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BackgroundAnimal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarativeverbalmemory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis
Eric Vermetten; Meena Vythilingam; Steven M. Southwick; Dennis S. Charney; J. Douglas Bremner
Objective To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbalmemory consolidation during sleep. Methods Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbalmemory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Results Sleep-related verbalmemory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Conclusion Verbaldeclarativememory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.
According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarativememory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarativememory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarativememory for visual information, and at declarativememory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarativememory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarativememory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the predictions of the PDH.
Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.
The proposition that declarativememory deficits are systematically related to smaller hippocampal volume was tested in a relatively large sample (n = 95) of U.S. military veterans with and without combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. This correlative analysis was extended by including multiple measures of verbal and visual declarativememory and multiple memory-relevant regional brain volumes that had been shown to exhibit main effects of PTSD in prior work. Small-to-moderate effects were observed on verbaldeclarativememory in line with a recent meta-analysis; nevertheless, little or no evidence of systematic linear covariation between memory measures and brain volumes was observed. PMID:19703322
Woodward, Steven H; Kaloupek, Danny G; Grande, Laura J; Stegman, Wendy K; Kutter, Catherine J; Leskin, Loraine; Prestel, Rebecca; Schaer, Marie; Reiss, Allan L; Eliez, Stephan
This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI), in particular declarativememory and aspects of procedural memory. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed individuals with SLI are poorer than age matched controls in the learning and retrieval of verbal information from the declarativememory. However, there is evidence to suggest that the problems with declarative learning and memory for verbal information in SLI might be due to difficulties with verbal working memory and language. The learning and retrieval of non-verbal information from declarativememory appears relatively intact. In relation to procedural learning and memory, evidence indicates poor implicit learning of verbal information. Findings pertaining to nonverbal information have been mixed. This review of the literature indicates there are now substantial grounds for suspecting that multiple memory systems may be implicated in the impairment.
The neural systems that support motor adaptation in humans are thought to be distinct from those that support the declarative system. Yet, during motor adaptation changes in motor commands are supported by a fast adaptive process that has important properties (rapid learning, fast decay) that are usually associated with the declarative system. The fast process can be contrasted to a slow adaptive process that also supports motor memory, but learns gradually and shows resistance to forgetting. Here we show that after people stop performing a motor task, the fast motor memory can be disrupted by a task that engages declarativememory, but the slow motor memory is immune from this interference. Furthermore, we find that the fast/declarative component plays a major role in the consolidation of the slow motor memory. Because of the competitive nature of declarative and non-declarativememory during consolidation, impairment of the fast/declarative component leads to improvements in the slow/non-declarative component. Therefore, the fast process that supports formation of motor memory is not only neurally distinct from the slow process, but it shares critical resources with the declarativememory system.
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a set-switching task used extensively to study impaired executive functioning in schizophrenia. Declarativememory deficits have also been associated with schizophrenia and may affect WCST performance because continued correct responding depends on remembering the outcome of previous responses. This study examined whether performance in visual and verbaldeclarativememory tasks were associated with WCST performance. Subjects comprised 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ) and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CON) who were tested on the WCST, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). SCZ subjects showed significant correlations between visual and verbaldeclarativememory and performance on the WCST-64 that were in the hypothesized direction such that worse memory performance was associated with worse performance on the WCST. CON subjects did not show a significant relationship between visual or verbalmemory and WCST-64 performance. Fisher's r to z transformations indicated that the associations between declarativememory and WCST-64 performance in the SCZ subjects differed significantly from those of CON subjects. The findings suggest that interpretations of WCST-64 scores for subjects with schizophrenia should be considered in light of their declarativememory functioning. PMID:21481945
Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarativememory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarativememory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarativememory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163
This article investigated the role of the recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). In 3 experiments, people witnessed an event, verbally described a perpetrator, and then attempted identification. The authors found in Experiment 1, which included a "not present" response option and both perpetrator-present (PP) and perpetrator-absent (PA) lineups, an increased reluctance to identify a person from both lineup types after verbalization. Experiment 2 incorporated a forced-choice procedure, and the authors found no effect of verbalization on identification performance. Experiment 3 replicated the essential aspects of these results. Consequently, the VOE may reflect a change in recognition criterion rather than a changed processing style or alteration of the underlying memory trace. This conclusion was confirmed by computational modeling of the data. PMID:15238020
The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarativememory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarativememory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive pediatric disorder that affects both muscle and brain. Children with DMD have mean IQ scores that are about one standard deviation lower than population means, with lower Verbal IQ than Performance IQ scores. For the present study, verbal skills and verbalmemory skills were examined in males with DMD with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 3rd edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. Performance of 50 males with DMD (age range 6–14y, mean 9y 4mo [SD 2y 1mo]) was compared to normative values. Two subsets of the probands were also compared with two comparison groups: unaffected siblings (n=24; DMD group age range 6–12y, mean 9y 1mo [SD 1y 8mo]; sibling age range 6–15y, mean 9y 11mo [SD 2y 4mo]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP); (n=23; DMD group age range 6–9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6–8y, mean 6y 8mo [SD 0y 8mo]). Results demonstrated that although males with DMD performed slightly more poorly than normative values, they performed comparably to the controls on most measures. Consistent deficits were observed only on tests requiring immediate repetition for verbal material (Recalling Sentences, and Concepts and Directions). On other language tasks, including tests of understanding and use of grammar, and understanding of semantic relationships, the males with DMD performed well. Moreover, the males with DMD performed well on multiple indices of verbal recall, and there was no evidence of declarativememory deficits. DMD is a single-gene disorder that is selectively associated with decreased verbal span capacity, but not impaired recall.
Hinton, V J; BA, R J Fee; Goldstein, E M; De Vivo, D C
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive pediatric disorder that affects both muscle and brain. Children with DMD have mean IQ scores that are about one standard deviation lower than population means, with lower Verbal IQ than Performance IQ scores. For the present study, verbal skills and verbalmemory skills were examined in males with DMD with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 3rd edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. Performance of 50 males with DMD (age range 6–14y, mean 9y 4mo [SD 2y 1mo]) was compared to normative values. Two subsets of the probands were also compared with two comparison groups: unaffected siblings (n=24; DMD group age range 6–12y, mean 9y 1mo [SD 1y 8mo]; sibling age range 6–15y, mean 9y 11mo [SD 2y 4mo]) and males with cerebral palsy (CP);(n=23; DMD group age range 6–9y, mean 7y 8mo [SD 1y 2mo]; CP age range 6–8y, mean 6y 8mo [SD 0y 8mo]). Results demonstrated that although males with DMD performed slightly more poorly than normative values, they performed comparably to the controls on most measures. Consistent deficits were observed only on tests requiring immediate repetition for verbal material (Recalling Sentences, and Concepts and Directions). On other language tasks, including tests of understanding and use of grammar, and understanding of semantic relationships, the males with DMD performed well. Moreover, the males with DMD performed well on multiple indices of verbal recall, and there was no evidence of declarativememory deficits. DMD is a single-gene disorder that is selectively associated with decreased verbal span capacity, but not impaired recall.
Hinton, V J; Fee, R J; Goldstein, E M; De Vivo, D C
Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarativememory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these experiments show that declarativememory benefits mainly from
Sleep has been shown to stabilize memory traces and to protect against competing interference in both the procedural and declarativememory domain. Here, we focused on an interference learning paradigm by testing patients with primary insomnia (N?=?27) and healthy control subjects (N?=?21). In two separate experimental nights with full polysomnography it was revealed that after morning interference procedural memory performance (using a finger tapping task) was not impaired in insomnia patients while declarativememory (word pair association) was decreased following interference. More specifically, we demonstrate robust associations of central sleep spindles (in N3) with motor memory susceptibility to interference as well as (cortically more widespread) fast spindle associations with declarativememory susceptibility. In general the results suggest that insufficient sleep quality does not necessarily show up in worse overnight consolidation in insomnia but may only become evident (in the declarativememory domain) when interference is imposed.
The importance of the hippocampus for declarativememory processes is firmly established. Nevertheless, the issue of a correlation between declarativememory performance and hippocampal volume in healthy subjects still remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in more detail. For this purpose, 50 healthy young male participants performed the California Verbal Learning Test. Hippocampal volume was assessed by manual segmentation of high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. We found a significant positive correlation between putatively hippocampus-dependent memory measures like short-delay retention, long-delay retention and discriminability and percent hippocampal volume. No significant correlation with measures related to executive processes was found. In addition, percent amygdala volume was not related to any of these measures. Our data advance previous findings reported in studies of brain-damaged individuals in a large and homogeneous young healthy sample and are important for theories on the neural basis of episodic memory. PMID:23269366
Verbal overshadowing is the later disruption of recognition memory resulting from prior verbal recall of the memory. Cognitive psychologists in the field of criminal justice have studied the effect since 1990 due to its ramifications in eyewitness testimony. Because of its short history of research, the effects of verbal overshadowing in the…
The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which memory could decay, was manipulated via search set size. This manipulation increased retention interval by up to 100% without having any effect on recall accuracy. This result held with and without articulatory suppression. Two experiments using a dual-task paradigm showed that the visual search process required central attention. Thus, even when memory maintenance by central attention and by articulatory rehearsal was prevented, a large delay had no effect on memory performance, contrary to the decay notion. Most previous experiments that manipulated the retention interval and the opportunity for maintenance processes in complex span have confounded these variables with time pressure during processing periods. Three further experiments identified time pressure as the variable that affected recall. We conclude that time-based decay does not contribute to the capacity limit of verbal working memory. PMID:22866686
There is increasing evidence for a cerebellar role in working memory. Clinical research has shown that working memory impairments after cerebellar damage and neuroimaging studies have revealed task-specific activation in the cerebellum during working memory processing. A lateralisation of cerebellar function within working memory has been proposed with the right hemisphere making the greater contribution to verbal processing and the left hemisphere for visuospatial tasks. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to examine whether differences in post-stimulation performance could be observed based on the cerebellar hemisphere stimulated and the type of data presented. We observed that participants were significantly less accurate on a verbal version of a Sternberg task after stimulation to the right cerebellar hemisphere when compared to left hemisphere stimulation. Performance on a visual Sternberg task was unaffected by stimulation of either hemisphere. We discuss our results in the context of prior studies that have used cerebellar stimulation to investigate working memory and highlight the cerebellar role in phonological encoding. PMID:24338673
Tomlinson, Simon P; Davis, Nick J; Morgan, Helen M; Bracewell, R Martyn
Current models of verbal working memory assume that modality-specific representations are translated into phonological representations before entering the working memory system. We report an experiment that tests this assumption. Positron emission tomography measures were taken while subjects performed a verbal working memory task. Stimuli were presented either visually or aurally, and a visual or auditory search task, respectively, was used
Eric H. Schumacher; Erick Lauber; Edward Awh; John Jonides; Edward E. Smith; Robert A. Koeppe
The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…
Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…
To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children's imitative behaviors. Thus, it would appear that maternal negative feedback to child-initiated behaviors is related to an increase in imitative behaviors that are most likely met with positive reinforcement. The continued pursuit of this positivity may impede the development of self-initiated behaviors; delayed development of self-initiated behavior has been linked to disorders of social competence (Landry, Smith, Miller-Loncar, & Swank, 1998). However, imitation has long been known to be a mechanism of learning (Piaget, 1962) and has become an accepted tool for assessment of declarativememory (Bauer, 2004). Whereas the adaptation to abuse posited by Valentino et al. (2006) may be detrimental to social development, our data for this same sample indicate that the reliance on imitative behavior exhibited by the abused children may afford them an advantage at 21 months of age in imitation paradigms. The neglected children are thus at a disadvantage relative to the abused children in the study reported here in that they were not reinforced by mothers for imitative behavior. It is important to note that all children in this sample were from low-income homes. Scores on these events for both target actions and ordered pairs are higher in samples of higher SES children (e.g., Bauer et al., 2000). Thus, the low SES of the families affected performance across the groups. It is possible that the factor responsible for the difference between the abused group and the neglected group is resilience in the face of poverty. Resilience is the ability to recover following a traumatic event or adversity (Masten, 2001), and has been related to child characteristics, such as general intelligence (Masten et al., 1988). It has been proposed that neural plasticity may be responsible for this recovery (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2006). Alternatively, as has been detailed earlier in this chapter, the advantage afforded abused children could arise from the strengthening of neural pathways. It would be adaptive to develop exceptional event memory so as to avoid the events that lead to abuse. Mechan
During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarativememory. In fact, reactivating a declarativememory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarativememories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval–relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarativememory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation.
During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarativememory. In fact, reactivating a declarativememory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarativememories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval-relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarativememory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586
This article investigated the role of the recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). In 3 experiments, people witnessed an event, verbally described a perpetrator, and then attempted identification. The authors found in Experiment 1, which included a "not present" response option and both perpetrator-present (PP) and…
The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…
The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…
Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.
We review research on the neural bases of verbal working memory, focusing on human neuroimaging studies. We first consider experiments that indicate that verbal working memory is composed of multiple components. One component involves the subvocal rehearsal of phonological information and is neurally implemented by left-hemisphere speech areas, including Broca's area, the premotor area, and the supplementary motor area. Other
Edward E. Smith; John Jonides; Christy Marshuetz; Robert A. Koeppe
The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not…
Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector
Decline in memory function was detected in 30% of healthy community-dwelling elderly over 6 years using a task assessing delayed word list recall. Individuals with memory decline over time also demonstrated relative deficits on additional tasks of memory and learning, a task of working memory and executive function, and on a verbal (category) fluency task at their most recent assessment.
J. Weaver Cargin; P. Maruff; A. Collie; R. Shafiq-Antonacci; C. Masters
The present study's basic research question concerns differences in the processing of verbal and tonal stimuli in working memory. Participants had to rehearse sequences containing tonal and verbal information and to decide whether a subsequently presented probe stimulus belonged to the previously presented sequence. Electrophysiological measures were taken and analysed with regard to local (event-related potentials, ERP) and global (microstates) aspects. A larger N400 amplitude occurred for new compared to old items in the verbal, but not the tonal condition. The microstate analysis revealed differences in the specificity of several microstates for old compared to new items in the tonal and the verbal working memory condition. Corroborating previous results, the present study reveals differences in the efficiency of working memory processes for tonal compared to verbal stimuli with processes being more capable for the verbal compared to the tonal condition. PMID:22138431
Bittrich, Katrin; Schulze, Katrin; Koelsch, Stefan
Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbalmemory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…
Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.
Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…
Neuroimaging studies of normal subjects and studies of pa- tients with focal lesions implicate regions of parietal cortex in verbal working memory (VWM), yet the precise role of parietal cortex in VWM remains unclear. Some evidence (Paulesu et al., 1993; Awh et al., 1996) suggests that the parietal cortex medi- ates the storage of verbal information, but these studies and
John Jonides; Eric H. Schumacher; Edward E. Smith; Robert A. Koeppe; Edward Awh; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Christy Marshuetz; Christopher R. Willis
Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarativememory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarativememory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently accompanied by changes in verbalmemory. We hypothesized that administering an abbreviated California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) would detect verbalmemory problems in MS accurately, thus serving as a potential screening tool. We performed receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of three trials (trial 1, trial 2, and trial 1+2 combined) for raw data against standardized total scores. The results showed that at 1.5 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, the first two trials were 96.3% accurate, while at 2 SD from the mean, the first two trials combined were 97.5% accurate. We conclude that this study demonstrates than an abbreviated CVLT-II is a valid screening tool for verbalmemory impairments. PMID:22807235
Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Benedict, Ralph H B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Picone, Mary A; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W
Study Objectives: Studies have shown that sleep shelters old verbalmemories from associative interference arising from new, more recently acquired memories. Our objective is to extend the forms of interference for which sleep provides a sheltering benefit to non-associative and prospective interference, and to examine experimental conditions and memory strengths for which sleep before or after learning particularly affects verbalmemory consolidation. Design: Acquiring paired word associates, retention across intervening sleep and wake, training on new, interfering word associates, and test recall of both sets. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Comparing recall before and after intervening periods of sleep versus wake, we found that: (i) Sleep preferentially shields weakly encoded verbalmemories from retroactive interference. (ii) Sleep immediately following learning helps shelter memory from associative and non-associative forms of retroactive interference. (iii) Sleep protects new verbalmemories from prospective interference. (iv) Word associations acquired for the first time in the evening after a day spent in the wake state are encoded more strongly than word associations acquired in the morning following a night of sleep. Conclusions: The findings extend the known sleep protection from interference to non-associative as well as prospective interference, and limit the protection to weakly encoded word associations. Combined, our results suggest that sleep immediately after verbal learning isolates newly formed memory traces and renders them inaccessible, except by specific contextual cues. Memory isolation in sleep is a passive mechanism that can reasonably account for several experimental findings. Citation: Sheth BR; Varghese R; Truong T. Sleep shelters verbalmemory from different kinds of interference. SLEEP 2012;35(7):985-996.
Psychotic major depression (PMD) is associated with deficits in verbalmemory as well as other cognitive impairments. This study investigated brain function in individuals with PMD during a verbaldeclarativememory task. Participants included 16 subjects with PMD, 15 subjects with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) and 16 healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired while subjects performed verbalmemory encoding and retrieval tasks. During the explicit encoding task, subjects semantically categorized words as either “man-made” or “not manmade.” For the retrieval task, subjects identified whether words had been presented during the encoding task. Functional MRI data were processed using SPM5 and a group by condition ANOVA. Clusters of activation showing either a significant main effect of group or an interaction of group by condition were further examined using t-tests to identify group differences. During the encoding task, the PMD group showed lower hippocampus, insula, and prefrontal activation compared to HC. During the retrieval task, the PMD group showed lower recognition accuracy and higher prefrontal and parietal cortex activation compared to both HC and NPMD groups. Verbal retrieval deficits in PMD may be associated with deficient hippocampus function during encoding. Increased brain activation during retrieval may reflect an attempt to compensate for encoding deficits.
Kelley, Ryan; Garrett, Amy; Cohen, Jeremy; Gomez, Rowena; Lembke, Anna; Keller, Jennifer; Reiss, Allan L.; Schatzberg, Alan
Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information. PMID:19210053
The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…
Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.
G. Tremont, S. Halpert, D. J. Javorsky, and R. A. Stern (2000) found that individuals with executive dysfunction were more impaired on less structured versus more structured verbalmemory tasks. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship between executive functions and memory in patients with a history of traumatic brain injury by examining the effect of executive functioning
Robyn M. Busch; Jane E. Booth; Angela McBride; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Glenn Curtiss; Jennifer J. Duchnick
Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarativememory and declarativememory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarativememory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems. PMID:22043868
According to inhibitory views of working memory, old adults should have particular problems deleting irrelevant information from working memory, leading to greater interference effects compared with young adults. The authors investigated this hypothesis by using variations of an A-B, C-D retroactive interference paradigm in working memory with young and old adults. They used a recognition measure of memory, assessing both
This study examined the contribution of verbal and visual memory to performance on the Family Pictures subtest of the Children's Memory Scale. This subtest purports to assess declarativememory functioning in the visual/nonverbal domain. A total of 115 nine-year-old children participated in this study. Fifty-eight had specific language impairment (SLI), whilst the remaining 57 were typically developing (TD), with no history of language difficulties. Results showed that the children with SLI, who had intact declarativememory for visual but not verbal information, obtained significantly lower scores on the Family Pictures subtest when compared to the TD group. Regression analyses revealed that across the entire sample, individual differences on the Family Pictures subtest was best predicted by a measure of verbal working memory. These results question whether the Family Pictures subtest can be considered a measure of visual memory in pediatric populations. These results have implications for the interpretation of scores on this subtest regarding the nature of the types of neurocognitive difficulties children may exhibit.
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.
This study examined the contribution of verbal and visual memory to performance on the Family Pictures subtest of the Children's Memory Scale. This subtest purports to assess declarativememory functioning in the visual/nonverbal domain. A total of 115 nine-year-old children participated in this study. Fifty-eight had specific language impairment (SLI), whilst the remaining 57 were typically developing (TD), with no history of language difficulties. Results showed that the children with SLI, who had intact declarativememory for visual but not verbal information, obtained significantly lower scores on the Family Pictures subtest when compared to the TD group. Regression analyses revealed that across the entire sample, individual differences on the Family Pictures subtest was best predicted by a measure of verbal working memory. These results question whether the Family Pictures subtest can be considered a measure of visual memory in pediatric populations. These results have implications for the interpretation of scores on this subtest regarding the nature of the types of neurocognitive difficulties children may exhibit. PMID:23078276
Lum, Jarrad A G; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T
A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between cognitive performance and cerebellar integrity in a specific degeneration of the cerebellar cortex: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6). The results demonstrate a critical relationship between verbal working memory and grey matter density in superior (bilateral lobules VI and crus I of lobule VII) and inferior (bilateral lobules VIIIa and VIIIb, and right lobule IX) parts of the cerebellum. We demonstrate that distinct cerebellar regions subserve different components of the prevalent psychological model for verbal working memory based on a phonological loop. The work confirms the involvement of the cerebellum in verbal working memory and defines specific subsystems for this within the cerebellum.
Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.
Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbalmemory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbaldeclarativememory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined fronto-parieto-mediotemporal dysfunction.
Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jurgen; Quednow, Boris B.
A latent-variable study examined whether verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity measures reflect a primarily domain-general construct by testing 236 participants in 3 span tests each of verbal WM. visuospatial WM, verbal short-term memory (STM), and visuospatial STM. as well as in tests of verbal and spatial reasoning and general…
Kane, Michael J.; Hambrick, David Z.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Wilhelm, Oliver; Payne, Tabitha W.; Engle, Randall W.
The psychometric properties of several commonly used verbal working memory measures were assessed. One hundred thirty-nine\\u000a individuals in five age groups (18–30, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80+ years) were tested twice (Time I and Time II) on seven\\u000a working memory span measures (alphabet span, backward digit span, missing digit span, subtract 2 span, running item span,\\u000a and sentence span for
Studies of verbal working memory (VWM) report that performance declines as the phonemic similarity of stimuli increases. To determine how phonological similarity affects brain function during VWM, “standard” and “similarity” versions of the 2-Back task were presented to 34 healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Letter consonants presented during similarity blocks rhymed, while consonants did not rhyme during
Lawrence H. Sweet; James F. Paskavitz; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Richard C. Mulligan; Prashanth K. Nyalakanti; Ronald A. Cohen
The role of articulation in verbal short-term memory was investigated in two patients suffering from a selective and total impairment of overt articulation. Case GF was totally speechless due to a ventral pontine lesion and case MDC due to bilateral anterior opercular softenings. Both patients had normal auditory comprehension, a digit span performance within the normal range, and displayed the
Background Characterization of the behavioral correlates of neuromorphometry and neurochemistry in older adults has important implications for an improved understanding of the aging process. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a measure of hippocampal neuronal metabolism was associated with verbalmemory in nondemented older adults after controlling for hippocampal volume. Methods 4-T MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and neuropsychological assessment were conducted in 48 older adults (23 women; mean age 81 years). Average hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) and hippocampal volumes were obtained. Neuropsychological evaluation included tests of verbalmemory (Buschke and Grober Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test–Immediate Recall [FCSRT-IR], Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised Logical Memory subtest) and attention and executive function (Trail Making Test Parts A and B). Results Linear regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for age, hippocampal NAA/Cr was a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance (? = 0.38, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.21). Hippocampal volume was also a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance after adjusting for age and midsagittal area (? = 0.47, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.24). In a combined model, hippocampal NAA/Cr (? = 0.33, p = 0.03) and volume (? = 0.35, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of FCSRT-IR performance, accounting for 30% of the variance in memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that nondemented older adults with smaller hippocampal volumes and lower levels of hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio metabolites perform more poorly on a test of verbalmemory. The integrity of both the structure and metabolism of the hippocampus may underlie verbalmemory function in nondemented elderly.
Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present.
Three studies investigated the effects of presentation modality and redundancy of verbal content on recognition memory for entertainment film dialogue. U.S. participants watched two brief movie clips and afterward answered multiple-choice questions about information from the dialogue. Experiment 1 compared recognition memory for spoken dialogue in the native language (English) with subtitles in English, French, or no subtitles. Experiment 2 compared memory for material in English subtitles with spoken dialogue in English, French, or no sound. Experiment 3 examined three control conditions with no spoken or captioned material in the native language. All participants watched the same video clips and answered the same questions. Performance was consistently good whenever English dialogue appeared in either the subtitles or sound, and best of all when it appeared in both, supporting the facilitation of verbal redundancy. Performance was also better when English was only in the subtitles than when it was only spoken. Unexpectedly, sound or subtitles in an unfamiliar language (French) modestly improved performance, as long as there was also a familiar channel. Results extend multimedia research on verbal redundancy for expository material to verbal information in entertainment media. PMID:24684077
Hinkin, Michael P; Harris, Richard J; Miranda, Andrew T
We examined the effects of verbal elaborations on memory for verbal material in adults with mental retardation and a control group of adults of normal intelligence. During acquisition, three types of sentences were presented that differed in elaboration of the subject-adjective relationship: a) non-elaborated base sentences; b) base sentences with arbitrary verbal elaborations; and c) base sentences with explanatory verbal
Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarativememory in young…
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
The present study explored the left mesial temporal lobe correlates of verbalmemory in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). An index of structural integrity, T2 relaxation time, was measured bilaterally in three mesial temporal regions of interest, and correlated with measures of verbalmemory. The acquisition of verbal arbitrary relational material was most strongly associated with left perirhinal T2
Leasha M. Lillywhite; Michael M. Saling; Regula S. Briellmann; David L. Weintrob; Gaby S. Pell; Graeme D. Jackson
During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbalmemory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbalmemory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbalmemory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbalmemory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbalmemory proficiency in children. PMID:24949818
Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E
The research reported in this talk involves comparisons of verbal and spatial memory tasks across groups of children (and\\u000a adults) with different types of learning difficulties. The research focuses on children with literacy acquisition problems\\u000a and investigates whether such problems are related to specific areas of deficit. In the first piece of research, children\\u000a with dyslexia (literacy learning problems) and
John Everatt; Sharman Jeffries; Gad Elbeheri; Ian Smythe; Kazuvire Veii
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and patient studies indicate cerebellar participation in verbal working memory. In particular, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed superior cerebellar activation during the initial encoding phase of the Sternberg task. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided trans- cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to test whether disruption of the right superior cerebellum (hemispheric lobule VI\\/Crus I)
John E. Desmond; S. H. Annabel Chen; Perry B. Shieh
The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarativememory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarativememory supports…
Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbalmemory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbalmemory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbalmemory in these patients.
de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.
It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarativememory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…
The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarativememory,…
Epileptic patients with left or right temporal lobectomies were compared with normal subjects on a verbalmemory task involving recall and recognition of categorized and uncategorized word lists. The left temporal group recalled significantly fewer words than the normal control subjects, and recognition performance was also poorer. The right temporal group did not differ significantly from the normal controls on recognition, although differences neared significance on recall. Categorization improved performance in all the groups. The left temporal patients improved if words were presented in order of category membership, but recalled less if category membership was randomized over order of presentation. PMID:2755588
Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources. PMID:22512308
Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647
Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…
This study investigates the functional architecture of working memory (WM) for verbal and tonal information during rehearsal and articulatory suppression. Participants were presented with strings of four sung syllables with the task to remember either the pitches (tonal informa- tion) or the syllables (verbal information). Rehearsal of verbal, as well as of tonal information activated a network comprising ventrolateral premotor
Stefan Koelsch; Katrin Schulze; Daniela Sammler; Thomas Fritz; Karsten Müller; Oliver Gruber
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…
Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho
Objective: Memory complaints are particularly salient among veterans who experience combat-related mild traumatic brain injuries and/or trauma exposure, and represent a primary barrier to successful societal reintegration and everyday functioning. Anecdotally within clinical practice, verbal learning and memory performance frequently appears differentially reduced versus visual learning and memory scores. We sought to empirically investigate the robustness of a verbal versus visual learning and memory discrepancy and to explore potential mechanisms for a verbal/visual performance split. Method: Participants consisted of 103 veterans with reported history of mild traumatic brain injuries returning home from U.S. military Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom referred for outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Results: Findings indicate that visual learning and memory abilities were largely intact while verbal learning and memory performance was significantly reduced in comparison, residing at approximately 1.1 SD below the mean for verbal learning and approximately 1.4 SD below the mean for verbalmemory. This difference was not observed in verbal versus visual fluency performance, nor was it associated with estimated premorbid verbal abilities or traumatic brain injury history. In our sample, symptoms of depression, but not posttraumatic stress disorder, were significantly associated with reduced composite verbal learning and memory performance. Conclusions: Verbal learning and memory performance may benefit from targeted treatment of depressive symptomatology. Also, because visual learning and memory functions may remain intact, these might be emphasized when applying neurocognitive rehabilitation interventions to compensate for observed verbal learning and memory difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245926
Sozda, Christopher N; Muir, James J; Springer, Utaka S; Partovi, Diana; Cole, Michael A
Examinations of interference between verbal and visual materials in working memory have produced mixed results. If there is a central form of storage (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then cross-domain interference should be obtained. The authors examined this question with a visual-array comparison task (S. J. Luck & E. K. Vogel,…
This study tested the hypothesis that children with autism are impaired in using verbal encoding and rehearsal strategies in the service of working memory. Participants were 24 high-ability, school-age children with autism and a comparison group matched on verbal and non-verbal IQ, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and visual memory. Working memory was assessed using verbal and non-verbal variants of a
Robert M. Joseph; Shelley D. Steele; Echo Meyer; Helen Tager-Flusberg
Assesses developmental changes in verbalmemory from the beginning of elementary school to late adolescence on the basis of data from the Munich Longitudinal Study. Suggests that overall, individual differences in verbalmemory performance develop very early in life and are relatively unaffected by differences in educational experiences. (Contains…
The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbalmemory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees\\/immigrants exposed
To the extent that all types of visual stimuli can be verbalized to some degree, verbal mediation is intrinsic in so-called ''visual'' memory processing. This impurity complicates the interpretation of visual memory performance, particularly in certain neurologically impaired populations (e.g., aphasia). The purpose of this study was to…
Although there is clear evidence of alcoholism-related damage to the frontal lobes and cerebellum from neuroimaging, neuropathological, and neuropsychological studies, the functional role of the cerebellum and cerebrocerebellar circuits related to verbal working memory deficits of alcoholics have not been well studied. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects performed a Sternberg verbal working memory task while receiving an fMRI scan in a
John E Desmond; S. H. Annabel Chen; Eve DeRosa; Michelle R Pryor; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Edith V Sullivan
In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be
Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…
Purpose Verbalmemory decline is a frequent complication of left anterior temporal lobectomy (L-ATL). The goal of this study was to determine whether preoperative language mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is useful for predicting which patients are likely to experience verbalmemory decline after L-ATL. Methods Sixty L-ATL patients underwent preoperative language mapping with fMRI, preoperative intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing for language and memory lateralization, and pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing. Demographic, historical, neuropsychological, and imaging variables were examined for their ability to predict pre- to postoperative memory change. Results Verbalmemory decline occurred in over 30% of patients. Good preoperative performance, late age at onset of epilepsy, left dominance on fMRI, and left dominance on the Wada test were each predictive of memory decline. Preoperative performance and age at onset together accounted for roughly 50% of the variance in memory outcome (p < .001), and fMRI explained an additional 10% of this variance (p ? .003). Neither Wada memory asymmetry nor Wada language asymmetry added additional predictive power beyond these noninvasive measures. Discussion Preoperative fMRI is useful for identifying patients at high risk for verbalmemory decline prior to L-ATL surgery. Lateralization of language is correlated with lateralization of verbalmemory, whereas Wada memory testing is either insufficiently reliable or insufficiently material-specific to accurately localize verbalmemory processes.
Binder, Jeffrey R.; Sabsevitz, David S.; Swanson, Sara J.; Hammeke, Thomas A.; Raghavan, Manoj; Mueller, Wade M.
An extensive animal literature suggests that excessive corticosteroid exposure is associated with changes in memory and the hippocampus. Agents that decrease glutamate attenuate corticosteroid effects on the hippocampus. Minimal data are available on preventing or reversing corticosteroid effects on the human hippocampus. We previously reported that open-label lamotrigine was associated with significant improvement in declarativememory in corticosteroid-treated patients. We
E Sherwood Brown; Justin Wolfshohl; Mujeeb U Shad; Miguel Vazquez; I Julian Osuji
Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same\\/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbalmemory using a task that used pseudowords (LTM) or syllables
We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbalmemory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079
Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site
The aim of this study was to show the positive effects of categorical organization on verbal working memory (WM), in a modified version of a double task, such as the Listening Span Test (LST) (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980). Two experiments were performed comparing sentences with the typical definitional format (i.e., superordinate term, copula, and specification) to sentences simply describing objects or events. The results of the two experiments, with participants from children aged 6 to adults, revealed that word recall was better in Categorical sentences than in Descriptive sentences and are interpreted in terms of retrieval facilitation, due to pre-existing organization in semantic memory, at least from the age of 8 onwards. Recall performance was also better with sentences giving True statements than those giving False statements. Furthermore, Categorical False sentences are more effective in enhancing recall than Descriptive False sentences since they violate well-established semantic expectations. Such variables were also found to act among participants with a lower WM span, by this confirming that pre-existing organized information may compensate for less efficient WM. PMID:21995746
Why do memory abilities vary so greatly across individuals and cognitive domains? Although memory functions are highly heritable, what exactly is being genetically transmitted? Here we review evidence for the contribution of both common and partially independent inheritance of distinct aspects of memory function. We begin by discussing the assessment of long-term memory and its underlying neural and molecular basis. We then consider evidence for both specialist and generalist genes underlying individual variability in memory, indicating that carving memory into distinct subcomponents may yield important information regarding its genetic architecture. And finally we review evidence from both complex and single-gene disorders, which provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human memory function.
Bearden, Carrie E.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Bachman, Peter; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Glahn, David C.
The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…
Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam
Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…
Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.
Functional imaging data suggest that the core network engaged in verbal semantic memory (SM) processing encompasses frontal and temporal lobe structures, with a strong left lateralization in normal right handers. The impact of long term temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on this network has only partly been elucidated. We studied verbal SM in 50 patients with chronic, intractable TLE (left TLE=26,
Bülent Köylü; Eugen Trinka; Anja Ischebeck; Pamela Visani; Thomas Trieb; Christian Kremser; Lisa Bartha; Michael Schocke; Thomas Benke
To assess memory problems associated with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) and reading disability (RD), nonverbal subspan, span, and supraspan measures was administered to 30 ADDH, 30 normal, and 24 RD boys, ages 7 to 12. Results from the supraspan verbal measures, which included word lists and related and unrelated paired associates, are reported. Across all verbal tasks, deficits
Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…
Background: Individuals with Down syndrome consistently perform less well than appropriately matched comparison groups on tests of verbal short-term memory, despite performing relatively well on non-verbal short-term memory tasks. However, it is not clear whether these findings constitute evidence for a selective deficit in verbal short-term…
Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbalmemory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbalmemory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbalmemory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbalmemory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbalmemory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia.
Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.
The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed age-related under-activation, where older adults show less regional brain activation compared to younger adults, as well as age-related over-activation, where older adults show greater activation compared to younger adults. These differences have been found across multiple task domains, including verbal working memory (WM). Curiously, both under-activation and over-activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been found for older adults in verbal WM tasks. Here, we use event-related fMRI to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in activation depend on memory load (the number of items that must be maintained). Our predictions about the recruitment of prefrontal executive processes are based on the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH; Reuter-Lorenz and Cappell, 2008). According to this hypothesis, more neural resources are engaged by older brains to accomplish computational goals completed with fewer resources by younger brains. Therefore, seniors are more likely than young adults to show over-activations at lower memory loads, and under-activations at higher memory loads. Consistent with these predictions, in right DLPFC, we observed age-related over-activation with lower memory loads despite equivalent performance accuracy across age groups. In contrast, with the highest memory load, older adults were significantly less accurate and showed less DLPFC activation compared to their younger counterparts. These results are considered in relation to previous reports of activation-performance relations using similar tasks, and are found to support the viability of CRUNCH as an account of age-related compensation and its potential costs. PMID:20097332
Cappell, Katherine A; Gmeindl, Leon; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A
Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50–60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed.
The contributions of verbal, visual, and spatial working memory to written language production were investigated. Participants composed definitions for nouns while concurrently performing a task which required updating, storing, and retrieving information coded either verbally, visually, or spatially. The present study extended past findings by showing the linguistic encoding of planned conceptual content makes its largest demand on verbal working memory for both low and high frequency nouns. Kellogg, Olive, and Piolat in 2007 found that concrete nouns place substantial demands on visual working memory when imaging the nouns' referents during planning, whereas abstract nouns make no demand. The current study further showed that this pattern was not an artifact of visual working memory being sensitive to manipulation of just any lexical property of the noun prompts. In contrast to past results, writing made a small but detectible demand on spatial working memory. PMID:20391888
Raulerson, Bascom A; Donovan, Michael J; Whiteford, Alison P; Kellogg, Ronald T
The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),
Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein
The primary purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of attention deficits, learning disability, and the combined effects of both on the learning and memory processes, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Thirty children (age range 12–17) diagnosed with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 18 children (age range 11–17) diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD),
Eli Vakil; Haya Blachstein; Raya Wertman-Elad; Yoram Greenstein
AKT1, encoding the protein kinase B, has been associated with the genetic etiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, minuscule data exist on the role of different alleles of in measurable quantitative endophenotypes, such as cognitive abilities and neuroanatomical features, showing deviations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We evaluated the contribution of AKT1 to quantitative cognitive traits and 3D high-resolution neuroanatomical images in a Finnish twin sample consisting of 298 twins: 61 pairs with schizophrenia (8 concordant), 31 pairs with bipolar disorder (5 concordant) and 65 control pairs matched for age, sex and demographics. An AKT1 allele defined by the SNP rs1130214 located in the UTR of the gene revealed association with cognitive traits related to verbal learning and memory (P=0.0005 for a composite index). This association was further fortified by a higher degree of resemblance of verbalmemory capacity in pairs sharing the rs1130214 genotype compared to pairs not sharing the genotype. Furthermore, the same allele was also associated with decreased gray matter density in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P < 0.05). Our findings support the role of AKT1 in the genetic background of cognitive and anatomical features, known to be affected by psychotic disorders. The established association of the same allelic variant of AKT1 with both cognitive and neuroanatomical aberrations could suggest that AKT1 exerts its effect on verbal learning and memory via neural networks involving prefrontal cortex.
Pietilainen, Olli P.H.; Paunio, Tiina; Loukola, Anu; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppa, Tuula; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Silventoinen, Karri; Soronen, Pia; Hennah, William; Turunen, Joni A.; Wedenoja, Juho; Palo, Outi M.; Silander, Kaisa; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Peltonen, Leena
Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarativememory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarativememory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarativememory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24467663
Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F
Objective To test the hypothesis that hot flashes specifically relate to verbalmemory performance by examining the relationship between objective hot flashes and cognitive test performance in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. Design In an observational study, 29 midlife women (mean age, 53 y) with moderate to severe hot flashes provided measures of objective hot flashes with an ambulatory hot flash monitor, subjective hot flashes with a diary and questionnaire, and objective measures of verbalmemory and other cognitive functions with standardized neuropsychological tests. Results The mean number of objective hot flashes was 19.5 per day (range, 6 to 35), including 15.3 (range, 6 to 35) during waking hours and 4.2 (range, 0 to 9) during sleep. The mean sensitivity (ie, subjective detection of objectively measured hot flashes) was 60%. Regression analyses revealed that total number of objective hot flashes, sleep duration, and verbal knowledge were significant predictors of delayed verbalmemory. Verbal fluency correlated positively with objective daytime hot flashes. Hot flashes did not predict performance on any of the other secondary cognitive measures (ie, attention, working memory, visual memory), although poor sleep predicted worse performance on several outcome measures. Conclusions Highly symptomatic women underreport the number of objective hot flashes that they experience by 43%. Verbalmemory performance relates significantly to the objective number of hot flashes women experience but not to the number of hot flashes that they report. These findings suggest that physiological factors related to hot flashes, rather than psychological factors, predict poorer verbalmemory function.
Maki, Pauline M.; Drogos, Lauren L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Geller, Stacie E.
Verbal short-term memory, as measured by digit or word span, is generally impaired in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) compared to mental age-matched controls. Moving from the working memory model, the present authors investigated the hypothesis that impairment in some of the articulatory loop sub-components is at the base of the deficient…
The interaction between short- and long-term memory is studied within a model in which phonemic and (temporal) contextual information have separate influences on immediate verbal serial recall via connections with short- and long-term plasticity [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G.J. (1999). Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop…
Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…
Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…
Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.
Recent evidence indicates that task and subject variables that are associated with increased interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres result in enhanced performance on tests of episodic memory. The current study looked at the effects of increased interhemispheric interaction on false memories using a verbal converging semantic…
Baddeley, Gathercole, and Papagno (1998) proposed a model of associative word learning in which the phonological loop, as defined in Baddeley’s working memory model, is primarily a language learning device, rather than a mechanism for the memorization of familiar words. Using a dual-task paradigm, Papagno, Valentine, and Baddeley (1991) found that articulatory suppression, loading verbal working memory, had an effect
Wouter Duyck; Arnaud Szmalec; Eva Kemps; André Vandierendonck
A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…
Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan
Both reduced hippocampal volume and cognitive alterations have been found in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between hippocampal volume, combat exposure, symptom severity, and memory performance in a sample of combat veterans with and without a history of PTSD. Subjects were 33 male veteran volunteers (16 PTSD+, 17 PTSD-) who underwent an MRI and neuropsychological testing with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), a measure of declarativememory. Relationships between hippocampal volume (i.e., right + left hippocampal volume/whole brain volume) and performance on the CVLT were determined using partial correlational analysis controlled for age and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores. Percent hippocampal volume for the entire sample was positively associated with several aspects of memory performance as reflected by the CVLT. In the PTSD+ group, CVLT performance was negatively correlated with lifetime, but not current CAPS symptoms. CVLT performance appears to be strongly correlated with hippocampal volume in a group of trauma survivors with and without PTSD. Insofar as CVLT performance in the PTSD group was negatively associated with worst episode, but not to current PTSD symptoms, memory performance in combat veterans may reflect some aspect of risk related to the magnitude of the psychological response to trauma, rather than current symptoms that may be interfering with cognitive performance. It will be of interest to study cognitive abilities that may relate to the likelihood of specific PTSD symptoms and to track changes in CVLT performance and hippocampal volume over time in persons with and without a history of trauma exposure. PMID:16891587
Tischler, Lisa; Brand, Sarah R; Stavitsky, Karina; Labinsky, Ellen; Newmark, Randall; Grossman, Robert; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Yehuda, Rachel
This study assessed the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on declarativememory (Rivermead Behavioral Memory task - RBMT), on procedural learning (Finger Tapping Task - FTT), and on the memory consolidation function of sleep for these two tasks. Testing occurred in 2 afternoon testing sessions, 24 hours apart so that a full period of sleep was allowed between them. Groups were: Non-drug taking Controls (n=24); Recent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy and/or MDMA 2–3 days before the first testing session (n=25), and Abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before the first session (n=17). The recent ecstasy/MDMA users performed significantly worse than controls on the RBMT (mean recall 76.1% of control group recall), but did not differ from controls on FTT performance. Correspondingly there was a significant regression between the continuous variable of recency of ecstasy/MDMA use and RBMT performance. However, there was an interaction between ecstasy/MDMA use and subsequent other drug use. Controls had similar RBMT scores to recent ecstasy/MDMA users who did not take other drugs 48 – 24 hours before testing, but scored significantly better than recent ecstasy/MDMA users who took various other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48 – 24 hours before testing. For both tasks the control, recent ecstasy/MDMA and abstinent ecstasy/MDMA users did not differ in their change of performance across 24 hours; there was thus no evidence that ecstasy/MDMA impairs the memory consolidation function of sleep for either declarative or procedural memory. For participants in the two ecstasy/MDMA groups greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets was associated with significantly more deficits in procedural memory. Furthermore, greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets and of cocaine, were also associated with significantly more deficits in declarativememory.
Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C.; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew; Jones, Katy; Morgan, Michael J.
Two studies investigated the association between cortisol levels and memory performance in healthy adults. In a first study, 13 subjects were exposed to a brief psychosocial laboratory stress (“Trier Social Stress Test”) with a subsequent test of declarativememory performance. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between stress-induced cortisol levels and performance in the memory Task, I.e. subjects with high
C Kirschbaum; O. T Wolf; M May; W Wippich; D. H Hellhammer
Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH) on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarativememory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone
Manfred Hallschmid; Ines Wilhelm; Christian Michel; Boris Perras; Jan Born
The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V[subscript 1]S[subscript 1], V[subscript 2]S[subscript 2], V[subscript 3]S[subscript 3], V[subscript 4]S[subscript 4]) were…
Maybery, Murray T.; Clissa, Peter J.; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Leung, Doris; Harsa, Grefin; Fox, Allison M.; Jones, Dylan M.
Verbal information is coded naturally as ordered representations in working memory (WM). However, this may not be true for spatial information. Accordingly, we used memory-span tasks to test the hypothesis that serial order is more readily bound to verbal than to spatial representations. Removing serial-order requirements improved performance more for spatial locations than for digits. Furthermore, serial order was freely reproduced twice as frequently for digits as for locations. When participants reordered spatial sequences, they minimized the mean distance between items. Participants also failed to detect changes in serial order more frequently for spatial than for verbal sequences. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation in the binding of serial order to spatial vs. verbal representations. There may be separable domain-specific control processes responsible for this binding. Alternatively, there may be fundamental differences in how effectively temporal information can be bound to different types of stimulus features in WM.
Background Discourse cohesion and coherence gives our communication continuity. Deficits in cohesion and coherence have been reported in patients with cognitive-communication disorders (e.g., TBI, dementia). However, the diffuse nature of pathology and widespread cognitive deficits of these disorders have made identification of specific neural substrates and cognitive systems critical for cohesion and coherence challenging. Aims Taking advantage of a rare patient group with selective and severe declarativememory impairments, the current study attempts to isolate the contribution of declarativememory to the successful use of cohesion and coherence in discourse. Methods & Procedures Cohesion and coherence were examined in the discourse of six participants with hippocampal amnesia and six demographically matched comparison participants. Specifically, this study (1) documents the frequency, type, and completeness of cohesive ties; (2) evaluates discourse for local and global coherence; and (3) compares use of cohesive ties and coherence ratings in amnesia and healthy participants. Outcomes & Results Overall, amnesia participants produced fewer cohesive ties per T-unit, the adequacy of their ties were more often judged to be incomplete, and the ratings of their local coherence were consistently lower than comparison participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that declarativememory may contribute to the discursive use of cohesion and coherence. Broader notions of cohesion, or interactional cohesion, i.e., cohesion across speakers (two or more people), time (days, weeks), and communicative resources (gesture), warrant further study as the experimental tasks used in the literature, and here, may actually underestimate or overestimate the extent of impairment.
Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…
Negative symptoms are present early on during the first episode of psychosis (FEP). The severity of these symptoms has been linked to cognitive deficits, including memory; however, its relationship with persistent negative symptoms (PNS) remains unclear. Thus, the goals of the current paper were to explore memory profiles in FEP patients identified as having PNS and to delineate this relationship in PNS over a 1-year period. Patients diagnosed as having a first episode of psychosis were segregated into groups of patients who met the criteria for PNS (N = 39) and patients who did not, or non-PNS (N = 97). At an initial assessment, all subjects were administered neurocognitive tests for three memory domains including verbal, visual and working memory. In addition, in FEP patients, clinical symptoms including negative, positive and depressive symptoms were also measured at the initial assessment as well as months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. A significant interaction of memory × group was observed (F = 4.997, d.f. = 1,181, P = 0.002), with post hoc comparisons indicating that the PNS group performed more poorly than non-PNS only in the verbalmemory domain. All three-memory domains remained stable over time. Hence, in comparison to non-PNS patients, FEP patients with PNS appear to have greater (selective) verbalmemory impairments throughout the first year of treatment. PMID:23628602
The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbalmemory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbalmemory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…
The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used for a lateralization of verbal and non-verbalmemory functions in candidates for epilepsy surgery by inducing focal, material-specific memory deficits. Twenty patients who underwent presurgical epilepsy evaluation with chronically implanted subdural strip electrodes were submitted to focal TMS over the temporal lobes and the
Emrah Düzel; Andreas Hufnagel; Christoph Helmstaedter; Christian Elger
Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that…
Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic
Robert M. Roth; Heather A. Wishart; Laura A. Flashman; Henry J. Riordan; Leighton Huey; Andrew J. Saykin
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbalmemory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbalmemory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…
Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.
Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
While the consolidation of declarativememory is supported by slow wave sleep (SWS) in healthy subjects, it has been shown to be associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with insomnia. Sleep during a subject's first night in an unfamiliar environment is often disturbed, and this so-called first-night effect (FNE) has often been used as a model of transient insomnia. Additionally, sleeping for the first time in an unfamiliar environment can lead to increased cortisol secretion, and declarativememory consolidation likely depends on low cortisol levels, especially during the early part of the night. Accounting for intersubject variability in the FNE, we examined the relationship between sleep stages, cortisol secretion and declarativememory performance in 27 healthy young men. Declarativememory performance improved significantly after sleep. Whereas memory performance during the learning session and retrieval testing was strongly associated with cortisol secretion, the overnight gain was not. Post hoc analyses indicated that the overnight gain appears to be modulated by the extent of the FNE: a significant overnight improvement in memory performance was found only in subjects with a weak FNE (n=12). In these subjects, no association was found between any sleep stage and the improvement observed in their memory performance. In subjects with a strong FNE (n=12), however, the overnight change in memory performance was associated with the proportion of REM sleep and the total number of REMs. Disturbed sleep in an unfamiliar environment therefore appears to affect the memory consolidation process. PMID:23246326
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference.
Purpose Verbal short-term (STM) and working (WM) memory skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single endpoint outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of verbal STM/WM and speech-language skills. This study investigated relations between profiles of verbal STM/WM development and speech-language development over time. Method Profiles of verbal STM/WM development were identified using group-based trajectory analysis of repeated digit span measures over at least a two-year time period in a sample of 66 children (age 6-16 years) with CIs. Subjects also completed repeated assessments of speech and language skills during the same time period. Results Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal STM (digit span forward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and language comprehension skills over time. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal WM (digit span backward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and spoken word recognition skills over time. Conclusions Different patterns of development of verbal STM/WM capacity predict the dynamic process of development of speech and language skills in this clinical population.
Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.
Oxygen is critical to normal brain functioning and development. In high altitude where the oxygen concentration and pressure\\u000a are very low, human cognitive capability such as working memory has been found to be jeopardized. Such effect might persist\\u000a with long-term high-altitude residence. The current study investigated the verbal working memory of 28 high-altitude residents\\u000a with blood level oxygen dependent (BOLD)
Norms are provided for verbal and visuo-spatial immediate memory span, two tasks widely used in the clinical assessment of short-term memory and its neurological disorders. Data have been collected from 1355 male and female adult subjects, with various educational backgrounds and a 20–99 years age range. Span shows a major decrement after the late sixties and is affected by educational
A. Orsini; D. Grossi; E. Capitani; M. Laiacona; C. Papagno; G. Vallar
Research has shown poor performance on verbalmemory tasks in patients with major depressive disorder relative to healthy controls, as well as structural abnormalities in the subcortical structures that form the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry. Few studies, however, have attempted to link the impairments in learning and memory in depression with these structural abnormalities, and of those which have done so, most have included patients medicated with psychotropic agents likely to influence cognitive performance. This study thus examines the relationship between subcortical structural abnormalities and verbalmemory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in unmedicated depressed patients. A T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan and the CVLT were obtained on 45 subjects with major depressive disorder and 44 healthy controls. Using the FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) volumes of selected subcortical structures were segmented and correlated with CVLT performance. Depressed participants showed significantly smaller right thalamus and right hippocampus volumes than healthy controls. Depressed participants also showed impaired performance on global verbal learning ability, and appeared to depend upon an inferior memory strategy (serial clustering). Measures of serial clustering were correlated significantly with right hippocampal volumes in depressed participants. Our findings indicate that depressed participants and healthy controls differ in the memory strategies they employ, and that while depressed participants had a smaller hippocampal volume, there was a positive correlation between volume and use of an inferior memory strategy. This suggests that larger hippocampal volume is related to better memory recall in depression, but specifically with regard to utilizing an inferior memory strategy. PMID:22714007
Turner, Arlener D; Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Zarate, Carlos; Nugent, Allison C
Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. PMID:24880338
We explored the temporal dynamics of parietal and prefrontal cortex involvement in verbal working memory employing single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In six healthy volunteers the left or right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex was stimulated with the aid of a frameless stereotactic system. TMS was applied at 10 different time points 140–500 ms into the delay period of a
F. M Mottaghy; M Gangitano; B. J Krause; A Pascual-Leone
In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…
The present study examined the verbalmemory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…
Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee
Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q 11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we…
Majerus, S.; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, M.; Eliez, S.
Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…
Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…
Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.
In this study, participants were required to perform different working memory (WM) tasks (a verbal task, a visuo-spatial task with two levels of difficulty and a central executive task) under different challenges to postural control (sitting, shoulder width stance and tandem stance). When a WM task was added, changes in postural sway were characterized by an increase in frequency and
This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…
Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.
In order to test recent claims about the structure of verbal working memory, two ERP experiments with Dutch speaking participants were carried out. We compared the ERP effects of syntactic and semantic mid-sentence anomalies in subject and object relative sentences. In Experiment 1, the participants made acceptability judgments, while in Experiment 2 they read for comprehension. Syntactic anomalies concerned subject–verb
Herman H. J. Kolk; Dorothee J. Chwilla; Marieke van Herten; Patrick J. W. Oor
To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a "Listening Word Span Task", whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with…
Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…
Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…
Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus
Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…
Objective To compare verbal and visual memory performances between patients with bipolar I disorder (BD I) and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD II) and to determine whether memory deficits were mediated by impaired organizational strategies. Methods Performances on the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in 37 patients with BD I, 46 patients with BD II and 42 healthy subjects were compared. Mediating effects of impaired organization strategies on poor delayed recall was tested by comparing direct and mediated models using multiple regression analysis. Results Both patients groups recalled fewer words and figure components and showed lower Semantic Clustering compared to controls. Verbalmemory impairment was partly mediated by difficulties in Semantic Clustering in both subtypes, whereas the mediating effect of Organization deficit on the visual memory impairment was present only in BD I. In all mediated models, group differences in delayed recall remained significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that memory impairment may be one of the fundamental cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders and that executive dysfunctions can exert an additional influence on memory impairments.
Ha, Tae Hyon; Kim, Ji Sun; Chang, Jae Seung; Oh, Sung Hee; Her, Ju Young; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Tae Sung; Shin, Soon Young
Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbalmemory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbalmemory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients.
Amnesic patients and normal subjects read the names of nonfamous persons. Then, after being told that all the names were nonfamous, subjects judged the fame of names on a mixed list of new famous names, old nonfamous names, and new nonfamous names. Finally, they took a recognition memory test involving old and new nonfamous names. In this way, declarative (explicit) memory and nondeclarative (implicit) memory were placed in opposition. That is, recollection that a name had been recently presented (and was therefore nonfamous) opposed the facilitatory effect by which prior presentation ordinarily increases the tendency to judge that name as famous. Normal subjects exhibited good recognition memory and no fame-judgment effect--that is, no difference in fame judgments for new and old nonfamous names. By contrast, for the amnesic patients recognition memory was poor, but a strong fame-judgment effect occurred--that is, amnesic patients judged old nonfamous names as famous. The results provide additional evidence that the fame-judgment effect is supported fully by nondeclarative (implicit) memory and is independent of the limbic/diencephalic brain structures damaged in amnesia. PMID:8350733
Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…
The aim of the current study is to characterize the prevalence, degree and nature of verbalmemory deficit in schizophrenia; to study verbalmemory task performance in patient with paranoid schizophrenia and their first degree relatives in order to identify, trait cognitive marker of the disorder. Besides the authors studied, whether nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic probands had an elevated risk of deficits in cognitive functioning, and, which of specific factors: gender, age, education, illness duration, diagnosis and psychopathological symptoms influenced the tests performance. Twenty schizophrenia inpatients (10 men; mean age=34.2 years, SD=9.1; mean education=13.6 years, SD=2.6) were recruited from the psychiatric hospital. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and clinically assessed by SANS (negative symptoms) and SAPS (positive symptoms). The patients had no history of neurological disease, systemic disease known to involve CNS functioning, clinically significant head injury, or mental retardation. Control group: twenty-eight nonpsychiatric healthy volunteers (14 men; mean age=35.0 years, SD=10.7; mean education=14.3 years, SD=3.46) were recruited from the community. Schizophrenia patients showed significant impairment of the verbalmemory in all domains. In contrast, their first degree relatives having the same education level as the patients did not differ considerably from healthy controls. These results indicate that, probably, the deterioration of explicit verbalmemory is not associated with the predisposition for schizophrenia. As the test performance did not correlate with severity of symptoms this finding cannot be attributed to the distractibility due to active psychotic symptoms, or medication effects. Impaired performance on the CVLT task, a measure of explicit verbal working memory, appears to be associated with the cognitive deficits due to the disorder itself. PMID:17984556
Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…
Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM). WM tasks examined memory span through recall of the last item of a series of stimuli. Additionally, both verbal and visual-spatial tests had a dual-task condition assessing the effect of increasing demands on the central executive (CE). Inhibitory control processes in verbal WM were examined through intrusion errors. The TBI group (n = 73) performed more poorly on verbal and visual-spatial WM tasks than orthopedic-injured children (n = 30) and non-injured children (n = 40). All groups performed more poorly on the dual-task conditions, reflecting an effect of increasing CE load. This effect was not greater for the TBI group. There were no group differences in intrusion errors on the verbal WM task, suggesting that problems in WM experienced by children with TBI were not primarily due to difficulties in inhibitory control. Finally, injury-related characteristics, namely days to follow commands, accounted for significant variance in WM performance, after controlling for relevant demographic variables. Findings suggest that WM impairments in TBI are general rather than modality-specific and that severity indices measured over time are better predictors of WM performance than those taken at a single time point.
Gorman, Stephanie; Barnes, Marcia A.; Swank, Paul R.; Prasad, Mary; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda
Memory is the capacity to store, maintain, and retrieve events or information from the mind. Difficulties in verbal episodic memory commonly occur in healthy aging. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate verbal episodic memory in a group of 32 healthy older adults and in a group of 32 young subjects relative to a sham stimulation using a single-blind randomized controlled design. Each participant underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of sham stimulation. Overall, our results demonstrated that, in young and in older subjects, anodal tDCS applied during the retrieval phase facilitates verbal episodic memory. In particular, we found that tDCS applied over the left and right regions (DLPFC and PARC) induced better performance in young participants; only tDCS applied over the left regions (DLPFC and PARC) increased retrieval in older subjects. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate the long-term episodic memory capacities of young and older subjects. PMID:24062685
Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Petesi, Michela; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria
Working memory (WM) for auditory information has been thought of as a unitary system, but whether WM for verbal and tonal information relies on the same or different functional neuroarchitectures has remained unknown. This fMRI study examines verbal and tonal WM in both nonmusicians (who are trained in speech, but not in music) and highly trained musicians (who are trained in both domains). The data show that core structures of WM are involved in both tonal and verbal WM (Broca's area, premotor cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, left insular cortex, inferior parietal lobe), although with significantly different structural weightings, in both nonmusicians and musicians. Additionally, musicians activated specific subcomponents only during verbal (right insular cortex) or only during tonal WM (right globus pallidus, right caudate nucleus, and left cerebellum). These results reveal the existence of two WM systems in musicians: A phonological loop supporting rehearsal of phonological information, and a tonal loop supporting rehearsal of tonal information. Differences between groups for tonal WM, and between verbal and tonal WM within musicians, were mainly related to structures involved in controlling, programming and planning of actions, thus presumably reflecting differences in action-related sensorimotor coding of verbal and tonal information. PMID:20533560
Verbal descriptions of unfamiliar faces have been found to impair later identification of these faces in adults, a phenomenon known as the “verbal overshadowing effect” (VOE). Although determining whether children are good at describing unfamiliar individuals and whether these descriptions impair their recognition performance is critical to gaining a better understanding children's eyewitness ability, only a couple of studies have examined this dual issue in children and these found no evidence of VOE. However, as there are some methodological criticisms of these studies, we decided to conduct two further experiments in 7–8, 10–11, and 13–14-year-old children and in adults using a more optimal method for the VOE to be observed. Evidence of the VOE on face identification was found in both children and adults. Moreover, neither the accuracy of descriptions, nor delay nor target presence in the lineup was found to be associated with identification accuracy. The theoretical and developmental implications of these findings are discussed.
Verbal descriptions of unfamiliar faces have been found to impair later identification of these faces in adults, a phenomenon known as the "verbal overshadowing effect" (VOE). Although determining whether children are good at describing unfamiliar individuals and whether these descriptions impair their recognition performance is critical to gaining a better understanding children's eyewitness ability, only a couple of studies have examined this dual issue in children and these found no evidence of VOE. However, as there are some methodological criticisms of these studies, we decided to conduct two further experiments in 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-old children and in adults using a more optimal method for the VOE to be observed. Evidence of the VOE on face identification was found in both children and adults. Moreover, neither the accuracy of descriptions, nor delay nor target presence in the lineup was found to be associated with identification accuracy. The theoretical and developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24399985
Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbalmemory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks.
Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.
Objective. To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. Method. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Results. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen’s d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p < .001). Findings were replicated using the HVLT (decline in initial recall, d = 0.60, p = .01; pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning, d = 3.10, p < .001). Because of the immediate training boost, the memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. Discussion. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning.
The relationship between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ and performance on measures of memory was examined in 64 adults tested twice at a 2-week interval. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that individuals with Low-Average WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores performed significantly more poorly than did individuals with Average and High-Average Full Scale IQs on memory measures including the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory and Delayed Recall indices, as well as California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) Total Words. Learning Slope, and Discriminability. Although all three groups demonstrated significant practice effects on each memory measure, group differences in performance persisted at retest. Multiple regression analyses revealed that WAIS-R factor scores Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility accounted for up to 42% of the variance in WMS-R and CVLT indices. Moreover, WAIS-R performance at initial testing accounted for 22-41% of the variance in memory performance at retest. These results are discussed in the context of the construct stabilities of intelligence and memory, as well as the psychometric precision of the tests used to measure these constructs. PMID:9408796
Rapport, L J; Axelrod, B N; Theisen, M E; Brines, D B; Kalechstein, A D; Ricker, J H
According to recent studies, elevated cortisol levels are associated with impaired declarativememory performance. This specific effect of cortisol has been shown in several studies using pharmacological doses of cortisol. The present study was designed to determine the effects of endogenously stimulated cortisol secretion on memory performance in healthy middle-aged women. For psychological stress challenging, we employed the Trier Social
G. Domes; M. Heinrichs; U. Reichwald; M. Hautzinger
1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…
This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus
Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level.
Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population.
Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.
Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence concerning the contribution of declarativememory to advantageous decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). One study, in which the measurement of psychophysiology during the task necessitated a 10-s delay between card selections, found that six participants with amnesia due to hippocampal damage failed to develop a preference for advantageous decks over disadvantageous decks [Gutbrod, K., Krouzel, C., Hofer, H., Muri, R., Perrig, W., & Ptak, R. (2006). Decision-making in amnesia: Do advantageous decisions require conscious knowledge of previous behavioural choices? Neuropsychologia, 44(8), 1315-1324]. However, a single-case study (where psychophysiology was not measured and no delay between card selections occurred) showed that an amnesic patient developed normal preference for advantageous decks [Turnbull, O. H., & Evans, C. E. (2006). Preserved complex emotion-based learning in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 44(2), 300-306]. We sought to resolve these discrepant findings by examining IGT performances in five patients with profound amnesia (WMS-III General Memory Index M=63) and bilateral hippocampal damage caused by anoxia (n=4) or herpes simplex encephalitis (n=1). In one administration of the IGT, psychophysiology measurements were utilized and a 6-s delay was interposed between card selections. In a second administration, no delay between card selections was interposed. While age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy comparison participants showed significant learning with a gradual preference for advantageous decks in both conditions, amnesic patients, irrespective of IGT administration condition and extent of medial temporal lobe damage, failed to develop this preference. These findings strongly discount the possibility that the delay between card selections explains why amnesic participants fail to learn in the IGT, and suggest instead a significant role for medial temporal lobe declarativememory systems in the type of complex decision-making tapped by the IGT. PMID:19397863
The California Verbal Learning Test and structural brain imaging were administered to 57 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 94 controls in a general population sample. Cases had lower semantic cluster scores. Poorer verbalmemory strategies were associated with longer duration of illness and heavier use of antipsychotic medication. After controlling for duration of illness, sex, and total gray matter,
Irina Rannikko; Liisa Paavola; Marianne Haapea; Sanna Huhtaniska; Jouko Miettunen; Juha Veijola; Graham K. Murray; Anna Barnes; Karl-Erik Wahlberg; Matti Isohanni; Erika Jääskeläinen
Previous research suggests that MDMA users are impaired in various aspects of cognitive functioning, however, it remains unclear whether they might experience deficits in established measures of verbal working memory functioning. In the present study current and previous MDMA users were compared with non-users on verbal working memory measures including reading and computation span. Both user groups were found to be impaired on the computation span measure while current users also exhibited impairment in reading span. The MDMA-related deficit on the computation span measure remained significant following the introduction of statistical controls for the potentially confounding effects of cannabis and other drugs. The results are discussed in the context of recent research on executive processes. It is suggested that MDMA may produce differential effects on specific components within a fractionated executive system. PMID:15181650
Wareing, Michelle; Fisk, John E; Murphy, Philip; Montgomery, Catharine
Sleep helps the consolidation of declarativememories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarativememories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school.
Sleep helps the consolidation of declarativememories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarativememories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in school. PMID:24917794
The efficacy of a self-generation encoding procedure in facilitating the encoding and retrieval of verbalmemories was compared with the didactic presentation of information in individuals with seizure disorders. Through a within-subject design, 87 patients (25 left temporal seizure onset, 29 right temporal, 8 frontal, and 25 psychogenic nonepileptic seizures) received a self-generation learning condition and a didactic learning condition
Bruce K. Schefft; Mario F. Dulay; Jamison D. Fargo; Jerzy P. Szaflarski; Hwa-shain Yeh; Michael D. Privitera
The current study examined the phonological and semantic contributions to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS) by experimentally manipulating the phonological and semantic demands of VSTM tasks. The performance of 18 individuals\\u000a with DS (ages 11–25) and 18 typically developing children (ages 3–10) matched pairwise on receptive vocabulary and gender\\u000a was compared on four VSTM tasks,
Nancy Raitano Lee; Bruce F. Pennington; Janice M. Keenan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of healthy volunteers is used to localise the processes involved in verbal short-term memory (VSTM) for sequences of visual stimuli. Specifically, the brain areas underlying (i) recoding, (ii) storage, (iii) rehearsal and (iv) temporal grouping are investigated. Successive subtraction of images obtained from five tasks revealed a network of left-lateralised areas, including posterior temporal regions,
Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. PMID:22940641
del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando
Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks.
A potential mechanism that enables intellectual preservation in cognitively normal elderly that harbor beta-amyloid (A?) pathology is heightened cerebral glucose metabolism. To investigate cross-sectional inter-relationships between A?, glucose metabolism, and cognition, 81 subjects (mean age: 75 ± 7 years) underwent [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound-B and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological testing. They were divided into low-A? (n = 53), intermediate-A? (n = 13) and high-A? (n = 15) groups as defined by their global cortical [(11)C]PIB retention. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a MetaROI mask that covers metabolically critical regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., posterior cingulate and bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyri). Previously validated factor scores for verbal and visual episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, and executive functioning were used to evaluate cognitive performances. Greater A? deposition in the precuneus was associated with higher metabolic activity (at trend level) and lower visual episodic memory scores. Glucose metabolism did not correlate with cognition across all subjects. However, heightened metabolic activity was associated with better verbal episodic memory performance in subjects with elevated amyloid levels. This preliminary study suggests that neural compensation, as a manifestation of brain reserve, enables elderly supposedly on the path to AD, at least temporarily, to preserve cognitive function. PMID:23537530
Ossenkoppele, Rik; Madison, Cindee; Oh, Hwamee; Wirth, Miranka; van Berckel, Bart N M; Jagust, William J
We studied effects of a daytime nap (1 hour) with including only NREM sleep on performance of declarativememory task (60 semantically unrelated word pairs) and general functional state. During training, procedure of learning of 30 word pairs was presented once, and that of the other 30 pairs was repeated twice. Strength of the task acquisition was tested. Subjects participated in two experiments: basic and control one. After learning participants either took a nap (basic experiment) or kept awake looking movies (control experiment). In 4.5 hours after the training session all the subjects were retested. As compared to the subjects who stayed awake during the training-retesting interval, subjects who had a NREM nap demonstrated enhanced performance. Concerning the strength of task acquisition, sleep-dependent performance was observed only for the word pairs learned once. Naps did not affect the functional state assessed by the reaction time dynamics and psychological testing. PMID:21675222
Many models of short-term memory (STM) ascribe an important role to temporal decay and forgetting because of the passage of time alone. We argue against decay as the primary form of forgetting from STM, and suggest that new experimental methodologies and recent models provide new perspectives on the old issue of the causes of forgetting. We show that several classic sources of evidence for time-based forgetting can be re-interpreted in terms of an interference-based view, and that new experiments provide compelling evidence against decay. We conclude that progress requires moving beyond demonstrations of qualitative effects and focusing instead on testing quantitative predictions of models. PMID:19223224
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus; Brown, Gordon D A
Declarativememory impairment is frequently reported among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who also demonstrate hippocampal volume reduction. Our goals were to ascertain whether emotional memory, which is mediated by neural circuits overlapping those of declarativememory, is also affected. In addition we wanted to characterize cerebral white matter (WM) involvement in T2DM. We studied 24 middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM who were free of obvious vascular pathology or a psychiatric disorder, and 17 age- and education-matched healthy individuals with no evidence of insulin resistance. We examined emotional and neutral memory and performed a whole-brain voxelwise WM assessment utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found clear evidence of impairment in declarativememory among diabetic subjects and in addition found some preliminary support to suggest a possible blunting of the memory facilitation by emotional material among female but not male diabetics. This report is also the first DTI assessment among individuals with T2DM, which after accounting for overt WM damage, revealed diffuse but predominantly frontal and temporal WM microstructural abnormalities, with extensive involvement of the temporal stem. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that immediate, but not delayed, emotional memory performance was explained by temporal stem FA, independent of age, poor metabolic regulation, and systolic blood pressure. Given that the temporal lobe memory networks appear to be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM, this may help explain the observed memory impairments among diabetics. Future efforts should better clarify, with a larger sample, whether emotional memory is affected in adults with T2DM and whether there are clear gender effects. PMID:19906514
Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Tsui, Wai; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Borod, Joan C; Convit, Antonio
Declarativememory impairment is frequently reported among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who also demonstrate hippocampal volume reduction. Our goals were to ascertain whether emotional memory, which is mediated by neural circuits overlapping those of declarativememory, is also affected. In addition we wanted to characterize cerebral white matter (WM) involvement in T2DM. We studied 24 middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM who were free of obvious vascular pathology or a psychiatric disorder, and 17 age- and education-matched healthy individuals with no evidence of insulin resistance. We examined emotional and neutral memory and performed a whole-brain voxelwise WM assessment utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found clear evidence of impairment in declarativememory among diabetic subjects and in addition found some preliminary support to suggest a possible blunting of the memory facilitation by emotional material among female but not male diabetics. This report is also the first DTI assessment among individuals with T2DM, which after accounting for overt WM damage, revealed diffuse but predominantly frontal and temporal WM microstructural abnormalities, with extensive involvement of the temporal stem. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that immediate, but not delayed, emotional memory performance was explained by temporal stem FA, independent of age, poor metabolic regulation, and systolic blood pressure. Given that the temporal lobe memory networks appear to be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM, this may help explain the observed memory impairments among diabetics. Future efforts should better clarify, with a larger sample, whether emotional memory is affected in adults with T2DM and whether there are clear gender effects.
Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Tsui, Wai; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Borod, Joan C.; Convit, Antonio
Imitation is an important means by which infants learn new behaviours. When infants do not have the opportunity to immediately reproduce observed actions, they may form a memory representation of the event which can guide their behaviour when a similar situation is encountered again. Imitation procedures can, therefore, provide insight into infant…
The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbalmemory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbalmemory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbalmemory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbalmemory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbalmemory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. PMID:22236632
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy' has been associated with memory deficits during abstinence and intoxication. The human neuropharmacology of MDMA-induced memory impairment is unknown. This study investigated the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Ketanserin is a 5-HT2A receptor blocker and pindolol a 5-HT1A receptor blocker. It was hypothesized that pretreatment with ketanserin and pindolol would protect against MDMA-induced memory impairment. Subjects (N=17) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design involving six experimental conditions consisting of pretreatment (T1) and treatment (T2). T1 preceded T2 by 30?min. T1–T2 combinations were: placebo–placebo, pindolol 20?mg–placebo, ketanserin 50?mg–placebo, placebo–MDMA 75?mg, pindolol 20?mg–MDMA 75?mg, and ketanserin 50?mg–MDMA 75?mg. Memory function was assessed at Tmax of MDMA by means of a word-learning task (WLT), a spatial memory task and a prospective memory task. MDMA significantly impaired performance in all memory tasks. Pretreatment with a 5-HT2A receptor blocker selectively interacted with subsequent MDMA treatment and prevented MDMA-induced impairment in the WLT, but not in the spatial and prospective memory task. Pretreatment with a 5-HT1A blocker did not affect MDMA-induced memory impairment in any of the tasks. Together, the results demonstrate that MDMA-induced impairment of verbalmemory as measured in the WLT is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.
van Wel, J H P; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Bosker, W M; Bakker, K; Ramaekers, J G
In this study we investigated the effects of long-term memory (LTM) verbal knowledge on short-term memory (STM) verbal recall in a sample of Italian children affected by different subtypes of specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of the study was to evaluate if phonological working memory (PWM) abilities of SLI children can be supported by LTM linguistic representations and if
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience memory deficits, although the nature, functional implication, and recovery trajectory of such difficulties are poorly understood. The present fMRI study examined the neural activation patterns in a group of young children who sustained moderate TBI in early childhood (n = 7), and a group of healthy control children (n = 13) during a verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task that promoted the use of two mnemonic strategies differing in efficacy. The children with TBI demonstrated intact memory performance and were able to successfully utilize the mnemonic strategies. However, the TBI group also demonstrated altered brain activation patterns during the task compared to the control children. These findings suggest early childhood TBI may alter activation within the network of brain regions supporting associative memory even in children who show good behavioral performance.
Kramer, Megan E.; Chiu, C.-Y. Peter; Shear, Paula K.; Wade, Shari L.
For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our memory of a prior experience is considered to be one of the hallmarks in human memory development, but surprisingly, little is known about the ontogeny of this fundamental ability. Prior research has shown that by 4 years of age, children can use a simple verbal reminder (e.g., "Do you remember coming here before?") to reactivate an otherwise inaccessible memory of a unique visual stimulus. Given that language comprehension precedes production, it has been hypothesized that the ability to use verbal reminders may emerge well before 4 years of age. In the present experiment, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether a verbal reminder reactivated memory in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children who were tested using the visual-paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Our findings showed that the ability to exploit a simple verbal reminder emerges by at least 2 years of age. PMID:22822936
We studied the effects on verbal and nonverbal memory of anterior temporal lobe (ATL) surgery for epilepsy in 91 patients (46 men, 45 women), all of whom had left-hemisphere dominance for speech. Patients were divided into four groups according to sex and laterality of the excision. The memory tasks were administered shortly before surgery, 6 months postoperatively, and at a
Although children with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently present with reduced short-term memory functioning, the relationship between perisylvian morphology and verbal short-term memory functioning has received limited attention. Thus, examining this relationship in children with neurodevelopmental disorders was the focus of this exploratory…
Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Morgan, Allison E.; Hiemenz, Jennifer R.; Cohen, Morris J.; Hynd, George W.
For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…
Summary Background: Whilst acute loss of ovarian function is associated with memory deficits, the biological basis of this is poorly understood. We have previously reported that acute loss of function during Gonadotropin Hormone Releasing Hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment is associated with impaired verbalmemory and a disruption of corresponding left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) during the encoding stage. In the
Michael C. Craig; Paul C. Fletcher; Eileen M. Daly; Janice Rymer; Mick Brammer; Vincent Giampietro; Pauline M. Maki; Declan G. M. Murphy
The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…
Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise
Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbalmemory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…
This experiment examined whether the time of day of alcohol administration influences alcohol metabolism and the impact of alcohol on verbalmemory. It was hypothesized that circadian fluctuations in endogenous levels of testosterone in young men would differentially affect blood alcohol levels, which would consequently impair their memory performance to a different degree. Participants were administered alcohol or placebo drinks
Dmitri V. Poltavski; Joanna M. Marino; Jenny M. Guido; Ashley Kulland; Thomas V. Petros
In humans, theta phase (4-8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM. PMID:24672496
This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age=81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical Memory (LM), Trail Making Test B (TMTB), block design (BD)) and provided blood samples for hormonal assays (total estradiol, total testosterone, calculated free testosterone index). Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, education, body mass index, and cardiovascular comorbidities indicated that men with high levels of total estradiol demonstrated better FCSRT verbalmemory performance (?=0.17, p<0.02) compared to men with lower levels of total estradiol. The results remained unchanged when the model was further adjusted for ethnicity. We did not detect an association between testosterone and cognitive performance. These findings indicate that high levels of total estradiol in older men are associated with better performance on a cue-based, controlled learning test of verbalmemory that is a sensitive predictor of dementia. PMID:21354686
Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S; Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel
An fMRI pitch memory task was administered to left and right anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) patients. The goal was to verify the neuroanatomical correlates of non-verbalmemory, and to determine if pitch memory tasks can identify cognitive risk prior to ATL. The data showed that the bilateral posterior superior temporal lobes implement pitch memory in both ATL patients and NCs (normal controls), indicating that the task can be accomplished with either anterior temporal lobe resected. NCs activate the posterior temporal lobes more strongly than ATL patients during highly accurate performance. In contrast, both ATL groups activate the anterior cingulate in association with accuracy. While our data clarifies the functional neuroanatomy of pitch memory, it also indicates that such tasks do not serve well to lateralize and functionally map potentially “at risk” non-verbalmemory skills prior to ATL.
Tracy, Joseph I.; Hernandez, R. Nick; Mayekar, Sonal; Osipowicz, Karol; Corbett, Brian; Pascua, Mark; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini D.
Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.
Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker
Objective. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships of cardiovascular risk factors with verbal learning and memory in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Design. cross-sectional study. Inclusion Criteria. Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Data Collection. Sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and episodic memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Analysis. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine variables that are potentially associated with verbal learning and memory. Results. One hundred and sixty-eight outpatients participated in our study. An association was found between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and memory impairment on measures of verbal learning, and short- and long-term memory. Among the different components of MeTS, hypertriglycerides, abdominal obesity, and low HDL cholesterol were the only factors associated with memory impairment. Alcohol dependence or abuse was associated with a higher rate of forgetting. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that MetS and alcohol use may be linked with memory impairment in schizophrenia. These findings provide important insights into the interdependencies of cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive disorders and support novel strategies for treating and preventing cognitive disorders in patients with schizophrenia.
Objectives Cochlear implants (CIs) help many deaf children achieve near normal speech and language (S/L) milestones. Nevertheless, high levels of unexplained variability in S/L outcomes are limiting factors in improving the effectiveness of CIs in deaf children. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) capacity as a progress-limiting source of variability in S/L outcomes following CI in children. Design Longitudinal study of 66 children with CIs for pre-lingual severe-to-profound hearing loss. Outcome measures included performance on Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), and four conventional S/L measures that examined spoken word recognition (PBK), receptive vocabulary (PPVT), sentence recognition skills (HINT), and receptive and expressive language functioning (CELF). Results Growth curves for DSF and DSB in the CI sample over time were comparable in slope, but consistently lagged in magnitude relative to norms for normal-hearing peers of the same age. For DSF and DSB, 50.5% and 44.0%, respectively, of the CI sample scored >1 SD below the normative mean for raw scores across all ages. The first (baseline) DSF score significantly predicted all endpoint scores for the four S/L measures, and DSF slope (growth) over time predicted CELF scores. DSF baseline and slope accounted for an additional 13%–31% of variance in S/L scores after controlling for conventional predictor variables such as: chronological age at time of testing, age at time of implantation, communication mode (AOC vs. TC), and maternal education. Only DSB baseline scores predicted endpoint language scores on PPVT and CELF. DSB slopes were not significantly related to any endpoint S/L measures. DSB baseline scores and slopes taken together accounted for an additional 4%–19% of variance in S/L endpoint measures after controlling for the conventional predictor variables. Conclusions Verbal STM/WM scores, process measures of information capacity, develop at an average rate in the years following cochlear implantation, but were found to consistently lag in absolute magnitude behind those reported for normal hearing peers. Baseline verbal STM/WM predicted long-term endpoint S/L outcomes, but verbal STM slopes predicted only endpoint language outcomes. Verbal STM/WM processing skills reflect important underlying core elementary neurocognitive functions and represent potential intervention targets for improving endpoint S/L outcomes in pediatric CI users.
Harris, Michael S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Gao, Sujuan; Hoen, Helena M.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Pisoni, David B.
Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8–17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA?) “attention problems” according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6–18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA? were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA? group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA?, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.
Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; ?ie, Merete
Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not the immediate versus delayed dimension. We found a linear decrease of 1% to 3% per year in overall memory performance past the age of 25. For visuospatial tests, this decrease started at age 18 and was twice as fast as the decrease of verbalmemory. There were strong effects of education, with the highest educated group sometimes scoring one full standard deviation above the lowest educated group. Gender effects were small but as expected: women outperformed men on the verbalmemory tasks; men outperformed women on the visuospatial tasks. We also found evidence of increasing proneness to false memory with age. Memory for recent news events did not show a decrease with age. PMID:23261419
Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Rouw, Romke; Meeter, Martijn
Forty-one boys diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) were each compared to an unaffected sibling on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Verbal. visuospatial, attention/memory, abstract thinking, and academic achievement skills were tested. Results indicated the boys with DMD performed similarly to their siblings on the majority of measures, indicating intact verbal, visuospatial, long-term memory, and abstract skills. However, the DMD group did significantly more poorly than their siblings on specific measures of story recall, digit span, and auditory comprehension, as well as in all areas of academic achievement (reading, writing, and math). This profile indicates that verbal working memory skills are selectively impaired in DMD, and that that likely contributes to limited academic achievement. The association between the known impact of the genetic mutation on the development of the central nervous system and boys' cognitive profile is discussed. PMID:11253841
Hinton, V J; De Vivo, D C; Nereo, N E; Goldstein, E; Stern, Y
Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic organization during encoding. Mediation modeling indicated that state anxiety, but not semantic organization, significantly contributed to the prediction of both learning and delayed recall in the ADHD group. The pattern of findings suggests that decreased verbal learning and memory in adult ADHD is due in part to situational anxiety and not to poor use of organizational strategies during encoding. PMID:14744190
Roth, Robert M; Wishart, Heather A; Flashman, Laura A; Riordan, Henry J; Huey, Leighton; Saykin, Andrew J
Background and objective Cognitive impairment, including impairment of episodic memory, is frequently found in newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this longitudinal observational study we investigated whether performance in memory encoding, retention, recognition and free recall is associated with reduced hippocampal radial distance. Methods We analysed baseline T1-weighted brain MRI data from 114 PD subjects without cognitive impairment, 29 PD subjects with mild cognitive impairment and 99 normal controls from the ParkWest study. Age- and education-predicted scores for the California Verbal Learning Test 2 (CVLT-2) and tests of executive function were regressed against hippocampal radial distance while adjusting for imaging centre. Results There was no association between encoding or performance on executive tests and hippocampal atrophy in the PD group. In the full PD sample we found bilaterally significant associations between lower delayed free recall scores and hippocampal atrophy in the CA1, CA3 and subiculum area (left, p=0.0013; right, p=0.0082). CVLT-2 short delay free recall scores were associated with bilateral hippocampal CA1 and subicular atrophy in the full PD sample (left, p=0.013; right, p=0.047). CVLT-2 recognition scores showed a significant association with right-sided subicular and CA1 atrophy in the full PD sample (p=0.043). Conclusions At the time of PD diagnosis, subjects’ verbalmemory performance in recall and recognition are associated with atrophy of the hippocampus, while encoding is not associated with hippocampal radial distance. We postulate that impaired recall and recognition might reflect deficient memory consolidation at least partly due to structural hippocampal changes.
Beyer, Mona K.; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Bergsland, Niels; Tysnes, Ole Bjorn; Larsen, Jan Petter; Thompson, Paul M.; Somme, Johanne H.; Apostolova, Liana G.
Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in understanding verbal materials, especially when words are mentally combined to form multi-word units or chunks. Toward a more comprehensive theory of capacity limits, we examine models of forced-choice recognition of words within printed lists, using materials designed to produce multi-word chunks in memory (e.g., leather brief case). Several simple models were tested against data from a variety of list lengths and potential chunk sizes, with test conditions that only imperfectly elicited the inter-word associations. According to the most successful model, participants retained about 3 chunks on average in a capacity-limited region of WM, with some chunks being only subsets of the presented associative information (e.g., leather brief case retained with leather as one chunk and brief case as another). The addition to the model of an activated long-term memory (LTM) component unlimited in capacity was needed. A fixed capacity limit appears critical to account for immediate verbal recognition and other forms of WM. We advance a model-based approach that allows capacity to be assessed despite other important processing contributions. Starting with a psychological-process model of WM capacity developed to understand visual arrays, we arrive at a more unified and complete model.
Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott
Purpose Language lateralization measured by preoperative fMRI was shown recently to be predictive of verbalmemory outcome in patients undergoing left anterior temporal lobe (L-ATL) resection. The aim of this study was to determine whether language lateralization or hippocampal activation asymmetry is a better predictor of memory outcome in this setting. Methods Thirty L-ATL patients underwent preoperative language fMRI, preoperative hippocampal fMRI using a scene encoding task, and pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing. A group of 37 right ATL surgery patients who underwent the same testing procedures was included for comparison. Results Verbalmemory decline occurred in roughly half of the L-ATL patients. Preoperative language lateralization was correlated with postoperative verbalmemory change. Hippocampal activation asymmetry was strongly related to side of seizure focus and to Wada memory asymmetry but was unrelated to verbalmemory outcome. Discussion Preoperative hippocampal activation asymmetry elicited by a scene encoding task is not predictive of verbalmemory outcome. Risk of verbalmemory decline is likely to be related to lateralization of material-specific verbalmemory networks, which are more closely correlated with language lateralization than with overall asymmetry of episodic memory processes.
Binder, Jeffrey R.; Swanson, Sara J.; Sabsevitz, David S.; Hammeke, Thomas A.; Raghavan, Manoj; Mueller, Wade M.
Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbalmemory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure.
Braskie, Meredith N.; Small, Gary W.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.
Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239
Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…
Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The present study investigated sex-related differences in verbal, spatial, and common object versions of the high cognitive load "n-back" working memory task. Eighteen male and 18 female undergraduates completed all 3 versions of the task. A mixed ANOVA, with Sex (male and female) as the between-subjects factor and Condition (verbal, spatial, and object) as the within-subjects repeated measure revealed that males were significantly more accurate than females on the spatial and object versions of the n-back task and performed equivalently to females on the verbal version of the task. Although the expected female advantage for verbal working memory was not found using this effortful n-back task, these results support a male advantage for high cognitive load spatial and object working memory. Future research should take into account the influence of sex on performance of the n-back task, and examine sex-related differences in working memory using other paradigms. PMID:21411205
Introduction Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical\\/verbal\\u000a memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169
Load-dependent and practice-related changes in neocortical and cerebellar structures involved in verbal working memory (VWM) were investigated using functional MRI (fMRI) and a two alternative forced choice Sternberg paradigm. Using working memory loads ranging from 2 to 6 letters, regions exhibiting linear and quadratic trends in load-dependent activations were identified. Behaviorally, reaction time measurements revealed significant linear increases with increasing
Matthew P. Kirschen; S. H. Annabel Chen; Pamela Schraedley-Desmond; John E. Desmond
Prior research has put forth at least four possible contributors to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities (RD): poor phonological awareness that affects phonological coding into VSTM, a less effective phonological store, slow articulation rate, and fewer\\/poorer quality long-term memory (LTM) representations. This project is among the first to test the four suppositions in
Williams and Down syndromes, two genetic syndromes of abnormal neurodevelopment, are characterized by specific neuropsychological profiles and unique patterns of brain morphology. We find that the superior language ability of subjects with Williams syndrome is accompanied by significantly better performance on a verbal short-term memory task. Conversely, subjects with Down syndrome perform significantly better on a visual-spatial short-term memory task.
This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…
Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.
When normal participants are presented with written verbal short-term memory tasks (e.g., remembering a set of letters for immediate spoken recall) there is evidence to suggest that the information is re-coded into phonological form. This paper presents a single case study of MJK whose reading follows the pattern of phonological dyslexia. In…
The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…
This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…
Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571
Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G
Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister
N400 is an event-related brain potential that indexes operations in semantic memory conceptual space, whether elicited by language or some other representation (e.g., drawings). Language models typically propose three stages: lexical access or orthographic- and phonological-level analysis; lexical selection or word-level meaning and associate…
Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…
The human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is crucial for monitoring and manipulating information in working memory, but whether such contributions are domain-specific remains unsettled. Neuroimaging studies have shown bilateral dlPFC activity associated with working memory independent of the stimulus domain, but the causality of this relationship cannot be inferred. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has the potential to test whether the left and right dlPFC contribute equally to verbal and spatial domains; however, this is the first study to investigate the interaction of task domain and hemisphere using offline rTMS to temporarily modulate dlPFC activity. In separate sessions, 20 healthy right-handed adults received 1 Hz rTMS to the left dlPFC and right dlPFC, plus the vertex as a control site. The working memory performance was assessed pre-rTMS and post-rTMS using both verbal-'letter' and spatial-'location' versions of the 3-back task. The response times were faster post-rTMS, independent of the task domain or stimulation condition, indicating the influence of practice or other nonspecific effects. For accuracy, rTMS of the right dlPFC, but not the left dlPFC or vertex, led to a transient dissociation, reducing spatial, but increasing verbal accuracy. A post-hoc correlation analysis found no relationship between these changes, indicating that the substrates underlying the verbal and spatial domains are functionally independent. Collapsing across time, there was a trend towards a double dissociation, suggesting a potential laterality in the functional organisation of verbal and spatial working memory. At a minimum, these findings provide human evidence for domain-specific contributions of the dlPFC to working memory and reinforce the potential of rTMS to ameliorate cognition. PMID:24713032
Fried, Peter J; Rushmore, Richard J; Moss, Mark B; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
The Paired-Axxsssociate Recognition Test (PART) was developed to test declarativememory using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) stimuli, for use in physiologic neuroimaging studies of memory and executive function in schizophrenia. PART was administered to 55 healthy adults (30 male, 25 female) to establish reliability and construct validity. Reliability results indicate that PART performance was stable across trials and internally
J. Daniel Ragland; Ruben C. Gur; Gayle K. Deutsch; David M. Censits; Raquel E. Gur
The validity and reliability of clinic-based and telephone-based versions of a 4 word delayed recall test were evaluated in nondemented elderly individuals (n=644) participating in a simulated primary prevention clinical trial. There was no significant difference in the average scores achieved by participants tested in clinic (mean=3.40) or by telephone (mean=3.47) and the 2 groups had similar distributions of scores. Delayed recall scores were significantly, but weakly, correlated with scores on a rigorous verbalmemory task, were lower in participants in Clinical Dementia Rating stage 0.5 than in those in Clinical Dementia Rating stage 0, and were lower in those with subjective memory complaints than in those without complaints. There was only fair correspondence between scores achieved at initial testing and 3 months later for both versions of the test. There were no differences in the average scores achieved by men or women, those older (age 80 to 93) or younger (age 75 to 79) than age 80, or those with white or nonwhite ethnicity. Participants with low education scored significantly lower than those with high education. Results suggest that clinic-based and telephone-based versions of the Four Word Delayed Recall Test are valid and reliable and can be used to screen for possible memory deficits in elderly individuals. However, the psychometric properties of the test are relatively weak and do not support the general use of the test for clinical and research purposes if the use of a more rigorous memory test with a wider range of possible scores is feasible. PMID:17135807
Salmon, David P; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Jin, Shelia; Sano, Mary; Sperling, Reisa A; Zamrini, Edward; Petersen, Ronald C; Edland, Steven D; Thal, Leon J; Ferris, Steven H
Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was associated with poorer utilization of study time, suggesting that age differences in study time allocation are qualitatively similar across material modality. Furthermore, age differences in how individuals allocated their study time partially mediated the age relations on memory performance in both tasks, indicating the importance of effective regulation of study time when learning information. Finally, age differences in study time allocation did not appear to be due to differences in awareness of performance. When a subset of participants was asked about their prior performance, awareness of previous performance was not associated with study time allocation on either task. Interestingly, asking participants about their prior performance tended to decrease recall performance. Overall, these results illustrate that how one allocates study time is related to subsequent memory performance in both a verbal and spatial modality, but knowledge about prior performance is not associated with study time utilization, and inquiring about past performance during study may disrupt rather than facilitate learning.
This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbalmemory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change.
Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.
This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using (18)FDG-PET during a verbalmemory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20-87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate--a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195
Hazlett, Erin A; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M; Mitsis, Effie M; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T; Chen, Amy D; Buchsbaum, Monte S
Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM) that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR) ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group) or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group). Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training and 1 year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer improvements. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity, and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the 1-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in this clinical sample and can help improve their cognitive performance. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome. PMID:23060775
This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…
Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.
Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep contributes to the consolidation of new memories, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to the prevention of retroactive interference. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Two sessions of either a morning nap or wakefulness. Participants: Twenty-five healthy young adults. Interventions: Declarative learning of word pairs followed by a nap or a wake interval, then learning of interfering word pairs and delayed recall of list A. Measurements and Results: After a restricted night (24:00-06:00), participants learned a list of word pairs (list A). They were then required to either take a nap or stay awake during 45 min, after which they learned a second list of word pairs (list B) and then had to recall list A. Fifty percent of word pairs in list B shared the first word with list A, resulting in interference. Ten subjects exhibited REM sleep whereas 13 subjects exhibited NREM stage 3 (N3) sleep. An interference effect was observed in the nap but not in the wake condition. In post-learning naps, N3 sleep was associated with a reduced interference effect, which was not the case for REM sleep. Moreover, participants exhibiting N3 sleep in the post-learning nap condition also showed a reduced interference effect in the wake condition, suggesting a higher protection ability against interference. Conclusion: Our results partly support the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep contributes in protecting novel memories against interference. However, rapid eye movement sleep-related consolidation is not evidenced. Citation: Deliens G; Leproult R; Neu D; Peigneux P. Rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep contributions in memory consolidation and resistance to retroactive interference for verbal material. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1875-1883.
Deliens, Gaetane; Leproult, Rachel; Neu, Daniel; Peigneux, Philippe
It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability.
Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia
The lobular distributions of functional activation of the cerebellum during verbal working-memory and finger movement tasks were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Relative to a rest control, finger tapping of the right hand produced ipsilateral-increased activation in HIV\\/HV (Roman numeral desig- nations based on Larsell's (Larsell and Jansen, 1972) nomencla- ture) and HVI and weaker activation in HVIII
John E. Desmond; John D. E. Gabrieli; Anthony D. Wagner; Bruce L. Ginier; Gary H. Glover
Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = ?0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students.
Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh
Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357
Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh
Literature regarding verbal working memory (vWM) in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been inconsistent due to a misunderstanding of the key components of vWM and introduction of confounding stimuli. Furthermore, there are no studies looking at how brain function in people with AN relates to vWM performance. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a letter n-back paradigm to study the effect of increasing vWM task difficulty on cortical functioning in the largest AN sample to date (n=31). Although the AN group had low BMI and higher anxious and depressive symptomology compared to age-matched controls (HC), there were no between-group differences in accuracy and speed at any task difficulty. fMRI data revealed no regions exhibiting significant differences in activation when groups were compared at each difficulty separately and no regions showing group x condition interaction. Although there was a trend towards lower accuracy as duration of illness increased, this was not correlated with activity in regions associated with vWM. These findings indicate that vWM in AN is as efficient and performed using the same cognitive strategy as HC, and that there may not be a need for therapies to pursue remediation of this particular neurocognitive faculty. PMID:23849992
Lao-Kaim, N P; Giampietro, V P; Williams, S C R; Simmons, A; Tchanturia, K
The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[deoxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of ?[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of ?[oxy-Hb] and ?[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between ?[deoxy-Hb] and ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.
Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbalmemory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD), and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT]) and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbalmemory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.
Reinke, Britta; van de Ven, Vincent; Matura, Silke; Linden, David E. J.; Oertel-Knochel, Viola
Adaptive training of working memory (WM) using the Cogmed-RM intervention has recently shown some efficacy as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but this intervention may not be optimally designed. A recent component analysis of WM has suggested that maintenance in primary memory (PM) appears to be largely intact whereas recall from secondary memory (SM) appears to be deficient in ADHD relative to age-matched controls. However, extrapolating from basic research, there is reason to believe that Cogmed-RM may target the PM component more than the SM component; though training with spatial exercises may target the SM component more than training with verbal exercises. To investigate, participants diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either a verbal training condition (n = 24) or a spatial training condition (n = 23) using a randomized, controlled design, and both groups were instructed to complete at least 20 days of training. The PM and SM components of WM were assessed immediately before and after training using both verbal and spatial free recall tasks. The main findings showed that both versions of the intervention enhanced the maintenance of information in PM regardless of test modality, but not the recall of information from SM. Therefore, the component of WM that is improved by Cogmed-RM is not the same component of WM that is deficient in ADHD. PMID:21390920
Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Steeger, Christine M; Dobrzenski, Bradley A; Morrissey, Rebecca A
This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory. PMID:23437381
Christie, Gregory J; Cook, Charles M; Ward, Brian J; Tata, Matthew S; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J; Saucier, Deborah M
This study investigated how both sex and individual differences in a mental rotation test (MRT) influence performance on working memory (WM). To identify the neural substrate supporting these differences, brain electrical activity was measured using the event-related potential technique. No significant sex differences were observed in a test of verbal WM, however males were significantly faster than females to respond to probe stimuli in a test of spatial WM. This difference was no longer significant after controlling for differences in MRT score, suggesting that rotational ability mediates performance in the spatial memory task for both sexes. A posterior P300 was observed in both tasks as participants encoded information into memory, however the amplitude of the P300 correlated with RT in the spatial task but not in the verbal task. Individual differences in the MRT also correlated with RT and with the amplitude of the P300, but again only in the spatial task. After splitting the analysis by sex, partial correlations controlling for MRT revealed that for males, individual differences in rotational ability completely mediated the correlation between the P300 and RT in the spatial task. This mediating effect was not observed for the female participants. The results therefore suggest a relatively stronger association in males between innate mental rotational ability, spatial memory performance, and brain electrophysiological processes supporting spatial memory.
Christie, Gregory J.; Cook, Charles M.; Ward, Brian J.; Tata, Matthew S.; Sutherland, Janice; Sutherland, Robert J.; Saucier, Deborah M.
Variation in memory performance is to a large extent explained by genes. In the prefrontal cortex, the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in cognitive functions. The present study examined the effect of a polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in memory in adulthood and old age.
Cindy M. de Frias; Kristina Annerbrink; Lars Westberg; Elias Eriksson; Rolf Adolfsson; Lars-Göran Nilsson
A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…
To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarativememory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35-80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions,…
Essential tremor is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor and cognitive symptoms including working memory deficits. Epidemiological research has shown that patients with essential tremor are at a higher risk to develop dementia relative to age-matched individuals; this demonstrates that cognitive impairments reflect specific, although poorly understood, disease mechanisms. Neurodegeneration of the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of essential tremor itself; however, whether cerebellar dysfunctions relate to cognitive abnormalities is unclear. We addressed this issue using functional neuroimaging in 15 patients with essential tremor compared to 15 sex-, education- and age-matched healthy controls while executing a verbal working memory task. To remove confounding effects, patients with integrity of the nigrostriatal terminals, no dementia and abstinent from medications altering cognition were enrolled. We tested whether patients displayed abnormal activations of the cerebellum (posterior lobules) and other areas typically engaged in working memory (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parietal lobules). Between-groups differences in the interactions of these regions were also assessed with functional connectivity methods. Finally, we determined whether individual differences in neuropsychological and clinical measures modulated the magnitude of regional brain responses and functional connectivity data in patients with essential tremor. Despite similar behavioural performances, patients showed greater cerebellar response (crus I/lobule VI) compared to controls during attentional-demanding working memory trials (F?=?8.8; P?0.05, corrected). They also displayed altered functional connectivity between crus I/lobule VI and regions implicated in focusing attention (executive control circuit including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, thalamus) and in generating distracting self-related thoughts (default mode network including precuneus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) (T-values?>?3.2; P?0.05, corrected). These findings were modulated by the variability in neuropsychological measures: patients with low cognitive scores displayed reduced connectivity between crus I/lobule VI and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and enhanced connectivity between crus I/lobule VI and the precuneus (T-values?>?3.7; P?0.05, corrected). It is likely that cerebellar neurodegeneration underlying essential tremor is reflected in abnormal communications between key regions responsible for working memory and that adaptive mechanisms (enhanced response of crus I/lobule VI) occur to limit the expression of cognitive symptoms. The connectivity imbalance between the executive control circuit and the default mode network in patients with essential tremor with low cognitive scores may represent a dysfunction, driven by the cerebellum, in suppressing task irrelevant thoughts via focused attention. Overall, our results offer new insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of cognition in essential tremor and suggest a primary role of the cerebellum in mediating abnormal interactions between the executive control circuit and the default mode network. PMID:21747127
Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…
One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…
Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…
Women frequently complain of memory problems at times in their reproductive lives that are associated with changes in estrogen concentration (e.g. around menopause and childbirth). Further, behavioural studies suggest that memory performance may fluctuate across the menstrual cycle. For example, performance on verbal tasks has been reported to be greatest during phases associated with high estrogen concentrations whereas the opposite
Michael C. Craig; Paul C. Fletcher; Eileen M. Daly; Janice Rymer; Mick Brammer; Vincent Giampietro; Declan G. M. Murphy
The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…
Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai
Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…
Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16–17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n?=?25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n?=?25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarativememories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.
It has been claimed that verbal short-term memory in Williams syndrome is characterised by an over-use of phonological coding alongside a reduced contribution of lexical semantics. We critically examine this hypothesis and present results from a memory span task comparing performance on concrete and abstract words, together with a replication of a span task using phonologically similar and phonologically dissimilar words. Fourteen participants with Williams syndrome were individually matched to two groups of typically developing children. The first control group was matched on digit span and the second on vocabulary level. Significant effects were found for both the semantic and the phonological variables in the WS group as well as in the control groups, with no interaction between experimental variable and group in either experiment. The results demonstrate that, despite claims to the contrary, children and adults with WS are able to access and make use of lexical semantics in a verbal short-term memory task in a manner comparable to typically developing individuals. PMID:15714899
This study investigates the effects of interference speech and the built acoustical environment on human performance, and the possibility of designing spaces to architecturally meet the acoustical goals of office and classroom environments. The effects of room size, geometry, and acoustical parameters on human performance are studied through human subject testing. Three experiments are used to investigate the effects of distracting background speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose under constrained laboratory conditions. Short-term memory performance is rated within four different acoustical spaces and five background noise levels, as well as a quiet condition. The presentation will cover research methods, results, and possibilities for furthering this research. [Work supported by the Program in Architectural Acoustics, School of Architecture, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Lodico, Dana M.; Torres, Rendell R.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hunter, Claudia
We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbalmemory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbalmemory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbalmemory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.
Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.
Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have deficits in verbal learning and recall. However, the specificity of these deficits has not been adequately tested. In the current study, verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder commonly seen in alcohol-exposed children. Methods Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test – Children's Version (CVLT-C) was examined in three groups of children (N=22/group): (1) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD (ALC), (2) nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD), and (3) nonexposed typically developing (CON). Groups were matched on age, sex, race, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Results Group differences were noted on learning trials (CON > ADHD > ALC). On the delayed recall trial, CON children performed better than both clinical groups, who did not differ from each other. Children in the ALC group demonstrated poorer recognition than children in the CON and ADHD groups, who did not differ from each other. Marginally significant group differences were noted on retention of previously learned material. Post hoc analyses indicated that ADHD children showed worse retention relative to the CON group, whereas retention in the ALC children remained intact. Conclusions These data suggest that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and nonexposed children with ADHD show differential patterns of deficit on the CVLT-C. Performance of alcohol-exposed children reflects inefficient encoding of verbal material, whereas performance of the ADHD group may be better characterized by a deficit in retrieval of learned material. Differences noted between clinical groups add to a growing neurobehavioral profile of FASD that may aid in differential diagnosis.
Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.
We investigated individual short- and long-term verbalmemory changes after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy. Fifty-one patients (23 operated on the speech-dominant temporal lobe, DTL and 28 on the non-dominant temporal lobe, NDTL) were tested on learning/immediate recall and delayed recall of word-list and word-pairs preoperatively, 2 years postoperatively and 10years postoperatively. Changes were defined using reliable change indices of 23 healthy controls assessed at corresponding intervals. Fewer patients had reliable declines at 10 years than at 2 years (DTL: 13-35% vs 35-44%; NDTL: 0-4% vs 7-21%). Four DTL patients (17%) had reliable declines in ?2 tests at 10-year follow-up. More NDTL patients had improvement at 10 years than at 2 years (18-30% vs 4-22%). The only risk factor for decline both short and long term was DTL resection. In conclusion, most patients had stable verbalmemory postoperatively. A few DTL patients had a lasting decline at long-term follow-up, but more patients showed partial recovery, especially in the NDTL group. PMID:22789634
Andersson-Roswall, Lena; Malmgren, Kristina; Engman, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Hans
To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarativememory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35–80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n=2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions, regardless of age, with no evidence of narrowing gender gaps. Across the entire range
IT is widely held that conscious recall of past experiences involves a specific system-episodic memory1. Patients with amnesia have gross impairments of episodic memory while other kinds of memory remain intact2,3, suggesting that a separable brain system underlies episodic memory. We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify components of this system in normal volunteers. A dual-task interference paradigm4
T. Shallice; P. Fletcher; P. Grasby; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. J. Dolan
The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…
The investigation evaluated the effects of Furst's mnemonic technique applied to serial verbal learning using consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) lists of Low (1.07), Medium (2.75), and High (4.37) scaled meaningfulness (m') values. Furst's method produced si...
Background Patients with depression show abnormalities in the neural circuitry supporting working memory. These abnormalities apparently persist into clinical remission, raising the possibility that they might be trait markers indicating vulnerability to depression. Methods We studied 17 young people who had a depressed parent but no personal history of depressive illness (FH) and 15 healthy control subjects with no family history of depression. Participants performed a verbal working memory task of varying cognitive load (n-back) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. We used multiple regression analyses to assess overall capacity (1-, 2-, 3-back vs. 0-back) as well as linear and quadratic modulation of cognitive demand. Results Performance accuracy and response latency did not differ between groups, and overall capacity was similar. However, for both linear and quadratic load response activity, FH participants showed greater activation in lateral occipital cortex, superior temporal cortex, and superior parietal cortex. Conclusions Our data suggest that, as in depressed patients, maintenance of task performance in FH participants is associated with a significant increase in the load-response activity of the cortical regions involved in working memory. This neural abnormality could form part of the predisposition to develop depressive disorders.
Mannie, Zola N.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Cowen, Philip J.; Norbury, Ray
This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…
Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma
The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…
The risk of cognitive decline after mesial temporal lobe (MTL) resection in the dominant hemisphere for treatment of epilepsy has been assessed with the intracarotid amytal procedure and functional neuroimaging. In this study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to analyze memory profiles in patients with left hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Biomagnetic brain activity related to successful memory was compared in nine patients
F. Maestú; P. Campo; I. García-Morales; A. del Barrio; N. Paul; F. del Pozo; T. Ortiz; A. Gil-Nagel
Two studies are reported that explore the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Following previous reports of a bilingual advantage in executive control that sometimes shows a greater advantage in older adults, we compared younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals on a memory paradigm that yielded separate measures of familiarity and…
Wodniecka, Zofia; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen
Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…
Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation). Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of
Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen; Justin C. Hulbert; Ying Jiang; Robert Stickgold; Naomi Rogers
Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…
Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott
The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30?min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.
Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location and extent of lesions were traced on the patients' scans. A process dissociation procedure was employed to yield estimates of the contributions of recollection and familiarity in verbal recognition performance. Group comparisons revealed deficits in recollection but not familiarity in the patient group relative to their healthy counterparts. We found a positive relationship between estimates of familiarity and lesion sizes in the right inferior pFC (BA 11, 47) which was significant upon bootstrap resampling. These results are discussed in terms of prior work linking this area to an overextended sense of familiarity. PMID:21563887
Anderson, Nicole D; Davidson, Patrick S R; Mason, Warren P; Gao, Fuqiang; Binns, Malcolm A; Winocur, Gordon
Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2?h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, “how does this person’s story make you feel?” We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (“semantic” AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (“episodic” AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.
Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
Background Ecstasy use is commonly linked with memory deficits in abstinent ecstasy users. Similar impairments are being found during ecstasy intoxication after single doses of ± 3,4 metylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The concordance of memory impairments during intoxication and abstinence suggests a similar neuropharmacological mechanism underlying acute and chronic memory impairments. The mechanism underlying this impairment is to date not known. We hypothesized that cortisol might play an important role in this mechanism as cortisol, implicated in the regulation of memory performance, can be brought out of balance by stressors like MDMA. Methods In the present study, we aimed to block the MDMA-induced acute memory defect by giving participants a cortisol synthesis inhibitor (metyrapone) together with a single dose of MDMA. Seventeen polydrug MDMA users entered this placebo-controlled within subject study with four treatment conditions. The treatments consisted of MDMA (75 mg) and metyrapone (750 mg), alone and in combination, and double placebo. Pre-treatment with metyrapone or Placebo occurred 1 h prior to MDMA or Placebo administration. Memory performance was tested at peak drug concentrations by means of several memory tests. Cortisol levels were determined in blood and oral fluid; this served as a control measure to see whether manipulations were effective. Results Main findings indicated that whereas treatment with metyrapone blocked the expected MDMA-induced increase in cortisol levels in blood, it did not prevent the MDMA-induced memory deficit from happening. Conclusion We therefore conclude that MDMA-induced increments in cortisol concentrations are not related to MDMA-induced memory impairments.
Kuypers, KPC; Torre, R; Farre, M; Pujadas, M; Ramaekers, JG
The relationship between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ and performance on measures of memory was examined in 64 adults tested twice at a 2-week interval. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that individuals with Low-Average WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores performed significantly more poorly than did individuals with Average and High-Average Full Scale IQs on memory measures including the
Lisa J. Rapport; Bradley N. Axelrod; Mary E. Theisen; D. Brooke Brines; Ari D. Kalechstein; Joseph H. Ricker
Several studies suggest that emotional arousal can promote memory storage. We report two studies evaluating the ef fects of emotional content on declarativememory, conducted with healthy subjects and cephalgic patients. We utilized an adaptation of two versions of the same story, with different arousing properties (neutral or emotional), which have been already employed in experiments involving the enhancing effects
A. Gasbarri; B. Arnone; A. Pompili; A. Marchetti; P. Di Fabrizio; S. Saad Calil; M. C. Tavares; C. Tomaz
We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbalmemory tests--ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbalmemory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbalmemory test-the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution. PMID:20083211
Apostolova, Liana G; Morra, Jonathan H; Green, Amity E; Hwang, Kristy S; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M
The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with their mothers, children's narrative behavior was regulated best by maternal use of specific elaborative components, such as affirmations. In contrast, in children's independent recall, affective and behavioral qualities of maternal support were related to children's memory performance. Specifically, during free-recall, the dimensions of quality of instruction and respect for autonomy were significant predictors of children's narratives. In the context of prompted recall (supported by wh-questions), respect for autonomy was the only significant predictor of children's involvement in the conversations and of the amount of unique content they provided. The findings suggest that different aspects of maternal behavior facilitate different components of children's reminiscing skills, which children might apply depending on demands of the autobiographical memory conversation.
Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown that working memory (WM) tasks engage a distributed neural network that primarily includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. The current challenge is to provide a mechanistic account of the changes observed in regional activity. To achieve this, we characterized neuroplastic responses in effective connectivity between these regions at increasing WM loads using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy individuals during a verbal n-back task. Our data demonstrate that increasing memory load was associated with (a) right-hemisphere dominance, (b) increasing forward (i.e., posterior to anterior) effective connectivity within the WM network, and (c) reduction in individual variability in WM network architecture resulting in the right-hemisphere forward model reaching an exceedance probability of 99% in the most demanding condition. Our results provide direct empirical support that task difficulty, in our case WM load, is a significant moderator of short-term plasticity, complementing existing theories of task-related reduction in variability in neural networks. PMID:24142432
Previous studies have shown that self-generated information is better remembered than information that has been read passively. To further examine this subsequent memory effect, we investigated the effect of five different linguistic relationships on memory encoding. Ninety subjects were administered 60 paired associates during an encoding condition: 30 of the second words from each pair were to be read aloud and 30 were to be self-generated from clues as to the correct word. Word pairs were composed of five linguistic relationships: category, rhyme, opposite, synonym, and association. Subsequently, subjects were presented with the words that were read or generated in a forced recognition memory task. Overall, reading accuracy was higher than generation accuracy during the encoding phase (all P < 0.001). During the recognition phase, subjects' performance was better on the generate than on the read conditions for opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships (all P < 0.05), with no difference in the rhyme relationship. These results confirm previous findings that self-generated information is better remembered than read information and suggest that this advantage may be mediated by using opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships, while rhyme relationship may not extend such an advantage. These findings may have implications for future studies of memory interventions in healthy controls and subjects with cognitive impairments.
Siegel, Miriam; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lindsell, Christopher J; Vannest, Jennifer; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…
It was predicted that two variables would influence recognition memory for complex visual stimuli: association values, and the realistic-abstract dimension, or "objectivity". The stimuli were 12 reproductions of realistic paintings (clearly representing real world objects), six of high association value and six of low; and 12 abstract pictures,…
A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…
Two distinctly different maturational processes--cortical thinning and white matter maturation--take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of…
Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.
The grouping of list items is known to improve serial memory accuracy and constrain the nature of temporal errors. A recent study (M. T. Maybery, F. B. R. Parmentier, & D. M. Jones, 2002) showed that grouping results in a temporal organization of the participants' responses that mimics the list structure but not the timing of its presentation.…
Evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn language are very closely related to one another has led to widespread interest in the cognitive processes underlying nonword repetition. One suggestion is that nonword repetition is a relatively pure measure of phonological short-term memory closely associated with other measures of…
Tests hypotheses that reading styles of good spellers and dysgraphic spellers differs. Concludes that an underlying source of difficulty for dysgraphic spellers, one that may be related to the reading style they exhibit, is a more limited working memory capacity. (MS)
Previous studies have shown that self-generated information is better remembered than information that has been read passively. To further examine this subsequent memory effect, we investigated the effect of five different linguistic relationships on memory encoding. Ninety subjects were administered 60 paired associates during an encoding condition: 30 of the second words from each pair were to be read aloud and 30 were to be self-generated from clues as to the correct word. Word pairs were composed of five linguistic relationships: category, rhyme, opposite, synonym, and association. Subsequently, subjects were presented with the words that were read or generated in a forced recognition memory task. Overall, reading accuracy was higher than generation accuracy during the encoding phase (all P < 0.001). During the recognition phase, subjects' performance was better on the generate than on the read conditions for opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships (all P < 0.05), with no difference in the rhyme relationship. These results confirm previous findings that self-generated information is better remembered than read information and suggest that this advantage may be mediated by using opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships, while rhyme relationship may not extend such an advantage. These findings may have implications for future studies of memory interventions in healthy controls and subjects with cognitive impairments. PMID:23170241
Siegel, Miriam; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lindsell, Christopher J; Vannest, Jennifer; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall.
Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance.In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595
The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender in German). Three experiments using a modified version of Potter and Lombardi’s (1990)
Understanding physiological changes that precede irreversible tissue damage in age-related pathology is central to optimizing treatments that may prevent, or delay, cognitive decline. Cerebral perfusion is a tightly regulated physiological property, coupled to tissue metabolism and function, and abnormal (both elevated and reduced) hippocampal perfusion has been reported in a range of cognitive disorders. However, the size and location of the hippocampus complicates perfusion quantification, as many perfusion techniques acquire data with spatial resolution on the order of or beyond the size of the hippocampus, and are thus suboptimal in this region (especially in the presence of hippocampal atrophy and reduced flow scenarios). Here, the relationship between hippocampal perfusion and atrophy as a function of memory performance was examined in cognitively normal healthy older adults (n = 20; age=67 ± 7 yr) with varying genetic risk for dementia using a custom arterial spin labeling acquisition and analysis procedure. When controlling for hippocampal volume, it was found that hippocampal perfusion correlated inversely (P = 0.04) with memory performance despite absent hippocampal tissue atrophy or white matter disease. The hippocampal flow asymmetry (left hippocampus perfusion–right hippocampus perfusion) was significantly (P = 0.04) increased in APOE-?4 carriers relative to noncarriers. These findings demonstrate that perfusion correlates more strongly than tissue volume with memory performance in cognitively normal older adults, and furthermore that an inverse trend between these two parameters suggests that elevation of neuronal activity, possibly mediated by neuroinflammation and/or excitation/inhibition imbalance, may be closely associated with minor changes in memory performance.
Rane, Swati; Ally, Brandon A.; Hussey, Erin; Wilson, Tracy; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Gore, John C.; Donahue, Manus J.
Purpose Cognitive functions in community-dwelling adults at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea have not been described and nor are\\u000a associations between cognitive functions and obstructive sleep apnea severity fully understood. The study aimed to describe\\u000a verbalmemory and executive function in community-dwelling adults identified by the Berlin Questionnaire and to investigate\\u000a associations between these cognitive domains and different obstructive sleep
Harald Hrubos-Strøm; Inger H. Nordhus; Gunnar Einvik; Anna Randby; Torbjørn Omland; Kjetil Sundet; Torbjørn Moum; Toril Dammen
Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.
Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.
Background Apathy is a negative symptom associated with poor psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia but has not been sufficiently studied as predictor of poor functioning in first episode psychosis (FEP). Objective The main aim of the current study was to evaluate if apathy predicts poor functioning after 1 year in FEP patients in the context of other clinical variables with influence on outcome. Method Sixty-four FEP patients completed an extensive clinical and neuro-psychological test battery at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS), apathy with the shortened Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-C-12) and psychosocial functioning with the functioning score from the split version of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-F). Results High levels of apathy, poor verbalmemory and being male were the baseline variables that best predicted poor functioning at 1-year follow-up, explaining 34% of the variance in GAF-F. When PANSS negative factor was included in the analysis, the significance of AES-C-12 diminished. Conclusion These findings points to a robust role for apathy among the negative symptoms in the development of persisting psychosocial dysfunction in FEP and supports the current effort in targeting motivation to improve functioning.
AnnFaerden; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Nesvag, Ragnar; Friis, Svein; Finset, Arnstein; R.Marder, Stephen; Ventura, Joseph; A.Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid
Spatial-numerical associations are observed when participants perform number categorization tasks. One such observation is the spatial numerical associations of response codes (SNARC) effect, showing an association between small numbers and the left-hand side and between large numbers and the right-hand side. It has long been argued that this spatial association is automatically activated by the long-term representation underlying numbers processing. Instead, van Dijck and Fias (2011) argued that this association is a short-term representation that is constructed during task execution. This argument was based on the observation of an association between the ordinal position of an item in working memory and response side (e.g., the ordinal position effect). Four different experiments were set up to systematically investigate this assumption. Our results indicate that the activation of the canonical order of numbers in working memory (e.g., 1, 2, 3, etc.) is indeed necessary to observe the SNARC effect. The activation of the standard sequence of numbers (e.g., from 1 to 9) can be overruled when a new random sequence is memorized. However, this is only observed when retrieval of the memorized sequence is required during the numbers classification task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24707784
Summary Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effect of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12 to 14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30 minutes after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p < 0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p’s >0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development.
Maheu, Francoise S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Schroth, Elizabeth A.; Keil, Margaret F.; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique
This paper investigates the mechanisms underlying the standard modality effect (i.e., better recall performance for auditorily presented than for visually presented materials), and the modality congruency effect (i.e., better memory performance if the mode of recall and presentation are congruent rather than incongruent, Rummer, Schweppe, & Martin, 2009). We tested the assumption that the standard modality effect is restricted to the most recent word(s) of the sentences but occurs in both verbatim and gist recall (Experiments 1 and 2), whereas the modality congruency effect should be evident for the rest of the sentence when using verbatim recall (Experiment 3) but not when using gist recall (Experiment 4). All experiments used the Potter-Lombardi intrusion paradigm (Potter & Lombardi, 1990). When the target word was the most recent word of the sentence, a standard modality effect was found with both verbatim recall and gist recall. When the target word was included in the middle of the sentences, a modality congruency effect was found with verbatim recall but not with gist recall.
Background This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma), given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. Methods We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects) and one control (twelve subjects). The learning types in these groups were assessed by two experimental tasks evaluating procedural-implicit and declarativememory. A Serial Reaction-Time Task was used to measure procedural sequence learning, and the Spanish version  of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version- CVLT-  to measure declarative-explicit learning. The learning capacity was assessed considering only the blocks that represent learning, and were compared with MANOVA in clinical and normal subjects. The Raven, simple reaction-time, finger-tapping test, and grooved pegboard tests were used to assess the overall functioning of subjects. The results were compared with those from a control group of the same age, and with Spanish norm-referenced tools where available Results The results indicate the absence of procedural-implicit learning in both clinical groups, whereas declarative-explicit learning is maintained in both groups. Conclusion The clinical groups showed a conservation of declarative learning and a clear impairment of procedural learning. The results support the role of the cerebellum in the early phase of procedural learning.
Quintero-Gallego, Eliana A; Gomez, Carlos M; Casares, Encarnacion Vaquero; Marquez, Javier; Perez-Santamaria, Fco Javier
Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.
Endotoxin stimulation of the immune system produces marked alterations in memory functioning. However, molecular links between\\u000a this cognitive response and infection-responding neurotransmission pathways are still unknown. The cytokine and memory responses\\u000a of volunteers injected with 0.8 ng\\/kg Salmonella endotoxin were compared with changes in plasma levels and integrity of the stress-induced acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R.\\u000a Vascular endothelial cells were found to
Osnat Cohen; Abraham Reichenberg; Chava Perry; Dalia Ginzberg; Thomas Pollmächer; Hermona Soreq; Raz Yirmiya
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical component of the molecular mechanism of memory formation. Variation in the BDNF gene, particularly the rs6265 (val(66)met) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), has been linked to variability in human memory performance and to both the structure and physiological response of the hippocampus, which plays a central role in memory processing. However, these effects have not been consistently reported, which may reflect the modest size of the samples studied to date. Employing a meta-analytic approach, we examined the effect of the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism on human memory (5922 subjects) and hippocampal structure (2985 subjects) and physiology (362 subjects). Our results suggest that variations in the rs6265 SNP of the BDNF gene have a significant effect on memory performance, and on both the structure and physiology of the hippocampus, with carriers of the met allele being adversely affected. These results underscore the role of BDNF in moderating variability between individuals in human memory performance and in mediating some of the neurocognitive impairments underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22813992
Kambeitz, Joseph P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Valli, Isabel; Collier, David A; McGuire, Philip
The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…
Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen patients were recruited from a cohort participating in an ongoing prospective study examining the effects of CVD on cognitive function in the elderly. Participants were diagnosed with CVD (age 68±8) and completed a 2-back VWM task in a 1.5T fMRI paradigm. CO and EF were calculated from echocardiogram measures. Task-related activation was averaged in a priori regions of interest. The relationship between CO, EF, and 2-back-related activity was modeled using partial correlations (two-tailed p<.05) controlling for age and 2-back accuracy. All participants were globally cognitively intact as indicated by Mini-Mental Status Exam and Dementia Rating Scale scores. Mean accuracy on the 2-back was 78±9% while reaction time averaged 1,027±192 ms. Mean CO and EF values showed a large range (CO: 3.55 to 6.31; EF: 0.36 to 0.76) but average values were within the normal range. After controlling for age and 2-back accuracy, lower EF was related to decrease in left insula activity (r=0.61, p=0.03). There were trends for EF to be related to accuracy (r=0.47, p=0.09) and reaction time (r=?0.48, p=0.09). CO was also related to insula activity (r=0.60, p=0.04) and activity in the supplementary motor area activity (r=0.66, p=0.01). Cardiac performance was related to decreased efficiency in task related brain areas and tended to be related to performance on a VWM task in elderly patients with CVD. Results have implications for a line of investigation indicating that cardiac and systemic vascular indices could be used as proxy measures to examine mechanisms of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the elderly.
Irani, Farzin; Haley, Andreana P.; Gunstad, John J.; Jerskey, Beth A.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Poppas, Athena; Cohen, Ronald A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Further research should also focus on the detection of a broad range of science misconceptions among preservice elementary teachers.
A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness.
Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults. PMID:23767765
Abstract The Verbal Learning Test (VLT; Rey, 1958) evaluates the declarativememory. Despite its extensive use, it has been difficult to establish normative,data because test administration has not been uniform. The purpose of the present study was to gather normative,data for the VLT for a large number,(N 5 1855) of healthy participants aged 24?81 years, using a procedure in which
WIM VAN DER ELST; MARTIN P. J. VAN BOXTEL; GERARD J. P. VAN BREUKELEN; JELLE JOLLES
The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…
Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function. PMID:23249350
Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function.
Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…
M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…
Studies of brain-behaviour interactions in the field of working memory (WM) have associated WM success with activation of a fronto-parietal network during the maintenance stage, and this mainly for visuo-spatial WM. Using an inter-individual differences approach, we demonstrate here the equal importance of neural dynamics during the encoding stage, and this in the context of verbal WM tasks which are characterized by encoding phases of long duration and sustained attentional demands. Participants encoded and maintained 5-word lists, half of them containing an unexpected word intended to disturb WM encoding and associated task-related attention processes. We observed that inter-individual differences in WM performance for lists containing disturbing stimuli were related to activation levels in a region previously associated with task-related attentional processing, the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and this during stimulus encoding but not maintenance; functional connectivity strength between the left IPS and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) further predicted WM performance. This study highlights the critical role, during WM encoding, of neural substrates involved in task-related attentional processes for predicting inter-individual differences in verbal WM performance, and, more generally, provides support for attention-based models of WM.
Working memory refers to the temporary maintenance and processing of information and involves executive processes that manipulate the contents of the working memory. The role of the executive function in the human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) was explored using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after confirming the LDLPFC activation using fMRI. We applied double-pulse TMS having a 100-ms inter-pulse interval
Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories
Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach
Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…
In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general.
Background A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question. Aims The goal of this study was to identify the neural correlates of repetition and a related process, auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM). Both repetition and AVSTM involve common elements such as auditory and phonological analysis and translation to speech output processes. Based on previous studies, we predicted that both repetition and AVSTM would be most dependent on posterior language regions in left temporo-parietal cortex. Methods & Procedures We tested 84 individuals with left hemisphere lesions due to stroke on an experimental battery of repetition and AVSTM tasks. Participants were tested on word, pseudoword, and number-word repetition, as well as digit and word span tasks. Brain correlates of these processes were identified using a statistical, lesion analysis approach known as voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). VLSM allows for a voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain areas most critical to performance on a given task, including both grey and white matter regions. Outcomes & Results The VLSM analyses showed that left posterior temporo-parietal cortex, not the arcuate fasciculus, was most critical for repetition as well as for AVSTM. The location of maximal foci, defined as the voxels with the highest t values, varied somewhat among measures: Word and pseudoword repetition had maximal foci in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, on the border with inferior parietal cortex, while word and digit span, as well as number-word repetition, were centered on the border between the middle temporal and superior temporal gyri and the underlying white matter. Conclusions Findings from the current study show that 1) repetition is most critically mediated by cortical regions in left posterior temporo-parietal cortex; 2) repetition and AVSTM are mediated by partially overlapping networks; and 3) repetition and AVSTM deficits can be observed in different types of aphasia, depending on the site and extent of the brain injury. These data have implications for the prognosis of chronic repetition and AVSTM deficits in individuals with aphasia when lesions involve critical regions in left temporo-parietal cortex.
Baldo, Juliana V.; Katseff, Shira; Dronkers, Nina F.
Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins VerbalMemory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.
Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.
A commonly used test of non-verbalmemory, which measures recognition for unfamiliar face pictures, was developed by Warrington (1984), the Recognition Memory for Faces (RMF) test. The task has been widely used in adults in relation to neurological impairment of face recognition. We examined the relationship of RMF scores to age in 500 young people aged between 6 and 16 years. A.linear relationship obtained between 6 and 10 years, followed by a 'plateau' between the ages of 10 and 13, followed by further improvement. Abilities on the test correlated with both verbal and non-verbal intelligence, but the nonlinear function relating age and RMF survived partialling for intelligence in the younger age groups. The improvement of the adolescents compared with older children also survived partialling for IQ. We found no significant influence of gender or reported pubertal status (which was not obtained for all participants) on RMF once age was taken into account. Performance on other face-processing tasks (emotion classification and accuracy in line of sight detection) correlated significantly, if moderately, with RMF scores. Despite its age and imperfections, RMF test may nevertheless be a useful indicator of 'face expertise' in a developmental context. PMID:19334303
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on procedural and declarativememory encoding in the evening prior to sleep, on memory consolidation during subsequent sleep, and on retrieval in the morning after sleep. Methods: Memory performance (procedural mirror-tracing task, declarative visual and verbalmemory task) and general neuropsychological performance were assessed before and after one night of polysomnographic monitoring in 15 patients with moderate OSA and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy subjects. Results: Encoding levels prior to sleep were similar across groups for all tasks. Conventional analyses of averaged mirror tracing performance suggested a significantly reduced overnight improvement in OSA patients. Single trial analyses, however, revealed that this effect was due to significantly flattened learning curves in the evening and morning session in OSA patients. OSA patients showed a significantly lower verbal retention rate and a non-significantly reduced visual retention rate after sleep compared to healthy subjects. Polysomnography revealed a significantly reduced REM density, increased frequency of micro-arousals, elevated apnea-hypopnea index, and subjectively disturbed sleep quality in OSA patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that moderate OSA is associated with a significant impairment of procedural and verbaldeclarativememory. Future work is needed to further determine the contribution of structural or functional alterations in brain circuits relevant for memory, and to test whether OSA treatment improves or normalizes the observed deficits in learning. Citation: Kloepfer C; Riemann D; Nofzinger EA; Feige B; Unterrainer J; O'Hara R; Sorichter S; Nissen C. Memory before and after sleep in patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):540-548.
Kloepfer, Corinna; Riemann, Dieter; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Feige, Bernd; Unterrainer, Josef; O'Hara, Ruth; Sorichter, Stephan; Nissen, Christoph
Benign Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is considered a benign type of epilepsy; nevertheless a significant number of children present clear and heterogeneous cognitive deficits such as memory disturbances. Thus far, evidence about memory impairment has been less than conclusive. To clarify the quality of memory functioning in BECTS children, an analysis of existing findings has been conducted trying to identify the type of memory deficits and their underlying factors. Short- and long-term declarativememory are impaired in BECTS children, with both verbal and non-verbal material; co-occurrence of attentional, linguistic and behavioral disturbances is reported. In children with continuous spikes and waves during the slow-wave sleep pattern the normal downscaling of slow-wave activity is absent, disrupting plastic brain processes of sleep-related memory consolidation. In BECTS children, NREM sleep interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may interfere in the dialogue between temporal and frontal cortex, causing declarativememory deficits: the role of NREM sleep IED acquires a special importance, leading to methodological guidance and suggesting aims for future researches in the field of childhood neuroscience. PMID:24362071
Verrotti, Alberto; Filippini, Melissa; Matricardi, Sara; Agostinelli, Maria Flavia; Gobbi, Giuseppe
Recognition of the need to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is compelling and well established, with empirical findings and conceptual arguments related to cognitive enhancement appearing regularly in the literature. Cognitive enhancement itself, however, remains at an early stage. Biological approaches have centered on the development of antipsychotic medications that also improve cognition, but the results have so far remained modest. As a way to facilitate the development of cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia, this article focuses on adjunctive pharmacological approaches to antipsychotic medications and highlights the need for systematic explorations of relevant brain mechanisms. While numerous conceptual criteria might be employed to guide the search, we will focus on 4 points that are especially likely to be useful and which have not yet been considered together. First, the discussion will focus on deficits in a particular cognitive domain, verbaldeclarativememory. Second, we will review the current status of preclinical and clinical efforts to improve declarativememory using antipsychotic medications, which is the main, existing mode of treatment. Third, we will examine an example of an adjunctive intervention—glucose administration—that improves memory in animals and humans, modulates function in brain regions related to verbaldeclarativememory, and is highly amenable to translational research. Finally, a heuristic model will be outlined to explore how the intervention maps on to the underlying neurobiology of schizophrenia. More generally, the discussion underlines the promise of cognitive improvement in schizophrenia and the need to approach the issue in a programmatic manner.
Recognition of the need to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is compelling and well established, with empirical findings and conceptual arguments related to cognitive enhancement appearing regularly in the literature. Cognitive enhancement itself, however, remains at an early stage. Biological approaches have centered on the development of antipsychotic medications that also improve cognition, but the results have so far remained modest. As a way to facilitate the development of cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia, this article focuses on adjunctive pharmacological approaches to antipsychotic medications and highlights the need for systematic explorations of relevant brain mechanisms. While numerous conceptual criteria might be employed to guide the search, we will focus on 4 points that are especially likely to be useful and which have not yet been considered together. First, the discussion will focus on deficits in a particular cognitive domain, verbaldeclarativememory. Second, we will review the current status of preclinical and clinical efforts to improve declarativememory using antipsychotic medications, which is the main, existing mode of treatment. Third, we will examine an example of an adjunctive intervention-glucose administration-that improves memory in animals and humans, modulates function in brain regions related to verbaldeclarativememory, and is highly amenable to translational research. Finally, a heuristic model will be outlined to explore how the intervention maps on to the underlying neurobiology of schizophrenia. More generally, the discussion underlines the promise of cognitive improvement in schizophrenia and the need to approach the issue in a programmatic manner. PMID:17504777
Our memory must b exercised in order for it to function properly. Click on Memory Exhibition, then click on droodles and common cents. Memory Exhibition Now play the memory game Memory game Take this test Short Term Memory Test Play Simon Says Play Simon Says 2 ...
Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is
...order of the judge to do so; or (3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or ...unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or...
The accumulative effect of prior high-magnitude trauma exposure on memory was examined in 73 rape victims, 92% of whom had current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were administered the Logical Memory component of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Quick Test to obtain an estimate of intelligence, and were assessed for prior traumatic experiences. Prior exposure to high-magnitude stressors (e.g., child
Reginald D. V. Nixon; Pallavi Nishith; Patricia A. Resick
Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.
Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. "Psychological…
Objective To investigate the neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal semantic processing in neurodegenerative disease. Background Semantic memory is often impaired in neurodegenerative disease. Neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the semantic processing of verbal and non-verbal stimuli may depend on partially distinct brain networks. Methods We examined this possibility using voxel-based morphometry to correlate performance on verbal and non-verbal versions of a semantic association task with regional gray matter atrophy in 144 individuals with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Results Results showed that, regardless of stimulus type, semantic processing correlated with atrophy in both temporal lobes. In addition, material-specific correlations were found in left temporal regions for verbal stimuli and the right fusiform gyrus for non-verbal stimuli. Conclusions These results provide evidence for a differential role of the left and right hemispheres in the extraction of semantic information from verbal and pictorial representations. Areas in the right inferior temporal lobe may be necessary to access structural descriptions of visually presented objects.
Butler, Christopher R.; Brambati, Simona M.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria-Luisa
The programming language Arctic specifies real-time behavior declaratively by using temporal control constructs and by indicating starting times and durations explicitly, much the way timing is specified in a cue sheet or a musical score. Values in Arctic are functions of time, which may be combined with various arithmetic and logical operators. Since Arctic is a single assignment language, the
Presents the text of the declaration of fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, promoting human rights, and countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war. Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in November 1978. (JMF)
Verbal learning was assessed according to the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) in order to establish normative data and to provide a comparison with measures of immediate attention, verbal IQ, and verbalmemory. The 392 subjects, stratified by sex (202 women, 190 men), age (4 groups: 16–70 years), and education (3 groups), were free of conflicting pathologies. Learning curves were established
Ronald M. Ruff; Rudolph H. Light; Margaret Quayhagen
To clarify the nature of cognitive deficits experienced by poor readers, 9-10-yr.-old poor readers were matched against 9 chronological age and 9 younger reading age-matched controls screened and selected from regular classrooms. Poor readers performed significantly more poorly than chronological age-matched peers on digit naming speed, spoonerisms, and nonsense word reading. Poor readers were also significantly poorer than reading age-matched controls on nonword reading but were significantly better than reading age-matched controls on postural stability. Analyses of effect sizes were consistent with these findings, showing strong effects for digit naming speed, spoonerisms, and nonword reading. However, effect size analysis also suggested that poor readers experienced moderate difficulties with balance automatisation but did not show verbal speech perception deficits relative to either control PMID:16383062
Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008 ), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II. PMID:24641093
Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J
Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676
There is a need for culture neutral neuropsychological instruments. The International Shopping List Test (ISLT) is sensitive to memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) in different cultural groups, although its sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and ability to be given repeatedly at short retest intervals is unknown. Performance on the ISLT was compared between groups of healthy adults, MCI,
Yen Ying Lim; Karra Harrington; David Ames; Kathryn A. Ellis; Rebecca Lachovitzki; Peter J. Snyder; Paul Maruff
The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…
This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.
A new diagnostic category for HIV seropositive patients–Minor Cognitive\\/Motor Disorder (MCMD)—was recently proposed by an AIDS task force sponsored by the American Academy of Neurology. Based on past memory research with HIV+ patients who were diagnosed according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) definition of AIDS, we predicted that HIV+ patients who met the new criteria for MCMD would
Dean C. Delis; Guerry Peavy; Robert Heaton; Nelson Butters; David P. Salmon; Michael Taylor; Julie Stout; Parag Mehta; Lee Ryan; Desiree White; J. Hampton Atkinson; James L. Chandler; J. Allen McCutchan; Igor Grant
It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence is associated with deficits in episodic verbalmemory, but the cognitive mechanisms underlying such impairments are not known. The authors evaluated a component process model of episodic verbalmemory in 87 persons with MA dependence (MA+) and 71 demographically similar non-MA-using controls (MA?). Compared with MA? controls, MA+ participants demonstrated deficient overall learning, free recall, and utilization
Steven Paul Woods; Julie D. Rippeth; Emily Conover; Assawin Gongvatana; Raul Gonzalez; Catherine L. Carey; Mariana Cherner; Robert K. Heaton; Igor Grant
Although botulinum toxin is thought not to affect the human CNS, previous studies have not examined those behaviors, such as memory, that have been shown to be dependent on central acetylcholine transmission. In eight patients with type A botulism, subjective analysis, bedside memory testing, and formal memory testing with Hebb's verbal sequencing test, Corsi's nonverbal sequencing test, and Buschke's verbal serial list learning test failed to demonstrate impairment in immediate and recent memory. Botulism severe enough to block peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic transmission does not block those central cholinergic synapses involved in memory. PMID:7425889
Previous investigations of memory dysfunction after closed head injury (CHI) have not accounted for potentially important subgroup differences. Cluster analysis of the learning trials and delayed free-recall trials of 70 individuals with CHI on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) revealed three distinct patterns of memory performance. The clusters differed in the amount and rate of learning, as well as
Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…
Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.
Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbalmemory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…
. Progress towards amelioration and eventual cure of human cognitive disorders requires understanding the molecular signaling\\u000a mechanisms that normally govern learning and memory. The fly Drosophila melanogaster has been instrumental in the identification of molecules and signaling pathways essential for learning and memory, because\\u000a genetic screens have produced mutants in these processes and the system facilitates integrated genetic, molecular, histological\\u000a and
Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) show deficits in verbal learning and spatial memory, as well as abnormal hippocampal development. The relationship between their memory and neuroanatomic impairments, however, has not been directly explored. Given that the hippocampus is integral for the synthesis and retrieval of learned information and is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, we assessed
KAREN A. WILLOUGHBY; ERIN D. SHEARD; KELLY NASH; JOANNE ROVET
This study identifies a memory-testing procedure that is relatively resistant to the documented effects of suggestibility on eyewitness memory. Most studies on suggestibility have used averbal recognition memory test in which the alternative test items are sentences, each to be verified as true or false regarding an originally viewedvisual sequence. In this study, participants were tested with either the verbal
...significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218...significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or...operations, such as responses to natural disasters or national or civil emergencies....
...2013-10-01 false Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203...Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance activities....
As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p.?2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening.
It has been suggested that the right and left mesial temporal lobes are specialized for processing different types of information for long-term memory (LTM). Although findings have been consistent in regard to the dominant role of the left mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in verbalmemory, the role of the right MTL in non-verbalmemory remains…
The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater
Regina C. Sims; Keith E. Whitfield; Brian J. Ayotte; Alyssa A. Gamaldo; Christopher L. Edwards; Jason C. Allaire
Two experiments tested whether declarative and procedural memory systems operate independently or inhibit each other during perceptual categorization. Both experiments used a hybrid category-learning task in which perfect accuracy could be achieved if a declarative strategy is used on some trials and a procedural strategy is used on others. In the two experiments, only 2 of 53 participants learned a strategy of this type. In Experiment 1, most participants appeared to use simple explicit rules, even though control participants reliably learned the procedural component of the hybrid task. In Experiment 2, participants pre-trained either with the declarative or procedural component and then transferred to the hybrid categories. Despite this extra training, no participants in either group learned to categorize the hybrid stimuli with a strategy of the optimal type. These results are inconsistent with the most prominent single-and multiple-system accounts of category learning. They also cannot be explained by knowledge partitioning, or by the hypothesis that the failure to learn was due to high switch costs. Instead, these results support the hypothesis that declarative and procedural memory systems interact during category learning.
A recognition memory experiment investigated memory scanning when stimuli were organized but not easily labeled verbally. The principle findings indicated that the organization of the to-be-remembered sets had a pronounced influence on performance. (Editor/RK)
Study stimuli presented at the same time as unrelated targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli presented with distractors. This attentional boost effect (ABE) has been found with pictorial (Swallow & Jiang, 2010) and more recently verbal materials (Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2013). The present experiments examine the generality of the ABE with verbal materials and critically assess the perceptual encoding hypothesis, the notion that the memory benefits are due to enhanced encoding of the perceptual properties of the study stimulus. Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated an ABE with visual study items, comparable in size whether the recognition test was visual or auditory. Experiments 2 and 3 established an ABE for auditory study stimuli that was again equivalent for auditory and visual recognition tests. Experiments 4 and 5 found an ABE on the test of free recall. Finally, the ABE was greater for high-frequency than low-frequency words. The results demonstrate the generality of the ABE over study and test modality, and over memory tests (recognition and free recall), while also documenting a moderating factor (word frequency). Importantly, the representational basis for the ABE with verbal materials appears to be abstract, or amodal, rather than modality specific. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24611436
Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro; Picklesimer, Milton
Episodic memory refers to the ability to remember specific personal events from the past. Ever since Tulving first made the distinction between episodic memory and other forms of declarativememory in 1972, most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have assumed that episodic recall is unique to humans. The seminal paper on episodic-like memory in Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) by Clayton and Dickinson  has inspired a number of studies and in a wide range of species over the past 10 years. Here we shall first review the avian studies of what-where-when memory, namely in the Western scrub-jays, magpies, black-capped chickadees and pigeons; we shall then present an alternative approach to studying episodic-like memory also tested in pigeons. In the second and third section we want to draw attention to topics where we believe the bird model could prove highly valuable, namely studying development of episodic-memory in pre-verbal children, and the evolution and ontogeny of brain areas subserving episodic(-like) memory. PMID:20600352
Salwiczek, Lucie H; Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S
This paper introduces a declarative model of semantic memory, called PSN, written in Prolog. It is shown to be a descendant\\u000a of Quillian’s (1969) Teachable Language Comprehender (TLC) in its structuring of knowledge as a conceptual reticulum and in\\u000a its use of spreading activation as a retrieval mechanism. PSN goes beyond TLC, however, in its ability to instantiate the\\u000a essential
Although many psychometric studies of individuals with the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been conducted, one relatively neglected area has been the study of their performance on explicit verbalmemory measures. We examined the performance of adolescents and adults with NLD on the California Verbal Learning Test, a measure allowing analysis of self-initiated learning strategies, and compared their
We examined the negative effect of in-vehicle verbal interaction on visual search performance. Twenty participants performed a primary visual search task and a secondary verbal interaction task concurrently. We found that visual search performance deteriorated when the secondary task involving memory retrieval and speech production was performed concurrently. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the reaction time as a function of
Kazumitsu Shinohara; Takahiro Nakamura; Seiji Tatsuta; Youichi Iba
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbalmemory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 30(1) of Canadian Journal of Psychology Revue Canadienne de Psychologie. The correction for Figure 1 is presented.] Conducted 2 experiments in which a total of 68 undergraduates learned either pictures or descriptions of pictures and were then tested for recognition with either pictures or descriptions, in all 4 combinations.
A person's level of engagement in other actions may influence whether a prospective action is correctly performed. This study used a computerized prospective memory task in which participants remembered to perform an action when a specified background pattern appeared while they simultaneously performed a verbal working memory task. Amount of engagement in the working memory task was manipulated by increasing
Daniel P. Kidder; Denise C. Park; Christopher Hertzog; Roger W. Morrell
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. PMID:21839618
The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on memory performance and supporting brain structures (i.e., hippocampus) during adolescence. To achieve this goal, declarativememory ability and hippocampal volume were examined in a well-characterized sample of 138 adolescents (76 with a history of PDE and 62 from a non-exposed comparison group recruited from the same community, mean age = 14 years). Analyses adjusted for: age at time of the assessments, gender, IQ, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, and indices of early childhood environment (i.e., caregiver depression, potential for child abuse, and number of caregiver changes through 7 years of age). Results revealed adolescents with a history of PDE performed worse on the California Verbal Learning Test – Child Version (CVLT-C), worse on story recall from the Children’s Memory Scale (CMS), and had larger hippocampal volumes, even after covariate adjustment. Hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with memory performance on the CVLT-C, with lower memory scores associated with larger volumes. These findings provide support for long-term effects of PDE on memory function and point to neural mechanisms that may underlie these outcomes.
Riggins, Tracy; Cacic, Kelsey; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Scaletti, Laura A.; Jo Salmeron, Betty; Black, Maureen M.
The environment, health, and safety committee of the IPC (the trade organization for the electronic interconnect industry) launched a team in April 2003 to assist its member companies in completing material declaration requests. The team was focused on developing guidelines on how to calculate the composition of a printed circuit board and how to analyze raw materials or products for
Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography during the performance of a verbal free recall task, a verbal paired associate task, and tasks that required the production of verbal responses either by speaking or writing. Examination of the differences in regional cerebral blood flow between these conditions demonstrated that the left ventrolateral frontal cortical area 45 is involved in the recall of verbal information from long-term memory, in addition to its contribution to speech. The act of writing activated a network of areas involving posterior parietal cortex and sensorimotor areas but not ventrolateral frontal cortex.
Petrides, Michael; Alivisatos, Bessie; Evans, Alan C.
...Requirements § 10.864 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment for a good under the OFTA must submit to CBP, at the request of the port director, a declaration setting forth all pertinent information...
...Requirements § 10.864 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment for a good under the OFTA must submit to CBP, at the request of the port director, a declaration setting forth all pertinent information...
...Requirements § 10.864 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment for a good under the OFTA must submit to CBP, at the request of the port director, a declaration setting forth all pertinent information...
The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbalmemory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the
Judith R. OJile; Gregory W. Schrimsher; Sid E. OBryant
Everybody communicates on two levels, namely verbally and non-verbally. Verbal communication, or the spoken words we use, represent a very small portion (less than 10%) of our overall message. People can lie, misrepresent or mislead you with their words. Non-verbal language represents over 50% of our total message. Mastering the language of non verbal communication becomes more and more an
Objective The overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between subjective memory complaints and objective cognitive performance in perimenopausal women. The specific aims were to determine: 1) if subjective complaints of memory problems relate to objective performance on memory tests, 2) if subjective complaints of memory problems relate to other domains of cognitive function and 3) if subjective memory complaints relate to other non-cognitive factors, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Methods Seventy-five perimenopausal women completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, which included measures of attention, working memory, verbalmemory, verbal fluency, visuospatial skill, and fine motor dexterity, completed self-report inventories of their perceived memory and menopausal symptoms and provided serum levels of estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone. Results Memory complaints were not associated with verbal learning or verbalmemory, but were associated with working memory and complex attention/vigilance. Memory complaints were also associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, somatic complaints and sleep disturbance. Regression analyses revealed that memory complaints were best predicted by depressive symptoms, somatic complaints and working memory performance. Conclusions Memory complaints in the menopausal transition may reflect true difficulties with attentionally-mediated cognitive processes. Memory complaints may also be associated with other menopausal-related symptoms.
Weber, Miriam; Mapstone, Mark; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Maki, Pauline M.
This article reports the first findings of the Wurzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbalmemory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6-and-1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort--recall, text recall,…
A study was conducted in which 133 participants performed 11 memory tasks (some thought to reflect working memory and some thought to reflect short-term memory), 2 tests of general fluid intelligence, and the Verbal and Quantitative Scholastic Aptitude Tests. Structural equation modeling suggested that short-term and working memories reflect separate but highly related constructs and that many of the tasks
Randall W. Engle; Stephen W. Tuholski; James E. Laughlin; Andrew R. A. Conway
Previous research exploring declarativememory in Williams syndrome (WS) has revealed impairment in the processing of episodic information accompanied by a relative strength in semantic ability. The aim of the current study was to extend this literature by examining how relatively spared semantic memory may support episodic remembering. Using a level of processing paradigm, older adults with WS (aged 35-61 years) were compared to typical adults of the same chronological age and typically developing children matched for verbal ability. In the study phase, pictures were encoded using either a deep (decide if a picture belongs to a particular category) or shallow (perceptual based processing) memory strategy. Behavioural indices (reaction time and accuracy) at retrieval were suggestive of an overall difficulty in episodic memory for WS adults. Interestingly, however, semantic support was evident with a greater recall of items encoded with deep compared to shallow processing, indicative of an ability to employ semantic encoding strategies to maximise the strength of the memory trace created. Unlike individuals with autism who find semantic elaboration strategies problematic, the pattern of findings reported here suggests in those domains that are relatively impaired in WS, support can be recruited from relatively spared cognitive processes. PMID:24679545
Greer, Joanna; Hamiliton, Colin; Riby, Deborah M; Riby, Leigh M
The capacity of memorization and subsequent recognition and reproduction of visual images of various degrees of verbalization was studied experimentally in patients with different forms of aphasia. The nature of visual memory disorders was found to correlate with specific characteristics of disturbances of higher psychic functions in different forms of aphasia. It was revealed that in aphasic versus normal subjects, the way of trace ecphoria was more important for memorization than the degree of material verbalization. The authors analyze specific features of the reverse development of visual memory disorders associated with various forms of aphasia over rehabilitation training. PMID:6198827
The motivational function exerted by verbal antecedents has been extensively approached from a theoretical perspective and within the direct conditioning paradigm. However, there is little research concerning the alteration of the motivational function via verbal means. The current study presents 2 consecutive experiments in which the role of the…
Valdivia, Sonsoles; Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco J.
Selected aspects of Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic" model of symbolic interaction were operationalized to describe and compare verbal patterns in transactions between five pairs of friends and five pairs of strangers. Based on Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory, it was predicted that interactants would display verbal patterns unique to…
In recent years, the effect of sleep on memory consolidation has received considerable attention. In humans, these studies concentrated mainly on procedural types of memory, which are considered to be hippocampus-independent. Here, we show that sleep also has a persisting effect on hippocampus-dependent declarativememory. In two experiments, we…
Norms on seven composite scores derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) are reported here. These scores reflect a variety of verbalmemory processes: learning, interference, retention over time, and retrieval efficiency. The norms are based on 943 children ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, divided into 10 age cohorts, and 528 adults, ranging in age
The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…
Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark
The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…
...disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance activities...individuals when contracting for major disaster or emergency assistance activities...declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...
...disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance activities...individuals when contracting for major disaster or emergency assistance activities...declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...
...disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance activities...individuals when contracting for major disaster or emergency assistance activities...declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...
An investigation was conducted to explore the relationship between acute changes in cortisol and memory and attention in the context of an acute naturalistic stressor, namely, examination stress. Sixty students (36 male, 24 female) participated in an assessment of self-reported levels of stress, salivary cortisol, short term memory, selective and divided attention and auditory verbal working memory. Assessments were conducted
K. Vedhara; J. Hyde; I. D. Gilchrist; M. Tytherleigh; S. Plummer
Sleep has been implicated as playing a critical role in memory consolidation. Emerging evidence suggests that reactivation of memories during sleep may facilitate the transfer of declarativememories from the hippocampus to the neocortex. Previous rodent studies have utilized sleep-deprivation to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. The present study uses a novel, naturalistic paradigm to study the
Denise J. Cai; Tristan Shuman; Michael R. Gorman; Jennifer R. Sage; Stephan G. Anagnostaras
An impairment of verbalmemory has consistently been associated with resection of the left dominant temporal lobe, whereas non-verbalmemory deficits have been less reliably observed following resection of the right temporal lobe. Such a dissociation may be due to material-specific differences of processing between verbal and non-verbal information. Alternatively, the influence of the left and right limbic structures may vary according to the stage of memory processing. The aim of the study was to test these hypotheses by comparing verbal and spatial learning in patients with left or right temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy, using verbal and visuospatial memory tasks with the same design: control of encoding, multiple trial learning, free and cued recall, short and long delays. The results showed: (1) a similar pattern of learning and recall in the two groups; (2) a higher performance in spatial learning for patients with left temporal lobe resection and in verbal learning for patients with right temporal lobe resection; (3) material-specific effects characterized by a higher sensitivity to cues in the verbal domain and a better retention of information during delays in the spatial domain. These results suggest parallel processing of the two temporal lobes at the various memory stages, rather than an interaction between memory stage and side of the lesion similar to that already proposed for the frontal lobes. They also confirm a double dissociation between verbal/spatial information processing and side of temporal lobe resection. PMID:10574081
Pillon, B; Bazin, B; Deweer, B; Ehrlé, N; Baulac, M; Dubois, B
Compares the effects of mothers' mode of instruction on their children's memory test performance. Subjects were from the United States and Guatemala. A nongeneral, contextually influenced effect was found only for tests relying on verbal material and for children whose exposure to verbal instruction is not as extreme as in Western culture.…
We examined the effect of verbally describing faces upon visual memory. In particular, we examined the locus of the facilitative\\u000a effects of verbalization by manipulating the visual distinctiveness of the to-be-remembered faces and using the remember\\/know\\u000a procedure as a measure of recognition performance (i.e., remember vs. know judgments). Participants were exposed to distinctive\\u000a faces intermixed with typical faces and described
Analysis of the mean performance of 58 groups of normal adults and children on the free-recall trials of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test shows that the mean auditory-verbal learning of each group is described by the function R1+Sln(t), where R1 is a measure of the mean immediate memory span, S is the slope of the mean logarithmic learning…
The video shows effective ways to promote verbal problem solving skills. Examples of teachers and pupils in action, using various problem solving techniques, are interspersed with examples of actual work which result from the use of multiple approaches. I...
This paper introduces declarative reflection schemata and describes implementation tools for it. The keywords are planning and inference, i.e. a declarative (non-procedural) description of self must exist and be used for making inferences about the future activities of the reflective system and about consequences of these activities. The NUT system is used as a platform for intelligent agents with reflection.
The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks
Constantin Potagas; Dimitrios Kasselimis; Ioannis Evdokimidis
For more than 25 years people have known that children and adults with Down syndrome have a specific impairments in working memory. Within the working memory system, they have particular difficulty with the verbal short-term memory part of the system. However, memory training may become more popular as recent work with both children with Down…
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria...HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process Â§ 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906 Telecommunication... General Provisions Â§ 2.906 Declaration of Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the...
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This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and…
We analyzed the effects of patterns of brain lesions from penetrating head injuries on memory performance in participants\\u000a of the Vietnam Head Injury Study (Grafman et al., 1988). Classes of lesion patterns were determined by mixture modeling (L.\\u000a K. Muthén & B. O. Muthén, 1998–2004). Memory performance was assessed for short-term memory (STM), semantic memory, verbal\\u000a episodic memory, and visual
Carmi Schooler; Leslie J. Caplan; Andrew J. Revell; Andres M. Salazar; Jordan Grafman
Eight hundred ninety-three students completed statements from a questionnaire concerning their perceptions of their memory\\u000a abilities. Twenty-nine memory domains and experiences, such as memory for smells or memory for names, were distributed across\\u000a 60 statements in the questionnaire. A factor analysis yielded three meaningful factors: (1) a verbalmemory factor, which\\u000a included memory for names, trivia, and words; (2)a personal
Two studies were conducted to examine the nature of verbal long-term memory (LTM) in people with autism. In Study 1, undergraduate students showed better LTM and more verbal associations for concrete than abstract nouns. Probability of recall of the nouns strongly correlated with the number of associations with those nouns. In Study 2, unlike controls, autistic subjects did not show
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (ISP), at its fifth quadrennial conference in Beijing, China, in 2006, adopted a declaration related to pathophysiological teaching and learning issues (APPENDIX). The ISP Declaration is a blueprint document that refers to the present position of pathophysiology in medical education. Pathophysiology is not thought of at all medical universities as an independent course. All medical curricula, however, recognize the necessity and importance of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of disease for medical practice. The ISP Declaration outlines the rationale and didactic advantages of an integrative approach that is critical for the contemporary complexity of biomedical information and methodology.
Zdenko Kovac (University of Zagreb Pathophysiology)
Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to their comprehension of the meanings of novel words, sentences and propositions. In response to this perceived deficiency, the notion of joint control is presented here. Joint control occurs when a verbal-operant topography, currently evoked by one stimulus, is additionally (i.e., jointly) evoked by a second stimulus. This event of joint stimulus control then sets the occasion for a response. This simple mechanism is shown here to have exceedingly broad explanatory properties: providing a coherent and rigorously behavioral account of various aspects of language ranging from meaning, reference and comprehension, to the development of abstraction in children's speech.
Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. This has been most clearly shown in adults for procedural memory (i.e. skills and procedures) and declarativememory (e.g. recall of facts). The effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarativememory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory declarativememory in an early adolescent sample. Given that the majority of adolescents do not obtain the recommended amount of sleep, it is critical to study the cognitive effects of normal sleep. Forty male and female normal, healthy adolescents between the ages of ten and fourteen years old were randomly assigned to sleep and no sleep conditions. Subjects were trained on a paired-associate declarativememory task and a control working memory task at 9am, and tested at night (12 hours later) without sleep. The same number of subjects was trained at 9pm and tested 9am following sleep. An increase of 20.6% in declarativememory, as measured by the number correct in a paired-associate test, following sleep was observed compared to the group which was tested at the same time interval without sleep (p<0.03). The performance on the control working memory task that involved encoding and memoranda manipulation was not affected by time of day or relationship to sleep. Declarativememory is significantly improved by sleep in a sample of normal adolescents.
We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…
Epilepsy is frequently associated with attention and memory problems. In adults, lateralization of seizure focus impacts the type of memory affected (left-sided lesions primarily impact verbalmemory, while right-sided lesions primarily impact visual memory), but the relationship between seizure focus and the nature of the memory impairment is…
The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary. PMID:22477049
Background Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. Aims To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. Methods Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. Results A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. Conclusions The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression.
BACKGROUND: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. AIMS: To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. METHODS: Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. RESULTS: A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879
In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarativememory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid replication. Moreover, given the constructive nature of memories, the intact recollection of the fear association could eventually ‘rebuild’
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and declarations. 1.69 Section...Oath Or Declaration Â§ 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever...the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can...
Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.
Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.
Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454
Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R
Reports the development of a Verbal Systems Analysis procedure for investigating significant form in verbal communications through a process which operationalizes two of the central concepts of form in Kenneth Burke's theory of symbolic action. (MH)
In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)
Examines various processes of verbalizing in mathematics teaching. Describes several types of communication between school students and gives some examples for tasks. Interpretations for didactical concepts based on ideas about mathematical modeling, heuristic-experimental working, and also work with sequences of questions in mathematics teaching…
There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviors and intentions in communication: a behavior can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviors. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behavior of other agents (“mentalizing”) and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (“communicative motivation”). Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.
Evolutionary theory has always been plagued by scantiness of evidence. We see the products of ev olution but not much of the process. Most of the story happened long ago, and little remains of the early stages. Especially few traces of behavior remain; only recently were there artefacts that could endure. Verbal behavior left no artifacts until the appearence of
Within the field of cognitive neuroscience, it has become widely accepted to distinguish between declarative and nondeclarative memory, with different neurobiological substrates subserving these memory structures. This distinction has been inferred from the study of amnesic patients, including those suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. It is commonly agreed that Korsakoff patients demonstrate intact memory for motor and perceptual skills (nondeclarative) whereas
Stephan P. Swinnen; Veerle Puttemans; Sabine Lamote
Considerable research suggests that the greatest proportion of learning disabilities involve reading and writing. In a majority of these cases, investigators have documented the presence of underlying weaknesses in various verbal\\/linguistic processes. Professionals have invested heavily in the treatment of academic outcomes associated with verbal learning disabilities. However, less emphasis has been given to the way in which these verbal
Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), 1974-1996, researchers have debated whether the observed intercohort decline represents an actual intercohort decline in verbal ability in the U.S. population. Some researchers speculate that the observed intercohort decline in verbal ability in GSS data is spurious since previous literature has shown that verbal ability increases over the life span and peaks
This study investigated whether the Multiple Choice, Paired Associates, Free Recall, and Long Delayed Free Recall subtests of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) were sensitive to memory impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 107 persons who passed performance validity criteria on the same instrument. Whereas several of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition indices demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with coma duration, and also showed statistically significant mean differences between TBI severity groups, none of the four WMT memory subtests did so. It is concluded that, although the WMT is an excellent performance validity test, it is not sensitive to memory impairment after TBI. PMID:23957844