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1

Learning and Consolidation of Verbal Declarative Memory in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairments in declarative memory have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fragmentation of explicit trauma-related memory has been assumed to impede the formation of a coherent memorization of the traumatic event and the integration into autobiographic memory. Together with a strong non-declarative memory that connects trauma reminders with a fear response the impairment in declarative memory is thought to

Slawomira J. Diener; Herta Flor; Michèle Wessa

2010-01-01

2

Mapping the brain pathways of declarative verbal memory: Evidence from white matter lesions in the living human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the contribution of the brain white matter pathways to declarative verbal memory processes has been hindered by the lack of an adequate model in humans. An attractive and underexplored approach to study white matter region functionality in the living human brain is through the use of non-aprioristic models which specifically search disrupted white matter pathways. For this purpose, we

Jorge Sepulcre; Joseph C. Masdeu; Jaume Sastre-Garriga; Joaquín Goñi; Nieves Vélez-de-Mendizábal; Beatriz Duque; Maria A. Pastor; Bartolomé Bejarano; Pablo Villoslada

2008-01-01

3

Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnimal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis

Eric Vermetten; Meena Vythilingam; Steven M. Southwick; Dennis S. Charney; J. Douglas Bremner

2003-01-01

4

Long-term memory: A review and meta-analysis of studies of declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI), in particular declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed individuals with SLI are poorer than age matched controls in the learning and retrieval of verbal information from the declarative memory. However, there is evidence to suggest that the problems with declarative learning and memory for verbal information in SLI might be due to difficulties with verbal working memory and language. The learning and retrieval of non-verbal information from declarative memory appears relatively intact. In relation to procedural learning and memory, evidence indicates poor implicit learning of verbal information. Findings pertaining to nonverbal information have been mixed. This review of the literature indicates there are now substantial grounds for suspecting that multiple memory systems may be implicated in the impairment. PMID:24748707

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2014-01-01

5

Striatal contributions to declarative memory retrieval  

PubMed Central

Declarative memory is known to depend on the medial temporal lobe memory system. Recently, there has been renewed focus on the relationship between the basal ganglia and declarative memory, including the involvement of striatum. However, the contribution of striatum to declarative memory retrieval remains unknown. Here, we review neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the involvement of the striatum in declarative memory retrieval. From this review, we propose that, along with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the striatum primarily supports cognitive control of memory retrieval. We conclude by proposing three hypotheses for the specific role of striatum in retrieval: (1) Striatum modulates the re-encoding of retrieved items in accord with their expected utility (adaptive encoding), (2) striatum selectively admits information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive gating), and (3) striatum enacts adjustments in cognitive control based on the outcome of retrieval (reinforcement learning). PMID:22884322

Scimeca, Jason M.; Badre, David

2012-01-01

6

Verbal and Spatial Working Memory in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal and spatial working memory were examined in high-functioning children, adolescents, and adults with autism compared to age and cognitive-matched controls. No deficit was found in verbal working memory in the individuals with autism using an N-back letter task and standardized measures. The distinction between the N-back task and others used previously to infer a working memory deficit in autism

Diane L. Williams; Gerald Goldstein; Patricia A. Carpenter; Nancy J. Minshew

2005-01-01

7

Music memory provides access to verbal knowledge in a patient with global amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the patient CH, who showed marked impairment of declarative memory in everyday life and standardized memory tests subsequent to herpes simplex encephalltis. However, there was anecdotal evidence for preserved learning capacity for verbal material (song titles) in connection with playing accordion music. Our experiments, tallored to CH's individual accordion repertoire, confirmed strong associations between language (song titles)

Barbara Baur; Ingo Uttner; Josef Ilmberger; Gunther Fesl; Norbert Mai

2000-01-01

8

Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences.\\u000a In Experiment 1, a standard\\/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while\\u000a participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying “the”) or musical suppression (singing “la”).\\u000a Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with

Zachary A. Schendel; Caroline Palmer

2007-01-01

9

Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

2007-01-01

10

Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…

Tijms, Jurgen

2004-01-01

11

Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these experiments show that declarative memory benefits mainly from

Steffen Gais; Jan Born

2007-01-01

12

Construct validity of various verbal and visual memory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor analysis was conducted on attention, information processing, verbal and visual memory scores of 112 patients. Factor structure did not vary as a function of age. The Expanded Paired Associates Test, Verbal Selective Reminding Test, Continuous Recognition Memory Test, and Continuous Visual Memory Test defined a general memory factor. The PASAT, WMS Mental Control, and WAIS-R Digit Span defined an

Glenn J. Larrabee; Glenn Curtiss

1995-01-01

13

Verbal episodic memory declines prior to diagnosis in Huntington's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of verbal episodic memory in pre-diagnostic Huntington's disease (HD) have yielded mixed results; some evidence suggests that memory decline is evident prior to the onset of pronounced neurological signs of HD, whereas other data indicate that memory function remains normal throughout the pre-diagnostic period. This study examines verbal episodic memory in a sample of CAG expanded individuals who

Andrea C. Solomon; Julie C. Stout; Shannon A. Johnson; Douglas R. Langbehn; Elizabeth H. Aylward; Jason Brandt; Christopher A. Ross; Leigh Beglinger; Michael R. Hayden; Karl Kieburtz; Elise Kayson; Elaine Julian-Baros; Kevin Duff; Mark Guttman; Martha Nance; David Oakes; Ira Shoulson; Elizabeth Penziner; Jane S. Paulsen

2007-01-01

14

Verbal learning and memory after childhood stroke.  

PubMed

Verbal learning and memory (VLM) following pediatric stroke was characterized in a cross-sectional neuropsychological and neuroimaging study of 26 subjects, aged 5 to 17, with a history of pediatric stroke and 26 age, SES, and gender matched orthopedic controls. Further comparisons were made between the VLM profiles of stroke subjects with right versus left hemisphere lesions and early (> 12 months) versus late (12 months) strokes. Overall, stroke subjects scored significantly lower than control subjects on several VLM indices (California Verbal Learning Test-Children; CVLT-C), as well as on measures of intellectual functioning (IQ) and auditory attention/working memory (Digit Span). Subgroup analyses of the stroke population found no significant differences in VLM, Digit Span, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ when left-hemisphere lesion subjects were compared to right-hemisphere lesion subjects. In contrast, early strokes were associated with significantly fewer words recalled after delay, reduced discriminability (fewer correct hits relative to false positive errors on recognition testing), and relatively worse auditory attention/working memory scores (Digit Span). These findings indicate that pediatric stroke subjects demonstrated more VLM impairment than control subjects, and early strokes were associated with greater recall and recognition deficits. In stark contrast with adult-onset stroke, both left- and right-hemisphere lesions during childhood resulted in similar VLM performance. PMID:15327721

Lansing, Amy E; Max, Jeffrey E; Delis, Dean C; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack; Manes, Facundo F; Schatz, Amy

2004-09-01

15

Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

2008-01-01

16

Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory: Multiple Brain Systems Supporting Learning and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate

Larry R. Squire

1992-01-01

17

Visuospatial and verbal working memory load: effects on visuospatial vigilance.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory demands on performance of a visuospatial successive target detection task. Three hundred and four participants performed a visuospatial vigilance task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or verbal working memory task that either required a memory load during the vigil or did not require a memory load during the vigil. Perceptual sensitivity A' to vigilance target stimuli was reduced by concurrent memory load, both verbal and visuospatial. The decline in perceptual sensitivity to vigilance targets, the vigilance decrement, was steeper for a visuospatial memory task than a verbal memory task, regardless of concurrent memory load. Memory performance after vigilance detection trials was much lower for visuospatial than verbal items, even though memory performance before vigilance detection trials was higher for visuospatial than verbal items. Together, this indicates increased interference when a visuospatial vigilance task is paired with a visuospatial memory task, than when paired with a verbal memory task. Overall, the visuospatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance target detection, suggesting utilization of common executive resources. There may, however, be domain specific interference, and this may be exacerbated for two visuospatial tasks. PMID:23143034

Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N

2013-02-01

18

Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

2009-01-01

19

Bigger is better! Hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in healthy young men.  

PubMed

The importance of the hippocampus for declarative memory processes is firmly established. Nevertheless, the issue of a correlation between declarative memory performance and hippocampal volume in healthy subjects still remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in more detail. For this purpose, 50 healthy young male participants performed the California Verbal Learning Test. Hippocampal volume was assessed by manual segmentation of high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. We found a significant positive correlation between putatively hippocampus-dependent memory measures like short-delay retention, long-delay retention and discriminability and percent hippocampal volume. No significant correlation with measures related to executive processes was found. In addition, percent amygdala volume was not related to any of these measures. Our data advance previous findings reported in studies of brain-damaged individuals in a large and homogeneous young healthy sample and are important for theories on the neural basis of episodic memory. PMID:23269366

Pohlack, Sebastian T; Meyer, Patric; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Liebscher, Claudia; Ridder, Stephanie; Flor, Herta

2014-01-01

20

Effects of aging and of Alzheimer's disease on verbal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to define the verbal memory profiles of very old normal subjects and subjects with Alzheimer's Disease, and to identify verbal memory indices having the highest discriminant power. Forty-three old normal subjects (mean age = 71 years, SD = 3, range = 65–75), 39 very old normal subjects (mean age = 81 years, SD = 4, range =

R. Antonelli Incalzi; O. Capparella; A. Gemma; C. Marra; P. U. Carbonin

1995-01-01

21

Phonological awareness, verbal working memory and the acquisition of literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a 2-year longitudinal study of 76 initially prereading children. The study examined the relationships between phonological awareness (measured by tests of onset and rime, phonemic segmentation and phoneme deletion), verbal working memory and the development of reading and spelling. Factor analyses showed that the verbal working memory tests which were administered loaded on two distinct but highly

Mary Rohl; Chris Pratt

1995-01-01

22

Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…

Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

2012-01-01

23

A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

Dennis, Simon

2005-01-01

24

Cerebellar contributions to verbal working memory: beyond cognitive theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological findings together with recent advances in neuroanatomical and neuroimaging techniques have spurred the\\u000a investigation of cerebellar contributions to cognition. One cognitive process that has been the focus of much research is\\u000a working memory, in particular its verbal component. Influenced by Baddeley’s cognitive theory of working memory, cerebellar\\u000a activation during verbal working memory tasks has been predominantly attributed to the

Gal Ben-Yehudah; Sara Guediche; Julie A. Fiez

2007-01-01

25

Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n?=?15) outperformed the control group (n?=?35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n?=?15) approached, but did not reach,

Stavroula Stavrakaki; Kalliopi Megari; Mary H. Kosmidis; Maria Apostolidou; Eleni Takou

2012-01-01

26

Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

2004-01-01

27

The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

2008-01-01

28

Verbal Intrusions Precede Memory Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbal memory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…

Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

2006-01-01

29

Using a highly abbreviated California Verbal Learning Test-II to detect verbal memory deficits.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently accompanied by changes in verbal memory. We hypothesized that administering an abbreviated California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) would detect verbal memory problems in MS accurately, thus serving as a potential screening tool. We performed receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of three trials (trial 1, trial 2, and trial 1+2 combined) for raw data against standardized total scores. The results showed that at 1.5 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, the first two trials were 96.3% accurate, while at 2 SD from the mean, the first two trials combined were 97.5% accurate. We conclude that this study demonstrates than an abbreviated CVLT-II is a valid screening tool for verbal memory impairments. PMID:22807235

Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Benedict, Ralph H B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Picone, Mary A; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W

2013-04-01

30

Examining verbal memory on the word memory test and california verbal learning test-second edition.  

PubMed

This study compared the Word Memory Test (WMT) and California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in a sample (N = 76) of outpatient physiatry referrals who passed WMT validity indices. WMT and CVLT-II raw scores showed moderate to strong correlations. WMT scores were more likely to be below expectation than CVLT-II scores using norms from the respective test manuals. With impaired scores defined as 2 SDs below normative mean, the WMT and CVLT-II showed 67% overall agreement and kappa of 0.34. Forty percent of participants who scored within normal limits on the CVLT-II demonstrated an impaired score on the WMT. Despite evidence of utility, WMT memory subtests appear limited by current normative data. PMID:25064762

Davis, Jeremy J; Wall, Jacqueline R

2014-12-01

31

Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Memory Following Unilateral Amygdala Damage  

PubMed Central

The amygdala is involved in the normal facilitation of memory by emotion, but the separate contributions of the left and right amygdala to memory for verbal or nonverbal emotional material have not been investigated. Fourteen patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe including the amygdala (seven left, seven right), 18 brain-damaged, and 36 normal controls were exposed to emotional and neutral pictures accompanied by verbal narratives. Memory for both narratives and pictures was assessed with a free recall test 24 h later. Subjects with left amygdala damage failed to show the normally robust enhancement of memory for verbal and nonverbal emotional stimuli. The group with right amygdala damage showed the normal pattern of facilitation of memory by emotion for both verbal and nonverbal stimuli despite an overall reduction in memory performance. Furthermore, subjects with left amygdala damage were disproportionately impaired on memory for emotional narratives as compared with memory for emotional pictures. The latter finding offers partial support for a lateralized and material-specific pattern of the amygdala's contribution to emotional memory. PMID:11773432

Buchanan, Tony W.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

2001-01-01

32

Verbal Short-Term Memory and Language Processing: A Computational Model  

E-print Network

Verbal Short-Term Memory and Language Processing: A Computational Model Prahlad Gupta Beckman SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND LANGUAGE #12;Verbal Short-Term Memory and Language Processing: A Computational to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986), human verbal short-term memory perfor- mance, as studied

Gupta, Prahlad

33

Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information  

PubMed Central

Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information. PMID:19210053

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

34

Sleep Facilitates Consolidation of Emotional Declarative Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bothsleepandemotionareknowntomodulate processes of memory consolidation, yet their interaction is poorly understood. We examined the influence of sleep on consolidation of emotionally arousing and neutral de- clarative memory. Subjects completed an initial study session involving arousing and neutral pictures, either in the evening or in the morning. Twelve hours later, after sleeping or staying awake, subjects performed a recogni- tion test

Peter Hu; Melinda Stylos-Allan; Matthew P. Walker

2006-01-01

35

Aging and interference in verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to inhibitory views of working memory, old adults should have particular problems deleting irrelevant information from working memory, leading to greater interference effects compared with young adults. The authors investigated this hypothesis by using variations of an A-B, C-D retroactive interference paradigm in working memory with young and old adults. They used a recognition measure of memory, assessing both

Trey Hedden; Denise Park

2001-01-01

36

Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

2009-01-01

37

Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders? four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

2014-07-01

38

Verbal and Spatial Working Memory In Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory may be composed of a number of subsystems for storing different kinds of information. This is the issue that motivates the present review. There are many different conceptions of working memory, but they all include a common set of characteristics--a memory system that: (a) stores information briefly, (b) stores a limited amount of information, (c) is rapidly accessible,

John Jonides; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Edward E. Smith; Edward Awh; Lisa L. Barnes; Maxwell Drain; Jennifer Glass; Erick J. Lauber; Andrea L. Patalano; Eric H. Schumacher

1996-01-01

39

Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory.  

PubMed

In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarative memories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over frontocortical areas. To experimentally induce widespread extracellular negative DC potentials, we applied anodal tDCS (0.26 mA) [correction] repeatedly (over 30 min) bilaterally at frontocortical electrode sites during a retention period rich in SWS. Retention of declarative memories (word pairs) and also nondeclarative memories (mirror tracing skills) learned previously was tested after this period and compared with retention performance after placebo stimulation as well as after retention intervals of wakefulness. Compared with placebo stimulation, anodal tDCS during SWS-rich sleep distinctly increased the retention of word pairs (p < 0.005). When applied during the wake retention interval, tDCS did not affect declarative memory. Procedural memory was also not affected by tDCS. Mood was improved both after tDCS during sleep and during wake intervals. tDCS increased sleep depth toward the end of the stimulation period, whereas the average power in the faster frequency bands (,alpha, and beta) was reduced. Acutely, anodal tDCS increased slow oscillatory activity <3 Hz. We conclude that effects of tDCS involve enhanced generation of slow oscillatory EEG activity considered to facilitate processes of neuronal plasticity. Shifts in extracellular ionic concentration in frontocortical tissue (expressed as negative DC potentials during SWS) may facilitate sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories. PMID:15525784

Marshall, Lisa; Mölle, Matthias; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan

2004-11-01

40

PROTECTION AND EXTINCTION OF MOTOR MEMORIES: INTERFERENCE FROM THE DECLARATIVE MEMORY SYSTEM IN CONTEXT SWITCHING  

E-print Network

IN CONTEXT SWITCHING by Aymeric Blanc A thesis submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity � 2013 Aymeric Blanc All Rights Reserved #12;ii Abstract Procedural memories (skills) and declarative

Shadmehr, Reza

41

Cognitive Neuroscience: Navigating Human Verbal Memory  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A recent study in humans shows that the same neurons that represent location during spatial navigation also code elements of verbal recall. This study thus provides a critical missing link between two previously unconnected functions of the hippocampus. PMID:24556442

Ekstrom, Arne D.

2014-01-01

42

Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users  

PubMed Central

Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined fronto-parieto-mediotemporal dysfunction. PMID:23585882

Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jurgen; Quednow, Boris B.

2013-01-01

43

Fractionating verbal episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the neural correlates of different stages of episodic memory function and their modulation by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several decades of work has supported the role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in episodic memory function. However, a more recent work, derived in part from functional neuroimaging studies, has suggested that other brain

David A. Wolk; Bradford C. Dickerson

2011-01-01

44

The reliability and stability of verbal working memory measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of several commonly used verbal working memory measures were assessed. One hundred thirty-nine\\u000a individuals in five age groups (18–30, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80+ years) were tested twice (Time I and Time II) on seven\\u000a working memory span measures (alphabet span, backward digit span, missing digit span, subtract 2 span, running item span,\\u000a and sentence span for

Gloria S. Waters; David Caplan

2003-01-01

45

Verbal, visual, and spatial working memory in written language production.  

PubMed

College students wrote definitions of either abstract or concrete nouns in longhand while performing a concurrent working memory (WM) task. They detected either a verbal (syllable), visual (shape), or spatial (location) stimulus and decided whether it matched the last one presented 15-45s earlier. Writing definitions of both noun types elevated the response time to verbal targets above baseline. Such interference was observed for visual targets only when defining concrete nouns and was eliminated entirely with spatial targets. The interference effect for verbal targets was the same whether they were read or heard, implicating phonological storage. The findings suggest that language production requires phonological or verbal WM. Visual WM is selectively engaged when imaging the referents of concrete nouns. PMID:16822473

Kellogg, Ronald T; Olive, Thierry; Piolat, Annie

2007-03-01

46

Articulation and verbal short-term memory: Evidence from anarthria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of articulation in verbal short-term memory was investigated in two patients suffering from a selective and total impairment of overt articulation. Case GF was totally speechless due to a ventral pontine lesion and case MDC due to bilateral anterior opercular softenings. Both patients had normal auditory comprehension, a digit span performance within the normal range, and displayed the

Giuseppe Vallar; Stefano F. Cappa

1987-01-01

47

Hemispheric lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory during adolescence  

PubMed Central

Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846

Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

2013-01-01

48

Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters), in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords) and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters) visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times (RTs) on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword) vs. low (real word) phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex (VC). Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

Liao, Diana A.; Kronemer, Sharif I.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Desmond, John E.; Marvel, Cherie L.

2014-01-01

49

Cortical network dynamics during verbal working memory function.  

PubMed

This study is an exploratory investigation of the regional timing of cortical activity associated with verbal working memory function. ERP activity was obtained from a single subject using a 124-channel sensor array during a task requiring the monitoring of imageable words for occasional targets. Distributed cortical activity was estimated every 2.5 ms with high spatial resolution using real head, boundary element modelling of non-target activity. High-resolution structural MRI was used for segmentation of tissue boundaries and co-registration to the scalp electrode array. The inverse solution was constrained to the cortical surface. Cortical activity was observed in regions commonly associated with verbal working memory function. This included: the occipital pole (early visual processing); the superior temporal and inferior parietal gyrus bilaterally and the left angular gyrus (visual and phonological word processing); the dorsal lateral occipital gyrus (spatial processing); and aspects of the bilateral superior parietal lobe (imagery and episodic verbal memory). Activity was also observed in lateral and superior prefrontal regions associated with working memory control of sensorimotor processes. The pattern of cortical activity was relatively stable over time, with variations in the extent and amplitude of contributing local source activations. By contrast, the pattern of concomitant scalp topography varied considerably over time, reflecting the linear summation effects of volume conduction that often confound dipolar source modelling. PMID:11587774

Clark, C R; Moores, K A; Lewis, A; Weber, D L; Fitzgibbon, S; Greenblatt, R; Brown, G; Taylor, J

2001-10-01

50

The Relationship Between Age, Verbal Working Memory, and Language Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural modeling approach was used to examine the relationships between age, verbal working memory (vWM), and 3 types of language measures: online syntactic processing, sentence comprehension, and text comprehension. The best-fit model for the online-processing measure revealed a direct effect of age on online sentence processing, but no effect mediated through vWM. The best-fit models for sentence and text

Gayle DeDe; David Caplan; Karen Kemtes; Gloria Waters

2004-01-01

51

Effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on verbal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical or pharmacological suppression of ovarian hormones leads to declines in verbal memory, and estrogen treatment reverses these deficits. In the current study, we investigated the effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives on verbal memory, as measured by the California Verbal Learning Test, in two groups of premenopausal women — 16 naturally cycling women and 20 current users

Kristen L. Mordecai; Leah H. Rubin; Pauline M. Maki

2008-01-01

52

Role of Verbal Memory in Reading Text Comprehension of Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the relationship between verbal memory and reading text comprehension in individuals with Down syndrome. The hypothesis that verbal memory provides unique contribution to reading text comprehension after controlling for verbal skills was tested. Twenty-three individuals with Down syndrome (ages 11 years, 2 months-18 years, 1…

Levorato, Maria Chiara; Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena

2011-01-01

53

Brain regions supporting verbal memory improvement in healthy older subjects.  

PubMed

Despite growing interest in developing cognitive training interventions to minimize the aging cognitive decline process, no studies have attempted to explore which brain regions support the application of semantic strategies during verbal memory encoding. Our aim was to investigate the behavioral performance and brain correlates of these strategies in elderly individuals using fMRI in healthy older subjects. Method Subjects were scanned twice on the same day, before and after, directed instructions to apply semantic strategies during the encoding of word lists. Results Improved memory performance associated to increased semantic strategy application and brain activity in the left inferior and middle and right medial superior prefrontal cortex were found after the directed instructions. There was also reduced activation in areas related to strategy mobilization. Conclusion Improved memory performance in older subjects after the application of semantic strategies was associated with functional brain reorganization involving regions inside and outside the typical memory network. PMID:25252229

Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Savage, Cary R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Amaro Junior, Edson; Nitrini, Ricardo

2014-09-01

54

The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.  

PubMed

During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children. PMID:24949818

Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

2014-08-20

55

Initial category cues and recognition memory foils for the Cognistat Verbal Memory alternate word list.  

PubMed

The Cognistat is a widely used screening instrument for the evaluation of higher cerebral functioning. The Verbal Memory subtest contains an alternate word list without the cuing (i.e., category prompts) and recognition stimuli presented with the primary word list. This leaves the examiner responsible for creating nonstandardized category cues and recognition memory foils when the alternate task is employed. We developed a categorization questionnaire to obtain cuing and recognition items for the alternate word list. Two groups of participants were evaluated: a young sample (n = 518) and an elderly sample (n = 43). Data for the cuing and recognition phases of the alternate verbal memory word list are presented. PMID:23373601

Brzezinski, Sara B; Fouty, H Edward; Rennells, Melissa J; Gatto, Melissa S; Kamps, Cristi L; Crespin, Luna M

2012-01-01

56

The Role and Dynamic of Strengthening in the Reconsolidation Process in a Human Declarative Memory: What Decides the Fate of Recent and Older Memories?  

PubMed Central

Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarative memories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarative memory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of the memory. Forgetting may represent a process that weakens the effect of strengthening. PMID:23658614

Pedreira, Maria E.

2013-01-01

57

The Generality of Working Memory Capacity: A Latent-Variable Approach to Verbal and Visuospatial Memory Span and Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latent-variable study examined whether verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity measures reflect a primarily domain-general construct by testing 236 participants in 3 span tests each of verbal WM, visuospatial WM, verbal short-term memory (STM), and visuospatial STM, as well as in tests of verbal and spatial reasoning and general fluid intelligence (Gf). Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation

Michael J. Kane; David Z. Hambrick; Stephen W. Tuholski; Oliver Wilhelm; Tabitha W. Payne; Randall W. Engle

2004-01-01

58

Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

2013-01-01

59

No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability  

PubMed Central

Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness) benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After 3 h of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS) rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles, or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores. PMID:25225474

Cordi, Maren J.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Bjorn

2014-01-01

60

Interrelations Between Attention and Verbal Memory as Affected by Developmental Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the relationship between several measures of attention (e.g., sustained and divided attention) and measures of verbal memory (e.g., immediate and delayed memory) in children aged 8–17 years. The attentional measures were derived from several tests of attention: Trail-Making, Digit Cancellation, Digit-Symbol, and Digit-Span. The verbal memory measures were derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). We

Yoram Greenstein; Haya Blachstein; Eli Vakil

2009-01-01

61

Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory.  

PubMed

Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible. PMID:11324860

Lewin, C; Wolgers, G; Herlitz, A

2001-04-01

62

Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2010-01-01

63

Effects of Regulating Positive Emotions through Reappraisal and Suppression on Verbal and Non-Verbal Recognition Memory  

PubMed Central

Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica

2013-01-01

64

Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

2011-01-01

65

Processing Speed: A Strong Predictor of Verbal Memory Performance in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of slowing of processing speed in verbal memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia was investigated. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy control subjects were administered a verbal memory task involving free recall of three lists of words, which varied in their degree of semantic organization. Standard processing speed tests were administered as well. Regression analyses were conducted

Gildas Brébion; Anthony S. David; Rodrigo A. Bressan; Lyn S. Pilowsky

2006-01-01

66

Vocabulary Acquisition and Verbal Short-Term Memory: Computational and Neural Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be

Prahlad Gupta; Brian MacWhinney

1997-01-01

67

Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

2013-01-01

68

Verbal learning and memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder: The role of encoding strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbal memory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees\\/immigrants exposed

Grethe E. Johnsen; Arve E. Asbjørnsen

2009-01-01

69

Neonatal Cerebral Abnormalities and Later Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory Abilities of Children Born Very Preterm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, 103 very preterm children underwent structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term equivalent age and an assessment of verbal (Digit Span) and visuospatial (Corsi Blocks) working memory at 6 years corrected age. Compared to children born full term (N = 108), very preterm children were characterized by poorer verbal and visuospatial working memory

Caron A. C. Clark; Lianne J. Woodward

2010-01-01

70

Alzheimer-type dementia and verbal memory performances: influence of selegiline therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double blind randomized crossover trial lasting 6 months selegiline, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, was tested against placebo for activity on verbal memory performances in Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT). Verbal memory was assessed with the Rey-Auditory-Verbal Learning Test at the start of treatment, at the time scheduled for crossover (90 days) and at the end of the trial (180 days).

G. Finali; M. Piccirilli; C. Oliani; G. L. Piccinin

1992-01-01

71

Verbal and Visuospatial Short-Term and Working Memory in Children: Are They Separable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the structure of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children be- tween ages 4 and 11 years. Multiple tasks measuring 4 different memory components were used to capture the cognitive processes underlying working memory. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the processing component of working memory tasks was supported by a common resource pool, while storage

Tracy Packiam Alloway; Susan Elizabeth Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering

2006-01-01

72

Brain connectivity during verbal working memory in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Working memory (WkM) is a fundamental cognitive process that serves as a building block for higher order cognitive functions. While studies have shown that children and adolescents utilize similar brain regions during verbal WkM, there have been few studies that evaluate the developmental differences in brain connectivity. Our goal was to study the development of brain connectivity related to verbal WkM in typically developing children and adolescents. Thirty-five healthy children and adolescents, divided into three groups: 9-12 (children), 13-16 (young adolescents), and 17-19 (older adolescents) years, were included in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The verbal WkM task involved a modified Sternberg item recognition paradigm using three different loads. Brain connectivity analysis was performed using independent component analyses and regressing the components with the design matrix to determine task-related networks. Connectivity analyses resulted in four components associated solely with encoding, four solely with recognition and two with both. Two networks demonstrated age-related differences with respect to load, (1) the left motor area and right cerebellum, and 2) the left prefrontal cortex, left parietal lobe, and right cerebellum. Post hoc analyses revealed that the first network showed significant effects of age between children and the two older groups. There was increasing connectivity with increasing load for adolescents. The second network demonstrated age-related differences between children and older adolescents. Children have higher task-related connectivity at lower loads, but they tend to equalize with the adolescents with higher loads. Finally, a non-load related network involving the orbital frontal and anterior cingulate cortices showed less connectivity in children. Hum Brain Mapp 35:698-711, 2014. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23233279

van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; El Marroun, Hanan; Schmidt, Marcus N; Tibboel, Dick; Manoach, Dara S; Calhoun, Vince D; White, Tonya J H

2014-02-01

73

Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

2012-01-01

74

Striatal Contributions to Declarative Memory Retrieval Jason M. Scimeca1 and David Badre1,2,*  

E-print Network

information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive (reinforcement learning). Introduction Declarative memory retrieval refers to the conscious recovery types of long-term memory, such as skill learning or classical conditioning do not appear to require

Badre, David

75

Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory  

PubMed Central

We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with sub-digit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age- and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory. PMID:20680884

Woods, David L.; Kishiyama, M. M.; Yund, E. W.; Herron, T. J.; Edwards, B.; Poliva, O.; Hink, R. F.; Reed, Bruce

2010-01-01

76

Verbal memory functioning in recurrent depression during partial remission and remission-Brief report  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate verbal memory performance in a group of patients with remitted and partial remitted major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients and 31 healthy matched controls were included in the study. Results from the California Verbal Learning Test show intact verbal memory performance in the patient group regarding learning, recall and recognition. However, patients had significantly poorer performance compared to healthy controls in immediate recall of the first trial in the verbal memory test. In conclusion, the patient group showed intact memory performance, when material is presented more than once. These findings indicate that memory performance in MDD patients with partial remission and remission benefit from repetition of material. PMID:24115937

Hammar, Asa; Ardal, Guro

2013-01-01

77

Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

2010-01-01

78

Evidence relating human verbal memory to hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors  

E-print Network

memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy after high and primates have linked hippocampal LTP with spatial learning and memory (5) although there are some contradicEvidence relating human verbal memory to hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors Thomas Grunwald

Kutas, Marta

79

Visual verbal working memory processing may be interfered by previously seen faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing and maintenance in working memory involve active attention allocation; consequently, it is possible that a recognition process could interfere with the performance of highly demanding working memory tasks. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while fourteen healthy male adults performed a visual verbal dual working memory task. Three conditions were examined: A) reference (with no preceding stimuli); B) happy,

Andres A. Gonzalez-Garrido; Julieta Ramos-Loyo; Fabiola R. Gomez-Velazquez; Marina Alvelais Alarcón; Juan Moises de la Serna Tuya

2007-01-01

80

Verbal Short?term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that verbal short?term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative ease or difficulty with which children remember verbal

Hala Abdelhameed; Jill Porter

2010-01-01

81

Revisiting Evidence for Modularity and Functional Equivalence across Verbal and Spatial Domains in Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control,…

Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

2008-01-01

82

559.2MR CORRELATES OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE WITH VARIED COGNITIVE DECLINE  

E-print Network

LPHG RPHG ICV DelRec ObjNM PictAssc AGE EDU. GENDER LANG. Memory Scales Demograph. Volumes VARIABLES559.2MR CORRELATES OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE WITH VARIED COGNITIVE DECLINE J .235 .263 -.164 .146 -.558 -.155 DelRec ObjNM PictAssoc AGE EDUCATION GENDER LANGUAGE LHC RHC LTL RTL

California at Davis, University of

83

Assessing declarative memory in schizophrenia using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test stimuli: the Paired Associate Recognition Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paired Associate Recognition Test (PART) was developed to measure declarative memory using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) stimuli, so that both tasks could be administered during functional neuroimaging to differentiate memory and executive function, and associated frontal and temporal lobe activation in schizophrenia. The current study was designed to compare PART and WCST performance in schizophrenic patients and to

J. Daniel Ragland; David M. Censits; Ruben C. Gur; David C. Glahn; Fiona Gallacher; Raquel E. Gur

1996-01-01

84

Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation  

PubMed Central

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarative memory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to the hypothesis that the low cholinergic tone during SWS is necessary for the replay of new memories in the hippocampus and their long-term storage in neocortical networks. However, this low tone should not affect nondeclarative memory systems. In this study, increasing central nervous cholinergic activation during SWS-rich sleep by posttrial infusion of 0.75 mg of the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine completely blocked SWS-related consolidation of declarative memories for word pairs in human subjects. The treatment did not interfere with consolidation of a nondeclarative mirror tracing task. Also, physostigmine did not alter memory consolidation during waking, when the endogenous central nervous cholinergic tone is maximal. These findings are in line with predictions that a low cholinergic tone during SWS is essential for declarative memory consolidation. PMID:14766981

Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

2004-01-01

85

Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in…

Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

2007-01-01

86

Contrasting visual working memory for verbal and non-verbal material with multivariate analysis of fMRI  

PubMed Central

We performed a delayed-item-recognition task to investigate the neural substrates of non-verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (‘Shape task’). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1,2 or 3 unnamable nonsense line drawings for 3 seconds (‘stimulus phase’ or STIM). Subsequently, the screen went blank for 7 seconds (‘retention phase’ or RET), and then displayed a probe stimulus for 3 seconds in which subject indicated with a differential button press whether the probe was contained in the studied shape-array or not (‘probe phase’ or PROBE). Ordinal Trend Canonical Variates Analysis (Habeck et al., 2005a) was performed to identify spatial covariance patterns that showed a monotonic increase in expression with memory load during all task phases. Reliable load-related patterns were identified in the stimulus and retention phase (p<0.01), while no significant pattern could be discerned during the probe phase. Spatial covariance patterns that were obtained from an earlier version of this task (Habeck et al., 2005b) using 1, 3, or 6 letters (‘Letter task’) were also prospectively applied to their corresponding task phases in the current non-verbal task version. Interestingly, subject expression of covariance patterns from both verbal and non-verbal retention phases correlated positively in the non-verbal task for all memory loads (p<0.0001). Both patterns also involved similar frontoparietal brain regions that were increasing in activity with memory load, and mediofrontal and temporal regions that were decreasing. Mean subject expression of both patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dL) in the Shape task (p<0.005). These findings point to similarities in the neural substrates of verbal and non-verbal rehearsal processes. Encoding processes, on the other hand, are critically dependent on the to-be-remembered material, and seem to necessitate material-specific neural substrates. PMID:22652306

Habeck, Christian; Rakitin, Brian; Steffener, Jason; Stern, Yaakov

2012-01-01

87

Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n?=?29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n?=?25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC\\/STIMs, n?=?50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were

Rebecca Gilbertson; Jeff Boissoneault; Robert Prather; Sara Jo Nixon

2011-01-01

88

The role of visuospatial and verbal working memory in perceptual category learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of verbal and visuospatial working memory in rule-based and information-integration category learning was examined.\\u000a Previously, Maddox, Ashby, Ing, and Pickering (2004) found that a sequentially presented verbal working memory task did not\\u000a affect information-integration learning, but disrupted rule-based learning when the rule was on the spatial frequency of a\\u000a Gabor stimulus. This pattern was replicated in Experiment 1,

Dagmar Zeithamova; W. Todd Maddox

2007-01-01

89

Association of Maternal Genital and Reproductive Infections with Verbal Memory and Motor Deficits in Adult Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbal memory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbal memory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbal memory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21600665

Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.

2011-01-01

90

Areas of left perisylvian cortex mediate auditory-verbal short-term memory  

PubMed Central

A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain lesions to identify the critical neural substrates underlying verbal STM and the relationship between verbal STM and language processing abilities. We found that patients with damage to selective regions of left perisylvian cortex—specifically the inferior frontal and posterior temporal sectors—were impaired on auditory-verbal STM performance (digit span), as well as on tests requiring the production and/or comprehension of language. These results support the conclusion that verbal STM and language processing are mediated by the same areas of left perisylvian cortex. PMID:21945329

Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel; Barbey, Aron; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

2011-01-01

91

Verbal learning and memory as measured by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test: ADHD with and without learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),

Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein

2012-01-01

92

Verbal learning and memory as measured by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test: ADHD with and without learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),

Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein

2011-01-01

93

Manipulating cues in involuntary autobiographical memory: Verbal cues are more effective than pictorial cues.  

PubMed

In two experiments, pictorial cues were compared with their verbal labels to assess their effectiveness in eliciting involuntary autobiographical memories. Cues were relatively complex in Experiment 1 (e.g., relaxing on a beach) and simple objects in Experiment 2 (e.g., a ball). In both experiments, participants went through a vigilance task in which they were presented with frequent nontarget and rare target visual stimuli. Pictures or their corresponding verbal labels were also displayed on both target and nontarget stimuli, but participants were told that these were irrelevant to the task. They were asked to interrupt the vigilance task whenever they became aware of task-unrelated mental contents and to report them. In both experiments, more involuntary memories were elicited in the verbal cue condition, rather than in the pictorial cue condition. This result is discussed in relation to previous work that highlighted the greater effectiveness of verbal cues in memory tasks. PMID:24871426

Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Batool, Iram

2014-10-01

94

Imagery and Verbal Ability and Recognition Memory for Pictures and Words in Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and subjective indices of imagery and verbal ability and their relationship to recognition memory for pictures and concrete words were examined in a large correlational study. Objective spatial tests of imagery proved to be better predictors of picture recognition than were self?assessments, the Flags test excepted. Spatial tests also predicted word memory in males, but not females. Imagery control

Carole h. Ernest

1983-01-01

95

A Common Neural Substrate for Language Production and Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. "Working memory, thought, and action." New York, NY: Oxford University Press,…

Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.

2011-01-01

96

Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

2012-01-01

97

Are all subcortical dementias Alike?: Verbal learning and memory in Parkinson's and huntington's disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of the concept of «subcortical dementia» was investigated by comparing the verbal learning and memory abilities of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with those of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Many similarities between the PD and HD groups emerged, including impaired immediate memory spans, inconsistency of recall across learning trials, deficient use of a semantic clustering learning strategy, elevated intrusion

Paul J. Massman; Dean C. Delis; Nelson Butters; Bonnie E. Levin; David P. Salmon

1990-01-01

98

Age Differences in the Frontal Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Revealed by PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related decline in working memory figures prominently in theories of cognitive aging. However, the effects of aging on the neural substrate of working memory are largely unknown. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate verbal and spatial short-term storage (3 sec) in older and younger adults. Previous investigations with younger subjects performing these same tasks have revealed asymmetries in

Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; John Jonides; Edward E. Smith; Alan Hartley; Andrea Miller; Christina Marshuetz; Robert A. Koeppe

2000-01-01

99

Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

2013-01-01

100

The role of verbal memory in regressions during reading is modulated by the target word's recency in memory.  

PubMed

During reading, a number of eye movements are made backward, on words that have already been read. Recent evidence suggests that such eye movements, called regressions, are guided by memory. Several studies point to the role of spatial memory, but evidence for the role of verbal memory is more limited. In the present study, we examined the factors that modulate the role of verbal memory in regressions. Participants were required to make regressions on target words located in sentences displayed on one or two lines. Verbal interference was shown to affect regressions, but only when participants executed a regression on a word located in the first part of the sentence, irrespective of the number of lines on which the sentence was displayed. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the effect of verbal interference on words located in the first part of the sentence disappeared when participants initiated the regression from the middle of the sentence. Our results suggest that verbal memory is recruited to guide regressions, but only for words read a longer time ago. PMID:24879638

Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Maltais, Marilyne; Lavoie, Hugo

2014-10-01

101

Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: Working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.  

PubMed

Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24999914

Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

2014-12-01

102

Binding Serial Order to Representations in Working Memory: a Spatial/Verbal Dissociation  

PubMed Central

Verbal information is coded naturally as ordered representations in working memory (WM). However, this may not be true for spatial information. Accordingly, we used memory-span tasks to test the hypothesis that serial order is more readily bound to verbal than to spatial representations. Removing serial-order requirements improved performance more for spatial locations than for digits. Furthermore, serial order was freely reproduced twice as frequently for digits as for locations. When participants reordered spatial sequences, they minimized the mean distance between items. Participants also failed to detect changes in serial order more frequently for spatial than for verbal sequences. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation in the binding of serial order to spatial vs. verbal representations. There may be separable domain-specific control processes responsible for this binding. Alternatively, there may be fundamental differences in how effectively temporal information can be bound to different types of stimulus features in WM. PMID:21264629

Gmeindl, Leon; Walsh, Megan; Courtney, Susan M.

2011-01-01

103

Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Participants viewed an aversive film under one of three conditions: counting backwards in 3s (“verbal interference”), verbalising emotions

Julie Krans; Gérard Näring; Eni S. Becker

2009-01-01

104

Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

2011-01-01

105

Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

2009-01-01

106

Verbal working memory and planning: learning to compare movement durations of objects.  

PubMed

Relations between duration judgments and verbal or visual working memory, between duration judgments and effect of learning to plan the processing of information about such judgments were investigated. A computer monitor was used to present images of two cars traveling in the same direction for various durations and distances. Participants (N=30) were asked to identify the car that had traveled for the longer duration. Then, participants learned how to solve Piagetian tasks logically. After the learning, they tried to solve the duration judgments task again. Finally, their verbal and visual working memory capacities were assessed. Results indicated the following: (a) numbers of correct answers on the Piagetian tasks were correlated with verbal and visual working memory capacity; (b) the correlations did not significantly decrease after the participants learned how to solve the Piagetian tasks. PMID:21319624

Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumiko

2010-12-01

107

Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

Krueger, Lacy E.

2012-01-01

108

KIBRA gene polymorphism has no association with verbal or visual episodic memory performance  

PubMed Central

Inter-individual variability in memory performance has been suggested to result, in part, from genetic differences in the coding of proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study examined the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) on episodic memory performance, using multiple measures of verbal and visual episodic memory. A total of 256 female and 130 male healthy, older adults (mean age = 60.86 years) were recruited from the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP), undergoing both neuropsychological and genetic testing. The current study showed no significant effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Logical Memory test, Paired Associates Learning test or Rey Complex Figure Task. The results suggest there is little to no functional significance of KIBRA genotype on episodic memory performance, regardless of modality. PMID:25339899

Franks, Katherine H.; Summers, Mathew J.; Vickers, James C.

2014-01-01

109

What you say matters: exploring visual-verbal interactions in visual working memory.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether the content of a simple concurrent verbal load task determines the extent of its interference on memory for coloured shapes. The task consisted of remembering four visual items while repeating aloud a pair of words that varied in terms of imageability and relatedness to the task set. At test, a cue appeared that was either the colour or the shape of one of the previously seen objects, with participants required to select the object's other feature from a visual array. During encoding and retention, there were four verbal load conditions: (a) a related, shape-colour pair (from outside the experimental set, i.e., "pink square"); (b) a pair of unrelated but visually imageable, concrete, words (i.e., "big elephant"); (c) a pair of unrelated and abstract words (i.e., "critical event"); and (d) no verbal load. Results showed differential effects of these verbal load conditions. In particular, imageable words (concrete and related conditions) interfered to a greater degree than abstract words. Possible implications for how visual working memory interacts with verbal memory and long-term memory are discussed. PMID:22248026

Mate, Judit; Allen, Richard J; Baqués, Josep

2012-01-01

110

The effect of sleep-specific brain activity versus reduced stimulus interference on declarative memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that the consolidation of newly acquired memories and underlying long-term synaptic plasticity might represent a major function of sleep. In a combined repeated-measures and parallel-group sleep laboratory study (active waking versus sleep, passive waking versus sleep), we provide evidence that brief periods of daytime sleep (42.1 ± 8.9 min of non-rapid eye movement sleep) in healthy adolescents (16 years old, all female), compared with equal periods of waking, promote the consolidation of declarative memory (word-pairs) in participants with high power in the electroencephalographic sleep spindle (sigma) frequency range. This observation supports the notion that sleep-specific brain activity when reaching a critical dose, beyond a mere reduction of interference, promotes synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal-neocortical network that underlies the consolidation of declarative memory. PMID:23398120

Piosczyk, Hannah; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Weber, Friederike; Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Nissen, Christoph

2013-08-01

111

Patterns of brain-electrical activity during declarative memory performance in 10-month-old infants.  

PubMed

This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation task. Infants were divided into two memory performance groups based on the exhibition of ordered-recall after a 24-h delay. Whereas no group differences were found in EEG collected during encoding, performance-group differences in EEG were present during retrieval. Infants who successfully displayed ordered-recall showed a pattern of increasing EEG from baseline to task at anterior temporal scalp locations, whereas infants showing no ordered-recall displayed no changes in EEG from baseline to task. These findings are discussed with respect to the biobehavioral developments underlying declarative memory abilities. PMID:19786317

Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann

2009-12-01

112

Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

2011-01-01

113

Gender difference in the effect of daytime sleep on declarative memory for pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate gender difference in the effects of daytime sleep on item and source memories, which are dissociable elements\\u000a of declarative memory, and the effects of sleep on recollection and familiarity, which are two processes underlying recognition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants saw a series of pictures with either blue or red background, and were then given a pretest for item and source\\u000a memories.

Bo Wang; Xiao-lan Fu

2009-01-01

114

Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

2011-01-01

115

The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

2012-01-01

116

Contribution of Organizational Strategy to Verbal Learning and Memory in Adults With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic

Robert M. Roth; Heather A. Wishart; Laura A. Flashman; Henry J. Riordan; Leighton Huey; Andrew J. Saykin

2004-01-01

117

Verbal memory functions in unipolar major depression with and without co-morbid anxiety.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine both executive control of verbal working memory and verbal learning as well as long-term storage function in outpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 61) compared to healthy controls (n = 92). A total of 37 patients had no co-morbid anxiety disorder, whereas 24 had a co-morbid anxiety disorder. Both patient groups showed impaired working memory test performance compared to healthy controls. Patients with co-morbid depression and anxiety disorder performed significantly below the depression group. Only patients with depression and co-morbid anxiety displayed deficient long-term memory function compared to healthy controls. The present results show impairments in various memory functions in patients presenting depression and depression with co-morbid anxiety disorder. PMID:21391152

Lyche, P; Jonassen, R; Stiles, T C; Ulleberg, P; Landrø, N I

2011-04-01

118

Working Memory Is More Sensitive Than Declarative Memory to the Acute Effects of Corticosteroids: A Dose–Response Study in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various doses (40 ?g\\/kg\\/hr, 300 ?g\\/kg\\/hr, 600 ?g\\/kg\\/hr or placebo) of hydrocortisone on tasks assessing working and declarative memory function were measured in 4 groups of 10 young men. During the infusion, participants were given an item-recognition working memory task, a paired-associate declarative memory task, and a continuous performance task used to control possible concomitant effects of

Sonia J. Lupien; Christian J. Gillin; Richard L. Hauger

1999-01-01

119

In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

2009-01-01

120

Inconsistent vs consistent right-handers' performance on an episodic memory task: Evidence from the California Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistent handedness is associated with better memory performance on episodic memory tasks than consistent handedness. The present study further explored this difference in memory related to handedness by administering a measure that is used in clinical settings to assess different aspects of long-term memory. The results indicated that inconsistent right-handed individuals recalled and recognised more words on the California Verbal

Olivia Chu; Christopher A. Abeare; Matthew A. Bondy

2012-01-01

121

Inconsistent vs consistent right-handers' performance on an episodic memory task: Evidence from the California Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistent handedness is associated with better memory performance on episodic memory tasks than consistent handedness. The present study further explored this difference in memory related to handedness by administering a measure that is used in clinical settings to assess different aspects of long-term memory. The results indicated that inconsistent right-handed individuals recalled and recognised more words on the California Verbal

Olivia Chu; Christopher A. Abeare; Matthew A. Bondy

2011-01-01

122

Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose Verbal short-term (STM) and working (WM) memory skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single endpoint outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of verbal STM/WM and speech-language skills. This study investigated relations between profiles of verbal STM/WM development and speech-language development over time. Method Profiles of verbal STM/WM development were identified using group-based trajectory analysis of repeated digit span measures over at least a two-year time period in a sample of 66 children (age 6-16 years) with CIs. Subjects also completed repeated assessments of speech and language skills during the same time period. Results Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal STM (digit span forward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and language comprehension skills over time. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal WM (digit span backward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and spoken word recognition skills over time. Conclusions Different patterns of development of verbal STM/WM capacity predict the dynamic process of development of speech and language skills in this clinical population. PMID:23275401

Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

2013-01-01

123

A study of visual and auditory verbal working memory in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Impaired working memory (WM) performance is considered as a central feature of schizophrenia. Divided into two components, verbal and spatial, WM has been shown to involve frontal and parietal regions. Verbal WM can be tested either visually or aurally. The present study aimed to test schizophrenic patients in both visual and auditory verbal WM in order to assess a possible distinct pattern of alteration of these two modalities. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients and 24 healthy controls were compared with 2-back continuous visual and auditory verbal WM testing. Both groups were also tested on a neuropsychological battery including Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Schizophrenic patients were less efficient in both verbal WM tests. When taking age and educational level as covariates and both WM modalities as dependent variables, there was no differential effect of modalities across groups. In further exploratory analyses, partial correlations brought association between verbal WM and psychosocial adaptation, WCST and length of illness. These results suggest a similar pattern of alteration of both modalities of verbal WM in schizophrenic patients. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:10853923

Huguelet, P; Zanello, A; Nicastro, R

2000-01-01

124

Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.  

PubMed

Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. PMID:24880338

Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

2014-08-01

125

Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study  

PubMed Central

Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

2013-01-01

126

Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

2010-01-01

127

Cocaine dependence and attention switching within and between verbal and visuospatial working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown the negative effects of cocaine on neuropsychological and cognitive performance in drug-dependent individuals, but little is known about the underlying neuroanatomy of these dysfunctions. The present study addressed attention switching between items held in working memory (WM) with a task in which subjects were required to store and update two items held in verbal or visuospatial

A. Kübler; K. Murphy; H. Garavan

2005-01-01

128

Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

2010-01-01

129

What models of verbal working memory can learn from phonological theory: Decomposing the phonological similarity effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying types and levels of similarity in their onset

Judith Schweppe; Martine Grice; Ralf Rummer

2011-01-01

130

Sex Differences in Prefrontal Cortical Brain Activity During fMRI of Auditory Verbal Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging studies of sex effects in working memory (WMEM) are few, despite significant normal sex differences in brain regions implicated in WMEM. This functional MRI (fMRI) study tested for sex effects in an auditory verbal WMEM task in prefrontal, parietal, cingulate, and insula regions. Fourteen healthy, right-handed community subjects were comparable between the sexes, including on WMEM performance. Per

Jill M. Goldstein; Matthew Jerram; Russell Poldrack; Robert Anagnoson; Hans C. Breiter; Nikos Makris; Julie M. Goodman; Ming T. Tsuang; Larry J. Seidman

2005-01-01

131

Mapping of verbal working memory in nonfluent Chinese–English bilinguals with functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing cognitive and neural imaging studies have suggested a frontoparietal network of multiple, cooperative components for verbal working memory (WM). We used functional MRI to investigate whether this neural network is also involved in the processing of second language by nonfluent bilinguals. Twelve (five males, seven females) native Chinese speakers who had limited English proficiency were scanned while performing working

Gui Xue; Qi Dong; Zhen Jin; Chuansheng Chenc

2004-01-01

132

A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…

Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.

2005-01-01

133

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

134

Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

2009-01-01

135

Enhancing verbal episodic memory in older and young subjects after non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Memory is the capacity to store, maintain, and retrieve events or information from the mind. Difficulties in verbal episodic memory commonly occur in healthy aging. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate verbal episodic memory in a group of 32 healthy older adults and in a group of 32 young subjects relative to a sham stimulation using a single-blind randomized controlled design. Each participant underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of sham stimulation. Overall, our results demonstrated that, in young and in older subjects, anodal tDCS applied during the retrieval phase facilitates verbal episodic memory. In particular, we found that tDCS applied over the left and right regions (DLPFC and PARC) induced better performance in young participants; only tDCS applied over the left regions (DLPFC and PARC) increased retrieval in older subjects. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate the long-term episodic memory capacities of young and older subjects. PMID:24062685

Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Petesi, Michela; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria

2013-01-01

136

Developmental fMRI study of episodic verbal memory encoding in children  

PubMed Central

Background: Understanding the maturation and organization of cognitive function in the brain is a central objective of both child neurology and developmental cognitive neuroscience. This study focuses on episodic memory encoding of verbal information by children, a cognitive domain not previously studied using fMRI. Methods: Children from 7 to 19 years of age were scanned at 1.5-T field strength using event-related fMRI while performing a novel verbal memory encoding paradigm in which words were incidentally encoded. A subsequent memory analysis was performed. SPM2 was utilized for whole brain and region-of-interest analyses of data. Both whole-sample intragroup analyses and intergroup analyses of the sample divided into 2 subgroups by age were conducted. Results: Importantly, behavioral memory performance was equal across the age range of children studied. Encoding-related activation in the left hippocampus and bilateral basal ganglia declined as age increased. In addition, while robust blood oxygen level–dependent signal was found in left prefrontal cortex with task performance, no encoding-related age-modulated prefrontal activation was observed in either hemisphere. Conclusion: These data are consistent with a developmental pattern of verbal memory encoding function in which left hippocampal and bilateral basal ganglionic activations are more robust earlier in childhood but then decline with age. No encoding-related activation was found in prefrontal cortex which may relate to this region's recognized delay in biologic maturation in humans. These data represent the first fMRI demonstration of verbal encoding function in children and are relevant developmentally and clinically. GLOSSARY BOLD = blood oxygenation level–dependent; DM = differences in subsequent memory; F = misses; H = high-confidence hits; L = low-confidence hits; MTL = medial temporal lobe; NS = not significant; PFC = prefrontal cortex; ROI = region of interest. PMID:21135385

Maril, A.; Davis, P.E.; Koo, J.J.; Reggev, N.; Zuckerman, M.; Ehrenfeld, L.; Mulkern, R.V.; Waber, D.P.; Rivkin, M.J.

2010-01-01

137

Non-Dependent Stimulant Users of Cocaine and Prescription Amphetamines Show Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits  

PubMed Central

Background Stimulants are used increasingly to enhance social (cocaine) or cognitive performance (stimulants normally prescribed, prescription stimulants, e.g. methylphenidate, amphetamines). Chronic use, on the other hand, has been associated with significant verbal memory and learning deficits. This study sought to determine whether subtle learning and memory problems characterize individuals who exhibit occasional but not chronic use of stimulants. Methods 154 young (age 18–25) occasional, non-dependent stimulant users and 48 stimulant naïve comparison subjects performed the California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II). Lifetime uses of stimulants and co-use of marijuana were considered in correlation and median split analyses. Results Compared to stimulant naïve subjects, occasional stimulant users showed significant performance deficits, most pronounced in the verbal recall and recognition domains. Lifetime uses of stimulants and marijuana did not affect CVLT-II performance. The type of stimulant used, however, was of major relevance: users of cocaine only were less impaired, while cumulative use of prescription stimulants was associated with impaired verbal learning and memory capacities. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis of subtle and possibly pre-existing neurocognitive deficiencies in occasional users of stimulants, which may be related to the motivation of using these drugs. More importantly, despite beneficial short-term effects, cumulative use, particularly of prescription amphetamines and methylphenidate, intensifies these deficits. PMID:20605137

Reske, Martina; Eidt, Carolyn A.; Delis, Dean C.; Paulus, Martin P.

2010-01-01

138

Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

2008-01-01

139

Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced

Elizabeth F. Loftus; David G. Miller; Helen J. Burns

1978-01-01

140

The Integration of Discrete Verbal Units in Recognition Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an earlier study, subjects who were shown the two words "inside" and "consult" at two different points in a study list of two syllable words were willing to accept the word "insult" as having been on the study list. It was concluded that each syllable had a representation in memory over and beyond the semantic factors which are normally…

Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

141

Verbal Memory during Simultaneous Interpretation: Effects of Phonological Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group of advanced student interpreters, recall of short stories after simultaneous interpretation from their first (L1) into their second (L2) language, and vice versa, was significantly worse than recall of similar stories after listening. Memory span for digits presented in L1 and L2 was significantly poorer following simultaneous…

Daro, Valeria; Fabbro, Franco

1994-01-01

142

The Interaction of Concreteness and Phonological Similarity in Verbal Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level. PMID:20053042

Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

143

Basal functional connectivity within the anterior temporal network is associated with performance on declarative memory tasks.  

PubMed

Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest, exhibit a temporally coherent activity thought to reflect functionally relevant networks. Antero-mesial temporal structures are the site of early pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease and have been shown to be critical for declarative memory. Our study aimed at exploring the functional impact of basal connectivity of an anterior temporal network (ATN) on declarative memory. A heterogeneous group of subjects with varying performance on tasks assessing memory was therefore selected, including healthy subjects and patients with isolated memory complaint, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Independent Component Analysis on resting-state fMRI, we extracted a relevant anterior temporal network (ATN) composed of the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal head, the amygdala and the lateral temporal cortex extending to the temporal pole. A default mode network and an executive-control network were also selected to serve as control networks. We first compared basal functional connectivity of the ATN between patients and control subjects. Relative to controls, patients exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity in the ATN during rest. Specifically, voxel-based analysis revealed an increase within the inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the uncus. In the patient group, positive correlations between averaged connectivity values of ATN and performance on anterograde and retrograde object-based memory tasks were observed, while no correlation was found with other evaluated cognitive measures. These correlations were specific to the ATN, as no correlation between performance on memory tasks and the other selected networks was found. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that basal connectivity inside the ATN network has a functional role in object-related, context-free memory. They also suggest that increased connectivity at rest within the ATN could reflect compensatory mechanisms that occur in response to early pathological insult. PMID:21722740

Gour, Natalina; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier

2011-09-15

144

An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients  

PubMed Central

Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

2011-01-01

145

In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory Marc G. Berman, John Jonides, and Richard L. Lewis  

E-print Network

In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory Marc G. Berman, John Jonides, and Richard L. Lewis, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However

Lewis, Richard

146

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

147

Modality-specific control processes in verbal versus spatial working memory.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of working memory (WM) have made progress in distinguishing the neural substrates of central executive (CE) functions from substrates of temporary storage subsystems. However, the degree to which CE-related processes and their substrates may be further fractionated is less clear. The present study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) in a running memory paradigm, to study modality-specific CE-related processes in verbal and spatial WM. Participants were asked to remember either verbal (digit identity) or spatial (digit location) information for the first or last three items in a variable length sequence of spatially distributed digit stimuli. Modality-specific WM demand-sensitive ERP amplitude effects were selectively observed over left prefrontal areas under verbal WM performance and over right prefrontal areas under spatial WM performance. In addition, distinct patterns of item-by-item sensitivity under high-CE-demand conditions suggested qualitatively different processing strategies for verbal versus spatial tasks. These results suggest that both modality-specific and task-general CE-related processes are likely operational in many WM situations and that careful dissociative methods will be needed to properly further fractionate and characterize these component CE-related processes and their neurological substrates. PMID:20570659

Watter, Scott; Heisz, Jennifer J; Karle, James W; Shedden, Judith M; Kiss, Ivan

2010-08-01

148

Verbal learning and memory and their associations with brain morphology and illness course in schizophrenia spectrum psychoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Verbal Learning Test and structural brain imaging were administered to 57 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 94 controls in a general population sample. Cases had lower semantic cluster scores. Poorer verbal memory strategies were associated with longer duration of illness and heavier use of antipsychotic medication. After controlling for duration of illness, sex, and total gray matter,

Irina Rannikko; Liisa Paavola; Marianne Haapea; Sanna Huhtaniska; Jouko Miettunen; Juha Veijola; Graham K. Murray; Anna Barnes; Karl-Erik Wahlberg; Matti Isohanni; Erika Jääskeläinen

2012-01-01

149

The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: insight from spatial and verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM) experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock) has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function) devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back) while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion–cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated with anxiety. PMID:23542914

Vytal, Katherine E.; Cornwell, Brian R.; Letkiewicz, Allison M.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Grillon, Christian

2013-01-01

150

No hypofrontality, but absence of prefrontal lateralization comparing verbal and spatial working memory in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Hypofrontality and decreased lateralization have been two major, albeit controversial, results from functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia. We used fMRI to study cortical activation during a verbal and spatial working memory (WM) task (2-back) in 15 inpatients acutely ill with schizophrenia and 15 matched control subjects. We hypothesized (i) hypofrontality in patients in both tasks and (ii) decreased lateralization of prefrontal activation in patients under the assumption that, in controls, left prefrontal cortex (PFC) is engaged preferentially in the verbal task (verbal domain dominance) and the right prefrontal cortex is engaged preferentially in the spatial task (spatial domain dominance). Our results showed no significant differences in frontal activation between controls and patients, i.e. no hypofrontality in patients, even at a very liberal threshold (p<0.01). This may be explained by the fact that nearly all patients studied received atypical neuroleptics. Nonetheless, we found evidence for more subtle, domain-related prefrontal dysfunction. Whereas controls showed verbal WM domain dominance in left inferior frontal cortex and spatial WM domain dominance in right prefrontal cortex, these domain dominance effects were absent in the patient group, i.e. there were no lateralization effects. Finally, only patients showed an inverse correlation between performance and right prefrontal activation in verbal WM. We conclude that the finding of hypofrontality may depend on the medication of the patients and that there is prefrontal dysfunction even in the absence of hypofrontality. PMID:12729869

Walter, Henrik; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Blankenhorn, Michael; Schäfer, Sandra; Tomczak, Reinhard; Spitzer, Manfred; Grön, Georg

2003-06-01

151

Slave systems in verbal short-term memory  

PubMed Central

Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

2013-01-01

152

Exploring the relationship between English speaking subjects' verbal working memory and foreign word pronunciation and script recognition.  

E-print Network

??Many studies show verbal working memory capacity is correlated with second-language learning ability. This research replicates and extends those findings to the pronunciation and visual-script… (more)

Furuhata, Takashi

2007-01-01

153

Recoding, storage, rehearsal and grouping in verbal short-term memory: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of healthy volunteers is used to localise the processes involved in verbal short-term memory (VSTM) for sequences of visual stimuli. Specifically, the brain areas underlying (i) recoding, (ii) storage, (iii) rehearsal and (iv) temporal grouping are investigated. Successive subtraction of images obtained from five tasks revealed a network of left-lateralised areas, including posterior temporal regions,

R. N. A Henson; N Burgess; C. D Frith

2000-01-01

154

Verbal short-term memory deficits in Down syndrome: phonological, semantic, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the phonological and semantic contributions to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS) by experimentally manipulating the phonological and semantic demands of VSTM tasks. The performance of 18 individuals\\u000a with DS (ages 11–25) and 18 typically developing children (ages 3–10) matched pairwise on receptive vocabulary and gender\\u000a was compared on four VSTM tasks,

Nancy Raitano Lee; Bruce F. Pennington; Janice M. Keenan

2010-01-01

155

Bilateral Generic Working Memory Circuit Requires Left-Lateralized Addition for Verbal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Baddeley--Hitch model, phonological and visuo- spatial representations are separable components of working memory (WM) linked by a central executive. The traditional view that the separation reflects the relative contribution of the 2 hemispheres (verbal WM—left; spatial WM—right) has been challenged by the position that a common bilateral frontoparietal network subserves both domains. Here, we test the hypothesis

Manaan Kar Ray; Clare E. Mackay; Catherine J. Harmer; Timothy J. Crow

2008-01-01

156

Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7–12 years) and adults (ages 20–29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads) of information to be

Moriah E. Thomason; Elizabeth Race; Brittany Burrows; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Gary H. Glover; John D. E. Gabrieli

2008-01-01

157

Long-term deficits in episodic memory after ischemic stroke: evaluation and prediction of verbal and visual memory performance based on lesion characteristics.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors Test, respectively. Lesion characteristics and presence of white matter lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging early after stroke. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate prediction of verbal and visual memory performance by lesion side (left v right hemisphere), lesion level (cortical v subcortical), and lesion volume. We controlled for the influence of demographic characteristics, language disability, and visuospatial difficulties on memory. The results demonstrated that poor verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall and recognition) could be predicted by lesion characteristics: patients with left hemispheric, subcortical, and large lesions showed poor memory performance. Poor visual recognition memory could not be predicted by lesion characteristics but only by low educational level. Our results suggest that lesion characteristics play an important role in episodic verbal memory poststroke if demographic and clinical characteristics are taken into account. PMID:19251189

Schouten, Eveline A; Schiemanck, Sven K; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W M

2009-01-01

158

Enhanced working and verbal memory after lamotrigine treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the treatment impact of lamotrigine on the neurocognitive profile of patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method Healthy controls (HC) (n = 24; mean age = 12.4 ± 3.3 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic, mixed or hypomanic episodes (n = 34; mean age = 13 ± 3.1 years) were matched for IQ, age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and again after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated with lamotrigine. Results Clinical symptoms improved with treatment in the patient group with significant change from baseline to follow-up on the Young Mania Rating Scale (p < 0.001) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (p < 0.001). Global neurocognitive function improved with lamotrigine in PBD patients over time relative to that in HC, although overall performance remained impaired. Working memory and verbal memory significantly improved with treatment in patients, and deficits in these domains were no longer significantly impaired relative to HC at follow-up. Executive function significantly improved with treatment in the patient group, but still lagged behind HC at follow-up. Performance on attention tests did not improve with treatment. Conclusions There appears to be significant improvement in cognitive abilities in PBD patients treated with lamotrigine that is most prominent in the areas of working memory and verbal memory and that occurs along with mood stabilization. PMID:20402714

Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Mohammed, Tahseen; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A

2010-01-01

159

Functional asymmetry of human prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory as revealed by fMRI.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential involvement of bilateral prefrontal cortex during episodic memory encoding and retrieval. The aim of the present study is to address the question whether left prefrontal model for encoding holds when highly non-verbal material is used, and which region of the brain is critically related to successful retrieval. To do this, seven normal subjects were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during encoding and retrieval of word and checkerboard pattern. Our results revealed that word encoding activated the left prefrontal cortices and right cerebellum, whereas pattern encoding activated the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, premotor area, and occipital visual cortex. Word-specific activation was found in the ventral prefrontal cortices, and pattern-specific activation located in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex. Conjunction analysis during encoding of word and pattern showed that activity in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex and the right cerebellum might relate to common neural network for encoding regardless of the type of material. Finally, the present study demonstrates strong association between the left ventral prefrontal cortex and retrieval success for word. The evidence, that both encoding and retrieval of words activated the left ventral prefrontal cortex, indicates that this area is involved in active and strategic operation of the mnemonic representation. A lack of the right prefrontal activation during retrieval was interpreted as that activity in this region might relate to retrieval effort rather than success. PMID:10666559

Iidaka, T; Sadato, N; Yamada, H; Yonekura, Y

2000-01-01

160

Love Is… AN ABSTRACT WORD: THE INFLUENCE OF LEXICAL SEMANTICS ON VERBAL SHORT-TERM MEMORY IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that verbal short-term memory in Williams syndrome is characterised by an over-use of phonological coding alongside a reduced contribution of lexical semantics. We critically examine this hypothesis and present results from a memory span task comparing performance on concrete and abstract words, together with a replication of a span task using phonologically similar and phonologically dissimilar

Emma Laing; Julia Grant; Michael Thomas; Charlotte Parmigiani; Sandra Ewing; Annette Karmiloff-Smith

2005-01-01

161

Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

Ebert, Kerry Danahy

2014-01-01

162

The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

2013-01-01

163

Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

2005-06-01

164

Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

In humans, theta phase (4–8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM. PMID:24672496

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

2014-01-01

165

Reliability and Construct Validity of the Paired-Associate Recognition Test: A Test of Declarative Memory Using Wisconsin Card Sorting Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Paired-Associate Recognition Test (PART) was developed to test declarative memory using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test stimuli. The reliability and construct validity of the PART were studied with 55 healthy adults. Overall results indicate that the PART can be administered reliably and that it requires declarative memory processes. (SLD)

Ragland, J. Daniel; And Others

1995-01-01

166

Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.  

PubMed

Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

2014-01-01

167

Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

2014-01-01

168

Assessment of verbal working memory before and after surgery for low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  While scarcely reported in low-grade glioma (LGG), accurate assessment of higher functions is essential to evaluate then preserve\\u000a the quality of life. We assessed verbal working memory (vWM) in patients with LGG in language areas, before and after surgery,\\u000a to evaluate the effect of glioma and resection on cognition, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 23 patients harboring a LGG in language areas underwent

Pilar Teixidor; Peggy Gatignol; Marianne Leroy; Cristina Masuet-Aumatell; Laurent Capelle; Hugues Duffau

2007-01-01

169

Developmental and individual differences in preschoolers' recognition memories: The influences of gender schematization and verbal labeling of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-three 37-92-month-old children's gender schematization and recognition memories for gender-typed content were assessed. Verbal labeling of stimuli and age were positively associated with children's memories. Highly gender schematic children displayed better memories for gender-role consistent information and committed more gender transformation errors than less gender schematic children. Interactions between children's gender schematization, age, and labeling condition were observed. Labeling of

Gary D. Levy

1989-01-01

170

Morphometry and connectivity of the fronto-parietal verbal working memory network in development.  

PubMed

Two distinctly different maturational processes - cortical thinning and white matter maturation - take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of the left fronto-parietal network and the diffusion characteristics of the connecting pathway of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in accounting for verbal working memory performance were investigated, using a predefined regions of interest-approach. 108 healthy participants aged 8-19 years underwent MRI, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as cognitive testing using a digit span task. Radial diffusivity of the SLF, as well as cortical thickness of supramarginal gyrus and rostral middle frontal cortex, were negatively related to digit span forwards performance, independently of age. Radial diffusivity of the SLF was also negatively related to digit span backwards. A multi-modal analysis showed that cortical thickness and SLF microstructure were complementary in explaining working memory span. Furthermore, SLF microstructure and cortical thickness had different impact on working memory performance during the developmental period, suggesting a complex developmental interplay. The results indicate that cortical and white matter maturation each play unique roles in the development of working memory. PMID:22001853

Østby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

2011-12-01

171

Visuospatial bootstrapping: implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults.  

PubMed

When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding-a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal binding (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospatial bootstrapping in adults (n=18) and 9-year-old children (n=15) but not in 6-year-old children (n=18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of bootstrapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the episodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood. PMID:24287442

Darling, Stephen; Parker, Mary-Jane; Goodall, Karen E; Havelka, Jelena; Allen, Richard J

2014-03-01

172

Two Systems of Maintenance in Verbal Working Memory: Evidence from the Word Length Effect  

PubMed Central

The extended time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model suggested a working memory architecture in which an executive loop and a phonological loop could both support the maintenance of verbal information. The consequence of such a framework is that phonological effects known to impact the maintenance of verbal information, like the word length effect (WLE), should depend on the use of the phonological loop, but should disappear under the maintenance by the executive loop. In two previous studies, introducing concurrent articulation in complex span tasks barely affected WLE, contradicting the prediction from the TBRS model. The present study re-evaluated the WLE in a complex span task while controlling for time parameters and the amount of concurrent articulation. Specifically, we used a computer-paced span task in which participants remembered lists of either short or long words while concurrently either articulating or making a location judgment. Whereas the WLE appeared when participants remained silent, concurrent articulation eliminated the effect. Introducing a concurrent attention demand reduced recall, but did not affect WLE, and did not interact with concurrent articulation. These results support the existence of two systems of maintenance for verbal information. PMID:23894580

Mora, Gerome; Camos, Valerie

2013-01-01

173

The significance of sigma neurofeedback training on sleep spindles and aspects of declarative memory.  

PubMed

The functional significance of sleep spindles for overnight memory consolidation and general learning aptitude as well as the effect of four 10-minute sessions of spindle frequency (11.6-16 Hz, sigma) neurofeedback-training on subsequent sleep spindle activity and overnight performance change was investigated. Before sleep, subjects were trained on a paired-associate word list task after having received either neurofeedback training (NFT) or pseudofeedback training (PFT). Although NFT had no significant impact on subsequent spindle activity and behavioral outcomes, there was a trend for enhanced sigma band-power during NREM (stage 2 to 4) sleep after NFT as compared to PFT. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between spindle activity during slow wave sleep (in the first night half) and overall memory performance was revealed. The results support the view that the considerable inter-individual variance in sleep spindle activity can at least be partly explained by differences in the ability to acquire new declarative information. We conclude that the short NFT before sleep was not sufficient to efficiently enhance phasic spindle activity and/or to influence memory processing. NFT was, however, successful in increasing sigma power, presumably because sigma NFT effects become more easily evident in actually trained frequency bands than in associated phasic spindle activity. PMID:16845599

Berner, I; Schabus, M; Wienerroither, T; Klimesch, W

2006-06-01

174

Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?  

PubMed Central

Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in understanding verbal materials, especially when words are mentally combined to form multi-word units or chunks. Toward a more comprehensive theory of capacity limits, we examine models of forced-choice recognition of words within printed lists, using materials designed to produce multi-word chunks in memory (e.g., leather brief case). Several simple models were tested against data from a variety of list lengths and potential chunk sizes, with test conditions that only imperfectly elicited the inter-word associations. According to the most successful model, participants retained about 3 chunks on average in a capacity-limited region of WM, with some chunks being only subsets of the presented associative information (e.g., leather brief case retained with leather as one chunk and brief case as another). The addition to the model of an activated long-term memory (LTM) component unlimited in capacity was needed. A fixed capacity limit appears critical to account for immediate verbal recognition and other forms of WM. We advance a model-based approach that allows capacity to be assessed despite other important processing contributions. Starting with a psychological-process model of WM capacity developed to understand visual arrays, we arrive at a more unified and complete model. PMID:22486726

Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

2013-01-01

175

Sleep states and memory processes in humans: procedural versus declarative memory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on human studies attempting to relate sleep states to memory processes. These studies typically present learning material to participants and then examine their ability to recall this material after intervening post-training sleep or sleep deprivation. Most experiments utilize either sleep recording or sleep deprivation following task acquisition to reach their conclusions, although cueing and position emission

C. Smith

2001-01-01

176

Symptoms of ADHD in Children with High-Functioning Autism Are Related to Impaired Verbal Working Memory and Verbal Delayed Recall  

PubMed Central

Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8–17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA?) “attention problems” according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6–18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA? were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA? group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA?, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment. PMID:23717667

Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; ?ie, Merete

2013-01-01

177

Functional MRI of auditory verbal working memory: long-term reproducibility analysis.  

PubMed

Although functional MRI (fMRI) has shown to be a tool with great potential to study the normal and diseased human brain, the large variability in the detected hemodynamic responses across sessions and across subjects hinders a wider application. To investigate the long-term reproducibility of fMRI activation of verbal working memory (WM), eight normal subjects performed an auditory version of the 2-back verbal WM task while fMRI images were acquired. The experiment was repeated nine times with the same settings for image acquisition and fMRI task. Data were analyzed using SPM99 program. Single-session activation maps and multi-subject session-specific activation maps were generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) associated to specific components of verbal WM were defined based on the voxels' coordinates in Talairach space. Visual observation of the multi-subject activation maps showed similar activation patterns, and quantitative analysis showed small coefficients of variance of activation within ROIs over time, suggesting small longitudinal variability of activation. Visual observation of the activation maps of individual sessions demonstrated striking variation of activation across sessions and across subjects, and quantitative analysis demonstrated larger contribution from between-subject variation to overall variation than that from within-subject variation. We concluded that by multi-subject analysis of data from a relatively small number of subjects, reasonably reproducible activation for the 2-back verbal WM paradigm can be achieved. The level of reproducibility encourages the application of this fMRI paradigm to the evaluation of cognitive changes in future investigations. The quantitative estimation of the proportions of within-subject and between-subject variabilities in the overall variability may be helpful for the design of future studies. PMID:15006667

Wei, Xingchang; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dickey, Chandlee C; Zou, Kelly H; Guttmann, Charles R G; Panych, Lawrence P

2004-03-01

178

Verbal, Visual, and Spatio-Sequential Short-Term Memory: Assessment of the Storage Capacities of Children and Teenagers with Down's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…

Frenkel, S.; Bourdin, B.

2009-01-01

179

Twisting tongues and memories: Explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister or control materials used in four tasks: reading aloud, immediate spoken recall, immediate typed recall, and serial recognition. Dependent measures from working memory (recall accuracy) and language production (speech errors) fields were used. Even though lists were identical except for item order, robust effects of tongue twisters were observed. Speech error analyses showed that errors were better described as phoneme rather than item ordering errors. The distribution of speech errors was comparable across all experiments and exhibited syllable-position effects, suggesting an important role for production processes. Implications for working memory and language production are discussed. PMID:21165150

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

180

Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops  

PubMed Central

Working memory is the structure devoted to the maintenance of information at short term during concurrent processing activities. In this respect, the question regarding the nature of the mechanisms and systems fulfilling this maintenance function is of particular importance and has received various responses in the recent past. In the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, we suggest that only two systems sustain the maintenance of information at the short term, counteracting the deleterious effect of temporal decay and interference. A non-attentional mechanism of verbal rehearsal, similar to the one described by Baddeley in the phonological loop model, uses language processes to reactivate phonological memory traces. Besides this domain-specific mechanism, an executive loop allows the reconstruction of memory traces through an attention-based mechanism of refreshing. The present paper reviews evidence of the involvement of these two independent systems in the maintenance of verbal memory items.

Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

2014-01-01

181

Evidence from two genetic syndromes for a dissociation between verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams and Down syndromes, two genetic syndromes of abnormal neurodevelopment, are characterized by specific neuropsychological profiles and unique patterns of brain morphology. We find that the superior language ability of subjects with Williams syndrome is accompanied by significantly better performance on a verbal short-term memory task. Conversely, subjects with Down syndrome perform significantly better on a visual-spatial short-term memory task.

Paul P. Wang; Ursula Bellugi

1994-01-01

182

Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of

Peggy L. St. Jacques; Martin A. Conway; Roberto Cabeza

2010-01-01

183

Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of

Peggy L. St. Jacques; Martin A. Conway; Roberto Cabeza

2011-01-01

184

The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative

Elizabeth Jefferies; Paul Hoffman; Roy Jones; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2008-01-01

185

Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

2011-01-01

186

Language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have broad language deficits (that are not restricted to measures

Kari-Anne B. Næss; Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster; Charles Hulme; Monica Melby-Lervåg

2011-01-01

187

From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…

Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

2012-01-01

188

Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

2014-01-01

189

Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.  

PubMed

Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

2014-08-01

190

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Verbal Working Memory Training Performance over Time and Near Transfer Outcomes.  

PubMed

Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities. PMID:24742190

Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

2014-11-01

191

Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

2005-01-01

192

Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance  

PubMed Central

This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

2010-01-01

193

Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45?min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18?months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

2012-01-01

194

Working memory and insight in verbal problems: analysis of compound remote associates.  

PubMed

Problem solving is sometimes accompanied by a sudden feeling of knowing, or insight. The specific cognitive processes that underlie insightful problem solving are a matter of great interest and debate. Although some investigators favor a special-process view, which explains insight in terms of specialized mechanisms that operate outside of conscious awareness, others favor a business-as-usual account, which posits that insightful problem solving involves the same conscious mechanisms-including working memory (WM) and attention-that are implicated in noninsightful problem solving. In the present study, we used an individual-differences approach to explore the contributions of WM and attention to the solution of compound remote associate (CRA) problems. On the basis of self-report insight ratings, we identified CRA problems whose solution was accompanied by a subjective feeling of insight and examined the correlations between problem performance and measures of WM capacity (verbal and spatial) and attention control (Stroop and antisaccade tasks). The results indicated that individual differences in verbal WM and attention significantly explained variation in overall CRA problem solving and, most importantly, in the occurrence of solutions that were accompanied by a feeling of insight. The findings implicated both modality-dependent WM mechanisms and modality-independent attention control mechanisms in this class of insight problems. Comparisons of the accuracy and solution-latency findings for insightfully versus noninsightfully solved CRA problems, and for participants working silently versus in a "think-aloud" condition, provided additional evidence against the special-process view, and reinforcing the business-as-usual account of insight. PMID:23864281

Chein, Jason M; Weisberg, Robert W

2014-01-01

195

EEG ? and slow-wave activity during NREM sleep correlate with overnight declarative and procedural memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that sleep-specific brain activity patterns such as sleep spindles and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity contribute to the consolidation of novel memories. The generation of both sleep spindles and slow-wave activity relies on synchronized oscillations in a thalamo-cortical network that might be implicated in synaptic strengthening (spindles) and downscaling (slow-wave activity) during sleep. This study further examined the association between electroencephalographic power during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the spindle (sigma, 12-16 Hz) and slow-wave frequency range (0.1-3.5 Hz) and overnight memory consolidation in 20 healthy subjects (10 men, 27.1 ± 4.6 years). We found that both electroencephalographic sigma power and slow-wave activity were positively correlated with the pre-post-sleep consolidation of declarative (word list) and procedural (mirror-tracing) memories. These results, although only correlative in nature, are consistent with the view that processes of synaptic strengthening (sleep spindles) and synaptic downscaling (slow-wave activity) might act in concert to promote synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of both declarative and procedural memories during sleep. PMID:22591117

Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

2012-12-01

196

In Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (1996), pages 189-194. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Word Learning and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Computational Account  

E-print Network

with the explanation proposed in the working memory literature, viz., that word learning is dependent on verbal short-194. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Word Learning and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Computational Account Prahlad, of working memory, and of the relationship between short- and long-term memory systems. This paper presents

Gupta, Prahlad

197

Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = ?0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

2013-01-01

198

Gender-specific hemodynamics in prefrontal cortex during a verbal working memory task by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence or absence of gender differences in working memory, localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), has been debated in a few fMRI studies. However, the hypothesis of gender differences in PFC function has not been elaborated, and comparisons among hemodynamic parameters designed to test for gender differences are scarce. We utilized near-infrared spectroscopy during verbal N-back tasks on 26

Ting Li; Qingming Luo; Hui Gong

2010-01-01

199

Language differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the process of subvocal rehearsal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language differences in verbal short-term memory were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, bilinguals with high\\u000a competence in English and French and monolingual English adults with extremely limited knowledge of French were assessed on\\u000a their serial recall of words and nonwords in both languages. In all cases recall accuracy was superior in the language with\\u000a which individuals were most

Annabel S. C. Thorn; Susan E. Gathercole

2001-01-01

200

Predicting the future achievement of second graders with reading disabilities: Contributions of phonemic awareness, verbal memory, rapid naming, and IQ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent and prospective correlations among reading, spelling, phonemic awareness, verbal memory, rapid serial naming, and\\u000a IQ were examined in a longitudinal sample that was studied at Grade 2 and Grade 8. Substantial temporal stability of individual\\u000a differences in all of these skills was seen over the six-year period between assessments. The strongest predictors of future\\u000a reading and spelling outcomes were

Hollis S. Scarborough

1998-01-01

201

A fMRI Study of Verbal Working Memory, Cardiac Output, and Ejection Fraction in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal\\u000a working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen\\u000a patients were recruited

Farzin Irani; Lawrence H. Sweet; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Beth A. Jerskey; Richard C. Mulligan; Angela L. Jefferson; Athena Poppas; Ronald A. Cohen

2009-01-01

202

The impact of sleep duration and subject intelligence on declarative and motor memory performance: how much is enough?  

PubMed

Recent findings clearly demonstrate that daytime naps impart substantial memory benefits compared with equivalent periods of wakefulness. Using a declarative paired associates task and a procedural motor sequence task, this study examined the effect of two lengthier durations of nocturnal sleep [either a half night (3.5 h) or a full night (7.5 h) of sleep] on over-sleep changes in memory performance. We also assessed whether subject intelligence is associated with heightened task acquisition and, more importantly, whether greater intelligence translates to greater over-sleep declarative and procedural memory enhancement. Across both tasks, we demonstrate that postsleep performance gains are nearly equivalent, regardless of whether subjects obtain a half night or a full night of sleep. Remarkably, the over-sleep memory changes observed on both tasks are very similar to findings from studies examining performance following a daytime nap. Consistent with previous research, we also observed a strong positive correlation between amount of Stage 2 sleep and motor skill performance in the full-night sleep group. This finding contrasts with a highly significant correlation between spectral power in the spindle frequency band (12-15 Hz) and motor skill enhancement only in the half-night group, suggesting that sigma power and amount of Stage 2 sleep are both important for optimal motor memory processing. While subject intelligence correlated positively with acquisition and retest performance on both tasks, it did not correlate with over-sleep changes in performance on either task, suggesting that intelligence may not be a powerful modulator of sleep's effect on memory performance. PMID:19702788

Tucker, Matthew A; Fishbein, William

2009-09-01

203

Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients  

PubMed Central

Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD), and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT]) and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway. PMID:24961532

Reinke, Britta; van de Ven, Vincent; Matura, Silke; Linden, David E. J.; Oertel-Knochel, Viola

2013-01-01

204

Mental rotational ability is correlated with spatial but not verbal working memory performance and P300 amplitude in males.  

PubMed

This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory. PMID:23437381

Christie, Gregory J; Cook, Charles M; Ward, Brian J; Tata, Matthew S; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J; Saucier, Deborah M

2013-01-01

205

Mental Rotational Ability Is Correlated with Spatial but Not Verbal Working Memory Performance and P300 Amplitude in Males  

PubMed Central

This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory. PMID:23437381

Christie, Gregory J.; Cook, Charles M.; Ward, Brian J.; Tata, Matthew S.; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J.; Saucier, Deborah M.

2013-01-01

206

Cluster subtypes of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of adults with subjective memory complaints.  

PubMed

We examined subtypes of learning and memory by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) to a sample of adults with memory complaints that included a subsample of healthy controls and another of participants with amnesic mild cognitive impairment. We performed two-stage cluster analyses for CVLT variables representing three main factors-General Verbal Learning, Inaccurate Memory, and Serial Effect. Four, three, and two reliable subtypes were differentiated in the total sample and in the two subsamples, respectively. Gender, age, education, reading habits, vocabulary, memory complaints, and general cognitive performance were meaningfully related to variability in the performance of the subtypes. PMID:24597836

Campos-Magdaleno, María; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Braña, Teresa; Pereiro, Arturo Xosé

2014-04-01

207

The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

2011-01-01

208

The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

2008-01-01

209

Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

2010-01-01

210

Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…

Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee

2001-01-01

211

Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2014-01-01

212

An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

2012-01-01

213

Sustained and Transient Neural Modulations in Prefrontal Cortex Related to Declarative Long-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common activations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during episodic and semantic long-term memory (LTM) tasks have been hypothesized to reflect functional overlap in terms of working memory (WM) and cognitive control. To evaluate a WM account of LTM-general activations, the present study took into consideration that cognitive task performance depends on the dynamic operation of multiple component processes, some of which

Petter Marklund; Peter Fransson; Roberto Cabeza; Karl M. Petersson; Martin Ingvar; Lars Nyberg

2007-01-01

214

Deficits in verbal long-term memory and learning in children with poor phonological short-term memory skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible links between phonological short-term memory and both longer term memory and learning in 8-year-old children were investigated in this study. Performance on a range of tests of long-term memory and learning was compared for a group of 16 children with poor phonological short-term memory skills and a comparison group of children of the same age with matched nonverbal reasoning

Susan E. Gathercole; Josie Briscoe; Annabel Thorn; Claire Tiffany

2008-01-01

215

The Timing of Learning before Night-Time Sleep Differentially Affects Declarative and Procedural Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents

Johannes Holz; Hannah Piosczyk; Nina Landmann; Bernd Feige; Kai Spiegelhalder; Dieter Riemann; Christoph Nissen; Ulrich Voderholzer

2012-01-01

216

Comparison of Verbal Learning and Memory in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have deficits in verbal learning and recall. However, the specificity of these deficits has not been adequately tested. In the current study, verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder commonly seen in alcohol-exposed children. Methods Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test – Children's Version (CVLT-C) was examined in three groups of children (N=22/group): (1) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD (ALC), (2) nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD), and (3) nonexposed typically developing (CON). Groups were matched on age, sex, race, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Results Group differences were noted on learning trials (CON > ADHD > ALC). On the delayed recall trial, CON children performed better than both clinical groups, who did not differ from each other. Children in the ALC group demonstrated poorer recognition than children in the CON and ADHD groups, who did not differ from each other. Marginally significant group differences were noted on retention of previously learned material. Post hoc analyses indicated that ADHD children showed worse retention relative to the CON group, whereas retention in the ALC children remained intact. Conclusions These data suggest that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and nonexposed children with ADHD show differential patterns of deficit on the CVLT-C. Performance of alcohol-exposed children reflects inefficient encoding of verbal material, whereas performance of the ADHD group may be better characterized by a deficit in retrieval of learned material. Differences noted between clinical groups add to a growing neurobehavioral profile of FASD that may aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:21410480

Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2011-01-01

217

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

218

High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.  

PubMed

While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment. PMID:20536334

Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

2010-07-01

219

Subtemporal Amygdalohippocampectomy Prevents Verbal Memory Impairment in the Language-Dominant Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In this report, we show the operative and neuropsychological results for 20 patients with medically intractable nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy treated surgically by subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy whose mean postoperative follow-up period was more than 6 years. Methods: Pre- and postoperative Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS\\/-R) scores, including verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ) and full-scale IQ (FIQ) scores, were

Tomokatsu Hori; Fumitaka Yamane; Taku Ochiai; Motohiro Hayashi; Takaomi Taira

2003-01-01

220

Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

2009-01-01

221

Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

2014-01-01

222

Dissociable learning-dependent changes in REM and non-REM sleep in declarative and procedural memory systems.  

PubMed

Sleep spindles and rapid eye movements have been found to increase following an intense period of learning on a combination of procedural memory tasks. It is not clear whether these changes are task specific, or the result of learning in general. The current study investigated changes in spindles, rapid eye movements, K-complexes and EEG spectral power following learning in good sleepers randomly assigned to one of four learning conditions: Pursuit Rotor (n=9), Mirror Tracing (n=9), Paired Associates (n=9), and non-learning controls (n=9). Following Pursuit Rotor learning, there was an increase in the duration of Stage 2 sleep, spindle density (number of spindles/min), average spindle duration, and an increase in low frequency sigma power (12-14Hz) at occipital regions during SWS and at frontal regions during Stage 2 sleep in the second half of the night. These findings are consistent with previous findings that Pursuit Rotor learning is consolidated during Stage 2 sleep, and provide additional data to suggest that spindles across all non-REM stages may be a mechanism for brain plasticity. Following Paired Associates learning, theta power increased significantly at central regions during REM sleep. This study provides the first evidence that REM sleep theta activity is involved in declarative memory consolidation. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that brain plasticity during sleep does not involve a unitary process; that is, different types of learning have unique sleep-related memory consolidation mechanisms that act in dissociable brain regions at different times throughout the night. PMID:17400305

Fogel, Stuart M; Smith, Carlyle T; Cote, Kimberly A

2007-06-01

223

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

224

Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d?=?0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d?=?0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

2014-01-01

225

Decline in renal functioning is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive functioning, abstract reasoning and verbal memory  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study with 590 community-living individuals (mean age 62.1 years, 60.2% female, 93.2% white, 11.4% with diabetes mellitus, mean eGFR 78.4 mL/min/1.73 m²) free from dementia, acute stroke and end-stage renal disease. To measure longitudinal change-over-time, cognitive performance measures were regressed on eGFR adjusting for baseline eGFR and cognitive performance, comorbidity and vascular risk factors. Outcome measures were scores from 17 separate tests of cognitive abilities that were used to index 5 theoretically relevant domains: verbal episodic memory, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, working memory and similarities (abstract reasoning). Results Declines in eGFR values were associated with cognitive declines, when adjusted for eGFR and cognitive function scores at baseline. Change in renal functioning over time was related to change observed in global cognitive ability [b = 0.21SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.38, P = .018], verbal episodic memory [b = 0.28 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, P = 0.038] and abstract reasoning [b = 0.36 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.67, P = 0.025]. Decline in cognitive functioning in association with declining renal functioning was observed despite statistical adjustment for demographic variables and CVD risk factors and the exclusion of persons with dementia or a history of acute stroke. Conclusions Early detection of mild to moderate kidney disease is an important public health concern with regard to cognitive decline. PMID:23166308

Davey, Adam; Elias, Merrill F.; Robbins, Michael A.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Dore, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

226

Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between ...

Thomason, Moriah E.

227

Memantine Effects on Verbal Memory in Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS): a Double-Blind Brain Potential Study.  

PubMed

Older FMR1 premutation carriers may develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting cognitive deficits that often subsequently progress to dementia. To date, there is no specific treatment available for FXTAS. Studies have demonstrated the premutation-associated overactivation of glutamatergic receptors in neurons. Memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, thus was tested in the first placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in FXTAS. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in FXTAS found reduced N400 repetition effect, a glutamate-related electrophysiological marker of semantic priming, and verbal memory processes. This substudy of the randomized clinical trial of memantine in FXTAS sought to use the N400 repetition effect to evaluate effects of chronic memantine treatment on verbal memory. Subsequent recall and recognition memory tests for the experimental stimuli were administered to characterize verbal memory. Data from 41 patients who completed the 1-year memantine trial (21 on memantine) and also completed longitudinal ERP studies were analyzed. Results showed treatment-associated benefits on both cued-recall memory and N400 repetition effect amplitude. Importantly, improvement in cued recall was positively correlated with amplitude increase of the N400 repetition effect. The placebo group, in contrast, displayed a significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect after 1 year. These results suggest that memantine treatment may have beneficial effects on verbal memory in FXTAS. Additional studies of memantine, perhaps in combination with other therapeutic agents, appear warranted, as symptomatic treatments and neuroprotective treatments are both needed for this recently recognized neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24871547

Yang, Jin-Chen; Niu, Yu-Qiong; Simon, Christa; Seritan, Andreea L; Chen, Lawrence; Schneider, Andrea; Moghaddam, Shayan T; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J; Olichney, John M

2014-11-01

228

Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

2008-01-01

229

Morphometry and connectivity of the fronto-parietal verbal working memory network in development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinctly different maturational processes – cortical thinning and white matter maturation – take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of the left fronto-parietal network and the diffusion

Ylva Østby; Christian K. Tamnes; Anders M. Fjell; Kristine B. Walhovd

230

Functional connectivity reveals load dependent neural systems underlying encoding and maintenance in verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in working memory research has been to understand the degree of separation and overlap between the neural systems involved in encoding and maintenance. In the current study we used a variable load version of the Sternberg item recognition test (two, four, six, or eight letters) and a functional connectivity method based on constrained principal component

T. S. Woodward; T. A. Cairo; C. C. Ruff; Y. Takane; M. A. HUNTERe; E. T. C. NGANf

2006-01-01

231

Individual Differences in Executive Processing Predict Susceptibility to Interference in Verbal Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories have suggested that resistance to interference is a unifying principle of executive function and that individual differences in interference may be explained by executive function (M. J. Kane & R. W. Engle, 2002). Measures of executive function, memory, and perceptual speed were obtained from 121 older adults (ages 63–82). We used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships

Trey Hedden; Carolyn Yoon

2006-01-01

232

Nonword Repetition and Serial Recall: Equivalent Measures of Verbal Short-Term Memory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn language are very closely related to one another has led to widespread interest in the cognitive processes underlying nonword repetition. One suggestion is that nonword repetition is a relatively pure measure of phonological short-term memory closely associated with other measures of…

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2007-01-01

233

Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

2007-01-01

234

The Effects of Early vs. Late Cerebral Lesions on Verbal Learning and Memory in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to determine whether children with unilateral cerebral lesions sustained either prenatally or postnatally suffer from deficts in learning and memory skills and whether these differentiate left-sided from right-sided lesions. The subjects, 69 children ranging in age from 6 to 17 were divided into four patient groups: hemoplegic Ss…

Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Isaacs, Elizabeth

235

The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative differences between SD and TSA in the nature of the verbal STM impairment and (b) considerable variation within the TSA group. The SD and TSA patients all had poor semantic processing and good phonology. Reflecting this, both groups remained sensitive to phonological similarity and showed a reduced effect of lexicality in immediate serial recall. The SD patients showed normal serial position effects; in contrast, the TSA patients had poor recall of the initial list items and exhibited large recency effects on longer lists. The error patterns of the two groups differed: the SD patients made numerous phoneme migration errors whereas the TSA group were more likely to produce entire words in the wrong order, often initiating recall with terminal list items. The SD cases also showed somewhat larger effects of word frequency and imageability. We propose that these contrasting performance patterns are explicable in terms of the nature of the underlying semantic impairment. SD is associated with anterior lobe atrophy and produces degradation of semantic knowledge – this is more striking for less frequent/imageable items, accentuating the effects of these lexical/semantic variables in STM. SD patients frequently recombine the phonemes of different list items due to the reduced semantic constraint upon phonology (semantic binding: Patterson et al., 1994). In contrast, the semantic impairment in TSA follows frontal or temporoparietal lesions and is associated with poor executive control of semantic processing (deregulated semantic cognition: Jefferies and Lambon Ralph, 2006), explaining why these patients are liable to recall entire words out of serial order. PMID:18438454

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

2008-01-01

236

The role of prefrontal cortex in verbal episodic memory: rTMS evidence.  

PubMed

Long-term, episodic memory processing is supposed to involve the prefrontal cortex asymmetrically. Here we investigate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in encoding and retrieval of semantically related or unrelated word pairs. Subjects were required to perform a task consisting of two parts: a study phase (encoding), in which word pairs were presented, and a test phase (retrieval), during which stimuli previously presented had to be recognized among other stimuli. Consistently with our previous findings using pictures, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) had a significant impact on episodic memory. The performance was significantly disrupted when rTMS was applied to the left or right DLPFC during encoding, and to the right DLPFC in retrieval, but only for unrelated word pairs. These results indicate that the nature of the material to be remembered interacts with the encoding-retrieval DLPFC asymmetry; moreover, the crucial role of DLPFC is evident only for novel stimuli. PMID:14511538

Sandrini, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo

2003-08-15

237

Visuo-verbal interactions in working memory: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Working memory is thought to involve separate modality-specific storage systems. Interactions between these storage systems were investigated using a novel cross-modal 2-back paradigm. 2-back, 1-back and target items were presented either visually as a verbalizable linedrawing or auditorily as a digitized spoken word. ERPs for auditory targets were primarily modulated by the presentation modality of the 2-back item, whereas ERPs for visual targets were largely modulated by presentation modality of the 1-back item. Results indicate that verbalizable pictures are only partially transformed into a phonological code for rehearsal in working memory. Furthermore, results support the idea of a more stable and persistent auditory short-term store as opposed to a more transiently activated visual store for verbalizable material. PMID:16099628

Peters, Jan; Suchan, Boris; Zhang, Yaxin; Daum, Irene

2005-10-01

238

Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

2014-01-01

239

Verbal short-term memory and cerebellum: Evidence from a patient with congenital cerebellar vermis hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impairment of phonological short-term memory has been reported in adults with cerebellar lesions. At the same time, a role of the cerebellum in speech production has been hypothesized. Cerebellar malformations have been related to developmental problems and language acquisition in children. We describe a 5-year-old male child with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia who presented a severe linguistic deficit. On language

Sandro Misciagna; Laura Iuvone; Paolo Mariotti; Maria Caterina Silveri

2010-01-01

240

Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender in German). Three experiments using a modified version of Potter and Lombardi’s (1990)

Judith Schweppe; Ralf Rummer

2007-01-01

241

Negative BOLD in sensory cortices during verbal memory: a component in generating internal representations?  

PubMed

People tend to close their eyes when trying to retrieve an event or a visual image from memory. However the brain mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that during visual mental imagery, auditory areas show a much more robust deactivation than during visual perception. Here we ask whether this is a special case of a more general phenomenon involving retrieval of intrinsic, internally stored information, which would result in crossmodal deactivations in other sensory cortices which are irrelevant to the task at hand. To test this hypothesis, a group of 9 sighted individuals were scanned while performing a memory retrieval task for highly abstract words (i.e., with low imaginability scores). We also scanned a group of 10 congenitally blind, which by definition do not have any visual imagery per se. In sighted subjects, both auditory and visual areas were robustly deactivated during memory retrieval, whereas in the blind the auditory cortex was deactivated while visual areas, shown previously to be relevant for this task, presented a positive BOLD signal. These results suggest that deactivation may be most prominent in task-irrelevant sensory cortices whenever there is a need for retrieval or manipulation of internally stored representations. Thus, there is a task-dependent balance of activation and deactivation that might allow maximization of resources and filtering out of non relevant information to enable allocation of attention to the required task. Furthermore, these results suggest that the balance between positive and negative BOLD might be crucial to our understanding of a large variety of intrinsic and extrinsic tasks including high-level cognitive functions, sensory processing and multisensory integration. PMID:19326203

Azulay, Haim; Striem, Ella; Amedi, Amir

2009-05-01

242

Evidence of a modality-dependent role of the cerebellum in working memory? An fMRI study comparing verbal and abstract n-back tasks.  

PubMed

In working memory (WM), functional imaging studies demonstrate cerebellar involvement indicating a cognitive role of the cerebellum. These cognitive contributions were predominantly interpreted as part of the phonological loop within the Baddeley model of WM. However, those underlying investigations were performed in the context of visual verbal WM which could pose a bias when interpreting the results. The aim of this fMRI study was to address the question of whether the cerebellum supports additional aspects of WM in the context of higher cognitive functions. Furthermore, laterality effects were investigated to further disentangle the cerebellar role in the context of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. A direct comparison of verbal and abstract visual WM was performed in 17 young volunteers by applying a 2-back paradigm and extracting the % change in BOLD signal from the fMRI data. To minimize potential verbal strategies, Attneave and Arnoult shapes of non-nameable objects were chosen for the abstract condition. The analyses revealed no significant differences in verbal vs. abstract WM. Moreover, no laterality effects were demonstrated in both verbal and abstract WM. These results provide further evidence of a broader cognitive involvement of the cerebellum in WM that is not only confined to the phonological loop but also supports central executive subfunctions. The fact that no lateralization effects are found might be attributed to the characteristics of the n-back paradigm which emphasizes central executive subfunctions over the subsidiary slave systems. PMID:19524048

Hautzel, Hubertus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Specht, Karsten; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Krause, Bernd J

2009-10-01

243

Stable signatures of schizophrenia in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network using fMRI of verbal working memory.  

PubMed

A dysfunction in working memory (WM) is a core cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that involves the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network. We propose that in addition to other often-referred markers, the signal reduction in the network during verbal working memory (VWM) is a stable and intrinsic indicator of illness. We presented a Sternberg VWM task to 46 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls matched on performance accuracy during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Reduced activation was demonstrated in the thalamus, cerebellar vermis, pons and the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the patient group. We also found a "failure of deactivation" in the default mode network (DMN) in patients as represented by a low versus high load VWM. In addition, a reduced left lateralization in the triangular and opercular parts of the IFG was observed in the patient group replicating previous "failure of lateralization" findings in schizophrenia. A comparison of long (10 to 19 years) and short (3 to 9 years) durations of illness (DoIs) demonstrated that the DoI was only associated with the activation changes in the middle frontal gyrus and lateral temporal cortex but not with the IFG-subcortico-cerebellar regions observed. These alterations were consistent with the cognitive dysmetria described in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network in schizophrenia. In conclusion, the combination of reduced activation in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network during VWM in particular, reduced deactivation in the DMN and reduced lateralization in the IFG is thought to be stable neuroimaging signatures of schizophrenia. PMID:24262681

Matsuo, Kayako; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hsieh, Ming H; Chien, Yi Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

2013-12-01

244

The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS), as well as an improvement in speech performance regardless of intervention received. While not statistically significant, participants who received an acceptance-based intervention exhibited larger improvements in observer-rated speech performance at post-treatment in comparison to tCBT (F (1,21) = 1.91, p =.18, etap2 = .08) such that individuals in the ABBT condition exhibited a considerably greater improvement in observer-rated speech performance than those in the tCBT condition. There was no differential impact of treatment condition on subjective speech anxiety or working memory task performance. Potential mediators and moderators of treatment were also examined. Results provide support for a brief 90-minute intervention for public speaking anxiety, but more research is needed in a study with a larger sample to fully understand the relationship between ABBT strategies and improvements in behavioral performance.

Glassman, Lisa Hayley

245

How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

2013-01-01

246

The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

2014-01-01

247

Reduced hippocampal volume and verbal memory performance associated with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Many survivors of breast cancer show significant cognitive impairments, including memory deficits. Inflammation induced by chemotherapy may contribute to hippocampal changes that underlie these deficits. In this cross-sectional study, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes from high-resolution magnetic resonance images in 42 chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and 35 healthy female controls. Patients with breast cancer were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.4 years off-therapy. In a subset of these participants (20 breast cancer, 23 controls), we quantified serum cytokine levels. Left hippocampal volumes and memory performance were significantly reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to controls. In the breast cancer group, lower left hippocampal volume was associated with higher levels of TNF? and lower levels of IL-6 with a significant interaction between these two cytokines suggesting a potential modulatory effect of IL-6 on TNF?. Verbal memory performance was associated with cytokine levels and left hippocampal volume in both groups. These findings provide evidence of altered hippocampal volume and verbal memory difficulties following breast cancer chemotherapy that may be mediated by TNF? and IL-6. PMID:22698992

Kesler, Shelli; Janelsins, Michelle; Koovakkattu, Della; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

2013-01-01

248

Posterior cingulum white matter disruption and its associations with verbal memory and stroke risk in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Medial temporal lobe and temporoparietal brain regions are among the earliest neocortical sites to undergo pathophysiologic alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying white matter changes in these regions is less well known. We employed diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate early alterations in regional white matter integrity in participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The following regions of interests (ROIs) were examined: 1) anterior cingulum (AC); 2) posterior cingulum (PC); 3) genu of the corpus callosum; 4) splenium of the corpus callosum; and 5) as a control site for comparison, posterior limb of the internal capsule. Forty nondemented participants were divided into demographically-similar groups based on cognitive status (MCI: n = 20; normal control: n = 20), and fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of each ROI were obtained. MCI participants showed greater posterior white matter (i.e., PC, splenium) but not anterior white matter (i.e., AC, genu) changes, after adjusting for age, stroke risk, and whole brain volume. FA differences of the posterior white matter were best accounted for by changes in radial but not axial diffusivity. PC FA was also significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume as well as with performance on tests of verbal memory, whereas stroke risk was significantly correlated with genu FA and was unrelated to PC FA. When investigating subtypes of our MCI population, amnestic MCI participants showed lower PC white matter integrity relative to those with non-amnestic MCI. Findings implicate involvement of posterior microstructural white matter degeneration in the development of MCI-related cognitive changes and suggest that reduced FA of the PC may be a candidate neuroimaging marker of AD risk. PMID:22466061

Delano-Wood, Lisa; Stricker, Nikki H; Sorg, Scott F; Nation, Daniel A; Jak, Amy J; Woods, Steven P; Libon, David J; Delis, Dean C; Frank, Lawrence R; Bondi, Mark W

2012-01-01

249

Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments Among Young Offspring and Healthy Adult Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Selective Generational Patterns Indicate Different Developmental Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory deficits have been shown in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP)/mood disorder. We recently reported that young high-risk offspring of an affected parent were impaired in both verbal episodic memory (VEM) and visual episodic memory (VisEM). Understanding better the trajectory of memory impairments from childhood to adult clinical status in risk populations is crucial for early detection and prevention. In multigenerational families densely affected by SZ or BP, our aim was to compare the memory impairments observed in young nonaffected offspring with memory functioning in nonaffected adult relatives and patients. Methods: For 20 years, we followed up numerous kindreds in the Eastern Québec population. After having characterized the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders phenotypes, we assessed cognition (N = 381) in 3 subsamples in these kindreds and in controls: 60 young offspring of a parent affected by SZ or BP, and in the adult generations, 92 nonaffected adult relatives and 40 patients affected by SZ or BP. VEM was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test and VisEM with the Rey figures. Results: The VEM deficits observed in the offspring were also found in adult relatives and patients. In contrast, the VisEM impairments observed in the young offspring were present only in patients, not in the adult relatives. Conclusion: Implications for prevention and genetic mechanisms can be drawn from the observation that VEM and VisEM would show distinct generational trajectories and that the trajectory associated with VisEM may offer a better potential than VEM to predict future risk of developing the disease. PMID:20410238

Maziade, Michel; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal; Cellard, Caroline; Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Jomphe, Valerie; Gilbert, Elsa; Achim, Amelie; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Paccalet, Thomas; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Roy, Marc-Andre

2011-01-01

250

Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64Card Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race\\/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief

Marc A. Norman; David J. Moore; Michael Taylor; Donald Franklin; Lucette Cysique; Chris Ake; Deborah Lazarretto; Florin Vaida; Robert K. Heaton

2011-01-01

251

Explanation declaration  

E-print Network

Message Status Explanation Action Access function declaration malformed Syntax Error A syntax error has been detected in the declaration of an access function. Check the syntax rules for declaration of access functions. Access functions should not be quantified Syntax Error A FORALL, EXISTS or COUNT

Lakos, Charles

252

Patterns of verbal long-term and working memory performance reveal deficits in strategic processing in children with frontal infarcts related to sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Frontal brain regions are thought to mediate strategic processes that facilitate memory. We hypothesized that children with frontal cerebral infarcts related to sickle cell disease (SCD) would exhibit impairments in long-term and working memory as a result of disruptions in strategic processing. Word-list learning and digit span tasks were used to assess verbal memory and strategic processing in 21 children with SCD without infarcts (controls) and in 10 children with SCD with frontal infarcts. On the word-list learning task, children with frontal infarcts performed more poorly in terms of learning and free recall, although recognition and cued recall were adequate; this pattern suggested intact encoding and storage with impaired retrieval. Children with frontal infarcts performed more poorly on backward digit span, although forward digit span was adequate; this pattern suggested intact maintenance with impaired manipulation of information in working memory. Overall, these findings support the notion that disruptions in strategic processing contribute to memory impairments in children with frontal infarcts. PMID:12850752

Brandling-Bennett, Erica M; White, Desireé A; Armstrong, Melissa M; Christ, Shawn E; DeBaun, Michael

2003-01-01

253

Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effects of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12-14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30min after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p<0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p>0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

Maheu, Françoise S; Merke, Deborah P; Schroth, Elizabeth A; Keil, Margaret F; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

2008-02-01

254

Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

2010-01-01

255

The Episodicity of Verbal Reports of Personally Significant Autobiographical Memories: Vividness Correlates with Narrative Text Quality More than with Detailedness or Memory Specificity  

PubMed Central

How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N?=?168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N?=?27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

2013-01-01

256

Component analysis of verbal versus spatial working memory training in adolescents with ADHD: A randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive training of working memory (WM) using the Cogmed-RM intervention has recently shown some efficacy as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but this intervention may not be optimally designed. A recent component analysis of WM has suggested that maintenance in primary memory (PM) appears to be largely intact whereas recall from secondary memory (SM) appears to be deficient in ADHD

Bradley S. Gibson; Dawn M. Gondoli; Ann C. Johnson; Christine M. Steeger; Bradley A. Dobrzenski; Rebecca A. Morrissey

2011-01-01

257

Verbal memory performance of patients with a first depressive episode and patients with unipolar and bipolar recurrent depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is usually associated with episodic memory impairment. The main clinical features of depression associated with that memory impairment are not clearly defined. The main goal of that study was to assess the role of the diagnostic subtypes and the number of depressive episodes on the memory performance of acute unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP) depressed patients.Twenty-three patients with a

Philippe Fossati; Philippe-Olivier Harvey; Guillaume Le Bastard; Anne-Marie Ergis; Roland Jouvent; Jean-François Allilaire

2004-01-01

258

Processing efficiency of a verbal working memory system is modulated by amphetamine: an fMRI investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Working memory performance may be improved or decreased by amphetamine, depending on baseline working memory capacity and\\u000a amphetamine dosage. This variable effect suggests an optimal range of monaminergic activity for working memory, either below\\u000a or above which it is compromised. We directly tested this possibility with human participants by varying amphetamine dosage\\u000a and measuring the efficiency of cortical processing in

Christine M. Tipper; Tara A. Cairo; Todd S. Woodward; Anthony G. Phillips; Peter F. Liddle; Elton T. C. Ngan

2005-01-01

259

Differences in Brain Activity during a Verbal Associative Memory Encoding Task in High- and Low-fit Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function. PMID:23249350

Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2013-01-01

260

Evidence for Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Commentary on Berman, Jonides, and Lewis (2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…

Campoy, Guillermo

2012-01-01

261

Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

2013-01-01

262

Rey's verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Verbal Learning Test (VLT; Rey, 1958) evaluates the declarative memory. Despite its extensive use, it has been difficult to establish normative,data because test administration has not been uniform. The purpose of the present study was to gather normative,data for the VLT for a large number,(N 5 1855) of healthy participants aged 24?81 years, using a procedure in which

WIM VAN DER ELST; MARTIN P. J. VAN BOXTEL; GERARD J. P. VAN BREUKELEN; JELLE JOLLES

2005-01-01

263

1134 nature neuroscience volume 3 no 11 november 2000 Memory engrams of declarative knowledge or experience are ulti-  

E-print Network

memory task balanced the amount of visual input and motor activity of the two hemispheres. Third, we of Physiology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 2 Mind Articulation Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Yushima 4-9-2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

Miyashita, Yasushi

264

The Importance of Encoding-Related Neural Dynamics in the Prediction of Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Performance  

PubMed Central

Studies of brain-behaviour interactions in the field of working memory (WM) have associated WM success with activation of a fronto-parietal network during the maintenance stage, and this mainly for visuo-spatial WM. Using an inter-individual differences approach, we demonstrate here the equal importance of neural dynamics during the encoding stage, and this in the context of verbal WM tasks which are characterized by encoding phases of long duration and sustained attentional demands. Participants encoded and maintained 5-word lists, half of them containing an unexpected word intended to disturb WM encoding and associated task-related attention processes. We observed that inter-individual differences in WM performance for lists containing disturbing stimuli were related to activation levels in a region previously associated with task-related attentional processing, the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and this during stimulus encoding but not maintenance; functional connectivity strength between the left IPS and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) further predicted WM performance. This study highlights the critical role, during WM encoding, of neural substrates involved in task-related attentional processes for predicting inter-individual differences in verbal WM performance, and, more generally, provides support for attention-based models of WM. PMID:23874935

Majerus, Steve; Salmon, Eric; Attout, Lucie

2013-01-01

265

Neural correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia and their high-risk siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired working memory and functional brain activation deficits within prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia. This study compared working memory and PFC activation in individuals with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and healthy comparison participants. We administered a “2back” version of the “nback” task. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity. Nineteen individuals with DSM-IV

Shefali B. Brahmbhatt; Kristen Haut; John G. Csernansky; Deanna M. Barch

2006-01-01

266

Declare Yourself  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, voting by young people (especially those in the 18-29 age group) has continued to decline in the United States. The Declare Yourself campaign, founded by television producer Norman Lear, is designed specifically "to energize a new movement of young adults to vote in the 2004 presidential election." To that end, this website has been created in order to allow young voters to complete and print voter registration forms for any state, download forms to request absentee ballots, find their polling places, and learn about the candidates. The site also includes several educational films available for viewing, including a dramatic reading of the Declaration of Independence (featuring Morgan Freeman, Benicio Del Toro, Kathy Bates, and others) and a film about voting starring Ben Stiller and Vince Vaughn. Persons browsing the website may also download fact sheets about this initiative and learn about the upcoming Declare Yourself 2004 College Tour which commences in January 2004.

267

Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Congenital Articulatory Disorders: New Empirical Data and Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To investigate the nature of the articulatory rehearsal mechanism of the Articulatory Loop in Baddeley's Working Memory model, it seems particularly important to study individuals who developed a deficit (dysarthria) or total abolition (anarthria) of the ability to articulate language following a cerebral lesion. Method: In this study,…

Carlesimo, G. A.; Galloni, F.; Bonanni, R.; Sabbadini, M.

2006-01-01

268

A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

2011-01-01

269

Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. PMID:22480490

Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

270

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

271

Differential influence of hippocampal subfields to memory formation: insights from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

To clarify the anatomical organization of human memory remains a major challenge in clinical neuroscience. Experimental data suggest dentate gyrus granule cells play a major role in memory acquisition, i.e. pattern separation and rapid pattern completion, whereas hippocampal CA1 neurons are implicated in place memory and autobiographical memory retrieval. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy present with a broad spectrum of memory impairment, which can be assessed during clinical examination. Although long seizure histories may contribute to a pathophysiological reorganization of functional connectivity, surgical resection of the epileptic hippocampus offers a unique possibility to anatomically study the differential contribution of hippocampal subfields to compromised learning and memory in humans. Herein, we tested the hypothesis of hippocampal subfield specialization in a series of 100 consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy submitted to epilepsy surgery. Memory profiles were obtained from intracarotid amobarbital testing and non-invasive verbal memory assessment before surgery, and correlated with histopathologically quantified cell loss pattern in hippocampal subfields obtained from the same patients using the new international consensus classification for hippocampal sclerosis proposed by the International League against Epilepsy (HS ILAE). Interestingly, patients with CA1 predominant cell loss (HS ILAE Type 2; n = 13) did not show declarative memory impairment and were indistinguishable from patients without any hippocampal cell loss (n = 19). In contrast, 63 patients with neuronal loss affecting all hippocampal subfields including CA1, CA4 and dentate gyrus (HS ILAE Type 1), or predominant cell loss in CA4 and partially affecting also CA3 and dentate gyrus (HS ILAE Type 3, n = 5) showed significantly reduced declarative memory capacities (intracarotid amobarbital testing: P < 0.001; verbal memory: P < 0.05). Our results suggested an alternative model of how memory processing can be organized amongst hippocampal subfields, and that CA1 pyramidal cells are less critically involved in declarative human memory acquisition compared to dentate gyrus granule cells or CA4/CA3 pyramidal cells. PMID:24817139

Coras, Roland; Pauli, Elisabeth; Li, Jinmei; Schwarz, Michael; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Hamer, Hajo; Stefan, Hermann; Blumcke, Ingmar

2014-07-01

272

A case of rapid conversion to psychosis of delusional misidentification associated with derealisation, verbal memory impairment and FDG-PET imaging abnormalities.  

PubMed

The delusional misidentification syndromes, occurring within the context of different nosological settings, such as schizophrenia, are psychopathological phenomena related to the experience of depersonalisation/derealisation. Extensive research indicates that individuals meeting specific "prodromal" criteria, such as attenuated psychotic symptoms, brief intermittent psychotic symptoms, or functional decline and family history of schizophrenia have increased risk for impending psychosis. Despite depersonalisation and/or derealisation often precede psychotic onset, they are not included among the prodromal criteria of the Australian-American approach. A 17-year-old boy with acute agitation, violent behaviour and aggression, and dissociative amnesia had a mild verbal memory impairment and temporo-limbic hypometabolism on the positron-emission tomography. The patient was assessed with both the ultra-high risk (UHR) and the basic symptom approaches and was not found to be prodromal with imminent risk of transition to psychosis. He was hospitalised briefly and 2 weeks after discharge he developed delusional misidentification. This case shows that even the integration of both UHR and basic symptoms criteria may give false negatives in the prediction of psychosis, especially in those cases in which a long prodromal phase is absent. PMID:23652421

Comparelli, Anna; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Di Pietro, Simone; Del Casale, Antonio; De Carolis, Antonella

2014-01-01

273

The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…

Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

2011-01-01

274

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version  

PubMed Central

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

275

Gender, Memory, and Hippocampal Volumes: Relationships in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested bilateral hippocampal support for verbal memory in women with early left-hemisphere injury and that women experience better verbal memory outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). The present study investigated two issues: (1) Do women have better verbal memory outcome following ATL compared with men? (2) Are verbal memory abilities differentially supported by the right and left

Michelle Bengtson; Roy Martin; Stephen Sawrie; Frank Gilliam; Edward Faught; Richard Morawetz; Ruben Kuzniecky

2000-01-01

276

Changing abilities in recognition of unfamiliar face photographs through childhood and adolescence: performance on a test of non-verbal immediate memory (Warrington RMF) from 6 to 16 years.  

PubMed

A commonly used test of non-verbal memory, which measures recognition for unfamiliar face pictures, was developed by Warrington (1984), the Recognition Memory for Faces (RMF) test. The task has been widely used in adults in relation to neurological impairment of face recognition. We examined the relationship of RMF scores to age in 500 young people aged between 6 and 16 years. A.linear relationship obtained between 6 and 10 years, followed by a 'plateau' between the ages of 10 and 13, followed by further improvement. Abilities on the test correlated with both verbal and non-verbal intelligence, but the nonlinear function relating age and RMF survived partialling for intelligence in the younger age groups. The improvement of the adolescents compared with older children also survived partialling for IQ. We found no significant influence of gender or reported pubertal status (which was not obtained for all participants) on RMF once age was taken into account. Performance on other face-processing tasks (emotion classification and accuracy in line of sight detection) correlated significantly, if moderately, with RMF scores. Despite its age and imperfections, RMF test may nevertheless be a useful indicator of 'face expertise' in a developmental context. PMID:19334303

Lawrence, K; Bernstein, D; Pearson, R; Mandy, W; Campbell, R; Skuse, D

2008-03-01

277

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY*  

E-print Network

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY* Susan Bradyt Abstract. Verbal short-term, 1973; Vellutino, Pruzek, Steger, & Meshoulam, 1973). The repeated finding that short-term memory in verbal short-term memory. We have sup

278

Stability, Growth, and Decline in Adult Life Span Development of Declarative Memory: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data From a Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-year changes in episodic and semantic memory were examined in a sample of 829 participants (35–80 years). A cohort-matched sample (N = 967) was assessed to control for practice effects. For episodic memory, cross-sectional analyses indicated gradual age-related decrements, whereas the longitudinal data revealed no decrements before age 60, even when practice effects were adjusted for. Longitudinally, semantic memory showed

Michael Rönnlund; Lars Nyberg; Lars Bäckman; Lars-Göran Nilsson

2005-01-01

279

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

280

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2012-01-01

281

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2011-01-01

282

Learning from abstract and contextualized representations: The effect of verbal guidance  

E-print Network

, imposing additional load on limited working memory (Baddeley, 1986; Chandler & Sweller, 1991; Goldman, 2003Learning from abstract and contextualized representations: The effect of verbal guidance Amy M during computer-based learning of engineering. Verbal guidance supported learners in identifying

Reisslein, Martin

283

Cognitive procedural learning in early Alzheimer's disease: impaired processes and compensatory mechanisms  

E-print Network

memory, declarative memory, working memory, Tower of Hanoi task, learning, compensatory mechanisms declarative and working memory, perceptual-motor and perceptual-verbal procedural learning abilities may, we also measured nonverbal intellectual functions, working memory and declarative memory. Results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

285

Hydrocortisone responsiveness in Gulf War veterans with PTSD: Effects on ACTH, declarative memory hippocampal [ 18F]FDG uptake on PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroendocrine, cognitive and hippocampal alterations have been described in Gulf War (GW) veterans, but their inter-relationships and significance for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been described. Hydrocortisone (Hcort) was administered to GW veterans with (PTSD+ n=12) and without (PTSD? n=8) chronic PTSD in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind challenge. Changes in plasma ACTH, memory, and hippocampal [18F]FDG uptake on positron

Rachel Yehuda; Julia A. Golier; Linda M. Bierer; Arthur Mikhno; Laura C. Pratchett; Charles L. Burton; Iouri Makotkine; D. P. Devanand; Gnanavalli Pradhaban; Philip D. Harvey; J. John Mann

2010-01-01

286

The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

Melby-Lervag, Monica

2012-01-01

287

The Value of Embedded Measures in Detecting Suboptimal Effort in Children: An Investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory Subtests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM,

Robert Perna; Ashlee R. Loughan; Jeremy Hertza; Kelly Segraves

2012-01-01

288

29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...

2011-07-01

289

29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.  

...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...

2014-07-01

290

29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...

2013-07-01

291

29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...

2012-07-01

292

29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...

2010-07-01

293

The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Maintenance of Verbal Working Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies have been inconclusive in characterizing the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for maintaining increasingly larger amounts of information in working memory (WM). To address this question, the authors collected event-related functional MRI data while participants performed an item-recognition task in which the number of to-be-remembered letters was parametrically modulated. During maintenance of information in WM, the dorsolateral

Nandakumar S. Narayanan; Vivek Prabhakaran; Silvia A. Bunge; Kalina Christoff; Eric M. Fine; John D. E. Gabrieli

2005-01-01

294

The similar effects of verbal and non-verbal intervening tasks on word recall in an elderly population.  

PubMed

Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II. PMID:24641093

Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J

2014-01-01

295

Differential effect of side of temporal lobe epilepsy on lateralization of hippocampal, temporolateral, and inferior frontal activation patterns during a verbal episodic memory task.  

PubMed

The encoding of verbal stimuli elicits left-lateralized activation patterns within the medial temporal lobes in healthy adults. In our study, patients with left- and right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE, RTLE) were investigated during the encoding and retrieval of word-pair associates using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional asymmetry of activation patterns in hippocampal, inferior frontal, and temporolateral neocortical areas associated with language functions was analyzed. Hippocampal activation patterns in patients with LTLE were more right-lateralized than those in patients with RTLE (P<0.05). There were no group differences with respect to lateralization in frontal or temporolateral regions of interest (ROIs). For both groups, frontal cortical activation patterns were significantly more left-lateralized than hippocampal patterns (P<0.05). For patients with LTLE, there was a strong trend toward a difference in functional asymmetry between the temporolateral and hippocampal ROIs (P=0.059). A graded effect of epileptic activity on laterality of the different regional activation patterns is discussed. PMID:18158273

Wagner, Kathrin; Frings, Lars; Spreer, Joachim; Buller, Anne; Everts, Regula; Halsband, Ulrike; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

2008-04-01

296

19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration is accepted under § 148.12, the declaration...

2010-04-01

297

Hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients studied with PET during performance of a serial verbal learning task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that verbal learning and memory deficits are among the most severe cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. However, the concomitant patterns of regional brain function associated with these deficits in schizophrenia are not well understood. The present study examined verbal-memory performance and simultaneous relative glucose metabolic rates (rGMR) with FDG PET in 20 unmedicated schizophrenia patients who met

Erin A Hazlett; Monte S Buchsbaum; Lily Ann Jeu; Igor Nenadic; Michael B Fleischman; Lina Shihabuddin; M. Mehmet Haznedar; Philip D Harvey

2000-01-01

298

Examining Visual-Verbal Associations in Children with and without Reading Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal working memory processing both before and after providing semantically elaborated training sentences designed to enhance memory for symbol-word (visual-verbal) pairs. Abilities of 20 children diagnosed with Reading Disorder (RD) and 20 age-matched peers who were normally achieving in reading (NA)…

Littlefield, Lauren M.; Klein, Evelyn R.

2005-01-01

299

Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…

Lecas, Jean-Francois; Mazaud, Anne-Marie; Reibel, Esther; Rey, Arnaud

2011-01-01

300

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

301

The Impact of Visual Memory Deficits on Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…

Larsen, Jessica Maria

2011-01-01

302

Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken

David A. Peterson; Michael H. Thaut

2007-01-01

303

Memory factors in Rey AVLT: Implications for early staging of cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Supraspan verbal list learning is widely used to assess dementia and related cognitive disorders where declarative memory deficits are a major clinical sign. While the overall learning rate is important for diagnosis, serial position patterns may give insight into more specific memory processes in patients with cognitive impairment. This study explored these patterns in a memory clinic clientele. One hundred eighty three participants took the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The major groups were patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) as well as healthy controls (HC). Raw scores for the five trials and five serial partitions were factor analysed. Three memory factors were found and interpreted as Primacy, Recency, and Resistance to Interference. AD and MCI patients had impaired scores in all factors. SCI patients were significantly impaired in the Resistance to Interference factor, and in the Recency factor at the first trial. The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment. PMID:25112600

Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Ostberg, Per; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hellström, Ake

2014-12-01

304

Special Issue: Hippocampus and Memory An opportunistic theory of cellular  

E-print Network

stored memories? Memory models have addressed this so-called `stability plasticity dilemma' [1 of declarative memories usu- ally consists of decreased forgetting after a post-encoding period of non-REM (n

Wixted, John T.

305

DECLARATION OF MARITAL STATUS OR DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP A. EMPLOYEE DECLARATION  

E-print Network

Rev 03/08 DECLARATION OF MARITAL STATUS OR DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP A. EMPLOYEE DECLARATION I "employee") and ___________________________, (the "spouse"), each declare that we are legally married marital status as a result of death or the termination or dissolution of our marriage. C. DOMESTIC

Dong, Yingfei

306

19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group residing...See § 148.34.) Where a written declaration is required, one member of a...

2010-04-01

307

Verbal Aggression in Sibling Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds: (1) verbal aggressiveness negatively related to satisfaction and trust (supporting the destructiveness of verbal aggression); (2) teasing positively related to verbal aggressiveness; (3) sibling satisfaction positively related to being hurt on receiving verbally aggressive messages; and (4) women were more satisfied and reported using less…

Martin, Matthew M.; Anderson, Carolyn M.; Burant, Patricia A.; Weber, Keith

1997-01-01

308

Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of…

Russell, Elbert W.

1982-01-01

309

Development, Validity, and Normative Data Study for the 12-Word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] Among Older and Very Old Czech Adults.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults. PMID:25247611

Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

2014-10-01

310

Darwin and the Declaration.  

PubMed

Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676

Seagrave, S Adam

2011-01-01

311

Verbal and memory skills in males with  

E-print Network

]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP);(n=23; DMD group age range 6­9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6 documented in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, in specific cell types (especially pyramidal and Purkinje

312

Ten years of research into avian models of episodic-like memory and its implications for developmental and comparative cognition.  

PubMed

Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember specific personal events from the past. Ever since Tulving first made the distinction between episodic memory and other forms of declarative memory in 1972, most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have assumed that episodic recall is unique to humans. The seminal paper on episodic-like memory in Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) by Clayton and Dickinson [4] has inspired a number of studies and in a wide range of species over the past 10 years. Here we shall first review the avian studies of what-where-when memory, namely in the Western scrub-jays, magpies, black-capped chickadees and pigeons; we shall then present an alternative approach to studying episodic-like memory also tested in pigeons. In the second and third section we want to draw attention to topics where we believe the bird model could prove highly valuable, namely studying development of episodic-memory in pre-verbal children, and the evolution and ontogeny of brain areas subserving episodic(-like) memory. PMID:20600352

Salwiczek, Lucie H; Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

2010-12-31

313

Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

2010-01-01

314

Variable Declaration var x: T P  

E-print Network

Variable Declaration var x: T· P 1/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable x with type T and scope P 2/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable x with type T and scope P = x, x: T· P 3/80 #12;Variable Declaration var x: T· P declare local state variable

Hehner, Eric C.R.

315

Spatial Working Memory and Gender Differences in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One reason for the lack of female participation in science could be due to cognitive differences between males and females. The present study measured verbal and spatial working memory for 15 males and 48 females. Males were found to have both a larger verbal memory and a larger spatial memory. Participants then read texts that either presented…

Geiger, John F.; Litwiller, Robert M.

2005-01-01

316

Are Working Memory Measures Free of Socioeconomic Influence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. Method: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low-income families, completed tests of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span) and vocabulary (expressive and receptive). A…

Engel, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Santos, Flavia Heloisa; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth

2008-01-01

317

Australia declared polio free.  

PubMed

For Australia to be declared polio free, evidence of the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus was required by the Regional Commission for the Certification of Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the Western Pacific in August 2000. Data on surveillance of poliomyelitis, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), vaccine associated paralytic polio and enteroviruses were provided to document the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus. The last wild poliomyelitis virus case in Australia was in 1972. AFP surveillance has improved since it was initiated in 1995 and achieved a rate of 0.94 per 100,000 population in 1999. No wild polioviruses have been isolated from stool samples of AFP cases. Australia has in place a comprehensive network of laboratories for enterovirus surveillance and this provides further evidence for the absence of wild poliovirus infection. The immunisation coverage in the country has been over 80 per cent over the last 3 years. If there were an importation of a case of poliomyelitis into Australia, a national outbreak response would be coordinated through the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. Plans for containment of laboratory stocks of wild poliovirus are being implemented. The evidence provided was sufficient to satisfy the Regional Commission that there was no wild poliovirus circulating in the region and enabled Australia to be declared polio free on October 29, 2000 along with the other 36 countries in the Western Pacific Region. Australia must remain vigilant against importations of wild poliovirus from endemic countries and maintain high immunisation coverage and sensitive surveillance systems. PMID:12206379

D' Souza, Rennie M; Kennett, Margery; Watson, Charles

2002-01-01

318

19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally...States may make an oral declaration under the conditions...However, written declarations may be required...permitted. Oral declarations may be permitted under...resident may make an oral declaration if: (i)...

2010-04-01

319

Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVisual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working

Joshua K. Hartshorne; Jan Lauwereyns

2008-01-01

320

Examining Visual-Verbal Associations in Children with and Without Reading Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal working memory processing both before and after providing semantically elaborated training sentences designed to enhance memory for symbol-word (visual-verbal) pairs. Abilities of 20 children diagnosed with Reading Disorder (RD) and 20 age-matched peers who were normally achieving in reading (NA) were compared (M = 10 years old). Results demonstrated RD children

Lauren M. Littlefield; Evelyn R. Klein

2005-01-01

321

The Structure of Verbal Abilities in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\

Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner

2001-01-01

322

Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

2011-01-01

323

Assessing working memory in Spanish-speaking children: Automated Working Memory Assessment battery adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11years. Verbal subtests were adapted and pilot tested on a small sample (n=26). A

Irene Injoque-Ricle; Alejandra D. Calero; Tracy P. Alloway; Débora I. Burin

2011-01-01

324

Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

Goldberg, Bennett

325

Cairo youth declaration.  

PubMed

More than 100 young people from 56 countries voiced their needs and concerns in a Youth Consultation held just before the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), August 31 to September 4, 1994. Many journalists from the international press followed the consultation and interviewed the youths, with a short film even produced on the proceedings. After discussing the main topics of the ICPD, participants produced a Youth Declaration with recommendations for action and conclusions for partnership. More than 20 participants remained in Cairo to present consultation conclusions in well-attended workshops and role play at the ICPD NGO Forum. One representative presented the Youth Declaration in ICPD plenary session. These young men and women from all regions of the world, from a diversity of cultural, religious, and political backgrounds found common ground on the need for population concerns to be explicitly and consistently integrated with development in the context of a just and equitable international economic system; a strong focus upon youth education and mobilization in the areas of adolescent health, sexual and reproductive health, the environment, human rights, and political and economic systems; and the sense that now is the time to act at the individual, organizational, national, and national levels. Education and safe sexual behavior do not encourage promiscuity. On the contrary, they promote and enhance healthy, responsible relationships, minimizing the incidence of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when sex does take place. Participants recommend promoting peer education; involving and educating peers through artistic activities such as music and drama; implementing peer counseling and raising awareness through one-on-one interaction, group discussions, printed media, and radio programs; organizing services for youths in a variety of settings; creating jobs for youths in cooperatives and businesses; educating parents and other community members; organizing public demonstrations; and creating networks of interpersonal support, information sharing, cooperation, and interorganizational collaboration. PMID:12319360

Ladjali, M

1995-01-01

326

Memory and Learning Srdjan Antic, M.D.  

E-print Network

on familiar routes). Poor perception. Language impairment. Flat mood. Losing interest in things previously(working memory) sequence #12;Explicit · Highly Flexible · Involves association of multiple bits and pieces Implicit non-declarative procedural declarative Semantic Episodic #12;Examples of Explicit (Declarative

Oliver, Douglas L.

327

Working Memory, Short-Term Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: A Latent-Variable Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in which 133 participants performed 11 memory tasks (some thought to reflect working memory and some thought to reflect short-term memory), 2 tests of general fluid intelligence, and the Verbal and Quantitative Scholastic Aptitude Tests. Structural equation modeling suggested that short-term and working memories reflect separate but highly related constructs and that many of the tasks

Randall W. Engle; Stephen W. Tuholski; James E. Laughlin; Andrew R. A. Conway

1999-01-01

328

Polish Declarations Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The relationship between Poland and the United States has existed for several centuries, as early as the Revolutionary War some of the key figures were great Polish military heroes, such as Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Continuing and strengthening the relationship between these two countries over the years are the many Poles who have immigrated to the United States. Recently, the Library of Congress digitized one of the most interesting (and little-known) documents in their collection, the Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States. The 111-volume collection was given to President Calvin Coolidge in 1926 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of US independence. These ornately decorated volumes were signed over an eight-month period by nearly one-sixth of Poland's population in 1926, totaling close to 5.5 million signatures. The Library of Congress has digitized the first eleven volumes, and placed them online here for consideration by genealogists, historians, and other interested parties. The first several volumes contain the signatures of government officials, artists (including full-size works of art), and signatures from three institutions of higher learning. Visitors can search the contents by keyword, geographic locations, and by title. Overall, this is a rather remarkable collection, and one that will merit several visits.

2005-01-01

329

Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

2010-01-01

330

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: Relation to Factor Indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the

Judith R. OJile; Gregory W. Schrimsher; Sid E. OBryant

2005-01-01

331

The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

Eide, Asbjorn

1998-01-01

332

Sleep after Learning Aids Memory Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the effect of sleep on memory consolidation has received considerable attention. In humans, these studies concentrated mainly on procedural types of memory, which are considered to be hippocampus-independent. Here, we show that sleep also has a persisting effect on hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. In two experiments, we…

Born, Jan; Gais, Steffen; Lucas, Brian

2006-01-01

333

Short-term memory in Down syndrome: Applying the working memory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is divided into three sections. The fi rst reviews the evidence for a verbal short-term memory defi cit in Down syndrome. Existing research suggests that short-term memory for verbal information tends to be impaired in Down syndrome, in contrast to short-term memory for visual and spatial material. In addition, problems of hearing or speech do not appear to

Christopher Jarrold; Alan D. Baddeley

2001-01-01

334

Cultural Variation in Verbal Versus Spatial Neuropsychological Function Across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established culture-invariant measures are needed for cross-cultural assessment of verbal and visuospatial speed of processing and working memory across the life span. In this study, 32 younger and 32 older adults from China and from the United States were administered numerically based and spatially based measures of speed of processing and working memory. Chinese superiority on the numerically based tasks

Trey Hedden; Denise C. Park; Richard Nisbett; Li-Jun Ji; Qicheng Jing; Shulan Jiao

2002-01-01

335

Verbal Patterns in Dyadic Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected aspects of Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic" model of symbolic interaction were operationalized to describe and compare verbal patterns in transactions between five pairs of friends and five pairs of strangers. Based on Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory, it was predicted that interactants would display verbal patterns unique to…

Ayres, Joe; Ivie, Robert L.

336

Verbal behavior and courtroom success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study predicts the outcome of thirty?eight criminal trials from computer?based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors demonstrated by attorneys and accuseds. The accuracy of these predictions ranges from 69% to 84%. Characteristics of successful courtroom speech are identified for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds. Verbal aggression is identified as an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation

Michael G. Parkinson

1981-01-01

337

Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

Parkinson, Michael G.

1981-01-01

338

[Memory processes in endogenous depression].  

PubMed

The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning. PMID:9640987

Radziwi??owicz, W; Radziwi??owicz, P

1998-01-01

339

The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse.  

PubMed

This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait. PMID:21744027

Capps, Donald

2011-12-01

340

Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

2012-01-01

341

Normative Data for Composite Scores for Children and Adults Derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms on seven composite scores derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) are reported here. These scores reflect a variety of verbal memory processes: learning, interference, retention over time, and retrieval efficiency. The norms are based on 943 children ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, divided into 10 age cohorts, and 528 adults, ranging in age

Eli Vakil; Yoram Greenstein; Haya Blachstein

2010-01-01

342

ROLE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN TEAMWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SIMULATED RADAR-CONTROLLED AERIAL INTERCEPT TASK WAS USED TO EXAMINE VERBAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEAMMATES UNDER VERBAL (COMMUNICATION NECESSARY) AND VERBAL-VISUAL (COMMUNICATION UNNECESSARY) CONDITIONS. COMMUNICATION FACILITATED TEAM PERFORMANCE ONLY IN THE VERBAL CONDITION. TEAM PERFORMANCE, HOWEVER, WAS BEST IN THE VERBAL-VISUAL CONDITION. A TRANSFER-OF-TRAINING PARADIGM WAS EMPLOYED TO DETERMINE IF VERBAL SKILLS DEVELOPED IN 1 CONDITION WOULD TRANSFER TO THE OTHER

ROBERT C. WILLIGES; WILLIAM A. JOHNSTON; GEORGE E. BRIGGS

1966-01-01

343

Investigating the structure and age invariance of episodic memory across the adult lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of episodic memory was investigated by assessing different modalities of material (verbal, figural, and spatial) and different types of tests (recall, cued recall, and recognition). A 3-factor model that distinguished among modalities of material was found to be the best representation of memory and the verbal, figural, and spatial memory factors exhibiting construct validity. This 3-factor modality of

Karen L. Siedlecki

2007-01-01

344

The neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI and two semantic tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing a musical excerpt without necessarily retrieving its title typically reflects the existence of a memory system dedicated to the retrieval of musical knowledge. The functional distinction between musical and verbal semantic memory has seldom been investigated. In this fMRI study, we directly compared the musical and verbal memory of 20 nonmusicians, using a congruence task involving automatic semantic retrieval

M. Groussard; G. Rauchs; B. Landeau; F. Viader; B. Desgranges; F. Eustache; H. Platel

2010-01-01

345

Effects of Anxiety on Memory Storage and Updating in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between trait anxiety and memory functioning in young children was investigated. Two studies were conducted, using tasks tapping verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (Study 1) and working memory (Study 2) in preschoolers. On the verbal storage tasks, there was a detrimental effect of anxiety on processing efficiency…

Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

2011-01-01

346

The Development of Brain Systems Associated with Successful Memory Retrieval of Scenes  

E-print Network

Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful ...

Ofen, Noa

347

The role of consciousness in memory 10/21/03 Page 1 of 36 The Role of Consciousness in Memory  

E-print Network

with memory systems in learning, rehearsal and retrieval (Ebbinghaus 1885/1964; Tulving 1985). Here we present to be accounted for Human memory seems to come in myriad forms: sensory, procedural, working, declarative, episodic, semantic, long-term memory, long-term working memory and perhaps others. How to make sense of all

Memphis, University of

348

Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language. PMID:24168794

Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

2014-11-01

349

Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia Larry R. Squire1,2,3,4* and Stuart M. Zola1,2,3  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia Larry R. Squire1,2,3,4* and Stuart M. Zola 4Department of Psychology, University of California, La Jolla, California ABSTRACT: Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how

Squire, Larry R.

350

Individual differences in children's memory and reading comprehension: An investigation of semantic and inhibitory deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments compared the verbal memory skills of children with poor reading comprehension with that of same-age good comprehenders. The aims were to determine if semantic and\\/or inhibitory deficits explained comprehenders’ problems on measures of verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory. In Experiment 1 there were no group differences on word- and number-based measures of short-term storage and no

Kate Cain

2006-01-01

351

Recognition Memory, Self-Other Source Memory, and Theory-of-Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and…

Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

2009-01-01

352

Factor analysis of the WAIS and wechsler memory scale: An analysis of the construct validity of the wechsler memory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAIS and Wechsler Memory Scale subtest scores of 256 neurologic and nonneurologic subjects were factor analyzed. The results supported the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale as a measure of verbal learning and memory, attention and concentration, and orientation. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the Visual Reproduction subtest as a measure of visual memory. Suggestions are offered

Glenn J. Larrabee; Robert L. Kane; John R. Schuck

1983-01-01

353

Individual Differences in Verbal Fluency  

E-print Network

Young adults, healthy older adults, adults with Parkinson's disease and adults with Alzheimer's disease were given a battery of cognitive tests and a series of verbal fluency tasks including tests of phonetic fluency, ...

Rozek, Ellen Kathryn

2009-07-13

354

Parallel Programming with Declarative Ada  

E-print Network

, the Ada language, and Ada programming practice is given by Booch 2 . Explicit Parallelism in Ada Standard Declarative programming languages e.g., functional and logic pro- gramming languages are semantically elegant on a modern structured imperative language with single-assignment variables. Such a language combines

355

Declarative Parallel Programming for GPUs  

E-print Network

, Arun CHAUHAN,Andrew LUMSDAINE Indiana University, Bloomington, USA ParCo 2011 September 1, 2011 #12;Arun Chauhan, Declarative parallel programming for GPUs, ParCo 2011 Parallelism Mainstream Parallelism nets Focus of today's Parallel Programming Models Courtesy:Vivek Sarkar, Rice University #12;Arun

Chauhan, Arun

356

40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...2000 and submitted on December 14, 2000. (ii) Fiberglass Boat Manufacturing was adopted on March 24, 2004 and...

2010-07-01

357

40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...2000 and submitted on December 14, 2000. (ii) Fiberglass Boat Manufacturing was adopted on March 24, 2004 and...

2011-07-01

358

On existential declarations of independence in IF Logic  

E-print Network

We analyze the behaviour of declarations of independence between existential quantifiers in quantifier prefixes of IF sentences; we give a syntactical criterion for deciding whether a sentence beginning with such prefix exists such that its truth values may be affected by removal of the declaration of independence. We extend the result also to equilibrium semantics values for undetermined IF sentences. The main theorem allows us to describe the behaviour of various particular classes of quantifier prefixes, and to prove as a remarkable corollary that all existential IF sentences are equivalent to first-order sentences. As a further consequence, we prove that the fragment of IF sentences with knowledge memory has only first-order expressive power (up to truth equivalence).

Barbero, Fausto

2012-01-01

359

Differences between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning  

PubMed Central

New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above – 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2013-01-01

360

37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Foreign language oaths and declarations. 1.69 Section 1...Processing Provisions Oath Or Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand...

2010-07-01

361

47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072 Section 2.1072 Telecommunication...Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration...

2010-10-01

362

Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

1998-01-01

363

37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Affidavit Or Declaration Under Section 15 § 2.168 Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or...

2011-07-01

364

37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Affidavit Or Declaration Under Section 15 § 2.168 Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or...

2010-07-01

365

37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Affidavit Or Declaration Under Section 15 § 2.168 Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or...

2012-07-01

366

37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Affidavit Or Declaration Under Section 15 § 2.168 Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or...

2013-07-01

367

Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

2006-01-01

368

Attention and Material-Specific Memory in Children with Lateralized Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy is frequently associated with attention and memory problems. In adults, lateralization of seizure focus impacts the type of memory affected (left-sided lesions primarily impact verbal memory, while right-sided lesions primarily impact visual memory), but the relationship between seizure focus and the nature of the memory impairment is…

Engle, Jennifer A.; Smith, Mary Lou

2010-01-01

369

Declarative and procedural learning in children and adolescents with posterior fossa tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma), given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. METHODS: We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects) and one control (twelve subjects). The learning

Eliana A Quintero-Gallego; Carlos M Gómez; Encarnación Vaquero Casares; Javier Márquez; Fco Javier Pérez-Santamaría

2006-01-01

370

Analysis of the Use of Declarative Languages for Enhanced Embedded System Software Development  

E-print Network

are everywhere and usually offer several functionalities. Cell phones are examples of embedded systems that embedded systems will be even more dominant in the market. Nowadays, cell phones are much more than programming paradigm to the declarative paradigm, considering its impact in terms of performance and memory

Wagner, Flávio Rech

371

Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains  

PubMed Central

Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

2014-01-01

372

Functional asymmetry of human prefrontal cortex: encoding and retrieval of verbally and nonverbally coded information.  

PubMed

There are several views about the organization of memory functions in the human prefrontal cortex. One view assumes a process-specific brain lateralization according to different memory subprocesses, that is, encoding and retrieval. An alternative view emphasizes content-specific lateralization of brain systems involved in memory processes. This study addresses this apparent inconsistency between process- and content-specific lateralization of brain activity by investigating the effects of verbal and nonverbal encoding on prefrontal activations during encoding and retrieval of environmental novel sounds using fMRI. An intentional memory task was applied in which subjects were required either to judge the sounds' loudness (nonverbal encoding task) or to indicate whether or not a sound can be verbally described (verbal encoding task). Retrieval processes were examined in a subsequent yes/no recognition test. In the study phase the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was activated in both tasks. During verbal encoding additional activation of the left dorsolateral PFC was obtained. Retrieval-related fMRI activity varied as a function of encoding task: For the nonverbal task we detected an activation focus in the right posterior dorsolateral PFC whereas an activation in the left dorsolateral PFC was observed for the verbal task. These findings indicate that the right dorsolateral PFC is engaged in encoding of auditory information irrespective of encoding task. The lateralization of PFC activity during retrieval was shown to depend on the availability of verbal codes, with left hemispheric involvement for verbally and right hemispheric activation for nonverbally coded information. PMID:10753975

Opitz, B; Mecklinger, A; Friederici, A D

2000-01-01

373

Verbal and visuospatial span in logopenic progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) is a form of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) characterized by hesitant speech with marked impairment in naming and repetition. LPA is associated with brain atrophy in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortices and is predominantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. In contrast to LPA, ‘‘typical’’ AD is commonly associated with episodic memory disturbance and bilateral medial temporal lobe atrophy. Recent evidence suggests verbal short-term memory is more impaired than visuospatial short-term memory in LPA. This study investigated verbal and visuospatial short-term memory in 12 LPA and 12 AD patients matched for disease severity, and in 12 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Overall, both patient groups showed significantly reduced verbal and visuospatial spans compared with controls. In addition, LPA patients performed significantly worse than AD patients on both forward and backward conditions of the Digit Span task. In contrast, no difference was present between patient groups on either version of the Spatial Span task. Importantly, LPA patients showed better visuospatial than verbal span whereas AD patients and controls did not differ across modality. This study demonstrates the specificity of the short-term memory disturbance in LPA, which arises from a breakdown of the phonological system. PMID:23298815

Foxe, David G; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

2013-03-01

374

Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Impaired Hippocampal Recruitment during Normal Modulation of Memory Performance in Schizophrenia. Fischman, and Stephan Heckers Background: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate poor verbal memory activ- ity in healthy adults and patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Twelve patients

Schacter, Daniel

375

Verbal behavior: The other reviews  

PubMed Central

The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

Knapp, Terry J.

1992-01-01

376

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-01-01

377

Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. AIMS: To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. METHODS: Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. RESULTS: A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C

2012-01-01

378

Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. Aims To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. Methods Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. Results A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. Conclusions The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C.

2012-01-01

379

Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473

Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

2010-01-01

380

Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2005-01-01

381

Memory and Neuropsychology in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses in both short-term and long-term memory in Down syndrome, and the implications of these patterns for both other aspects of cognitive development and underlying neural pathology. There is clear evidence that Down syndrome is associated with particularly poor verbal short-term memory performance, and…

Jarrold, Christopher; Nadel, Lynn; Vicari, Stefano

2009-01-01

382

Anxiety, working memory, gender, and math performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation evaluated the relations between visual and verbal working memory; state, trait, and math anxiety; gender; and applied and basic math performance in 100 adults. The design tested predictions regarding which subsystem of working memory is associated with both math anxiety and math performance. The study also tested whether the Processing Efficiency Theory and the Arousal-Performance Function apply to

Heather Miller; Jacqueline Bichsel

2004-01-01

383

Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

2006-01-01

384

Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015

Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

1989-01-01

385

Teachers' Verbal Abuse: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

2001-01-01

386

The Verbal Noun in Welsh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welsh verbal noun, a form spanning two grammatical categories much as the English "-ing" form does, is examined from the points of view of its dual role in Welsh grammar; its occurrence in the history of the Celtic language family; periphrastic tense constructions with "bod" ("be"), "gwneud" ("do"), and "darfod" ("happen"); periphrastic…

Raney, Roslyn

387

The role of working memory in motor learning and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former

J. P. Maxwell; R. S. W. Masters; F. F. Evesb

2003-01-01

388

Visual and Verbal ReasoningMethods Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ)  

E-print Network

to explain things. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): · Verbal Comprehension Index - Vocabulary and Acknowledgments POI VCI POI - VCI Visualizer Verbalizer Visualizer - Verbalizer WAIS: Perceptual Organization Index -- 0.48** 0.58** 0.22* -0.06 0.19 WAIS: Verbal Comprehension Index -- -0.44** -0.07 0.29** -0

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

389

Talking Smack: Verbal Aggression in Professional Wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents the results of a content analysis of the verbal aggression found in 36 hours of televised professional wrestling. The coding scheme was adapted from the National Television Violence Study and past research on television verbal aggression. Results show that an abundance of verbal aggression occurs in televised professional wrestling, with swearing, competence attacks, and character attacks

Ron Tamborini; Rebecca M. Chory; Ken Lachlan; David Westerman; Paul Skalski

2008-01-01

390

Processing Speed Mediates Gender Differences in Memory in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between gender and episodic memory in schizophrenia. Participants were 51 female and 51 male outpatients comparable on demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Memory tests included both verbal and visual measures. Both groups scored below the normative mean of the memory and processing speed tests, except

Pei-Chun Tsai; Joan McDowd; Tze-Chun Tang; Chwen-Yng Su

2012-01-01

391

Short-term memory for pictures seen once or twice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is concerned with the effects of exposure time, repetition, spacing and lag on old\\/new recognition memory for generic visual scenes presented in a RSVP paradigm. Early memory studies with verbal material found that knowledge of total exposure time at study is sufficient to accurately predict memory performance at test (the Total Time Hypothesis), irrespective of number of

Paolo Martini; Vera Maljkovic

2009-01-01

392

Reduced Working Memory Span in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence for the Role of a Frontostriatal System in Working and Strategic Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working and strategic memory were examined in unmedicated patients with Parkinson’s disease who had neither depression nor dementia. The patients, relative to control participants, had reduced working memory spans for verbal and arithmetic material. They also had impairment on strategic memory tests of free recall, temporal ordering, and self-ordered pointing, but no impairment on tests of recognition memory and semantic

John D. E. Gabrieli; Jaswinder Singh; Glenn T. Stebbins; Christopher G. Goetz

1996-01-01

393

Working Memory Effects of Gap-Predictions in Normal Adults: An Event-Related Potentials Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relationship between verbal memory span and the latency with which a filler-gap dependency is constructed. A previous behavioral study found that low span listeners did not exhibit antecedent reactivation at gap sites in relative clauses, in comparison to high verbal memory span subjects (Roberts et al. in "J…

Hestvik, Arild; Bradley, Evan; Bradley, Catherine

2012-01-01

394

The Separability of Working Memory Resources for Spatial Thinking and Language Processing: An Individual Differences Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study demonstrates the separability of spatial and verbal working memory resources among college students. In Experiment 1, we developed a spatial span task that taxes both the processing and storage components of spatial working memory. This measure correlates with spatial ability (spatial visualization) measures, but not with verbal ability measures. In contrast, the reading span test, a common

Priti Shah; Akira Miyake

1996-01-01

395

A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

2012-01-01

396

Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.  

PubMed

The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles. PMID:7733413

Sehulster, J R

1995-01-01

397

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

398

Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

PAPER Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer subsequently converted to probable Alzheimer's disease. The congruous word repetition effect in the group to the memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and could have value in predicting incipient Alzheimer

Kutas, Marta

399

Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

1984-01-01

400

Implicit and Explicit Memory: Implications for the Pastoral Care of Persons with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing spiritual care for persons with dementia is often challenging owing to the high reliance on explicit, language-based, declarative memory in typical religious organizations. Pastoral care providers can break through this barrier of memory, in part, by a thoughtful and deliberate use of techniques related to implicit memory. This involves using another form of memory that is primarily unconscious, diffused,

Gail E. Johnson; Richard H. Johnson

2007-01-01

401

Why girls say 'holded' more than boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are better than men at verbal memory tasks, such as remembering word lists. These tasks depend on declarative memory. The declarative\\/procedural model of language, which posits that the lexicon of stored words is part of declarative memory, while grammatical composition of complex forms depends on procedural memory, predicts a female superiority in aspects of lexical memory. Other neurocognitive models

Joshua K. Hartshorne; Michael T. Ullman

2006-01-01

402

Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for

Mariana E. Benassi-Werke; Marcelo Queiroz; Rúben S. Araújo; Orlando F. A. Bueno; Maria Gabriela M. Oliveira

2012-01-01

403

Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for

Mariana E. Benassi-Werke; Marcelo Queiroz; Rúben S. Araújo; Orlando F. A. Bueno; Maria Gabriela M. Oliveira

2011-01-01

404

Declarative\\/Logic-Based Computational Cognitive Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an esemplastic systematization of declarative computational cognitive modeling, a field that cuts across cognitive modeling based on cognitive architectures (such as ACT-R, Soar, and Clar- ion), human-level artificial intelligence (AI), logic itself, and psychology of reasoning (especially of the computational kind). The hallmarks of declarative computational cognitive modeling are the following two intertwined constraints: (1) The central

Selmer Bringsjord

405

15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plants at the declared plant site that produced...including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate...tons of a single PSF chemical; and (5) Production range of each plant at the declared plant...tons of a single PSF chemical. (b) Changes to company and plant site...

2010-01-01

406

Declarative diagnosis revisited Marco Comini, Giorgio Levi  

E-print Network

Declarative diagnosis revisited Marco Comini, Giorgio Levi diagnosis methods to the diagnosis w.r.t. compu* *ted answers. We show that absence of uncovered-down and in a bottom-up styl* *e. Keywords: Declarative diagnosis, Verification, Semantics, Debugging 1

Comini, Marco

407

What drives successful verbal communication?  

PubMed Central

There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviors and intentions in communication: a behavior can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviors. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behavior of other agents (“mentalizing”) and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (“communicative motivation”). Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations. PMID:24101898

de Boer, Miriam; Toni, Ivan; Willems, Roel M.

2013-01-01

408

Verbal Mistreatment in Older Adults: A Look at Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Their Caregivers in the State of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. This study examined verbal aggression in a sample of community dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) using the Risk and Vulnerability model as a means for identifying factors associated with verbal mistreatment in caregiver\\/patient dyads.Design and Methods. Subjects were recruited in the State of Florida through their association with state-funded memory disorder clinics or with local chapters of

Carla Vande Weerd; Gregory J. Paveza

2006-01-01

409

Verbal fluency in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Verbal fluency performance is commonly evaluated in clinical neuropsychology, in particular for assessment of executive functioning. Fluency is usually assessed by the person's ability to produce as many words as possible from a given cue within a specific timeframe. The cues are typically phonemic, e.g. words beginning with a specific letter, or semantic, e.g. words within a given category. Important components underlying fluency performance include clustering (the production of words within subcategories) and switching (the switch between clusters). Previous studies have demonstrated good performance on verbal fluency tasks in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), but have not investigated the underlying components of this performance. The aim of the present study was to compare phonemic fluency performance in patients with AN to healthy controls (HC) and to investigate the use of clustering and switching in the two groups. Fifty-two patients with AN were compared with 37 HC on a phonemic fluency task. The patient group produced more words in total but the results were not significantly different compared to the HC sample. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to clustering, but patients with AN performed significantly more switches. In addition, switching was significantly more related to total output score in the patient sample. In contrast with previous studies of other areas of cognitive flexibility in AN, patients with AN appear to have good verbal set-shifting skills. PMID:23760843

Stedal, Kristin; Landrø, Nils Inge; Lask, Bryan

2013-06-01

410

Declarative ad-hoc sensor networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networking protocols for distributed collaborative ad-hoc wireless sensing are constrained by requirements such as energy efficiency, scalability, and support for greater variations in topology than traditional fully wired or last- hop wireless (remote to base station) networks. In such a highly constrained and dynamic environment, conventional networking approaches are generally not adequate. A declarative approach to network configuration and organization appears to offer significant benefits. Declarative networking exploits application-supplied data descriptions to control network routing and resource allocation in such a way as to enhance energy efficiency and scalability. An implementation of this approach, called the Declarative Routing Protocol (DRP) has been developed as part of DARPA's Sensor Information Technology program. This paper introduces the concept of declarative networking and what distinguishes it from more conventional networking approaches, describes the Declarative Routing Protocol, and presents performance results from initial experiments.

Coffin, Daniel A.; Van Hook, Daniel J.; McGarry, Stephen M.; Kolek, Stephen R.

2000-11-01

411

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2011-10-01

412

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2013-10-01

413

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2012-10-01

414

47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906 Telecommunication...General Provisions § 2.906 Declaration of Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the...

2010-10-01

415

47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements. 68.324 Section...324 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements. (a) Each responsible...include in the Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, the following information:...

2010-10-01

416

47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320 Section 68.320 Telecommunication...68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the...

2010-10-01

417

44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...

2010-10-01

418

78 FR 27984 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2013-05-13

419

78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2013-03-08

420

76 FR 13655 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...or other forms of information. Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2011-03-14

421

76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S...information collection requirement concerning the Ship's Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303...following information collection: Title: Ship's Stores Declaration. OMB Number:...

2011-01-13

422

False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2008-01-01

423

The Structure of Working Memory Abilities Across the Adult Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addresses three questions regarding age differences in working memory: (1) whether performance on complex span tasks decreases as a function of age at a faster rate than performance on simple span tasks; (2) whether spatial working memory decreases at a faster rate than verbal working memory; and (3) whether the structure of working memory abilities is different

Sandra Hale; Nathan S. Rose; Joel Myerson; Michael J. Strube; Mitchell Sommers; Nancy Tye-Murray; Brent Spehar

2011-01-01

424

Neuropsychological Components of Intellectual Disability: The Contributions of Immediate, Working, and Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Efficient memory functions are important to the development of cognitive and functional skills, allowing individuals to manipulate and store information. Theories of memory have suggested the presence of domain-specific (i.e. verbal and spatial) and general processing mechanisms across memory domains, including memory functions…

Edgin, Jamie O.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

2010-01-01

425

Dual Tasking and Working Memory in Alcoholism: Relation to Frontocerebellar Circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists regarding the role of cerebellar systems in cognition and whether working memory compromise commonly marking alcoholism can be explained by compromise of nodes of corticocerebellar circuitry. We tested 17 alcoholics and 31 age-matched controls with dual-task, working memory paradigms. Interference tasks competed with verbal and spatial working memory tasks using low (three item) or high (six item) memory

Sandra Chanraud; Anne-Lise Pitel; Torsten Rohlfing; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Edith V Sullivan

2010-01-01

426

An animal model of recognition memory and medial temporal lobe amnesia: History and current issues  

PubMed Central

The medial temporal lobe includes a system of anatomically connected structures that are essential for declarative memory (conscious memory for facts and events). A prominent form of declarative memory is recognition memory (the ability to identify a recently encountered item as familiar). Recognition memory has been frequently assessed in humans and in the experimental animal. This article traces the successful development of an animal model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia, which eventually identified the structures in the medial temporal lobe important for memory. Attention is given to two prominent behavioral paradigms (delayed nonmatching to sample and tests of spontaneous novelty preference). PMID:20144894

Clark, Robert E.; Squire, Larry R.

2010-01-01

427

Developmental trajectories of verbal and visuospatial abilities in healthy older adults: Comparison of the hemisphere asymmetry reduction in older adults model and the right hemi-ageing model.  

PubMed

Two models of cognitive ageing, the hemisphere asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) model and the right hemi-ageing model, were compared based upon the verbal memory and visuospatial task performance of 338 elderly participants. Comparison of the developmental trajectories for four age groups (50s, 60s, 70s and 80s) supported the HAROLD model, but not the right hemi-ageing model. Performance differences between the verbal memory and visuospatial tasks in the earlier age groups decreased in the later age groups. There was a sex difference in the cognitive-decline trajectories for verbal and visuospatial task performance after the 50s. PMID:24852824

Hatta, Takeshi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Hatta, Taketoshi; Ito, Emi; Hatta, Junko; Hotta, Chie; Nagahara, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

428

Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled “psychotic” is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal behavior. Similar to a previous study (Arntzen, Ro Tonnessen, & Brouwer, 2006), the results of the current study suggested that the procedure helped to establish a repertoire of appropriate functional vocal verbal behavior in the participant. Overall, the results suggested the effectiveness of an intervention based on training various classes of verbal behavior in decreasing aberrant verbal behavior. PMID:22754112

Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

2012-01-01

429

Reading Like a Historian: Declaration of Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study primary and secondary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Founders write the Declaration of Independence? Students will examine contrasting views by two historians. Then they will read the preamble of the Declaration (2 versions of varying reading complexity are provided) and rewrite it in their own words. Students will also examine a simplified list of the grievances against King George specified in the Declaration. Finally, students and teacher attempt to answer the central question and determine which featured historian has the better argument.

Group, Stanford H.

2012-09-26

430

Beijing declaration on medical pathophysiology education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (ISP), at its fifth quadrennial conference in Beijing, China, in 2006, adopted a declaration related to pathophysiological teaching and learning issues (APPENDIX). The ISP Declaration is a blueprint document that refers to the present position of pathophysiology in medical education. Pathophysiology is not thought of at all medical universities as an independent course. All medical curricula, however, recognize the necessity and importance of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of disease for medical practice. The ISP Declaration outlines the rationale and didactic advantages of an integrative approach that is critical for the contemporary complexity of biomedical information and methodology.

Zdenko Kovac (University of Zagreb Pathophysiology)

2007-07-27

431

Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The nature and generality of the developmental association between phonological short-term memory and vocabulary knowledge was explored in two studies. Study 1 investigated whether the link between vocabulary and verbal memory arises from the requirement to articulate memory items at recall or from earlier processes involved in the encoding and storage of the verbal material. Four-year-old children were tested

Susan E. Gathercole; Elisabet Service; Graham J. Hitch; Anne-Marie Adams; Amanda J. Martin

1999-01-01

432

Hemispheric asymmetries of memory: the HERA model revisited.  

PubMed

The hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry (HERA) model is a process-specific description of experimental data provided by a large set of functional neuroimaging studies. According to HERA, left prefrontal cortex (PFC) is more involved than right PFC in episodic memory encoding, whereas right PFC is more involved than left PFC in episodic memory retrieval. Recently it has been claimed that this description does not hold for non-verbal materials. Here we propose a more precise formulation of HERA than previously, and argue that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that HERA, as reformulated, is true for both verbal and non-verbal materials. PMID:12804689

Habib, Reza; Nyberg, Lars; Tulving, Endel

2003-06-01

433

The Medial Entorhinal Cortex's role in temporal and working memory : characterization of a mouse lacking synaptic transmission in Medial Entorhinal Cortex Layer III  

E-print Network

Declarative memory requires the integration and association of multiple input streams within the medial temporal lobe. Understanding the role each neuronal circuit and projection plays in learning and memory is essential ...

Rivest, Alexander Jay

2011-01-01

434

15 CFR 711.1 - Overviews of declaration, reporting, and advance notification requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...REGARDING DECLARATION, REPORTING...FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS...describe the declaration, advance...chemical, the Convention requires annual declarations. If, after...you have declaration,...

2010-01-01

435

44 CFR 206.37 - Processing requests for declarations of a major disaster or emergency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Processing requests for declarations of a major disaster...DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206...Processing requests for declarations of a major disaster...previous major disaster declarations; and other factors...recommend an emergency declaration to the...

2010-10-01

436

15 CFR 711.2 - Who submits declarations, reports, and advance notifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Who submits declarations, reports, and...CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ...INFORMATION REGARDING DECLARATION, REPORTING...ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS ...Who submits declarations, reports, and...facility subject to declaration,...

2010-01-01

437

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2014-04-01

438

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2013-04-01

439

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2012-04-01

440

19 CFR 10.884 - Declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.884 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who...

2011-04-01

441

Ten years of research into avian models of episodic-like memory and its implications for developmental and comparative cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember specific personal events from the past. Ever since Tulving first made the distinction between episodic memory and other forms of declarative memory in 1972, most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have assumed that episodic recall is unique to humans. The seminal paper on episodic-like memory in Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) by Clayton and

Lucie H. Salwiczek; Arii Watanabe; Nicola S. Clayton

2010-01-01

442

Verbal Overshadowing and Face Recognition in Young and Old Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal overshadowing has been found to disrupt recognition accuracy when hard-to-describe stimuli are used. The current study replicates previous research on verbal overshadowing with younger people and extends this research into an older population to examine the possible link between verbal expertise and verbal overshadowing. It was hypothesized that older adults with higher verbal expertise would not suffer the effects

Thomas J. Kinlen; Carolyn E. Adams-Price; Tracy B. Henley

2007-01-01

443

Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal

Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

2012-01-01

444

Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

Zhukov, Katie

2013-01-01

445

DLAB: A Declarative Language Bias Formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We describe the principles and functionalities of Dlab (DeclarativeLAnguage Bias). Dlab can be used in inductive learning systemsto define syntactically and traverse efficiently finite subspaces offirst order clausal logic, be it a set of propositional formulae, associationrules, Horn clauses, or full clauses. A Prolog implementation of Dlab isavailable by ftp access.Keywords: declarative language bias, concept learning, knowledge discovery1 IntroductionThe

Luc Dehaspe; Luc De Raedt

1996-01-01

446

Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was poorer for those with high versus low levels of anxiety but was not found to be related to the TLE side. The verbal memory score on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for patients with left-sided TLE than for patients with right-sided TLE with low anxiety levels but equally impaired for those with high anxiety levels. These results suggest that we can place more confidence in the ability of verbal memory tests like the CVLT to lateralize to left-sided TLE for those with low anxiety levels, but that verbal memory will be less likely to produce lateralizing information for those with high anxiety levels. This suggests that more caution is needed when interpreting verbal memory tests for those with high anxiety levels. These results indicated that RCFT performance was significantly affected by anxiety and did not lateralize to either side, regardless of anxiety levels. This study adds to the existing literature which suggests that drawing-based visual memory tests do not lateralize among patients with TLE, regardless of anxiety levels. PMID:24291525

Brown, Franklin C; Westerveld, Michael; Langfitt, John T; Hamberger, Marla; Hamid, Hamada; Shinnar, Shlomo; Sperling, Michael R; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William; Tracy, Joseph; Masur, David; Bazil, Carl W; Spencer, Susan S

2014-02-01

447

Music as an Aid to Learn New Verbal Information 521 Music Perception volume 29, issue 5, pp. 521531. issn 0730-7829, electronic issn 1533-8312. 2012 by the regents of the university of california all  

E-print Network

music and verbal memory is emotion. Music is a privileged means for expressing emotions (see Juslin learning task (Kensinger & Corkin, 2003). Thus, music may enhance memory via emotional mechanisms (Eschrich retention of words. Thus, music may provide a more robust aid for consolidation in memory than spoken lyrics

448

44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requests for major disaster declarations. 206.36 Section...DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.36...for major disaster declarations. (a) When a...request a major disaster declaration. The Governor...has taken appropriate action under State law and...the State emergency plan; (2) An...

2010-10-01

449

44 CFR 206.35 - Requests for emergency declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requests for emergency declarations. 206.35 Section...DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.35 Requests for emergency declarations. (a...has taken appropriate action under State law and...the State emergency plan; (2) Information... (d) Modified declaration for Federal...

2010-10-01

450

37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and declarations. 1.69 Section...Oath Or Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever...the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can...

2011-07-01

451

The neural basis of implicit learning and memory: a review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging research.  

PubMed

Memory systems research has typically described the different types of long-term memory in the brain as either declarative versus non-declarative or implicit versus explicit. These descriptions reflect the difference between declarative, conscious, and explicit memory that is dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, and all other expressions of learning and memory. The other type of memory is generally defined by an absence: either the lack of dependence on the MTL memory system (nondeclarative) or the lack of conscious awareness of the information acquired (implicit). However, definition by absence is inherently underspecified and leaves open questions of how this type of memory operates, its neural basis, and how it differs from explicit, declarative memory. Drawing on a variety of studies of implicit learning that have attempted to identify the neural correlates of implicit learning using functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology, a theory of implicit memory is presented that describes it as a form of general plasticity within processing networks that adaptively improve function via experience. Under this model, implicit memory will not appear as a single, coherent, alternative memory system but will instead be manifested as a principle of improvement from experience based on widespread mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The implications of this characterization for understanding the role of implicit learning in complex cognitive processes and the effects of interactions between types of memory will be discussed for examples within and outside the psychology laboratory. PMID:23806840

Reber, Paul J

2013-08-01

452

Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test–retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced

David L. Woods; Mark M. Kishiyama; E. William Yund; Timothy J. Herron; Ben Edwards; Oren Poliva; Robert F. Hink; Bruce Reed

2011-01-01

453

Mechanisms of verbal memory impairment in four neurodevelopmental disorders  

E-print Network

Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed examination; Developmental disorders; Brain lesions; Specific language impairment; Williams Syndrome; Down Syndrome 1 disorders: specific language impairment (SLI), Williams Syndrome (WMS), and Down Syndrome (DS). Because

Bellugi, Ursula

454

Integration of Discrete Verbal Units in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined factors underlying false alarms on recognition tests when the elements of the test items were presented alone for study at different points in time, and when the elements were parts of different 2-element units during study. (Editor)

Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

1976-01-01

455

Expressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents  

E-print Network

, 17 adolescents and young adults with FXS, and 21 children with typical development (TDExpressive Language Profiles of Verbally Expressive Adolescents and Young Adults With Down Syndrome of a subset of highly verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those

Nguyen, Danh

456

Measuring Verbal Intelligence Using Linguistic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a study on language use of people with different verbal intelligence. We asked test persons of different ages and educational background to describe the same event. Verbal intelligence was measured using the Hamburg Wechsler Intelligence Test for Adults. The transcribed monologues were analyzed using the DeLite readability checker and different linguistic features used for readability

Kseniya Zablotskaya; Mohsin Abbas; Sergey Zablotskiy; Steffen Walter; Wolfgang Minker

2011-01-01

457

Verbal analysis of doctor-patient communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscopic analysis of doctor-patient communication in the general practitioner's surgery is presented. Verbatim transcripts of 85 medical interviews, audiotaped in a natural situation were analysed. The effects of type of complaint, patient gender and physician gender on the process of verbal communication were assessed. This study focused upon the relational aspects of communication, using Stiles' Verbal Response Mode coding

Ludwien Meeuwesen; Cas Schaap; Cees van der Staak

1991-01-01

458

The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

2011-01-01

459

Analyzing Verbal and Nonverbal Classroom Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Miniaturized Interaction Analysis System (Mini-TIA) was developed to permit improved analysis of classroom communication in conjunction with video taping. Each of seven verbal event categories is subdivided into two categories according to the nature of the nonverbal events paralleling them. Integrated into the system are (1) defined verbal

Heger, Herbert K.

460

Verbal?Behavioral Dissociations in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal and behavioral measures of children's knowledge are frequently dissociated. These situations represent a largely untapped but important resource for furthering an understanding of human cognition. In this paper, verbal - behavioral dissociations in children are discussed and analyzed, drawing from a wide range of do- mains. The article explores what might lead to different responses in different modalities, and

Jacqueline D. Woolley

2006-01-01

461

Visual Cues, Verbal Cues and Child Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses two strategies--visual cues (modeling) and verbal cues (short, accurate phrases) which are related to teaching motor skills in maximizing learning in physical education classes. Both visual and verbal cues are strong influences in facilitating and promoting day-to-day learning. Both strategies reinforce…

Valentini, Nadia

2004-01-01

462

Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

1981-01-01

463

Sorbonne Joint Declaration Joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European  

E-print Network

Sorbonne Joint Declaration Joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European should be working in European countries other than their own. The fast growing support of the European of European rectors, University presidents, and groups of experts and academics in our respective countries

Harding, Karin

464

Opposite Effects of Cortisol on Consolidation of Temporal Sequence Memory during Waking and Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory functions involve three stages: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Modulating effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been consistently observed for declarative memory with GCs enhancing encoding and impairing retrieval, but surprisingly, little is known on how GCs affect memory consolidation. Studies in rats suggest a beneficial effect…

Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

2011-01-01

465

Multivariate Assessment of Explicit Memory Function in Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declarative memory impairment is a frequent complaint of patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed memory, attention, visual spatial skills, and executive function in Vietnam combat veterans with (n = 19) and without (n = 13) PTSD. Although PTSD subjects demonstrated a “generalized impairment” relative to non-PTSD subjects on a majority of tasks, only attention and memory provided

Mark W. Gilbertson; Tamara V. Gurvits; Natasha B. Lasko; Scott P. Orr; Roger K. Pitman

2001-01-01

466

Memory generalization is selectively altered in the psychosis dimension Elena I. Ivleva a,  

E-print Network

. Introduction Deficits in declarative memory (DM) are one of the broadly stud- ied cognitive phenotypes that a `global' DM phenotype presents a complex array of cognitive processes including memory encoding cognitive paradigm, the Acquired Equivalence test, with probes for associative learning, memory for learned

Shohamy, Daphna

467

Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921

Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

2013-01-01

468

The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning.  

PubMed

Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning. The current study assessed the effect of smoking and abstinence on verbal learning, immediate memory and retention using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Three groups: 20 smokers, 20 abstaining smokers and 20 non-smoking adults were assessed on the AVLT on two occasions. At session one, abstaining smokers refrained from smoking for 12 h (pre-cigarette), whilst smokers had continued to smoke to satiety. Session two commenced after a 15-min break when both smoking groups were instructed to smoke a cigarette, followed by administration of the second version of the AVLT (post-cigarette). Abstaining smokers showed significant deficits in learning compared to smokers during the pre-cigarette session. Following re-initiation of smoking in the abstaining smokers, these learning decrements were no longer evident. There were trends towards significant group findings in immediate memory and retention during the pre-cigarette session, which again were no longer evident in the post-cigarette session. These findings provide further evidence that smoking abstinence affects verbal learning and furthermore smoking simply restores cognitive performance to pre-abstinence levels. PMID:18712701

Soar, Kirstie; Dawkins, Lynne; Begum, Husna; Parrott, Andrew C

2008-10-01

469

Verbal learning in marijuana users seeking treatment: a comparison between depressed and non-depressed samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Both individuals with marijuana use and depressive disorders exhibit verbal learning and memory decrements. Objectives: This study investigated the interaction between marijuana dependence and depression on learning and memory performance. Methods: The California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II) was administered to depressed (n=71) and non-depressed (n=131) near-daily marijuana users. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured by the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Multivariate analyses of covariance statistics (MANCOVA) were employed to analyze group differences in cognitive performance. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relative associations between marijuana use, depression and CVLT-II performance. Findings from each group were compared to published normative data. Results: Although both groups exhibited decreased CVLT-II performance relative to the test’s normative sample (p<0.05), marijuana-dependent subjects with a depressive disorder did not perform differently than marijuana-dependent subjects without a depressive disorder (p>0.05). Further, poorer CVLT-II performance was modestly associated with increased self-reported daily amount of marijuana use (corrected p<0.002), but was not significantly associated with increased scores on measures of depressive symptoms (corrected p>0.002). Conclusion: These findings suggest an inverse association between marijuana use and verbal learning function, but not between depression and verbal learning function in regular marijuana users. PMID:24918839

Roebke, Patrick V.; Vadhan, Nehal P.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Levin, Frances R.

2014-01-01

470

Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon