is well documented (Siegel, 2005; Capellini et al., 2009) and birds (Jackson et al., 2008). Different stages of sleep appear

  5. Evidence for sleep-dependent memory consolidation in human and mice

    E-print Network

    Cai, Denise Jade

    2010-01-01

    sleep in declarative memory consolidation: Passive, permissive, active or none? Current Opinion in Neurobiology,sleep deprivation impairs reference, but not working, memory in the radial arm maze task. Neurobiologysleep-related improvements specific to hippocampus-dependent memory for a rodent learning task with a well-defined neurobiology—

  6. Opposite Effects of Cortisol on Consolidation of Temporal Sequence Memory during Waking and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Memory functions involve three stages: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Modulating effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been consistently observed for declarative memory with GCs enhancing encoding and impairing retrieval, but surprisingly, little is known on how GCs affect memory consolidation. Studies in rats suggest a beneficial effect…

  7. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  8. Is the Binding of Visual Features in Working Memory Resource-Demanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard J.; Baddeley, Alan D.; Hitch, Graham J.

    2006-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory is assumed to play a role in the binding of features into chunks. A series of experiments compared memory for arrays of colors or shapes with memory for bound combinations of these features. Demanding concurrent verbal tasks were used to investigate the role of general attentional processes,…

  9. Age-Related Differences in Learning Disabled and Skilled Readers' Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether age-related working memory deficits in learning disabled (LD) readers across four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 20) reflected retrieval efficiency or storage capacity problems. Found that LD readers' working memory performance was inferior to skilled readers' on verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks across all ages.…

  10. Memory for the Conditioned Response: The Effects of Potential Interference Introduced Before and After Original Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Delos D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that memory for the conditioned response (CR) may be subject to the same sorts of interference that have been found to operate in verbal and perceptual-motor memory situations. Considers the implications for developing a general theory of memory. (Editor/RK)

  11. Specific Memory Impairment Following Neonatal Encephalopathy in Term-Born Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariëlle van Handel; Leo de Sonneville; Linda S. de Vries; Marian J. Jongmans; Hanna Swaab

    2012-01-01

    This study examines short-term memory, verbal working memory, episodic long-term memory, and intelligence in 32 children with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE), 39 children with moderate NE, 10 children with NE who developed cerebral palsy (CP), and 53 comparison children, at the age of 9 to 10 years. Results: in addition to a global effect on intelligence, NE had a specific

  12. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  13. The Effect of Rehearsal Training on Working Memory Span of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Manji, Shazeen; Andrew, Gail

    2008-01-01

    A key area of weakness in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is working memory, thus the goal of this study was to determine whether teaching children (aged 4-11) with FASD verbal rehearsal would increase their memory. Rehearsal training has been effective in other populations with working memory difficulties, so we…

  14. Extending ACT-R's Memory Capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Schultheis

    To resolve several problems of ACT-R's declarative memory (DM), Schultheis, Barkowsky, and Bertel (2006) developed a new long-term memory (LTM) component, called LTMC . In this paper we present two ACT-R interfaces which integrate LTMC into ACT-R. Such integrating LTMC makes it easily ac- cessible to ACT-R modelers and allows more thoroughly eval- uating it in its interplay with other

  15. An fMRI Study of Verbal Self-monitoring: Neural Correlates of Auditory Verbal Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia H. Y. Fu; Goparlen N. Vythelingum; Michael J. Brammer; Steve C. R. Williams; Edson Amaro Jr

    2006-01-01

    The ability to recognize one's own inner speech is essential for a sense of self. The verbal self-monitoring model proposes that this process entails a communication from neural regions involved in speech production to areas of speech perception. According to the model, if the expected verbal feedback matches the perceived feedback, then there would be no change in activation in

  16. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  17. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  18. Multimodality and speech technology: verbal and non-verbal communication in talking agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Granström; David House

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the acquisition and modelling of verbal and non-verbal communicative signals for the use in animated talking agents. This work diverges from the traditional focus on the acoustics of speech in speech technology and will be of importance for the realization of future multimodal interfaces, some experimental examples of which are presented at the end of

  19. Considerations of verbal and non-verbal communication in body psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Westland

    2009-01-01

    Communication with others has both verbal and non-verbal aspects. This article describes theory about the use of language in body psychotherapy, ways of the psychotherapist relating to the client's language, and the psychotherapist using language with different therapeutic purposes in mind. Illustrative case vignettes are included. Links are made to current thinking in neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Language in the

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Scholarship Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Nosik, Melissa R.; Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior," the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  1. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  2. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  3. Working Memory and Mental Arithmetic: A Case for Dual Central Executive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelsen, Kirk; Welsh, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the possible existence of two limited-capacity pools of central executive resources: one each for verbal and visuospatial processing. Ninety-one college students (M age = 19.0, SD = 2.2) were administered a verbal working memory task that involved updating numbers in 2-, 3-, and 4-load conditions. The task…

  4. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  5. Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

  6. The Neural Substrate of Orientation Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cornette; P. Dupont; E. Salmon; Guy A. Orban

    2001-01-01

    We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify the neural substrate of two major cognitive components of working memory (WM), maintenance and manipulation of a single elementary visual attribute, i.e., the orientation of a grating presented in central vision. This approach allowed us to equate difficulty across tasks and prevented subjects from using verbal strategies or vestibular cues. Maintenance

  7. Working Memory Components and Intelligence in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Carin M.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, in children aged 6-13 years, how different components of the working memory (WM) system (short-term storage and executive processes), within both verbal and visuospatial domains, relate to fluid intelligence. We also examined the degree of domain-specificity of the WM components as well as the differentiation of storage…

  8. Learning, working memory, and intelligence revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Tamez; Joel Myerson; Sandra Hale

    2008-01-01

    Based on early findings showing low correlations between intelligence test scores and learning on laboratory tasks, psychologists typically have dismissed the role of learning in intelligence and emphasized the role of working memory instead. In 2006, however, B.A. Williams developed a verbal learning task inspired by three-term reinforcement contingencies and reported unexpectedly high correlations between this task and Raven's Advanced

  9. The Role of encoding in the misinformation effect : a link to working memory 

    E-print Network

    Mensen, Armand

    2006-01-01

    Explanations for the misinformation effect have focused on issues in long-term memory. This exploratory study re-examines data from previous research and suggests that a visual versus verbal distinction during encoding ...

  10. Hippocampal Complex Contribution to Retention and Retrieval of Recent and Remote Episodic and Semantic Memories: Evidence from Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies of Healthy and Brain damaged People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Moscovitch; Robyn Westmacott; Asaf Gilboa; Donna Rose Addis; R. Shayna Rosenbaum; Indre Viskontas; Sandra Priselac; Eva Svoboda; Marilyne Ziegler; Sandra Black; Fuqiang Gao; Cheryl Grady; Morris Freedman; Stefan Köhler; Larry Leach; Brian Levine; Mary Pat McAndrews; Lynn Nadel; Guy Proulx; Brian Richards; Lee Ryan; Kathryn Stokes; Gordon Winocur

    Summary. For over a hundred years, it has been accepted that remote memories are less vulnerable to disruption than are recent memories. The standard consolidation model posits that the hippocampus and related structures are temporary memory structures, necessary for acquisition, re- tention, and retrieval of all explicit (declarative) memories until they are consolidated elsewhere in the brain. We review lesion

  11. Verbal and spatial processing efficiency in 32 children with sex chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bender, B G; Linden, M G; Robinson, A

    1989-06-01

    Spatial and linguistic processing efficiency was evaluated in sixty 8- to 18-yr-old children, including thirteen 47,XXY boys, eleven 47,XXX girls, six girls with 45,X, two girls with 46,X,Xq-, and 28 chromosomally normal controls. Results indicated that the 47,XXX girls performed significantly below controls on all four cognitive tests. Scores of the X monosomy group were reduced on both spatial tests, one requiring rapid information processing and one without time requirements, which is consistent with previous reports of spatial thinking deficits in these propositae. The X monosomy girls also had difficulty completing the high efficiency but not the low efficiency verbal tests. Scores in the 47,XXY group did not differ from controls on either spatial test or on the low efficiency verbal task. When required to rapidly access verbal information from memory, however, the performance of these boys was significantly impaired. This finding confirms earlier reports of impeded verbal fluency in these propositi. Alteration in capacity to rapidly process information appears to distinguish 47,XXY boys and X monosomy girls from their chromosomally normal peers, and suggests that adaptations in their educational setting should be introduced to allow additional time to learn and complete work. PMID:2740147

  12. Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

  13. Feelings Without Memory in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD’s effect on emotion. Objective: We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. Methods: A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. Results: As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. Conclusions: These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients’ memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences. PMID:25237742

  14. 37 CFR 2.91 - Declaration of interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Declaration of interference. 2.91 Section 2.91 Patents...OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.91 Declaration of interference. (a) An interference...

  15. 37 CFR 2.91 - Declaration of interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Declaration of interference. 2.91 Section 2.91 Patents...OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.91 Declaration of interference. (a) An interference...

  16. 37 CFR 2.91 - Declaration of interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Declaration of interference. 2.91 Section 2.91 Patents...OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.91 Declaration of interference. (a) An interference...

  17. 37 CFR 2.91 - Declaration of interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Declaration of interference. 2.91 Section 2.91 Patents...OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.91 Declaration of interference. (a) An interference...

  18. 37 CFR 2.91 - Declaration of interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Declaration of interference. 2.91 Section 2.91 Patents...OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.91 Declaration of interference. (a) An interference...

  19. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  20. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  1. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  3. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425 Section 93.425 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for...

  4. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Conformity, but instead contains protective circuitry that is subject to a Supplier's Declaration...the responsible party for the protective circuitry shall include with each module of such circuitry, a Supplier's Declaration of...

  5. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Conformity, but instead contains protective circuitry that is subject to a Supplier's Declaration...the responsible party for the protective circuitry shall include with each module of such circuitry, a Supplier's Declaration of...

  6. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Conformity, but instead contains protective circuitry that is subject to a Supplier's Declaration...the responsible party for the protective circuitry shall include with each module of such circuitry, a Supplier's Declaration of...

  7. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Conformity, but instead contains protective circuitry that is subject to a Supplier's Declaration...the responsible party for the protective circuitry shall include with each module of such circuitry, a Supplier's Declaration of...

  8. 37 CFR 1.63 - Oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the prior application. (5) A newly executed oath or declaration must be filed in a continuation or divisional application naming an inventor not named in the prior application. (e) A newly executed oath or declaration must be filed in any...

  9. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Self-declarations. 26.209 Section 26.209 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an individual is...

  10. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION... § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  11. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION... § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  12. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION... § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  13. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION... § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  14. Declarative Data Fusion Syntax, Semantics, and Implementation

    E-print Network

    Weske, Mathias

    level already have been solved, but conflicts on the data level remain. Data Fusion is then the processDeclarative Data Fusion ­ Syntax, Semantics, and Implementation Jens Bleiholder and Felix Naumann|naumann}@informatik.hu-berlin.de Abstract. In today's integrating information systems data fusion, i.e., the merging of multiple tuples

  15. Using Declarative Specifications in Business Process Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Rychkova; Gil Regev; Alain Wegmann

    2008-01-01

    Business process modeling techniques, such as BPMN, encourage the early specification of the exact order in which the activities of the process will be executed. However, a business process may be exposed to different environments and subjected to many conditions in which a sequence cannot be identified at design time. We present declarative business process specifications that can be used

  16. Sudan Genocide Declaration Stirs the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    One week after Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the killings, rapes and other atrocities committed in Darfur amount to "genocide," in mid-September the United Nations' World Health Organization issued new figures saying 6,000 to 10,000 people are dying per month there in one of Africa's worst humanitarian crises. Powell had based his…

  17. Table of Contents o Declaring a Major

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    declaration form. Students can qualify in two ways: Advancement based on Prior Credit and Academic Performance: Student must have 7 credit hours or more of AP or prior college credit including at least 4 #12;2 credit of MATH 155, CHEM 115-116, PHYS111, or PHYS112 and pass all first semester MATH (155) and science

  18. Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework Kenrick Kin1,2 Bj¨orn Hartmann1 Tony DeRose2 Maneesh Agrawala1 1 University of California, Berkeley 2 Pixar Animation Studios ABSTRACT Proton- sions of touch event symbols. It builds on the Proton frame- work by allowing developers to incorporate

  19. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  20. Declarative Diagnosis of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Colombia. Abstract. We present a framework for the declarative diagnosis of non- deterministic timed sequences. Our debugging framework does not require the user to either provide error symptoms in advance by Shapiro [19]. Thus, an oracle (typically the user) has to provide the debugger with error symptoms

  1. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    PubMed

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details. PMID:22092106

  2. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ?4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ?4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ?4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  3. Towards a Declarative Language and System for Secure Networking

    E-print Network

    Loo, Boon Thau

    Towards a Declarative Language and System for Secure Networking Mart´in Abadi and Boon Thau Loo, and Net- work Datalog (NDlog), a database query language for declarative networks. The contributions present a declarative language and sys- tem for secure networking. Our work has largely been inspired

  4. Mojibake – The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  5. Relationship of Sensory Modality to Retention of Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p < .001). Post-hoc analysis revealed a slight though not clinically significant preference for retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants. PMID:25372988

  6. Abnormality of semantic network in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Evidence from verbal, perceptual, and olfactory domains.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Salmon, D; Nordin, S; Murphy, C; Razani, J

    1998-11-30

    A series of studies was initiated to model the organization of semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder analyses. The resulting models (cognitive maps or semantic networks) embed studied stimuli in a coordinate space or network where distances between points are assumed to reflect psychological proximity between items. The organization of semantic networks in verbal and sensory domains were modeled based upon the frequency of the subject's choice of two concepts as most alike. Results suggested that while the organization of concepts in the semantic networks of AD patients was primarily based upon a concrete perceptual dimension in both verbal and olfactory domains, those of normal controls subjects were predominantly organized by an abstract conceptual attribute. Also, networks of AD patients were more complex and chaotic than normal, that is, they consisted of more unnecessary connections and of atypical strengths of association between concepts. PMID:9929671

  7. Spontaneous Moments and the Domain of Non-Verbal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoshana Ringel

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of non-verbal interactions and spontaneous encounters on the therapeutic process and on a client's structural and behavioral patterns. The following case vignette concerns a client who presents with a pattern of non-verbal relational schemas based on his early traumatic experiences. The non-verbal and verbal role reenactments that unfold between client and therapist will be examined

  8. Development of the appreciation of verbal jokes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Schultz; Frances Horibe

    1974-01-01

    Studied the development of children's appreciation of verbal jokes within the framework of the incongruity and resolution theory of humor. 15 boys and 15 girls from each of 4 age groups (6, 8, 10, and 12 yrs) were presented with a series of original, resolution-removed, and incongruity-removed jokes of various resolution types. Measures of appreciation and comprehension of each joke

  9. Television as a Medium of Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel

    This paper describes a study on the nature of the linguistic information presented in children's television programs which was conducted to compare the verbal communication features of different types of programs, determine whether there were adjustments of linguistic information that would facilitate young children's linguistic processing, and…

  10. Imitation Therapy for Non-Verbal Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Cindy; Mehta, Jyutika; Fredenburg, Karen; Bartlett, Karen

    2011-01-01

    When imitation skills are not present in young children, speech and language skills typically fail to emerge. There is little information on practices that foster the emergence of imitation skills in general and verbal imitation skills in particular. The present study attempted to add to our limited evidence base regarding accelerating the…

  11. Verbal Artistry: A Case for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henne, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This article expands our understanding of how language-minoritized children's communicative competence interrelates with schooling. It features a verbal performance by a young Native American girl. A case is made for greater empirical specification of the real extent of children's non-school-sanctioned communicative competence. The case disrupts…

  12. Validity of the Verbal Immediacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rena Y.; Richmond, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the development and use of the Verbal Immediacy Scale. Presents data that indicate it lacks both face and construct validity. Concludes that the scale may not be a valid operationalization of the immediacy construct, and even if it is, it generates a response set such that the meaning of the responses obtained is unknown. (SR)

  13. Competent Verbal and Nonverbal Crossgender Immediacy Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…

  14. General Outcome Measures for Verbal Operants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Wolfe, Pamela; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    A general outcome measure (GOM) can be used to show progress towards a long-term goal. GOMs should sample domains of behavior across ages, be sensitive to change over time, be inexpensive and easy to use, and facilitate decision making. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior may benefit from the development of GOM. To develop GOM, we…

  15. Facilitative Level and Verbal Conditioning: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Douglas; And Others

    1976-01-01

    To replicate a study purporting to show positive effects of facilitative interpersonal functioning in a conditioning paradigm, 32 subjects were verbally conditioned within an experiment designed to vary preexperiment interview, facilitative level of the experimenter, and contingency of reinforcement. The present study failed to substantiate the…

  16. Working memory and learning in children with developmental coordination disorder and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory function for their age level, and this pattern was also found to be characteristic of a larger DCD group with varied language abilities. SLI-group deficits in standard scores were observed for the verbal versions of the short-term and working memory tasks only. There were also differential links between memory and attainment between the two groups, with visuospatial working memory strongly related to numeracy in the SLI group and all of the memory measures correlated with at least one attainment measure in the DCD group. Reasons for why working memory contributes to learning in these two developmental groups are discussed. PMID:18434291

  17. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  18. Foreign Language Learning and SAT Verbal Scores Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas C.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Jahner, David; Webb, Elizabeth; Wilbur, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language learning and verbal ability in English as measured by the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Reasoning Test. Comparing foreign language students to nonforeign language students in this study, the effect of taking a foreign language on SAT verbal

  19. Verbal Skills in Children with ADHD. Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, G.; Agapitou, P.; Karapetsas, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether ADHD children exhibit low verbal IQ (VIQ) and distinguishable test profile on the Verbal comprehension (VC) and Freedom from distractibility (FFD) factors, and whether gender influences their verbal abilities. At the Laboratory of Neuropsychology of the Department of Special Education, University of Thessaly,…

  20. How to read non verbal communication in organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Larson; Brian H. Kleiner

    2004-01-01

    Highlights non-verbal communication, crediting it with being a major contribution to communication processes of human beings. Focuses on the non-verbal messages pervading business organizations, which, if interpreted correctly, reveal the values and culture of an organization. Concludes that much can be learned from the interpretation of the non-verbal elements present in the culture in which it functions.