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Sample records for verbal declarative memory

  1. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  2. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  3. Regional brain activation during verbal declarative memory in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Bennett, F. Chris; Mahaffey, Misty L.; Spiegel, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the neurofunctional basis of verbal memory dysfunction in women with metastatic breast cancer. This objective was based on previous research suggesting memory and other cognitive deficits in this population. We attempted to determine if verbal memory impairments were related to the most commonly studied disease parameters including adjuvant chemotherapy and chronic stress-related disruption of limbic system structures. Experimental Design We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate significantly lower brain activation during a verbal declarative memory tasks compared to age and education-matched healthy female controls. We also assessed several stress-related variables including diurnal cortisol levels to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate higher stress and this would contribute to brain activation deficits during memory tasks. Results Women with breast cancer had significantly lower prefrontal cortex activation during the memory encoding condition compared to controls. However, the breast cancer group demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls during the recall condition in multiple, diffuse brain regions. There were no significant differences between the groups in stress-related variables. Women who were treated with CMF chemotherapy demonstrated lower prefrontal cortex activation during memory encoding. Conclusions These results suggest that women with metastatic breast cancer may be at risk for verbal memory impairments as a result of altered functional brain activation profiles. These findings may be associated with chemotherapy type and/or other aspects of the breast cancer disease process. PMID:19843664

  4. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2013-11-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

  5. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  6. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline. PMID:27072418

  7. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline. PMID:27072418

  8. Investigation of the component processes involved in verbal declarative memory function in bipolar disorder: utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised.

    PubMed

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    Evidence suggests that standard learning and recall indexes are sensitive markers of verbal declarative memory ability in bipolar disorder (BD), but no study has examined performance across the full range of component process measures on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R) in a BD cohort. As the HVLT-R is part of a widely used battery of cognitive functioning backed by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration as the accepted battery for use in pro-cognitive trials assessing cognitive-enhancing drugs in the related disorder schizophrenia, estimating the utility of its measures in BD is important. Forty-nine BD patients and 51 healthy controls completed the HVLT-R, which was scored for 13 variables of interest, across 4 indices: recall and learning, recognition, strategic organization, and errors. BD patients had greater difficulty in learning the HVLT-R word list compared to controls. They also demonstrated impairment in delayed recall/recognition. There were no differences between the groups in terms of their slope of learning, retrieval index, retention percentage, semantic or serial clustering, errors, or level of retrieval. This pattern was consistent across symptomatic and euthymic patients. The HVLT-R has some utility in characterizing the component processes involved in memory function in BD, such that memory impairments appear to be attributable to deficient encoding processes during the acquisition phase of learning. In the case of planning pro-cognitive clinical trials, the encoding deficits in BD observed here may be sensitive enough to potentially respond to medications designed to enhance the verbal memory performance. PMID:24870365

  9. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  10. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, María E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis. PMID:17522018

  11. Verbal memory impairments in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J H; Knee, K; Delis, D C

    2000-01-01

    Although verbal memory deficits are frequently reported in reading disabled children, the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments have yet to be clearly defined. The present study used the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to assess verbal learning in 57 dyslexic children and 114 controls matched for gender, age, and WISC-R Vocabulary score. Three areas of verbal memory were investigated: Recall and recognition, use of learning strategies, and interference effects. The dyslexic group learned the list items more slowly, recalled fewer words on the last learning trial and the delayed trials, and performed less well on the recognition condition. Dyslexics and controls displayed similar vulnerability to interference, but group differences were evident in serial position effects. Taken together, our data suggest that dyslexics have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms, resulting in deficient encoding of new information, but normal retention and retrieval. PMID:14590570

  12. Impaired declarative memory for emotional material following bilateral amygdala damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, R; Cahill, L; Schul, R; Babinsky, R

    1997-01-01

    Everyday experience suggests that highly emotional events are often the most memorable, an observation supported by psychological and pharmacological studies in humans. Although studies in animals have shown that nondeclarative emotional memory (behaviors associated with emotional situations) may be impaired by lesions of the amygdala, little is known about the neural underpinnings of emotional memory in humans, especially in regard to declarative memory (memory for facts that can be assessed verbally). We investigated the declarative memory of two rare patients with selective bilateral amygdala damage. Both subjects showed impairments in long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. The data support the hypothesis that the human amygdala normally enhances acquisition of declarative knowledge regarding emotionally arousing stimuli. PMID:10456070

  13. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  14. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  15. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

  16. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kalra, Priya B; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-02-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit vs. implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of declarative memory and working memory capacity and on four measures of procedural memory that have been strongly dissociated from declarative memory (mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, probabilistic classification, and artificial grammar). Children had lesser declarative memory ability and lesser working memory capacity than adults, but children exhibited learning equivalent to adults on all four measures of procedural memory. Therefore, declarative memory and procedural memory are developmentally dissociable, with procedural memory being adult-like by age 10years and declarative memory continuing to mature into young adulthood. PMID:26560675

  17. Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

  18. Working memory still needs verbal rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Annalisa; Langerock, Naomi; Hoareau, Violette; Lemaire, Benoît; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The causal role of verbal rehearsal in working memory has recently been called into question. For example, the SOB-CS (Serial Order in a Box-Complex Span) model assumes that there is no maintenance process for the strengthening of items in working memory, but instead a process of removal of distractors that are involuntarily encoded and create interference with memory items. In the present study, we tested the idea that verbal working memory performance can be accounted for without assuming a causal role of the verbal rehearsal process. We demonstrate in two experiments using a complex span task and a Brown-Peterson paradigm that increasing the number of repetitions of the same distractor (the syllable ba that was read aloud at each of its occurrences on screen) has a detrimental effect on the concurrent maintenance of consonants whereas the maintenance of spatial locations remains unaffected. A detailed analysis of the tasks demonstrates that accounting for this effect within the SOB-CS model requires a series of unwarranted assumptions leading to undesirable further predictions contradicted by available experimental evidence. We argue that the hypothesis of a maintenance mechanism based on verbal rehearsal that is impeded by concurrent articulation still provides the simplest and most compelling account of our results. PMID:26446777

  19. Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…

  20. Evidence against Decay in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…

  1. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  2. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder.

    PubMed

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  3. Evidence against decay in verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which memory could decay, was manipulated via search set size. This manipulation increased retention interval by up to 100% without having any effect on recall accuracy. This result held with and without articulatory suppression. Two experiments using a dual-task paradigm showed that the visual search process required central attention. Thus, even when memory maintenance by central attention and by articulatory rehearsal was prevented, a large delay had no effect on memory performance, contrary to the decay notion. Most previous experiments that manipulated the retention interval and the opportunity for maintenance processes in complex span have confounded these variables with time pressure during processing periods. Three further experiments identified time pressure as the variable that affected recall. We conclude that time-based decay does not contribute to the capacity limit of verbal working memory. PMID:22866686

  4. Verbal Overshadowing: Disrupting Memory in Postsecondary Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Guin, Jerold C.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing is the later disruption of recognition memory resulting from prior verbal recall of the memory. Cognitive psychologists in the field of criminal justice have studied the effect since 1990 due to its ramifications in eyewitness testimony. Because of its short history of research, the effects of verbal overshadowing in the…

  5. Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

  6. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues. PMID:17848022

  7. Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

  8. Verbal memory elicited by ambient odor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Standing, L; de Man, A

    1992-04-01

    This study examined whether an ambient odor can act as a contextual cue for retrieval of verbal stimuli. Subjects (N = 47) learned a list of 24 words while exposed to one of two odors (either jasmine incense or Lauren perfume) and subsequently relearned the list with either the same or the alternative odor present. Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory. There were no differences in initial learning between the two odor conditions. No differences in pleasantness or intensity were found between the odors. PMID:1594391

  9. Verbal, Visual, and Spatial Working Memory Demands during Text Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Thierry; Kellogg, Ronald T.; Piolat, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether text composition engages verbal, visual, and spatial working memory to different degrees. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students composed by longhand a persuasive text while performing a verbal, visual, or spatial concurrent task that was presented visually. In Experiment 2, participants performed a verbal or…

  10. Verbalizing Facial Memory: Criterion Effects in Verbal Overshadowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Joseph; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    This article investigated the role of the recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). In 3 experiments, people witnessed an event, verbally described a perpetrator, and then attempted identification. The authors found in Experiment 1, which included a "not present" response option and both perpetrator-present (PP) and…

  11. A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

  12. Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…

  13. Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarative memory. In fact, reactivating a declarative memory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarative memories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval–relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586

  14. Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; LaPaglia, Jessica A

    2013-06-01

    During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarative memory. In fact, reactivating a declarative memory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarative memories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval-relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation. PMID:23690586

  15. Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

  16. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  17. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  18. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    PubMed

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Hubert, V; Landeau, B; Abbas, A; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-02-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresponds to general knowledge about concepts, again without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning. Our aim was to compare the neural substrates of musical and verbal semantic memory by administering the same type of task in each modality. We used high-resolution PET H(2)O(15) to observe 11 young subjects performing two main tasks: (1) a musical semantic memory task, where the subjects heard the first part of familiar melodies and had to decide whether the second part they heard matched the first, and (2) a verbal semantic memory task with the same design, but where the material consisted of well-known expressions or proverbs. The musical semantic memory condition activated the superior temporal area and inferior and middle frontal areas in the left hemisphere and the inferior frontal area in the right hemisphere. The verbal semantic memory condition activated the middle temporal region in the left hemisphere and the cerebellum in the right hemisphere. We found that the verbal and musical semantic processes activated a common network extending throughout the left temporal neocortex. In addition, there was a material-dependent topographical preference within this network, with predominantly anterior activation during musical tasks and predominantly posterior activation during semantic verbal tasks. PMID:19854279

  19. Intact Conceptual Priming in the Absence of Declarative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D.A.; Stark, C.E.L.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Priming is an unconscious (nondeclarative) form of memory whereby identification or production of an item is improved by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed that declarative memory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing a basis for familiarity judgments. In two experiments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired patients. All patients exhibited fully intact priming in tests of both free association (study tent; at test, provide an association to canvas) and category verification (study lemon; at test, decide: Is lemon a type of fruit?). Yet the 2 most severely amnesic patients performed at chance on matched tests of recognition memory. These findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments. We suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarative memory. PMID:15447639

  20. Accounting for change in declarative memory: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of current knowledge about the brain systems that may underlie these memory processes. While changes in infants’ encoding may be attributed to rapid myelination during the first year of life, improvements in long-term retention and flexible retrieval are likely due to the prolonged development of the dentate gyrus. Future studies combining measures of brain and behavior are critical in improving our understanding of how brain development drives memory development during infancy and early childhood. PMID:18769510

  1. Development of Working Memory for Verbal-Spatial Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Morey, Candice C.

    2006-01-01

    Verbal-to-spatial associations in working memory may index a core capacity for abstract information limited in the amount concurrently retained. However, what look like associative, abstract representations could instead reflect verbal and spatial codes held separately and then used in parallel. We investigated this issue in two experiments on…

  2. The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

  3. Verbal Intrusions Precede Memory Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbal memory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…

  4. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  5. Reconsolidation of Declarative Memory in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, Maria E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not…

  6. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5-15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  7. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome

    PubMed Central

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J. Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5–15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  8. EEG correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Grace; Jacobs, Joshua; Geller, Aaron; Danker, Jared; Sekuler, Robert; Kahana, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbal memory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects) or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations). Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the θ (4–8 Hz), α (9–12 Hz), β (14–28 Hz), and γ (30–50 Hz) frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the θ band, over frontal and occipital areas in the α and β bands, and centrally in the γ band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced β activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and β activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal. PMID:16287504

  9. Modulation of inferotemporal cortex activation during verbal working memory maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Fiebach, Christian J.; Rissman, Jesse; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regions of the left inferotemporal cortex are involved in visual word recognition and semantics. We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging to localize an inferotemporal language area and to demonstrate that this area is involved in the active maintenance of visually presented words in working memory. Maintenance activity in this inferotemporal area showed an effect of memory load for words, but not pseudowords. The selective modulation of this language-related inferotemporal area for the maintenance of words, in the absence of visual input, is accompanied by an increased functional connectivity with left prefrontal cortex. These results are the first demonstration of an involvement of inferotemporal cortex in verbal working memory. They provide neurophysiological support for the notion that nonphonological language representations can be recruited in the service of verbal working memory. More generally, they suggest that verbal working memory should be conceptualized as the frontally-guided, sustained activation of pre-existing cortical language representations. PMID:16846859

  10. Short Sleep Makes Declarative Memories Vulnerable to Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H.; Axelsson, Emil K.; Yeganeh, Adine; Vogel, Heike; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ∼30 minutes the next morning. Design: Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ∼23:00 and ∼07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ∼03:00 and ∼07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (∼08:30) and after being stressed (∼09:50). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 15 healthy young men. Results: The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep. Conclusions: The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress. Citation: Cedernaes J, Rångtell FH, Axelsson EK, Yeganeh A, Vogel H, Broman JE, Dickson SL, Schiöth HB, Benedict C. Short sleep makes declarative memories vulnerable to stress in humans. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1861–1868. PMID:26158890

  11. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  12. Stress selectively affects the reactivated components of a declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Dorskind, Joelle M

    2014-10-01

    When long-term memories are reactivated, they can reenter a transient plastic state in which they are vulnerable to interference or physiological manipulations. The present study attempted to directly affect reactivated memories through a stress manipulation, and compared the effects of stress on reactivated and nonreactivated components of a declarative memory in a within-subject design. We presented image pairs that consisted of an image of an animal and an image of an unrelated object. Participants were instructed to memorize the object images. Forty-eight hours later, we presented half of the animal images again in an unrelated task to indirectly reactivate the associated object images. Immediately after reactivation, participants were exposed to cold pressor stress or a warm water control condition. Forty-eight hours later, we assessed memory for the object images with a free recall test. Reactivation boosted memory performance in the control condition, such that reactivated items were better recalled than nonreactivated items. This memory-enhancing effect of reactivation was completely abolished by cold pressor stress. Importantly, stress selectively impacted only the reactivated items while leaving memory for the nonreactivated items unaffected. The present study shows that it is possible to selectively reactivate and modulate specific parts of a declarative memory. PMID:24956014

  13. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  14. Verbal overshadowing of visual memories: some things are better left unsaid.

    PubMed

    Schooler, J W; Engstler-Schooler, T Y

    1990-01-01

    It is widely believed that verbal processing generally improves memory performance. However, in a series of six experiments, verbalizing the appearance of previously seen visual stimuli impaired subsequent recognition performance. In Experiment 1, subjects viewed a videotape including a salient individual. Later, some subjects described the individual's face. Subjects who verbalized the face performed less well on a subsequent recognition test than control subjects who did not engage in memory verbalization. The results of Experiment 2 replicated those of Experiment 1 and further clarified the effect of memory verbalization by demonstrating that visualization does not impair face recognition. In Experiments 3 and 4 we explored the hypothesis that memory verbalization impairs memory for stimuli that are difficult to put into words. In Experiment 3 memory impairment followed the verbalization of a different visual stimulus: color. In Experiment 4 marginal memory improvement followed the verbalization of a verbal stimulus: a brief spoken statement. In Experiments 5 and 6 the source of verbally induced memory impairment was explored. The results of Experiment 5 suggested that the impairment does not reflect a temporary verbal set, but rather indicates relatively long-lasting memory interference. Finally, Experiment 6 demonstrated that limiting subjects' time to make recognition decisions alleviates the impairment, suggesting that memory verbalization overshadows but does not eradicate the original visual memory. This collection of results is consistent with a recording interference hypothesis: verbalizing a visual memory may produce a verbally biased memory representation that can interfere with the application of the original visual memory. PMID:2295225

  15. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  16. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders׳ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  17. Effect of handedness on fMRI activation in the medial temporal lobe during an auditory verbal memory task

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Yassa, Michael A.; Verduzco, Guillermo; Honeycutt, Nancy A.; Scott, David J.; Bassett, Susan Spear

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown marked differences in the neural localization of language functions in the brains of left-handed individuals when compared with right-handers. Previous experiments involving functional lateralization have demonstrated cerebral blood flow patterns that differ concordantly with subject handedness while performing language-related tasks. The effect of handedness on function in specific stages of memory processing however is a largely unexplored area. We used a paired-associates verbal memory task to elicit activation of neural areas related to declarative memory, examining the hypothesis that there are differences in activation in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) between handedness groups. 15 left-handed and 25 right-handed healthy adults were matched for all major demographic and neuropsychological variables. Functional and structural imaging data were acquired and analyzed for group differences within MTL subregions. Our results show that activation of the MTL during declarative memory processing varies with handedness. While both groups showed activation in left and right MTL subregions, the left-handed group showed a statistically significant increase in the left hippocampus and amygdala during both encoding and recall. No increases in activation were found in the right-handed group. This effect was found in the absence of any differences in performance on the verbal memory task, structural volumetric disparities or functional asymmetries. This provides evidence of functional differences between left-handers and right-handers that extends to declarative memory processes. PMID:18570207

  18. Verbal Cues Facilitate Memory Retrieval during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Herbert, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In three experiments, 18-month-olds were tested in a deferred imitation paradigm. Some infants received verbal information during the demonstration and at the time of the test (full narration), and some did not (empty narration). When tested after a 4-week delay, infants given full narration exhibited superior retention relative to infants given…

  19. The Simple Act of Choosing Influences Declarative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Vishnu P.; DuBrow, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Individuals value the opportunity to make choices and exert control over their environment. This perceived sense of agency has been shown to have broad influences on cognition, including preference, decision-making, and valuation. However, it is unclear whether perceived control influences memory. Using a combined behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging approach, we investigated whether imbuing individuals with a sense of agency over their learning experience influences novel memory encoding. Participants encoded objects during a task that manipulated the opportunity to choose. Critically, unlike previous work on active learning, there was no relationship between individuals' choices and the content of memoranda. Despite this, we found that the opportunity to choose resulted in robust, reliable enhancements in declarative memory. Neuroimaging results revealed that anticipatory activation of the striatum, a region associated with decision-making, valuation, and exploration, correlated with choice-induced memory enhancements in behavior. These memory enhancements were further associated with interactions between the striatum and hippocampus. Specifically, anticipatory signals in the striatum when participants are alerted to the fact that they will have to choose one of two memoranda were associated with encoding success effects in the hippocampus on a trial-by-trial basis. The precedence of the striatal signal in these interactions suggests a modulatory relationship of the striatum over the hippocampus. These findings not only demonstrate enhanced declarative memory when individuals have perceived control over their learning but also support a novel mechanism by which these enhancements emerge. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel context in which mesolimbic and declarative memory systems interact. PMID:25904779

  20. The Generality of Working Memory Capacity: A Latent-Variable Approach to Verbal and Visuospatial Memory Span and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael J.; Hambrick, David Z.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Wilhelm, Oliver; Payne, Tabitha W.; Engle, Randall W.

    2004-01-01

    A latent-variable study examined whether verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity measures reflect a primarily domain-general construct by testing 236 participants in 3 span tests each of verbal WM. visuospatial WM, verbal short-term memory (STM), and visuospatial STM. as well as in tests of verbal and spatial reasoning and general…

  1. Mechanisms of Change: Exploring Not Only When and What, but Also How Declarative Memory Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; DeBoer, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    Age-related changes in representational flexibility are a characteristic feature of declarative memory development. The authors suggest that a qualitative shift in the nature of infants' memory representations accounts for increasing memory flexibility with age. We will argue that a comprehensive theory of declarative memory development must (1)…

  2. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    PubMed

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  3. Sleep smart—optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B.; Diekelmann, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spurt of new publications documenting sleep's essential contribution to the brains ability to form lasting memories. For the declarative memory domain, slow wave sleep (the deepest sleep stage) has the greatest beneficial effect on the consolidation of memories acquired during preceding wakefulness. The finding that newly encoded memories become reactivated during subsequent sleep fostered the idea that reactivation leads to the strengthening and transformation of the memory trace. According to the active system consolidation account, trace reactivation leads to the redistribution of the transient memory representations from the hippocampus to the long-lasting knowledge networks of the cortex. Apart from consolidating previously learned information, sleep also facilitates the encoding of new memories after sleep, which probably relies on the renormalization of synaptic weights during sleep as suggested by the synaptic homeostasis theory. During wakefulness overshooting potentiation causes an imbalance in synaptic weights that is countered by synaptic downscaling during subsequent sleep. This review briefly introduces the basic concepts and central findings of the research on sleep and memory, and discusses implications of this lab-based work for everyday applications to make the best possible use of sleep's beneficial effect on learning and memory. PMID:26029150

  4. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  5. Integration of Visual and Verbal Information in Children's Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Edward M.; And Others

    Two experiments, designed to examine the developmental changes in the modification of visual memory by verbal information, are described in this paper. In both experiments, first, third, and fifth grade children and college students were shown slides of short episodes followed by oral questions. Questions either described or did not describe…

  6. Verbal Positional Memory in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Mehler, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory is a fundamental prerequisite for language learning. This study investigated 7-month-olds' (N = 62) ability to remember the identity and order of elements in a multisyllabic word. The results indicate that infants detect changes in the order of edge syllables, or the identity of the middle syllables, but fail to encode the order…

  7. Two Maintenance Mechanisms of Verbal Information in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camos, V.; Lagner, P.; Barrouillet, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the interplay between two mechanisms of maintenance of verbal information in working memory, namely articulatory rehearsal as described in Baddeley's model, and attentional refreshing as postulated in Barrouillet and Camos's Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model. In four experiments using complex span paradigm, we…

  8. Cue-independent memory impairment by reactivation-coupled interference in human declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Chen, Biqing; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong; Rao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Memory is a dynamic process. While memory becomes increasingly resistant to interference after consolidation, a brief reactivation renders it unstable again. Previous studies have shown that interference, when applied upon reactivation, impairs the consolidated memory, presumably by disrupting the reconsolidation of the memory. However, attempts have failed in disrupting human declarative memory, raising a question about whether declarative memory becomes unstable upon reactivation. Here, we used a double-cue/one-target paradigm, which associated the same target with two different cues in initial memory formation. Only one cue/target association was later reactivated and treated with behavioral interference. Our results showed, for the first time, that reactivation-coupled interference caused cue-independent memory impairment that generalized to other cues associated with the memory. Critically, such memory impairment appeared immediately after interference, before the reconsolidation process was completed, suggesting that common manipulations of reactivation-coupled interference procedures might disrupt other processes in addition to the reconsolidation process in human declarative memory. PMID:27389345

  9. Object Location Memory: A Direct Test of the Verbal Memory Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, J.; L'Hirondelle, N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the male advantage in traditional spatial abilities is well established, the female advantage in object location memory remains tentative. Object location memory is the only spatial ability that yields a female advantage, leading some to speculate that other factors, such as verbal memory, may solely account for the sex difference. The…

  10. Verbal Shadowing and Visual Interference in Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial memory is thought to be organized along experienced views and allocentric reference axes. Memory access from different perspectives typically yields V-patterns for egocentric encoding (monotonic decline in performance along with the angular deviation from the experienced perspectives) and W-patterns for axes encoding (better performance along parallel and orthogonal perspectives than along oblique perspectives). We showed that learning an object array with a verbal secondary task reduced W-patterns compared with learning without verbal shadowing. This suggests that axes encoding happened in a verbal format; for example, by rows and columns. Alternatively, general cognitive load from the secondary task prevented memorizing relative to a spatial axis. Independent of encoding, pointing with a surrounding room visible yielded stronger W-patterns compared with pointing with no room visible. This suggests that the visible room geometry interfered with the memorized room geometry. With verbal shadowing and without visual interference only V-patterns remained; otherwise, V- and W-patterns were combined. Verbal encoding and visual interference explain when W-patterns can be expected alongside V-patterns and thus can help in resolving different performance patterns in a wide range of experiments. PMID:24019953

  11. Semantic memory in partial epilepsy: verbal and non-verbal deficits and neuroanatomical relationships.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Erbetta, Alessandra; Villani, Flavio; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Semantic memory was evaluated in 124 epilepsy patients, including 84 with left (n=44) or right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (n=40) and 40 with left (n=25) or right frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) (n=15), in order to determine their verbal and visual deficits, and the neuroanatomical relationships between them. The controls were 35 healthy subjects. Semantic memory was assessed by means of Picture Naming, Picture Pointing, the verbal Pyramid and Palm Trees Test (PPTT), the visual PPTT, Object Decision Hard, and Drawing From Memory. Episodic memory was assessed by means of the Short Story, Rey's Complex Figure, the Verbal and Visual Selective Reminding Procedure and Brown-Peterson Procedure. Factor analysis of the epilepsy patients distinguished their semantic memory scores from other neuropsychological domains. The semantic memory factor was significantly related to the side of the epileptic region, with lower scores in the left hemisphere and left TLE patients. In comparison with the controls, the left TLE patients were significantly impaired on Picture Naming, Picture Pointing, and Object Decision Hard. Subsequent analyses showed that, in comparison with the controls and the right TLE patients, the left TLE patients with lateral temporal lobe lesions were impaired in Picture Naming whereas, in comparison with the controls, the left TLE patients with mesial temporal lobe lesions were impaired in Object Decision Hard. On the contrary, the episodic memory factor was not related to the side of the epileptic region, and a few material-specific tests revealed opposite impairments in the left and right hemisphere patients. These results show that left TLE may cause semantic memory deficits involving verbal and visual information. Unlike the material-specific pattern of episodic memory, this pattern of impairment is in line with the view of an amodal semantic store in which all of the information about a thing overlaps. The semantic memory impairment may reflect damage in the

  12. Hemispheric lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846

  13. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. PMID:25913892

  14. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian G; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S; Andersen, Emil; Back, Silja K; Lansner, Jon; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Nielsen, Anna P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2016-10-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls. Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory. PMID:26401886

  15. Verbal redundancy aids memory for filmed entertainment dialogue.

    PubMed

    Hinkin, Michael P; Harris, Richard J; Miranda, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of presentation modality and redundancy of verbal content on recognition memory for entertainment film dialogue. U.S. participants watched two brief movie clips and afterward answered multiple-choice questions about information from the dialogue. Experiment 1 compared recognition memory for spoken dialogue in the native language (English) with subtitles in English, French, or no subtitles. Experiment 2 compared memory for material in English subtitles with spoken dialogue in English, French, or no sound. Experiment 3 examined three control conditions with no spoken or captioned material in the native language. All participants watched the same video clips and answered the same questions. Performance was consistently good whenever English dialogue appeared in either the subtitles or sound, and best of all when it appeared in both, supporting the facilitation of verbal redundancy. Performance was also better when English was only in the subtitles than when it was only spoken. Unexpectedly, sound or subtitles in an unfamiliar language (French) modestly improved performance, as long as there was also a familiar channel. Results extend multimedia research on verbal redundancy for expository material to verbal information in entertainment media. PMID:24684077

  16. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  17. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  18. If memory serves, will language? Later verbal accessibility of early memories.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P J; Kroupina, M G; Schwade, J A; Dropik, P L; Wewerka, S S

    1998-01-01

    Of major interest to those concerned with early mnemonic process and function is the question of whether early memories likely encoded without the benefit of language later are accessible to verbal report. In the context of a controlled laboratory study, we examined this question in children who were 16 and 20 months at the time of exposure to specific target events and who subsequently were tested for their memories of the events after a delay of either 6 or 12 months (at 22-32 months) and then again at 3 years. At the first delayed-recall test, children evidenced memory both nonverbally and verbally. Nonverbal mnemonic expression was related to age at the time of test; verbal mnemonic expression was related to verbal fluency at the time of test. At the second delayed-recall test, children evidenced continued accessibility of their early memories. Verbal mnemonic expression was related to previous mnemonic expression, both nonverbal and verbal, each of which contributed unique variance. The relevance of these findings on memory for controlled laboratory events for issues of memory for traumatic experiences is discussed. PMID:9886220

  19. Implicit verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Spinnler, H

    1994-09-01

    Word stem completion and word identification were used in two repetition priming experiments to evaluate the implicit memory performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This issue was also approached using various meta-analyses combining and contrasting previously reported data. While the experimental results suggested that AD patients present preserved repetition priming in both tasks, the meta-analytic approach showed an impairment in stem completion in comparison to word identification. Converging evidence cautiously suggested to accept the results of the meta-analysis. The above dissociation has been interpreted as showing differences in the specific contribution of data- and conceptually-driven processes in the two implicit tasks. A further meta-analysis on the effect of reduced perceptual availability of the study material on the same two tasks indicated that this variable affected repetition priming in word identification more heavily than in stem completion. The impact of such a dissociation on theories of implicit memory is discussed. PMID:7805380

  20. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced “near transfer” effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced “far transfer” effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old. PMID:26284014

  1. Does learning to read shape verbal working memory?

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Catherine; Kolinsky, Régine

    2016-06-01

    Many experimental studies have investigated the relationship between the acquisition of reading and working memory in a unidirectional way, attempting to determine to what extent individual differences in working memory can predict reading achievement. In contrast, very little attention has been dedicated to the converse possibility that learning to read shapes the development of verbal memory processes. In this paper, we present available evidence that advocates a more prominent role for reading acquisition on verbal working memory and then discuss the potential mechanisms of such literacy effects. First, the early decoding activities might bolster the development of subvocal rehearsal, which, in turn, would enhance serial order performance in immediate memory tasks. In addition, learning to read and write in an alphabetical system allows the emergence of phonemic awareness and finely tuned phonological representations, as well as of orthographic representations. This could improve the quality, strength, and precision of lexical representations, and hence offer better support for the temporary encoding of memory items and/or for their retrieval. PMID:26438254

  2. Forward scanning in verbal working memory updating.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Effective use of working memory (WM) for high-level cognitive tasks requires coordinating two conflicting requirements: robust maintenance and rapid updating. Models of WM suggest that these demands are coordinated by a gate between perceptual input and WM. Previous work with a letter-updating paradigm (Kessler & Oberauer, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 738-754, 2014) supported a scanning and gate-switching (SGS) model of WM updating. The present work provides further evidence for the SGS model. Participants were required to keep track of the last letter that appeared in each of a row of frames on the screen. On each updating step, a variable subset of letters in varying positions in the row had to be updated. The SGS model assumes that on each updating step, participants scan through the memory set sequentially, opening the gate when a letter requires updating, and closing the gate when the next letter needs to be maintained. As is predicted by the SGS model, the reaction times for each updating step increased with the number of updated items and with the number of gate switches. In addition, the present experiment provides direct evidence supporting the scanning assumption of the model. Hebrew-speaking participants performed the task with either Hebrew or English letter stimuli, in different blocks. As was predicted, the scanning direction of the stimulus set was from left to right in English and from right to left in Hebrew. The SGS model fit the data only when the scanning direction was taken into account, establishing the role of item-based forward scanning during WM updating. PMID:25962687

  3. Verbal Memory Impairment in Polydrug Ecstasy Users: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kuypers, Kim P. C.; Theunissen, Eef L.; van Wel, Janelle H. P.; de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B.; Linssen, Anke; Sambeth, Anke; Schultz, Benjamin G.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use has been associated with short-term and long-term memory deficits on a standard Word Learning Task (WLT). The clinical relevance of this has been debated and is currently unknown. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical relevance of verbal memory impairment in Ecstasy users. To that end, clinical memory impairment was defined as decrement in memory performance that exceeded the cut-off value of 1.5 times the standard deviation of the average score in the healthy control sample. The primary question was whether being an Ecstasy user (E-user) was predictive of having clinically deficient memory performance compared to a healthy control group. Methods WLT data were pooled from four experimental MDMA studies that compared memory performance during placebo and MDMA intoxication. Control data were taken from healthy volunteers with no drug use history who completed the WLT as part of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. This resulted in a sample size of 65 E-users and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy drug-naïve controls. All participants were recruited by similar means and were tested at the same testing facilities using identical standard operating procedures. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, Bayes factor, and logistic regressions. Results Findings were that verbal memory performance of placebo-treated E-users did not differ from that of controls, and there was substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. History of use was not predictive of memory impairment. During MDMA intoxication of E-users, verbal memory was impaired. Conclusion The combination of the acute and long-term findings demonstrates that, while clinically relevant memory impairment is present during intoxication, it is absent during abstinence. This suggests that use of Ecstasy/MDMA does not lead to clinically deficient memory performance in the long term. Additionally, it has to be investigated whether the current findings apply to more

  4. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  5. The effect of rehearsal rate and memory load on verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Fegen, David; Buchsbaum, Bradley R; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-15

    While many neuroimaging studies have investigated verbal working memory (WM) by manipulating memory load, the subvocal rehearsal rate at these various memory loads has generally been left uncontrolled. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate how mnemonic load and the rate of subvocal rehearsal modulate patterns of activity in the core neural circuits underlying verbal working memory. Using fMRI in healthy subjects, we orthogonally manipulated subvocal rehearsal rate and memory load in a verbal WM task with long 45-s delay periods. We found that middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) exhibited memory load effects primarily early in the delay period and did not exhibit rehearsal rate effects. In contrast, we found that inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor cortex (PM) and Sylvian-parietal-temporal region (area Spt) exhibited approximately linear memory load and rehearsal rate effects, with rehearsal rate effects lasting through the entire delay period. These results indicate that IFG, PM and area Spt comprise the core articulatory rehearsal areas involved in verbal WM, while MFG and SPL are recruited in a general supervisory role once a memory load threshold in the core rehearsal network has been exceeded. PMID:25467303

  6. The Effect of Rehearsal Rate and Memory Load on Verbal Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fegen, David; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    While many neuroimaging studies have investigated verbal working memory (WM) by manipulating memory load, the subvocal rehearsal rate at these various memory loads has generally been left uncontrolled. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate how mnemonic load and the rate of subvocal rehearsal modulate patterns of activity in the core neural circuits underlying verbal working memory. Using fMRI in healthy subjects, we orthogonally manipulated subvocal rehearsal rate and memory load in a verbal WM task with long 45-second delay periods. We found that middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) exhibited memory load effects primarily early in the delay period and did not exhibit rehearsal rate effects. In contrast, we found that inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor cortex (PM) and Sylvian-parietal-temporal region (area Spt) exhibited approximately linear memory load and rehearsal rate effects, with rehearsal rate effects lasting through the entire delay period. These results indicate that IFG, PM and area Spt comprise the core articulatory rehearsal areas involved in verbal WM, while MFG and SPL are recruited in a general supervisory role once a memory load threshold in the core rehearsal network has been exceeded. PMID:25467303

  7. The Relationship between Uncinate Fasciculus White Matter Integrity and Verbal Memory Proficiency in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, David J.; Krafft, Cynthia E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent fMRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8–11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children. PMID:24949818

  8. Opening the doors of memory: is declarative memory a natural kind?

    PubMed

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2015-01-01

    Klein's target article argues that autonoetic consciousness is a necessary condition for memory; this unusually narrow view of the scope of memory implies that only episodic memory is, strictly speaking, memory. The narrow view is opposed to the standard broad view, on which causal connection with past experience is sufficient for memory; on the broad view, both declarative (i.e., episodic and semantic) and procedural memory count as genuine forms of memory. Klein mounts a convincing attack on the broad view, arguing that it opens the 'doors of memory' too far, but this commentary contends that the narrow view does not open them far enough. It may be preferable to adopt an intermediate view of the scope of memory, on which causal connection is sufficient for memory only when it involves encoding, storage, and retrieval of content. More demanding than the simple causal condition but less demanding than the autonoesis condition, the encoding-storage-retrieval condition implies that both episodic and semantic memory count as genuine forms of memory but that procedural memory does not. PMID:26351997

  9. When do Visual and Verbal Memories Conflict? The Importance of Working-Memory Load and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Candice C.; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Examinations of interference between verbal and visual materials in working memory have produced mixed results. If there is a central form of storage (e.g., the focus of attention; Cowan, 2001) then cross-domain interference should be obtained. We examined this question with a visual-array comparison task (Luck & Vogel, 1997) combined with various verbal memory load conditions. Interference between tasks occurred if there was explicit retrieval of the verbal load during maintenance of a visual array. The effect was localized in the maintenance period of the visual task, and was not the result of articulation per se. Interference occurred also when especially large silent verbal and visual loads were held concurrently. These results suggest central storage along with code-specific, passive storage. PMID:16060774

  10. Deferred imitation and declarative memory in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Fugazza, Claudia; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time deferred imitation of novel actions in dogs (Canis familiaris) with retention intervals of 1.5 min and memory of familiar actions with intervals ranging from 0.40 to 10 min. Eight dogs were trained using the 'Do as I do' method to match their own behaviour to actions displayed by a human demonstrator. They were then trained to wait for a short interval to elapse before they were allowed to show the previously demonstrated action. The dogs were then tested for memory of the demonstrated behaviour in various conditions, also with the so-called two-action procedure and in a control condition without demonstration. Dogs were typically able to reproduce familiar actions after intervals as long as 10 min, even if distracted by different activities during the retention interval and were able to match their behaviour to the demonstration of a novel action after a delay of 1 min. In the two-action procedure, dogs were typically able to imitate the novel demonstrated behaviour after retention intervals of 1.5 min. The ability to encode and recall an action after a delay implies that facilitative processes cannot exhaustively explain the observed behavioural similarity and that dogs' imitative abilities are rather based on an enduring mental representation of the demonstration. Furthermore, the ability to imitate a novel action after a delay without previous practice suggests presence of declarative memory in dogs. PMID:23856708

  11. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  12. Musical and verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease: a study of long-term and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-10-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal memory using a task that used pseudowords (LTM) or syllables (STM). Results indicated impaired musical memory in AD patients relative to healthy controls. The deficit was found for both long-term and short-term memory. Furthermore, it was of the same magnitude for both musical and verbal domains whether tested with short-term or long-term memory tasks. No correlation was found between musical and verbal LTM. However, there was a significant correlation between verbal and musical STM in AD participants and healthy older adults, which suggests that the two domains may share common mechanisms. PMID:19398148

  13. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  14. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Morey, Candice C; Mall, Jonathan T

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources. PMID:22512308

  15. When Do Words Hurt? A Multiprocess View of the Effects of Verbalization on Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charity; Brandimonte, Maria A.; Wickham, Lee H. V.; Bosco, Andrea; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing reflects the impairment in memory performance following verbalization of nonverbal stimuli. However, it is not clear whether the same mechanisms are responsible for verbal overshadowing effects observed with different stimuli and task demands. In the present article, we propose a multiprocess view that reconciles the main…

  16. Visuospatial Support for Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…

  17. Revisiting evidence for modularity and functional equivalence across verbal and spatial domains in memory.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2008-05-01

    The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control, articulatory suppression, and spatial tapping conditions. The authors observed that when tasks were fully equated, all patterns of errors were equivalent between the verbal and spatial domains. Moreover, articulatory suppression interfered more with the verbal memory tasks than with the spatial memory tasks. This interference was mostly due to an increase of omissions and transpositions. Similarly, tapping was more disruptive of spatial memory than of verbal memory tasks and affected primarily the number of omissions and transpositions. The patterns of errors and their interaction with interference are discussed in light of the predominant approaches to modeling memory and provide a rich set of data for modeling efforts. PMID:18444756

  18. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years) using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC) and VSWM capacity (VSWMC) scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC) was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits in males and females. PMID:27516751

  19. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years) using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC) and VSWM capacity (VSWMC) scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC) was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits in males and females. PMID:27516751

  20. The Interaction of Concreteness and Phonological Similarity in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable,…

  1. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  2. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  3. Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory,…

  4. Effects of dividing attention on memory for declarative and procedural aspects of tool use.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W

    2016-07-01

    Tool-related knowledge and skills are supported by a complex set of memory processes that are not well understood. Some aspects of tools are mediated by either declarative or procedural memory, while other aspects may rely on an interaction of both systems. Although motor skill learning is believed to be primarily supported by procedural memory, there is debate in the current literature regarding the role of declarative memory. Growing evidence suggests that declarative memory may be involved during early stages of motor skill learning, although findings have been mixed. In the current experiment, healthy, younger adults were trained to use a set of novel complex tools and were tested on their memory for various aspects of the tools. Declarative memory encoding was interrupted by dividing attention during training. Findings showed that dividing attention during training was detrimental for subsequent memory for tool attributes as well as accurate demonstration of tool use and tool grasping. However, dividing attention did not interfere with motor skill learning, suggesting that declarative memory is not essential for skill learning associated with tools. PMID:26951117

  5. Metabolic connectivity as index of verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Na; Chetelat, Gael; Baydogan, Mustafa G; Li, Jing; Fischer, Florian U; Titov, Dmitry; Dukart, Juergen; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Yakushev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) data are commonly analyzed in terms of regional intensity, while covariant information is not taken into account. Here, we searched for network correlates of healthy cognitive function in resting state PET data. PET with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and a test of verbal working memory (WM) were administered to 35 young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity was modeled at a group level using sparse inverse covariance estimation. Among 13 WM-relevant Brodmann areas (BAs), 6 appeared to be robustly connected. Connectivity within this network was significantly stronger in subjects with above-median WM performance. In respect to regional intensity, i.e., metabolism, no difference between groups was found. The results encourage examination of covariant patterns in FDG-PET data from non-neurodegenerative populations. PMID:25785830

  6. Metabolic connectivity as index of verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Zou, Na; Chetelat, Gael; Baydogan, Mustafa G; Li, Jing; Fischer, Florian U; Titov, Dmitry; Dukart, Juergen; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Yakushev, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) data are commonly analyzed in terms of regional intensity, while covariant information is not taken into account. Here, we searched for network correlates of healthy cognitive function in resting state PET data. PET with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and a test of verbal working memory (WM) were administered to 35 young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity was modeled at a group level using sparse inverse covariance estimation. Among 13 WM-relevant Brodmann areas (BAs), 6 appeared to be robustly connected. Connectivity within this network was significantly stronger in subjects with above-median WM performance. In respect to regional intensity, i.e., metabolism, no difference between groups was found. The results encourage examination of covariant patterns in FDG-PET data from non-neurodegenerative populations. PMID:25785830

  7. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory. PMID:25947579

  8. When visual and verbal memories compete: evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory.

    PubMed

    Morey, Candice C; Cowan, Nelson

    2004-04-01

    Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory and to identify a more central faculty as the source of a shared limitation. With a visual working memory task in which two arrays of color squares were to be compared, performance was unaffected by concurrent recitation of a two-digit list or a known seven-digit sequence. However, visual working memory performance decreased markedly when paired with a load of seven random digits. This was not a simple tradeoff, inasmuch as errors on the visual array and high digit load tasks tended to co-occur. Working memory for digits and visual information thus are both subject to at least one type of shared limit, not just domain-specific limitations. The nature of the shared limit is discussed. PMID:15260196

  9. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899

  10. Rehabilitation of verbal memory by means of preserved nonverbal memory abilities after epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Mosca, C; Zoubrinetzy, R; Baciu, M; Aguilar, L; Minotti, L; Kahane, P; Perrone-Bertolotti, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899

  11. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S

    2003-07-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe. PMID:12959510

  12. Brains of verbal memory specialists show anatomical differences in language, memory and visual systems.

    PubMed

    Hartzell, James F; Davis, Ben; Melcher, David; Miceli, Gabriele; Jovicich, Jorge; Nath, Tanmay; Singh, Nandini Chatterjee; Hasson, Uri

    2016-05-01

    We studied a group of verbal memory specialists to determine whether intensive oral text memory is associated with structural features of hippocampal and lateral-temporal regions implicated in language processing. Professional Vedic Sanskrit Pandits in India train from childhood for around 10years in an ancient, formalized tradition of oral Sanskrit text memorization and recitation, mastering the exact pronunciation and invariant content of multiple 40,000-100,000 word oral texts. We conducted structural analysis of gray matter density, cortical thickness, local gyrification, and white matter structure, relative to matched controls. We found massive gray matter density and cortical thickness increases in Pandit brains in language, memory and visual systems, including i) bilateral lateral temporal cortices and ii) the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus, regions associated with long and short-term memory. Differences in hippocampal morphometry matched those previously documented for expert spatial navigators and individuals with good verbal working memory. The findings provide unique insight into the brain organization implementing formalized oral knowledge systems. PMID:26188261

  13. Contributions of the Medial Temporal Lobe to Declarative Memory Retrieval: Manipulating the Amount of Contextual Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira; Arnold, Jennifer; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Weis, Susanne; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernandez, Guillen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how the hippocampus and its adjacent mediotemporal structures contribute to contextual and noncontextual declarative memory retrieval by manipulating the amount of contextual information across two levels of the same contextual dimension in a source memory task. A first analysis identified medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures…

  14. Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in…

  15. Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

  16. Verbal and Visuospatial Short-Term and Working Memory in Children: Are They Separable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Pickering, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the structure of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children between ages 4 and 11 years. Multiple tasks measuring 4 different memory components were used to capture the cognitive processes underlying working memory. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the processing component of working memory…

  17. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. PMID:25393768

  18. Glutamate and GABA concentration changes in the globus pallidus internus of Parkinson's patients during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks: a report of two subjects.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Darrow, David; Varga, Georgeta; Robinson, Jennifer L; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia, typically associated with motor function, are involved in human cognitive processes, as demonstrated in behavioral, lesion, and noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies. Here we report task-contingent changes in concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of two patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery by utilizing in-vivo microdialysis measurements during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks. Performance of an implicit memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with increased levels of glutamate and GABA in the GPi compared to their concentrations at baseline. On the other hand, performance of a declarative memory task (verbal learning task-VLT) was associated with decreased levels of glutamate and GABA in GPi compared to baseline during the encoding and immediate recall phase with less conclusive results during the delayed recall phase. These results are in line with hypothesized changes in these neurotransmitter levels: an increase of excitatory (Glu) input from subthalamic nucleus (STN) to GPi during implicit memory task performance and a decrease of inhibitory inputs (GABA) from globus pallidus externus (GPe) and striatum to GPi during declarative memory performance. Consistent with our previous report on in-vivo neurotransmitter changes during tasks in STN, these data provide corroborative evidence for the direct involvement of basal ganglia in cognitive functions and complements our model of the functional circuitry of basal ganglia in the healthy and Parkinson's disease affected brain. PMID:25596441

  19. Role of the hippocampus in sex differences in verbal memory: memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, S A; Baxter, L; Seidenberg, M; Hermann, B

    1997-10-01

    The authors examined the neural and cognitive bases for sex differences in verbal memory in 57 patients who underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of intractable seizures. On the California Verbal Learning Test (D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 1987), women recalled more words than men both before and after surgery, regardless of the extent of hippocampal damage. Extent of hippocampal sclerosis was related to memory loss in both men and women. Women's superiority in verbal memory appears to result in part from their use of an efficient encoding strategy. Women were more likely than men to use semantic clustering both before and after ATL, and sex differences in word recall were attenuated after scores were adjusted for semantic clustering. There was no effect of ATL on semantic clustering. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences in verbal memory are not due to differences in the integrity of the left hippocampus. PMID:9345702

  20. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI. PMID:26284013

  1. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  2. Revisiting Evidence for Modularity and Functional Equivalence across Verbal and Spatial Domains in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control,…

  3. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  4. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  5. Verbal memory impairments in children after cerebellar tumor resection

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Davis-Ratner, Mathew S.; Milner, Marnee W.; Annabel Chen, S.H.; Schraedley-Desmond, Pam; Fisher, Paul G.; Desmond, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate cerebellar lobular contributions to specific cognitive deficits observed after cerebellar tumor resection. Verbal working memory (VWM) tasks were administered to children following surgical resection of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and age-matched controls. Anatomical MRI scans were used to quantify the extent of cerebellar lobular damage from each patient’s resection. Patients exhibited significantly reduced digit span for auditory but not visual stimuli, relative to controls, and damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII was significantly correlated with this deficit. Patients also showed reduced effects of articulatory suppression and this was correlated with damage to the vermis and hemispheral lobule IV/V bilaterally. Phonological similarity and recency effects did not differ overall between patients and controls, but outlier patients with abnormal phonological similarity effects to either auditory or visual stimuli were found to have damage to hemispheral lobule VIII/VIIB on the left and right, respectively. We postulate that damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII may interfere with encoding of auditory stimuli into the phonological store. These data corroborate neuroimaging studies showing focal cerebellar activation during VWM paradigms, and thereby allow us to predict with greater accuracy which specific neurocognitive processes will be affected by a cerebellar tumor resection. PMID:19491473

  6. Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: computational and neural bases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; MacWhinney, B

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be related in mechanistic terms. We examine existing computational models of vocabulary acquisition and of verbal short-term memory, concluding that they fail to adequately relate these two domains. We then propose an alternative model which accounts not only for the relationship between word learning and verbal short-term memory, but also for a wide range of phenomena in verbal short-term memory. Furthermore, this new account provides a clear statement of the relationship between the proposed system and mechanisms of language processing more generally. We then consider possible neural substrates for this cognitive system. We begin by reviewing what is known of the neural substrates of speech processing and outline a conceptual framework within which a variety of seemingly contradictory neurophysiological and neuropsychological findings can be accommodated. The linkage of the shared system for vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to neural areas specifically involved in speech processing lends further support to our functional-level identification of the mechanisms of vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory with those of language processing. The present work thus relates vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to each other and to speech processing, at a cognitive, computational, and neural level. PMID:9299067

  7. Atypical frontal lobe activity during verbal working memory in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain functioning during verbal working memory tasks has been shown in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Since adolescents with a familial history of alcoholism (FHP) are at high risk for developing an AUD, it is important to consider whether atypical brain activity during verbal working memory may help to explain FHP vulnerability toward developing alcoholism. Methods To that end, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain response during a verbal working memory 2-back task in 19 FHP adolescents and 16 age and gender-matched family history negative (FHN) controls. Results Despite no group differences in task accuracy, FHP youth had significantly slower average reaction time when making correct responses during the 2-back condition than FHN youth. In contrast to a vigilance control condition, while covarying for reaction time, FHP adolescents showed less activation during verbal working memory than FHN youth in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) – a brain region crucial to intact working memory skills. Conclusions These results suggest that even prior to heavy alcohol use, FHP adolescents show atypical executive brain functioning during verbal working memory, and that these differences are independent of slower working memory reaction time in FHP youth. Given the importance of working memory in numerous areas of day-to-day functioning, such as adaptive decision-making, these abnormalities may contribute to FHP youth vulnerability toward developing AUDs. PMID:22088655

  8. Verbal Memory Decline following DBS for Parkinson’s Disease: Structural Volumetric MRI Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Geevarghese, Ruben; Lumsden, Daniel E.; Costello, Angela; Hulse, Natasha; Ayis, Salma; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is a chronic degenerative movement disorder. The mainstay of treatment is medical. In certain patients Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may be offered. However, DBS has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory. Objectives Firstly, to determine if pre-surgical thalamic and hippocampal volumes were related to verbal memory changes following DBS. Secondly, to determine if clinical factors such as age, duration of symptoms or motor severity (UPDRS Part III score) were related to verbal memory changes. Methods A consecutive group of 40 patients undergoing bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)-DBS for PD were selected. Brain MRI data was acquired, pre-processed and structural volumetric data was extracted using FSL. Verbal memory test scores for pre- and post-STN-DBS surgery were recorded. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between score change and structural volumetric data. Results A significant relationship was demonstrated between change in List Learning test score and thalamic (left, p = 0.02) and hippocampal (left, p = 0.02 and right p = 0.03) volumes. Duration of symptoms was also associated with List Learning score change (p = 0.02 to 0.03). Conclusion Verbal memory score changes appear to have a relationship to pre-surgical MRI structural volumetric data. The findings of this study provide a basis for further research into the use of pre-surgical MRI to counsel PD patients regarding post-surgical verbal memory changes. PMID:27557088

  9. Age-related Changes in the Sleep-dependent Reorganization of Declarative Memories.

    PubMed

    Baran, Bengi; Mantua, Janna; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-06-01

    Consolidation of declarative memories has been associated with slow wave sleep in young adults. Previous work suggests that, in spite of changes in sleep, sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories may be preserved with aging, although reduced relative to young adults. Previous work on young adults shows that, with consolidation, retrieval of declarative memories gradually becomes independent of the hippocampus. To investigate whether memories are similarly reorganized over sleep at the neural level, we compared functional brain activation associated with word pair recall following a nap and equivalent wake in young and older adults. SWS during the nap predicted better subsequent memory recall and was negatively associated with retrieval-related hippocampal activation in young adults. In contrast, in older adults there was no relationship between sleep and memory performance or with retrieval-related hippocampal activation. Furthermore, compared with young adults, postnap memory retrieval in older adults required strong functional connectivity of the hippocampus with the PFC, whereas there were no differences between young and older adults in the functional connectivity of the hippocampus following wakefulness. These results suggest that, although neural reorganization takes place over sleep in older adults, the shift is unique from that seen in young adults, perhaps reflecting memories at an earlier stage of stabilization. PMID:26918588

  10. VERBAL AND SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY LOAD HAVE SIMILARLY MINIMAL EFFECTS ON SPEECH PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ogyoung; Redford, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the effects of working memory on speech production. Twenty American-English speaking adults produced syntactically complex sentences in tasks that taxed either verbal or spatial working memory. Sentences spoken under load were produced with more errors, fewer prosodic breaks, and at faster rates than sentence produced in the control conditions, but other acoustic correlates of rhythm and intonation did not change. Verbal and spatial working memory had very similar effects on production, suggesting that the different span tasks used to tax working memory merely shifted speakers’ attention away from the act of speaking. This finding runs contra the hypothesis of incremental phonological/phonetic encoding, which predicts the manipulation of information in verbal working memory during speech production. PMID:26448563

  11. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, S.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Bergeron-Gagnon, L.; Patel, R.; Lepage, M.

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory (VM) represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments. PMID:26909322

  12. Association of AKT1 with verbal learning, verbal memory, and regional cortical gray matter density in twins.

    PubMed

    Pietiläinen, Olli P H; Paunio, Tiina; Loukola, Anu; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W; van Erp, Theo G M; Silventoinen, Karri; Soronen, Pia; Hennah, William; Turunen, Joni A; Wedenoja, Juho; Palo, Outi M; Silander, Kaisa; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Cannon, Tyrone D; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-07-01

    AKT1, encoding the protein kinase B, has been associated with the genetic etiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, minuscule data exist on the role of different alleles of AKT1 in measurable quantitative endophenotypes, such as cognitive abilities and neuroanatomical features, showing deviations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We evaluated the contribution of AKT1 to quantitative cognitive traits and 3D high-resolution neuroanatomical images in a Finnish twin sample consisting of 298 twins: 61 pairs with schizophrenia (8 concordant), 31 pairs with bipolar disorder (5 concordant) and 65 control pairs matched for age, sex and demographics. An AKT1 allele defined by the SNP rs1130214 located in the UTR of the gene revealed association with cognitive traits related to verbal learning and memory (P = 0.0005 for a composite index). This association was further fortified by a higher degree of resemblance of verbal memory capacity in pairs sharing the rs1130214 genotype compared to pairs not sharing the genotype. Furthermore, the same allele was also associated with decreased gray matter density in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P < 0.05). Our findings support the role of AKT1 in the genetic background of cognitive and anatomical features, known to be affected by psychotic disorders. The established association of the same allelic variant of AKT1 with both cognitive and neuroanatomical aberrations could suggest that AKT1 exerts its effect on verbal learning and memory via neural networks involving prefrontal cortex. PMID:19051289

  13. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

  14. A Common Neural Substrate for Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Hamidi, Massihullah; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM), the ability to maintain and manipulate representations of speech sounds over short periods, is held by some influential models to be independent from the systems responsible for language production and comprehension [e.g., Baddeley, A. D. "Working memory, thought, and action." New York, NY: Oxford University Press,…

  15. A Revised Model of Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Learning of Verbal Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Neil; Hitch, Graham J.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between short- and long-term memory is studied within a model in which phonemic and (temporal) contextual information have separate influences on immediate verbal serial recall via connections with short- and long-term plasticity [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G.J. (1999). Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop…

  16. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  17. Keeping Timbre in Mind: Working Memory for Complex Sounds that Can't Be Verbalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubock, Jason L.; Janata, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…

  18. Verbal Short-term Memory in Down's Syndrome: An Articulatory Loop Deficit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicari, S.; Marotta, L.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory, as measured by digit or word span, is generally impaired in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) compared to mental age-matched controls. Moving from the working memory model, the present authors investigated the hypothesis that impairment in some of the articulatory loop sub-components is at the base of the deficient…

  19. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  20. Increased Interhemispheric Interaction Is Associated with Decreased False Memories in a Verbal Converging Semantic Associates Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, S.D.; Propper, R.E.; Dion, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that task and subject variables that are associated with increased interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres result in enhanced performance on tests of episodic memory. The current study looked at the effects of increased interhemispheric interaction on false memories using a verbal converging semantic…

  1. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

  2. Verbal Overshadowing of Memories for Fencing Movements Is Mediated by Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Defrasne Ait-Said, Elise; Maquestiaux, François; Didierjean, André

    2014-01-01

    Does verbalizing a previously-seen complex visual stimulus influence its subsequent recollection? We investigated this question by examining the mediating role played by expertise level in fencing on the effects of verbalizing upon visual memory. Participants with three distinct levels of expertise in fencing (novices, intermediates, experts) performed seven trials. In each trial, they first watched four times a short video that displayed fencing movements. Then, half of them verbalized the previously-seen visual stimulus (i.e., the verbalization group), the other half carried out a hidden-word task (i.e., the non-verbalization group). Finally, all the participants were asked to recognize the previously-seen fencing movements amongst novel fencing movements. Overall, verbalizing improved recognition for novices, altered recognition for intermediates, and had no effect for experts. These findings replicated the classical verbal-overshadowing effect, while extending it to a more conceptual material. They also point out to some potential benefits and costs of verbalizing on visual memory, depending on the level of expertise. PMID:24586652

  3. Verbal overshadowing of memories for fencing movements is mediated by expertise.

    PubMed

    Defrasne Ait-Said, Elise; Maquestiaux, François; Didierjean, André

    2014-01-01

    Does verbalizing a previously-seen complex visual stimulus influence its subsequent recollection? We investigated this question by examining the mediating role played by expertise level in fencing on the effects of verbalizing upon visual memory. Participants with three distinct levels of expertise in fencing (novices, intermediates, experts) performed seven trials. In each trial, they first watched four times a short video that displayed fencing movements. Then, half of them verbalized the previously-seen visual stimulus (i.e., the verbalization group), the other half carried out a hidden-word task (i.e., the non-verbalization group). Finally, all the participants were asked to recognize the previously-seen fencing movements amongst novel fencing movements. Overall, verbalizing improved recognition for novices, altered recognition for intermediates, and had no effect for experts. These findings replicated the classical verbal-overshadowing effect, while extending it to a more conceptual material. They also point out to some potential benefits and costs of verbalizing on visual memory, depending on the level of expertise. PMID:24586652

  4. Binding of Verbal and Spatial Features in Auditory Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybery, Murray T.; Clissa, Peter J.; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Leung, Doris; Harsa, Grefin; Fox, Allison M.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V[subscript 1]S[subscript 1], V[subscript 2]S[subscript 2], V[subscript 3]S[subscript 3], V[subscript 4]S[subscript 4]) were…

  5. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  6. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  7. The use of self-generation procedures facilitates verbal memory in individuals with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Schefft, Bruce K; Dulay, Mario F; Fargo, Jamison D; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-shain; Privitera, Michael D

    2008-07-01

    The efficacy of a self-generation encoding procedure in facilitating the encoding and retrieval of verbal memories was compared with the didactic presentation of information in individuals with seizure disorders. Through a within-subject design, 87 patients (25 left temporal seizure onset, 29 right temporal, 8 frontal, and 25 psychogenic nonepileptic seizures) received a self-generation learning condition and a didactic learning condition and were subsequently tested for verbal paired associate free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory. All patient groups benefited from the use of the self-generation condition relative to the didactic condition. Better performance occurred with the self-generation procedure for cued recall and recognition memory test performance, but not free recall. Individuals with a left temporal seizure onset (patients with the poorest memory performance on the didactic condition) benefited the most from the self-generation condition. A memory encoding strategy that actively involves patient participation enhances memory performance. PMID:18343201

  8. Adequacy of language function and verbal memory performance in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B P; Seidenberg, M; Haltiner, A; Wyler, A R

    1992-09-01

    We examined adequacy of language functions, their influence on verbal learning and memory performance, and the relative effects of language function and laterality of seizure focus on the memory performance of 99 left-hemisphere dominant patients with invasively verified epilepsy of left (N = 47) or right (N = 52) temporal lobe origin. Patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) scored significantly lower than the right TLE group on several aphasia battery subtests (Visual Naming, Sentence Repetition, Token Test, Reading Comprehension, Aural Comprehension). Adequacy of language function (nominal speech) was significantly related to verbal learning and memory performance for both left and right TLE groups. Finally, comparison of the predictive significance of laterality of TLE and adequacy of language function indicated that language functions (Visual Naming and Aural Comprehension), but not laterality of TLE, were significant predictors for verbal learning and memory performance. It is concluded that: 1) adequacy of basic language functions is particularly compromised in left TLE, 2) there is a significant relationship between adequacy of language function and several aspects of verbal learning and memory ability in both left and right temporal lobe groups, and 3) clinical assessment and theoretical models of memory need to consider these relationships. PMID:1382918

  9. List-learning and verbal memory profiles in childhood epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schraegle, William A; Nussbaum, Nancy L; Stefanatos, Arianna K

    2016-09-01

    Findings of material-specific influences on memory performance in pediatric epilepsy are inconsistent and merit further investigation. This study compared 90 children (aged 6years to 16years) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to determine whether they displayed distinct list-learning and verbal memory profiles on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version (CVLT-C). Group comparison identified greater risk of memory impairment in children with TLE and FLE syndromes but not for those with CAE. While children with TLE performed worst overall on Short Delay Free Recall, groups with TLE and FLE performed similarly on Long Delay Free Recall. Contrast indices were then employed to explore these differences. Children with TLE demonstrated a significantly greater retroactive interference (RI) effect compared with groups with FLE and CAE. Conversely, children with FLE demonstrated a significantly worse learning efficiency index (LEI), which compares verbal memory following repetition with initial recall of the same list, than both children with TLE and CAE. These findings indicated shallow encoding related to attentional control for children with FLE and retrieval deficits in children with TLE. Finally, our combined sample showed significantly higher rates of extreme contrast indices (i.e., 1.5 SD difference) compared with the CVLT-C standardization sample. These results underscore the high prevalence of memory dysfunction in pediatric epilepsy and offer support for distinct patterns of verbal memory performance based on childhood epilepsy syndrome. PMID:27484747

  10. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  11. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Ito, Takako

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbal memory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbal memory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model. PMID:12186247

  12. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  13. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  14. What you say matters: exploring visual-verbal interactions in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Mate, Judit; Allen, Richard J; Baqués, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the content of a simple concurrent verbal load task determines the extent of its interference on memory for coloured shapes. The task consisted of remembering four visual items while repeating aloud a pair of words that varied in terms of imageability and relatedness to the task set. At test, a cue appeared that was either the colour or the shape of one of the previously seen objects, with participants required to select the object's other feature from a visual array. During encoding and retention, there were four verbal load conditions: (a) a related, shape-colour pair (from outside the experimental set, i.e., "pink square"); (b) a pair of unrelated but visually imageable, concrete, words (i.e., "big elephant"); (c) a pair of unrelated and abstract words (i.e., "critical event"); and (d) no verbal load. Results showed differential effects of these verbal load conditions. In particular, imageable words (concrete and related conditions) interfered to a greater degree than abstract words. Possible implications for how visual working memory interacts with verbal memory and long-term memory are discussed. PMID:22248026

  15. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM. PMID:26275964

  16. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24467663

  17. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  18. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  19. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory task performance before and after an attention training period. In a comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals in the maintenance of information in working memory. PMID:22363281

  20. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  1. Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

    2014-11-16

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. PMID:25462517

  2. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B.; Leger, Gabriel C.; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing. PMID:26933437

  3. The Differential Contributions of Auditory-Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory on Decoding Skills in Children Who Are Poor Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…

  4. The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

  5. Effect of Musical Experience on Verbal Memory in Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Novel Word Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Jungers, Melissa K.; Steele, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim…

  6. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain. PMID:27217115

  7. Spatial Inferences in Narrative Comprehension: the Role of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Irrazabal, Natalia; Burin, Debora

    2016-01-01

    During the comprehension of narrative texts, readers keep a mental representation of the location of protagonists and objects; a breach in spatial coherence is detected by longer online reading times (consistency effect). We addressed whether these spatial inferences involve verbal or spatial working memory in two experiments, combining the consistency paradigm with selective verbal and spatial working memory concurrent tasks. The first experiment found longer reading times with a concurrent spatial task under imagery instructions (t33 = 2.87, p = .021). The second experiment, under comprehension reading instructions, found effects of verbal interference on reading times and accuracy. With a verbal secondary task, reading times for the target sentence were shorter (t45 = 3.60, p = .004) and the error rate was significantly higher (t47 = 2.95, p = .005) than without interference. This pattern of results suggests that spatial inferences in narrative comprehension rely mainly on verbal resources, and spatial working memory resources are recruited when imagery is required. PMID:26972773

  8. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  9. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  10. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems. PMID:26588602

  11. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721

  12. Can we reconcile the declarative memory and spatial navigation views on hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Some argue that hippocampus supports declarative memory, our capacity to recall facts and events, whereas others view the hippocampus as part of a system dedicated to calculating routes through space, and these two contrasting views are pursued largely independently in current research. Here we offer a perspective on where these views can and cannot be reconciled, and update a bridging framework that will improve our understanding of hippocampal function. PMID:25144874

  13. Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

  14. [The role of the basal forebrain cholinergic dysfunction in pathogenesis of declarative memory disorder in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V N

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of the declarative memory disorder: 30-40% cases of dementia among all of age groups, and 50-60% among the people older 65 years. In addition, disorder of declarative memory is the genuine symptom of the disease, which certainly appears on early stage of the disease and it is an obligate diagnostic symptom. Proponents of the "cholinergic theory" of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease suggest that the basis disorder of declarative memory is cholinergic dysfunction. Several neurodynamic mechanisms associated with declarative memory depend on the level of acetylcholine in hippocampus and neocortex. It is believed that dysfunction of the basal cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease leads to the impairment of these mechanisms. In this review, we summarize available literature data concerning the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24459876

  15. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients. PMID:24339807

  16. Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments in Bipolar I and II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Hyon; Kim, Ji Sun; Chang, Jae Seung; Oh, Sung Hee; Her, Ju Young; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Tae Sung; Shin, Soon Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare verbal and visual memory performances between patients with bipolar I disorder (BD I) and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD II) and to determine whether memory deficits were mediated by impaired organizational strategies. Methods Performances on the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in 37 patients with BD I, 46 patients with BD II and 42 healthy subjects were compared. Mediating effects of impaired organization strategies on poor delayed recall was tested by comparing direct and mediated models using multiple regression analysis. Results Both patients groups recalled fewer words and figure components and showed lower Semantic Clustering compared to controls. Verbal memory impairment was partly mediated by difficulties in Semantic Clustering in both subtypes, whereas the mediating effect of Organization deficit on the visual memory impairment was present only in BD I. In all mediated models, group differences in delayed recall remained significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that memory impairment may be one of the fundamental cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders and that executive dysfunctions can exert an additional influence on memory impairments. PMID:23251197

  17. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  18. The Development of Verbal and Visual Working Memory Processes: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…

  19. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  20. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  1. Relationship between Verbal Working Memory and the SCAN-C in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Zarafa, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: An ongoing concern with the evaluation of auditory processing disorders is the extent that assessment instruments are influenced by higher order cognitive functions. This study examined the relationship between verbal working memory and performance on the Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children-Revised (SCAN-C; Keith, 2000b) in…

  2. Effects of Verbal Coding on Learning Disabled and Normal Readers Visual Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    The hypothesis that reading difficulty of learning disabled (LD) children is attributable to deficiencies in verbal encoding was investigated with 60 LD and normal children (mean CA=9.1, mean IQ=103.5). Ss were compared on recall of a serial short-term memory task after pre-training of named and unnamed stimulus conditions. Data suggested that…

  3. Investigating the Effects of Veridicality on Age Differences in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…

  4. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…

  5. Effects of Steady-State Noise on Verbal Working Memory in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrone, Nicole; Alt, Mary; DeDe, Gayle; Olson, Sarah; Shehorn, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We set out to examine the impact of perceptual, linguistic, and capacity demands on performance of verbal working-memory tasks. The Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) provides a framework for testing the dynamics of these interactions within the auditory-cognitive system. Methods: Adult native speakers of English…

  6. What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

  7. Encoding: The Keystone to Efficient Functioning of Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like "blonterstaping". The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of…

  8. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  9. Functional Developmental Similarities and Differences in the Neural Correlates of Verbal and Nonverbal Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…

  10. Verbal Memory Compensation: Application to Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbal memory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…

  11. A Multiple Case Study of Verbal Short-Term Memory in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, S.; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, M.; Eliez, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q 11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we…

  12. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

  13. The Effect of Morphological Complexity on Verbal Working Memory: Results from Arabic Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Adwan-Mansour, Jasmeen; Sapir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of morphology in verbal working memory. Forty nine children, all native speakers of Arabic from the same region and of the same dialect, performed a "Listening Word Span Task", whereby they had to recall Arabic uninflected words (i.e., base words), inflected words with regular (possessive) morphology, or inflected words with…

  14. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…

  15. Cohesion, coherence, and declarative memory: Discourse patterns in individuals with hippocampal amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Discourse cohesion and coherence gives our communication continuity. Deficits in cohesion and coherence have been reported in patients with cognitive-communication disorders (e.g., TBI, dementia). However, the diffuse nature of pathology and widespread cognitive deficits of these disorders have made identification of specific neural substrates and cognitive systems critical for cohesion and coherence challenging. Aims Taking advantage of a rare patient group with selective and severe declarative memory impairments, the current study attempts to isolate the contribution of declarative memory to the successful use of cohesion and coherence in discourse. Methods & Procedures Cohesion and coherence were examined in the discourse of six participants with hippocampal amnesia and six demographically matched comparison participants. Specifically, this study (1) documents the frequency, type, and completeness of cohesive ties; (2) evaluates discourse for local and global coherence; and (3) compares use of cohesive ties and coherence ratings in amnesia and healthy participants. Outcomes & Results Overall, amnesia participants produced fewer cohesive ties per T-unit, the adequacy of their ties were more often judged to be incomplete, and the ratings of their local coherence were consistently lower than comparison participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to the discursive use of cohesion and coherence. Broader notions of cohesion, or interactional cohesion, i.e., cohesion across speakers (two or more people), time (days, weeks), and communicative resources (gesture), warrant further study as the experimental tasks used in the literature, and here, may actually underestimate or overestimate the extent of impairment. PMID:23136461

  16. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  17. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  18. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. PMID:25379240

  19. Antiretroviral Non-Adherence is Associated With a Retrieval Profile of Deficits in Verbal Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Obermeit, Lisa C; Morgan, Erin E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated deficits in verbal episodic memory are commonly associated with antiretroviral non-adherence; however, the specific aspects of memory functioning (e.g., encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) that underlie this established relationship are not well understood. This study evaluated verbal memory profiles of 202 HIV+ participants who underwent a 30-day electronic monitoring of antiretroviral adherence. At the group level, non-adherence was significantly associated with lower scores on immediate and delayed passage recall and word list learning. Retention and recognition of passages and word lists were not related to adherence. Participants were then classified as having either a normal verbal memory profile, a "subcortical" retrieval profile (i.e., impaired free recall with relatively spared recognition), or a "cortical" encoding profile (e.g., cued recall intrusions) based on the Massman et al. ( 1990 ) algorithm for the California Verbal Learning Test. HIV+ participants with a classic retrieval deficit had significantly greater odds of being non-adherent than participants with a normal or encoding profile. These findings suggest that adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in HIV+ individuals due to deficits in the complex process of efficiently accessing verbal episodic information with minimal cues. A stronger relationship between non-adherence and passage (vs. word list) recall was also found and may reflect the importance of contextual features in remembering to take medications. Targeted interventions for enhancing and supporting episodic memory retrieval processes may improve antiretroviral adherence and overall health outcomes among persons living with HIV. PMID:25781903

  20. Antiretroviral Non-Adherence is Associated with a Retrieval Profile of Deficits in Verbal Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Obermeit, Lisa C.; Morgan, Erin E.; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-associated deficits in verbal episodic memory are commonly associated with antiretroviral non-adherence; however, the specific aspects of memory functioning (e.g., encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) that underlie this established relationship are not well understood. Method This study evaluated verbal memory profiles of 202 HIV+ participants who underwent a 30-day electronic monitoring of antiretroviral adherence. Results At the group level, non-adherence was significantly associated with lower scores on immediate and delayed passage recall and word list learning. Retention and recognition of passages and word lists were not related to adherence. Participants were then classified as having either a normal verbal memory profile, a “subcortical” retrieval profile (i.e., impaired free recall with relatively spared recognition), or a “cortical” encoding profile (e.g., cued recall intrusions) based on the Massman et al. (1990) algorithm for the California Verbal Learning Test. HIV+ participants with a classic retrieval deficit had significantly greater odds of being non-adherent than participants with a normal or encoding profile. Conclusions These findings suggest that adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in HIV+ individuals due to deficits in the complex process of efficiently accessing verbal episodic information with minimal cues. A stronger relationship between non-adherence and passage (vs. word list) recall was also found and may reflect the importance of contextual features in remembering to take medications. Targeted interventions for enhancing and supporting episodic memory retrieval processes may improve antiretroviral adherence and overall health outcomes among persons living with HIV. PMID:25781903

  1. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  2. Verbal memory impairment in subcortical ischemic vascular disease: a descriptive analysis in CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Epelbaum, S; Benisty, S; Reyes, S; O'Sullivan, M; Jouvent, E; Düring, M; Hervé, D; Opherk, C; Hernandez, K; Kurtz, A; Viswanathan, A; Bousser, M G; Dichgans, M; Chabriat, H

    2011-12-01

    In the elderly, the high prevalence of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology presents a major challenge to the investigation of memory decline in common diseases such as small vessel disease. CADASIL represents a unique clinical model to determine the spectrum of memory impairment in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). One hundred and forty CADASIL patients underwent detailed clinical, neuropsychological and imaging analyses. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test was used as a measure of verbal memory. Forty-four out of 140 CADASIL patients (31.4%) presented with memory impairment according to this test. Eight out of 44 (18.2%) subjects with memory impairment matched the definition of the amnestic syndrome of hippocampal type. While alterations in spontaneous recall were related to the severity of subcortical ischemic lesions, the profile of memory impairment, particularly the sensitivity to cueing was found related to other factors such as hippocampal atrophy. PMID:20149485

  3. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Lesh, Tyler A.; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners’ sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension. PMID:26401815

  4. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  5. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60-78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  6. Slow Sleep Spindle Activity, Declarative Memory, and General Cognitive Abilities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Design: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Measurements and Results: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Conclusions: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8–11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. Citation: Hoedlmoser K, Heib DPJ, Roell J, Peigneux P, Sadeh A, Gruber G, Schabus M. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1501-1512. PMID:25142558

  7. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external. PMID:19093614

  8. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production.

    PubMed

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  9. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  10. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  11. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  12. Hippocampal volume and cingulum bundle fractional anisotropy are independently associated with verbal memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Michael L; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) volumetrics as well as fractional anisotropy of the cingulum angular bundle (CAB) and the cingulum cingulate gyrus (CCG) bundle to performance on measures of verbal memory in non-demented older adults. The participants were 100 non-demented adults over the age of 70 years from the Einstein Aging Study. Volumetric data were estimated from T1-weighted images. The entire cingulum was reconstructed using diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic tractography. Association between verbal episodic memory and MRI measures including volume of hippocampus (HIP), entorhinal cortex (ERC), PCC and fractional anisotropy of CAB and CCG bundle were modeled using linear regression. Relationships between atrophy of these structures and regional cingulum fractional anisotropy were also explored. Decreased HIP volume on the left and decreased fractional anisotropy of left CAB were associated with lower memory performance. Volume changes in ERC, PCC and CCG disruption were not associated with memory performance. In regression models, left HIP volume and left CAB-FA were each independently associated with episodic memory. The results suggest that microstructural changes in the left CAB and decreased left HIP volume independently influence episodic memory performance in older adults without dementia. The importance of these findings in age and illness-related memory decline require additional exploration. PMID:26424564

  13. Sleep Strengthens but does Not Reorganize Memory Traces in a Verbal Creativity Task

    PubMed Central

    Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Maier, Jonathan-Gabriel; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep after learning promotes the quantitative strengthening of new memories. Less is known about the impact of sleep on the qualitative reorganization of memory content. This study tested the hypothesis that sleep facilitates both memory strengthening and reorganization as indexed by a verbal creativity task. Methods: Sixty healthy university students (30 female, 30 male, 20–30 years) were investigated in a randomized, controlled parallel-group study with three experimental groups (sleep, sleep deprivation, daytime wakefulness). At baseline, 60 items of the Compound Remote Associate (CRA) task were presented. At retest after the experimental conditions, the same items were presented again together with 20 new control items to disentangle off-line incubation from online performance effects. Results: Sleep significantly strengthened formerly encoded memories in comparison to both wake conditions (improvement in speed of correctly resolved items). Offline reorganization was not enhanced following sleep, but was enhanced following sleep-deprivation in comparison to sleep and daytime wakefulness (solution time of previously incubated, newly solved items). Online performance did not differ between the groups (solution time of new control items). Conclusions: The results support the notion that sleep promotes the strengthening, but not the reorganization, of newly encoded memory traces in a verbal creativity task. Future studies are needed to further determine the impact of sleep on different types of memory reorganization, such as associative thinking, creativity and emotional memory processing, and potential clinical translations, such as the augmentation of psychotherapy through sleep interventions. Citation: Landmann N, Kuhn M, Maier JG, Feige B, Spiegelhalder K, Riemann D, Nissen C. Sleep strengthens but does not reorganize memory traces in a verbal creativity task. SLEEP 2016;39(3):705–713. PMID:26518596

  14. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  15. Syntactic comprehension, verbal memory, and calculation abilities in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Ostrosky-Solís, F; Marcos, J; Granda, G; Soto, M

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the interfering effect of the second language (L2) on the first language (L1) in native Spanish speakers living in the United States. We examined 3 linguistic aspects: (a) syntactic comprehension, (b) verbal memory, and (c) calculation abilities. We carried out 2 different studies. In the 1st study, we studied syntactic understanding in 50 Spanish-English bilinguals. For all participants, L1 was Spanish and L2 was English, and all learned English early in life and had attended English schools. Results for the Spanish Syntactic Comprehension Test (Marcos & Ostrosky, 1995) were compared with the normative results obtained with 40 Spanish monolingual participants. We observed that the closer to the English syntax the sentences were, the easier it was for the participants to understand them. Participants who had been exposed to English between the ages of 5 and 12 outperformed participants exposed to English before 5 years of age. Language preference correlated with syntactic comprehension. Women outperformed men. In the 2nd study, verbal memory and calculation abilities were examined in L1 and L2 in a group of 85 Spanish-English bilinguals. Parallel versions of the different tests were administered in Spanish and English. The results indicated some significant differences between the 2 languages in several verbal learning and calculation ability subtests. Most of the verbal memory subtests were better performed in L1. Scores on tasks measuring speed and calculation accuracy were higher in the participant's native language. Best spoken language proved to be a significant variable in some verbal memory subtests performed in English but not in Spanish. We analyze implications of bilingualism in neuropsychological testing. We also present some suggestions to minimize the bilingualism effect. PMID:10800623

  16. Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F; Miller, D G; Burns, H J

    1978-01-01

    A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced less accurate responding on both a yes-no and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test. Further, misleading information had a larger impact if introduced just prior to a final test rather than immediately after the initial event. The effects of misleading information cannot be accounted for by a simple demand-characteristics explanation. Overall, the results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event. PMID:621467

  17. The Interaction of Concreteness and Phonological Similarity in Verbal Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level. PMID:20053042

  18. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  19. An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

  20. Functional equivalence of verbal and spatial information in serial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Farrand, P; Stuart, G; Morris, N

    1995-07-01

    Performance on a test of serial memory for the spatial position of a sequence of dots showed similarities to typical results from the serial recall of verbal material: a marked increase in error with increasing list length, a modest rise in error as retention interval increased, and bow-shaped serial position curves. This task was susceptible to interference from both a spatial task (rote tapping) and a verbal task (mouthed articulatory suppression) and also from the presence of irrelevant speech. Effects were comparable to those found with a serial verbal task that was generally similar in demand characteristics to the spatial task. As a generalization, disruption of the serial recall of visuospatial material was more marked if the interference conditions involved a changing sequence of actions or materials, but not if a single event (tap, mouthed utterance, or sound) was repeated. PMID:7673864

  1. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A.; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p<0.01) and memory (p<0.001), as well as attention (p=0.02). Regardless of HIV status, high stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p’s< 0.05) as well as processing speed (p=0.01) and executive function (p<0.01). A significant HIV by stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p=0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p’s<0.001). That association was driven by the delayed verbal memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women. PMID:25791344

  2. Positive modulation of a neutral declarative memory by a threatening social event.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Campos, Jorge; Allegri, Ricardo F; Molina, Victor A; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2015-12-01

    Memories can be altered by negative or arousing experiences due to the activation of the stress-responsive sympatho-adrenal-medullary axis (SYM). Here, we used a neutral declarative memory that was acquired during multi-trial training to determine the effect of a threatening event on memory without emotional valence. To this end, participants received a new threatening social protocol before learning pairs of meaningless syllables and were tested either 15 min, 2 days or 8 days after acquisition. We first demonstrated that this threatening social situation activates not only the SYM axis (Experiment 1) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Experiment 2), but also, it improves the acquisition or early consolidation of the syllable pairs (Experiment 3). This improvement is not a transient effect; it can be observed after the memory is consolidated. Furthermore, this modulation increases the persistence of memory (Experiment 4). Thus, it is possible to affect memories with specific events that contain unrelated content and a different valence. PMID:26555632

  3. On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

    2014-01-01

    The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

  4. Brief report: memory performance on the California verbal learning test - children's version in Autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Heather L; Filliter, Jillian H; Johnson, Shannon A

    2011-04-01

    According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version to 15 high-functioning youths with ASD and 15 matched comparison participants. Although ASD and comparison participants had comparable levels of overall performance, the ASD group, but not the comparison group, improved significantly from free to cued recall, providing support for the TSH. These results indicate that verbal memory performance in youths with ASD is relatively intact, but may be facilitated by external supports. PMID:20652387

  5. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  6. Intrinsic brain indices of verbal working memory capacity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Jutagir, Devika R; Koyama, Maki S; Craddock, R Cameron; Yan, Chao-Gan; Shehzad, Zarrar; Castellanos, F Xavier; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is central to the acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout childhood and adolescence. While numerous behavioral and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined WM development, few have used resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). Here, we present a systematic R-fMRI examination of age-related differences in the neural indices of verbal WM performance in a cross-sectional pediatric sample (ages: 7-17; n=68), using data-driven approaches. Verbal WM capacity was measured with the digit span task, a commonly used educational and clinical assessment. We found distinct neural indices of digit span forward (DSF) and backward (DSB) performance, reflecting their unique neuropsychological demands. Regardless of age, DSB performance was related to intrinsic properties of brain areas previously implicated in attention and cognitive control, while DSF performance was related to areas less commonly implicated in verbal WM storage (precuneus, lateral visual areas). From a developmental perspective, DSF exhibited more robust age-related differences in brain-behavior relationships than DSB, and implicated a broader range of networks (ventral attention, default, somatomotor, limbic networks)--including a number of regions not commonly associated with verbal WM (angular gyrus, subcallosum). These results highlight the importance of examining the neurodevelopment of verbal WM and of considering regions beyond the "usual suspects". PMID:26299314

  7. Nicotine Effects on Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory After Substance Use Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2010-01-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent (ALCS N=29; 14 male), illicit stimulant (predominantly cocaine) dependent (STIMS N = 25; 15 male) and alcohol and illicit stimulant dependent (ALC/STIMS N = 50; 35 male) participants with co-morbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41(±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (~8–10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (High dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively or Low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale -Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMS receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMS who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMS demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory and, that considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval) underlying endpoint indicators (e.g. correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes. PMID:21526444

  8. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  9. What forgetting tells us about remembering: the influence of top-down control on hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that left hemisphere (LH) advantages in verbal processing is due to superior top-down control of verbal information. It is not clear how top-down mechanisms affect the encoding and retrieval of verbal information from hemispheric memory and whether they only influence activation or also encompass the inhibition of verbal information. The directed forgetting method, in conjunction with divided visual field presentation, was used to examine the influence of top-down control mechanisms on hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory. Participants were cued to remember or forget words. Cues were presented either simultaneously with targets or after a short delay. A recognition memory test using divided visual field presentation was then given. Response times (RTs) revealed effects of cue timing in the LH. With simultaneous cues, RTs were faster to "Remember" words compared to "Forget" words. With delayed cues, RTs for "Remember" and "Forget" words were equivalent. In the right hemisphere (RH), "Remember" words were consistently faster than "Forget" words, regardless of cue timing. These data provide evidence that top-down mechanisms influenced LH verbal memory retrieval more than RH verbal memory retrieval. Finally, there was little evidence to suggest the hemispheres differ in inhibitory processing. PMID:25139497

  10. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Is Associated with Verbal Working Memory in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle de Souza; de Paula, Jonas J.; Alvim-Soares, Antonio M.; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.; Rodrigues, Luiz O. C.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Miranda, Débora M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a neurogenetic disease marked by multiple cognitive and learning problems. Genetic variants may account for phenotypic variance in NF1. Here, we investigated the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and working memory and arithmetic performance in 50 NF1 individuals. A significant association of the COMT polymorphism was observed only with verbal working memory, as measured by the backward digit-span task with an advantageous performance for Met/Met carriers. To study how genetic modifiers influence NF1 cognitive performance might be of importance to decrease the unpredictability of the cognitive profile among NF1 patients. PMID:27458360

  11. Predictors of longitudinal changes in memory, visuospatial, and verbal functioning in very old demented adults.

    PubMed

    Small, B J; Bäckman, L

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in memory, visuospatial and verbal functioning in a sample of demented persons were examined. The role of several demographic, psychometric, and biological indices in predicting the rate of cognitive deterioration was also investigated. The sample consisted of 31 very old (mean age at entry = 83.5 years, range = 75-95) persons with Alzheimer's disease (n = 22) and vascular dementia (n = 9) from a community-based study. Subjects were tested on two occasions separated by approximately 2.5 years. Results indicated significant longitudinal decline in verbal fluency and visuospatial ability, but only on 1 of 3 measures of episodic memory. Results from regression analyses indicated that a variety of putatively important variables, including age, gender, education, digit span, as well as a number of biological (vitamin B12, TSH), dementia etiology, and psychometric (digit span) indicators, exhibited no relationship to rate of memory, visuospatial, or verbal decline. The results suggest that the rate of cognitive deterioration in dementia is highly variable, and this variability in change appears to include a variety of characteristics. A possible reason thereof may be that the role of individual-difference variables for cognitive functioning in dementia is overshadowed by the pathogenetic process itself. PMID:9701677

  12. Verbal Learning and Memory in Older Adults with Minor and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Zillmer, Eric A.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Kumar, Anand; Gur, Ruben C.; McAndrew, Lisa M.; Bilker, Warren B.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Moberg, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Late-life minor depression (miD) is a prevalent but poorly understood illness. Verbal learning and memory profiles have commonly been used to characterize neuropsychiatric disorders. This study compared the performance of 27 older adults with miD on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with 26 age-matched individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 36 non-depressed controls. Results revealed that the miD group performed comparably with controls and significantly better than the MDD group on several CVLT indices. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, consistent with theoretical representations of “normal,” “subcortical,” and “cortical” verbal learning and memory profiles. The majority of the miD group showed “normal” profiles (74%), whereas most individuals with MDD displayed “subcortical” profiles (54%). The findings suggest that depression in the elderly is a heterogeneous entity and that the CVLT may be a useful tool for characterizing learning and memory in late-onset depressive disorders. PMID:22189596

  13. Learning and serial effects on verbal memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Campos-Magdaleno, María; Díaz-Bóveda, Rosalía; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pereiro, Arturo X

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine different patterns of learning and episodic memory in 3 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups and a control group by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and using serial position effect as a principal variable. The study sample included 3 groups of patients with MCI (n = 90) divided into single-domain amnestic, multiple-domain amnestic, and multiple-domain nonamnestic MCI and a group of healthy controls (n = 60). We compared the performance of each group on several CVLT measures used in previous research, and we included a new measure that provides specific information about the serial effect. Data showed a similar pattern of learning and memory impairment in both amnestic MCI groups (i.e., no differences between the multiple-domain and single-domain subtypes); the recency effect was significantly higher in both amnestic MCI groups than in all other groups, and the primacy effect was only lower in the multiple-domain amnestic MCI subtype. Verbal learning and memory profiles of patients with amnestic MCI were very similar, independent of the presence of deficits in cognitive domains other than episodic memory. Results are discussed in light of the unitary-store model of memory. PMID:26569625

  14. The neural correlates of age effects on verbal-spatial binding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of age-related differences in the binding of verbal and spatial information utilizing event-related working memory tasks. Twenty-one right handed younger adults and twenty-one right handed older adults performed two versions of a dual task of verbal and spatial working memory. In the unbound dual task version letters and locations were presented simultaneously in separate locations, while in the bound dual task version each letter was paired with a specific location. In order to identify binding-specific differences, mixed-effects ANOVAs were run with the interaction of age and task as the effect of interest. Although older adults performed worse in the bound task than younger adults, there was no significant interaction between task and age on working memory performance. However, interactions of age and task were observed in brain activity analyses. Older adults did not display the greater unbound than bound task activity that younger adults did at the encoding phase in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right putamen, and globus pallidus as well as at the maintenance phase in the cerebellum. We conclude that the binding of letters and locations in working memory is not as efficient in older adults as it is in younger adults, possibly due to the decline of cognitive control processes that are specific to working memory binding. PMID:24631396

  15. Verbal memory deficits in children with less than 750 g birth weight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G H; Klein, N M; Minich, N M; Hack, M

    2000-03-01

    Numerous studies have documented memory deficits in very low birthweight (VLBW, < 1500 g) children, yet we know little about the nature of these memory problems. To clarify memory sequelae and examine memory deficits in relation to the degree of low birth weight, we administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to a regional sample of 57 < 750 g birthweight children and to groups of 53 750-1499 g birthweight children and 49 term-born controls. Group comparisons revealed significant differences between the < 750 g birthweight group and term-born children on measures of list learning, delayed recall, and inaccurate recall. In addition, the percentage improvement in correct recognitions relative to long-term delayed recall was greater in the < 750 g group than in the term-born controls. Similar differences were observed between VLBW children with and without abnormal neonatal cerebral ultrasounds (high- and low-risk groups). Differences in learning rate between the VLBW and term-born groups, and between high- and low-risk VLBW children, were evident even when vocabulary skill was covaried or when children with neurosensory deficits or IQ < 80 were excluded from analysis. The findings document deficits in verbal memory in the subset of VLBW children at greatest biological risk, and suggest that acquisition processes are selectively impaired. PMID:10980668

  16. Are all subcortical dementias alike? Verbal learning and memory in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Massman, P J; Delis, D C; Butters, N; Levin, B E; Salmon, D P

    1990-10-01

    The utility of the concept of 'subcortical dementia' was investigated by comparing the verbal learning and memory abilities of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with those of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Many similarities between the PD and HD groups emerged, including impaired immediate memory spans, inconsistency of recall across learning trials, deficient use of a semantic clustering learning strategy, elevated intrusion rates on delayed recall, impaired recognition memory performance, normal retention of information over delay periods, normal vulnerability to proactive or retroactive interference, and normal types of intrusion errors. The HD subjects, however, displayed inferior free recall, deficient improvement across learning trials, abnormal serial position recall effects, higher perseveration rates, and supranormal improvement on recognition testing compared with free recall. Implications of these results for characterizing memory deficits associated with subcortical system dysfunction are discussed. PMID:2147923

  17. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  18. Contributions of memory circuits to language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory, which underlies the storage and use of knowledge of facts and events. The mental grammar, which subserves the rule-governed combination of lexical items into complex representations, depends on a distinct neural system. This system, which is composed of a network of specific frontal, basal-ganglia, parietal and cerebellar structures, underlies procedural memory, which supports the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills, especially those involving sequences. The functions of the two brain systems, together with their anatomical, physiological and biochemical substrates, lead to specific claims and predictions regarding their roles in language. These predictions are compared with those of other neurocognitive models of language. Empirical evidence is presented from neuroimaging studies of normal language processing, and from developmental and adult-onset disorders. It is argued that this evidence supports the DP model. It is additionally proposed that "language" disorders, such as specific language impairment and non-fluent and fluent aphasia, may be profitably viewed as impairments primarily affecting one or the other brain system. Overall, the data suggest a new neurocognitive framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:15037131

  19. How do subvocal rehearsal and general attentional resources contribute to verbal short-term memory span?

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Whether rehearsal has a causal role in verbal STM has been controversial in the literature. Recent theories of working memory emphasize a role of attentional resources, but leave unclear how they contribute to verbal STM. Two experiments (with 49 and 102 adult participants, respectively) followed up previous studies with children, aiming to clarify the contributions of attentional capacity and rehearsal to verbal STM. Word length and presentation modality were manipulated. Experiment 1 focused on order errors, Experiment 2 on predicting individual differences in span from attentional capacity and articulation rate. Structural equation modeling showed clearly a major role of attentional capacity as a predictor of verbal STM span; but was inconclusive on whether rehearsal efficiency is an additional cause or a consequence of verbal STM. The effects of word length and modality on STM were replicated; a significant interaction was also found, showing a larger modality effect for long than short words, which replicates a previous finding on children. Item errors occurred more often with long words and correlated negatively with articulation rate. This set of findings seems to point to a role of rehearsal in maintaining item information. The probability of order errors per position increased linearly with list length. A revised version of a neo-Piagetian model was fit to the data of Experiment 2. That model was based on two parameters: attentional capacity (independently measured) and a free parameter representing loss of partly-activated information. The model could partly account for the results, but underestimated STM performance of the participants with smaller attentional capacity. It is concluded that modeling of verbal STM should consider individual and developmental differences in attentional capacity, rehearsal rate, and (perhaps) order representation. PMID:25798114

  20. Effect of musical experience on verbal memory in Williams syndrome: evidence from a novel word learning task.

    PubMed

    Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K; Steele, Anita L

    2011-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS. In Study 1, we presented a memory task of eight spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and identified its group name to 38 individuals with WS. Study 2, involving another group of individuals with WS (n=38), included six spoken or sung sentences that identified an animal group name. In both studies, those who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on the verbal memory task when the sentences were sung than when they were spoken. Those who had not taken formal lessons showed no such benefit. We also found that increased enjoyment of music and heightened emotional reactions to music did not impact performance on the memory task. These compelling findings provide the first evidence that musical experience may enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS and shed more light on the complex relationship between aspects of cognition and altered neurodevelopment in this unique disorder. PMID:21807007

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND VERBAL MEMORY MAY BE INFLUENCED BY BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN YOUNG HEALTHY WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Altbácker, Anna; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Kőszegi, Tamás; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Lucza, Tivadar; Kovács, Norbert; Janszky, József; Zsófia, Clemens

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between verbal memory and total cholesterol (TC) levels related to body mass index (BMI) in healthy young women. Verbal memory was assessed using the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) while total serum cholesterol was measured by enzymatic colorimetric test. In order to analyze the potential significance of BMI subjects were divided into three groups according to their calculated BMI percentile values. No significant correlation was found when assessing the group as a whole. However a remarkable pattern of correlation emerged when assessing the BMI groups separately: a close-to-significant positive correlation was found for total learning score and TC in the low BMI group, no correlation emerged in the medium BMI group while a strong inverse correlation was found in the high BMI group. These findings indicate that the relationship between verbal memory and serum TC level is also influenced by BMI. PMID:27468607

  2. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  3. Neural correlates of verbal associative memory and mnemonic strategy use following childhood traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Megan E.; Chiu, C.-Y. Peter; Shear, Paula K.; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience memory deficits, although the nature, functional implication, and recovery trajectory of such difficulties are poorly understood. The present fMRI study examined the neural activation patterns in a group of young children who sustained moderate TBI in early childhood (n = 7), and a group of healthy control children (n = 13) during a verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task that promoted the use of two mnemonic strategies differing in efficacy. The children with TBI demonstrated intact memory performance and were able to successfully utilize the mnemonic strategies. However, the TBI group also demonstrated altered brain activation patterns during the task compared to the control children. These findings suggest early childhood TBI may alter activation within the network of brain regions supporting associative memory even in children who show good behavioral performance. PMID:21188286

  4. Enhancement of Declarative Memory Performance Following a Daytime Nap Is Contingent on Strength of Initial Task Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew A.; Fishbein, William

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study we examined the benefit of a daytime nap containing only NREM sleep on the performance of three declarative memory tasks: unrelated paired associates, maze learning, and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. Additionally, we explored the impact of factors related to task acquisition on sleep-related memory processing. To this end, we examined whether testing of paired associates during training leads to sleep-related enhancement of memory compared to simply learning the word pairs without test. We also examined whether strength of task acquisition modulates sleep-related processing for each of the three tasks. Subjects and Procedure: Subjects (11 male, 22 female) arrived at 11:30, were trained on each of the declarative memory tasks at 12:15, and at 13:00 either took a nap or remained awake in the sleep lab. After the nap period, all subjects remained in the lab until retest at 16:00. Results: Compared to subjects who stayed awake during the training-retest interval, subjects who took a NREM nap demonstrated enhanced performance for word pairs that were tested during training, but not for untested word pairs. For each of the three declarative memory tasks, we observed a sleep-dependent performance benefit only for subjects that most strongly acquired the tasks during the training session. Conclusions: NREM sleep obtained during a daytime nap benefits declarative memory performance, with these benefits being intimately tied to how well subjects acquire the tasks and the way in which the information is acquired. Citation: Tucker MA; Fishbein W. Enhancement of declarative memory performance following a daytime nap is contingent on strength of initial task acquisition. SLEEP 2008;31(2):197–203. PMID:18274266

  5. The Effect of Topiramate Plasma Concentration on Linguistic Behavior, Verbal Recall and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marino, S.E.; Pakhomov, S.V.S.; Han, S.; Anderson, K.L.; Ding, M.; Eberly, L.E.; Loring, D.W.; Hawkins-Taylor, C.; Rarick, J.O.; Leppik, I.E.; Cibula, J.E.; Birnbaum, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study of the effect of topiramate on linguistic behavior and verbal recall using a computational linguistics system for automated language and speech analysis to detect and quantify drug-induced changes in speech recorded during discourse level tasks. Healthy volunteers were administered a single, 100 mg oral dose of topiramate in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Subjects’ topiramate plasma levels ranged from 0.23–2.81ug/mL. We found a significant association between topiramate levels and impairment on measures of verbal fluency elicited during a picture description task, correct number of words recalled on a paragraph recall test, and reaction time recorded during a working memory task. Using the tools of clinical pharmacology and computational linguistics, we elucidated the relationship between the determinants of a drug’s disposition as reflected in plasma concentrations and their impact on cognitive functioning as reflected in spoken language discourse. PMID:22658432

  6. Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory in down Syndrome Reflects a Capacity Limitation Rather than Atypically Rapid Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M. Purser, H.R.; Jarrold, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome suffer from relatively poor verbal short-term memory. Recent work has indicated that this deficit is not caused by problems of audition, speech, or articulatory rehearsal within the phonological loop component of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model. Given this, two experiments were conducted to investigate…

  7. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  8. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  9. The Extent of Working Memory Deficits Associated with Williams Syndrome: Exploration of Verbal and Spatial Domains and Executively Controlled Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…

  10. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  11. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  12. Stage and load effects on ERP topography during verbal and spatial working memory

    PubMed Central

    Shucard, Janet L.; Tekok-Kilic, Ayda; Shiels, Keri; Shucard, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-parietal neural networks play a significant role in the functional organization of visual working memory (WM). The relative contribution of material-specific information (e.g., verbal or spatial) on activation of WM circuitry is not fully understood. Process-specific models of WM propose that the activation of WM circuitry is more dependent on the stage of WM than on the type of information being processes. This study investigated the effects of WM information type (verbal, spatial), stage (encoding, maintenance), and load on both the anterior–posterior topography and lateralized scalp distributions of the event-related potential (ERP) P3 amplitude. Seventeen young adults performed verbal and spatial tasks that were equated for stimulus properties and response requirements. Both tasks were presented under 1- and 3-load conditions. The anterior–posterior topography of P3 amplitude at left hemisphere, midline, and right hemisphere scalp locations was affected by the stage of WM and the memory load, but not by the type of information. The encoding stage showed minimal load effects and was associated with a posterior-maximum P3 amplitude distribution. During the maintenance stage, probe letters were presented that were irrelevant to the previously encoded stimuli. Here, higher WM load produced relatively greater frontal and reduced parietal P3 amplitude compared to lower WM load. These anterior–posterior P3 amplitude patterns for encoding and maintenance were similar at left, midline, and right locations. Within the limitations of the study, our results tend to support a process-dependent activation of WM circuits in that P3 amplitude topography only differed as a result of WM stage and load, and not as a result of the type of information (verbal or spatial) presented. PMID:19083994

  13. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance

  14. Effect of environmental manganese exposure on verbal learning and memory in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Torres-Agustín, R; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Schilmann, A; Solís-Vivanco, R; Montes, S; Riojas-Rodríguez, H; Cortez-Lugo, M; Ríos, C

    2013-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal, but in excess it becomes neurotoxic. Children's developing nervous system may be especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of overexposure to this metal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Mn exposure on verbal memory and learning in 7- to 11-year-old children. We tested 79 children living in the Molango Mn-mining district and 95 children from a non-exposed community in the same State of Mexico. The Children's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT) was administered. Blood and hair samples were obtained to determine Mn concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. CAVLT performance was compared between the two groups and multilevel regression models were constructed to estimate the association between biomarkers of Mn exposure and the CAVLT scores. The exposed group presented higher hair and blood Mn (p<0.001) than the non-exposed group (median 12.6 vs. 0.6μg/g, 9.5vs. 8.0μg/L respectively), as well as lower scores (p<0.001) for all the CAVLT subscales. Hair Mn was inversely associated with most CAVLT subscales, mainly those evaluating long-term memory and learning (β=-0.47, 95% CI -0.84, -0.09). Blood Mn levels showed a negative but non-significant association with the CAVLT scores. These results suggest that Mn exposure has a negative effect on children's memory and learning abilities. PMID:23141434

  15. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary

  16. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Miodrag; Milovanović, Dragan; Ljubisavljević, Miloš R; Nenadović, Vanja; Čukić, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks. PMID:26169106

  17. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  18. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  19. Exploring Memory in Infancy: Deferred Imitation and the Development of Declarative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2006-01-01

    Imitation is an important means by which infants learn new behaviours. When infants do not have the opportunity to immediately reproduce observed actions, they may form a memory representation of the event which can guide their behaviour when a similar situation is encountered again. Imitation procedures can, therefore, provide insight into infant…

  20. GLYX-13 (rapastinel) ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine- and ketamine-induced declarative memory deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Burgdorf, Jeffrey S.; Moskal, Joseph R.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.

    2016-01-01

    GLYX-13 (rapastinel), a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr-amide), has been reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties in man based upon its N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site functional partial agonism. Ketamine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, also reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties, produces cognitive impairment in rodents and man, whereas rapastinel has been reported to have cognitive enhancing properties in rodents, without impairing cognition in man, albeit clinical testing has been limited. The goal of this study was to compare the cognitive impairing effects of rapastinel and ketamine in novel object recognition (NOR), a measure of declarative memory, in male C57BL/6J mice treated with phencyclidine (PCP), another NMDAR noncompetitive antagonist known to severely impair cognition, in both rodents and man. C57BL/6J mice given a single dose or subchronic ketamine (30 mg/kg. i.p.) showed acute or persistent deficits in NOR, respectively. Acute i.v. rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg), did not induce NOR deficit. Pre-treatment with rapastinel significantly prevented acute ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg, but not 0.3 mg/kg, iv) significantly reversed both subchronic ketamine- and subchronic PCP-induced NOR deficits. Rapastinel also potentiated the atypical antipsychotic drug with antidepressant properties, lurasidone, to restore NOR in subchronic ketamine-treated mice. These findings indicate that rapastinel, unlike ketamine, does not induce a declarative memory deficit in mice, and can prevent or reverse the ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Further study is required to determine if these differences translate during clinical use of ketamine and rapastinel as fast acting antidepressant drugs and if rapastinel could have non-ionotropic effects as an add-on therapy with antipsychotic/antidepressant medications. PMID:26632337

  1. Verbal memory after three months of intranasal vasopressin in healthy old humans.

    PubMed

    Perras, B; Droste, C; Born, J; Fehm, H L; Pietrowsky, R

    1997-08-01

    In animals, evidence has been accumulated that vasopressin (VP) improves learning and memory. In humans, this effect was not consistently demonstrated, and attempts to restore age-related memory deficits by VP also remained inconsistent. Assuming that in old subjects a beneficial effect on memory occurs only after prolonged treatment with VP, we conducted a study in 26 healthy elderly persons receiving 40 IU of VP for three months through the intranasal route. The trial was randomized, placebo-controlled and held double-blind. Memory was assessed by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) requiring the subject to learn repeatedly presented lists of 15 words. Results demonstrated no general effect of long-term treatment with VP on memory in aged humans. However, recall of an interfering word list was improved, indicating a diminished proactive interference by the peptide. Additionally, VP influenced recall depending on the serial position of an item: it improved the primacy effect (i.e. recall of the first words of a list) and impaired the recency effect. This result may indicate an improved semantic encoding (i.e. a primary effect on processes of attention) after long-term administration of VP. PMID:9364618

  2. [Learning virtual routes: what does verbal coding do in working memory?].

    PubMed

    Gyselinck, Valérie; Grison, Élise; Gras, Doriane

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were run to complete our understanding of the role of verbal and visuospatial encoding in the construction of a spatial model from visual input. In experiment 1 a dual task paradigm was applied to young adults who learned a route in a virtual environment and then performed a series of nonverbal tasks to assess spatial knowledge. Results indicated that landmark knowledge as asserted by the visual recognition of landmarks was not impaired by any of the concurrent task. Route knowledge, assessed by recognition of directions, was impaired both by a tapping task and a concurrent articulation task. Interestingly, the pattern was modulated when no landmarks were available to perform the direction task. A second experiment was designed to explore the role of verbal coding on the construction of landmark and route knowledge. A lexical-decision task was used as a verbal-semantic dual task, and a tone decision task as a nonsemantic auditory task. Results show that these new concurrent tasks impaired differently landmark knowledge and route knowledge. Results can be interpreted as showing that the coding of route knowledge could be grounded on both a coding of the sequence of events and on a semantic coding of information. These findings also point on some limits of Baddeley's working memory model. PMID:25730644

  3. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M.; Henry, Owen S.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18–22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  4. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  5. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in understanding verbal materials, especially when words are mentally combined to form multi-word units or chunks. Toward a more comprehensive theory of capacity limits, we examine models of forced-choice recognition of words within printed lists, using materials designed to produce multi-word chunks in memory (e.g., leather brief case). Several simple models were tested against data from a variety of list lengths and potential chunk sizes, with test conditions that only imperfectly elicited the inter-word associations. According to the most successful model, participants retained about 3 chunks on average in a capacity-limited region of WM, with some chunks being only subsets of the presented associative information (e.g., leather brief case retained with leather as one chunk and brief case as another). The addition to the model of an activated long-term memory (LTM) component unlimited in capacity was needed. A fixed capacity limit appears critical to account for immediate verbal recognition and other forms of WM. We advance a model-based approach that allows capacity to be assessed despite other important processing contributions. Starting with a psychological-process model of WM capacity developed to understand visual arrays, we arrive at a more unified and complete model. PMID:22486726

  6. The rise and fall of immediate and delayed memory for verbal and visuospatial information from late childhood to late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Rouw, Romke; Meeter, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not the immediate versus delayed dimension. We found a linear decrease of 1% to 3% per year in overall memory performance past the age of 25. For visuospatial tests, this decrease started at age 18 and was twice as fast as the decrease of verbal memory. There were strong effects of education, with the highest educated group sometimes scoring one full standard deviation above the lowest educated group. Gender effects were small but as expected: women outperformed men on the verbal memory tasks; men outperformed women on the visuospatial tasks. We also found evidence of increasing proneness to false memory with age. Memory for recent news events did not show a decrease with age. PMID:23261419

  7. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood. PMID:26615571

  8. Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: evidence from the concreteness effect.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo; Castellà, Judit; Provencio, Violeta; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate. PMID:25231876

  9. The Association Between Eye Movements and Cerebellar Activation in a Verbal Working Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Peterburs, Jutta; Cheng, Dominic T; Desmond, John E

    2016-09-01

    It has been argued that cerebellar activations during cognitive tasks may masquerade as cognition, while actually reflecting processes related to movement planning or motor learning. The present study investigated whether the cerebellar load effect for verbal working memory, that is, increased activations in lobule VI/Crus I and lobule VIIB/VIIIA, is related to eye movements and oculomotor processing. Fifteen participants performed an fMRI-based Sternberg verbal working memory task. Oculomotor and cognitive task demands were manipulated by using closely and widely spaced stimuli, and high and low cognitive load. Trial-based quantitative eye movement parameters were obtained from concurrent eye tracking. Conventional MRI analysis replicated the cerebellar load effect in lobules VI and VIIB/VIIIa. With quantitative eye movement parameters as regressors, analysis yielded very similar activation patterns. While load effect and eye regressor generally recruited spatially distinct neocortical and cerebellar regions, conjunction analysis showed that a small subset of prefrontal areas implicated in the load effect also responded to the eye regressor. The present results indicate that cognitive load-dependent activations in lateral superior and posteroinferior cerebellar regions in the Sternberg task are independent of eye movements occurring during stimulus encoding. This is inconsistent with the notion that cognitive load-dependent cerebellar activations merely reflect oculomotor processing. PMID:26286918

  10. Contribution of organizational strategy to verbal learning and memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert M; Wishart, Heather A; Flashman, Laura A; Riordan, Henry J; Huey, Leighton; Saykin, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic organization during encoding. Mediation modeling indicated that state anxiety, but not semantic organization, significantly contributed to the prediction of both learning and delayed recall in the ADHD group. The pattern of findings suggests that decreased verbal learning and memory in adult ADHD is due in part to situational anxiety and not to poor use of organizational strategies during encoding. PMID:14744190

  11. Manipulability impairs association-memory: revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

  12. Verbal Learning and Memory Impairment in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Catherine E.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Dodge, Neil C.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies using the California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s Version (CVLT-C) to examine effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on verbal learning and memory have reported impaired information acquisition (i.e., encoding), rather than retrieval, as the primary mechanism underlying learning and memory impairment. We administered the CVLT-C to two independent cohorts to determine whether (1) effects on encoding are also seen at moderate exposure levels, using both categorical (diagnostic/exposure group) and continuous exposure measures; (2) these deficits are specific or secondary to alcohol-related impairment in IQ; and (3) effects on retrieval can be detected over and above effects on initial encoding. Methods We administered the CVLT-C and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to 151 Cape Town heavy and nonexposed children (M=10.3 years), and 291 Detroit adolescents recruited to over-represent moderate-to-heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (M=14.4 years). Results Effects on encoding in the heavily exposed Cape Town cohort and on retrieval in both cohorts were significant after adjustment for IQ. Although effects on retrieval were no longer significant in Cape Town after control for initial encoding, effects on recognition memory continued to be evident in Detroit. Children with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome were less able to use the semantic cluster encoding strategy implict in the CVLT-C. Conclusions Effects on verbal learning were seen primarily in the more heavily exposed Cape Town cohort; effects on recall and recognition memory were also seen at moderate exposure levels in Detroit. These effects were not attributable to alcohol-related impairment in overall intellectual competence. The finding that effects on retention continued to be evident after statistical adjustment for initial encoding in Detroit suggests that a fetal alcohol-related deficit in retrieval is not secondary to a failure to encode the initial information

  13. Propofol Disrupts Functional Interactions between Sensory and High-Order Processing of Auditory Verbal Memory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Lauer, Kathryn K.; Ward, Barney D.; Rao, Stephen M.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Current theories suggest that disrupting cortical information integration may account for the mechanism of general anesthesia in suppressing consciousness. Human cognitive operations take place in hierarchically structured neural organizations in the brain. The process of low-order neural representation of sensory stimuli becoming integrated in high-order cortices is also known as cognitive binding. Combining neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, and anesthetic manipulation, we examined how cognitive networks involved in auditory verbal memory are maintained in wakefulness, disrupted in propofol-induced deep sedation, and re-established in recovery. Inspired by the notion of cognitive binding, an fMRI-guided connectivity analysis was utilized to assess the integrity of functional interactions within and between different levels of the task-defined brain regions. Task-related responses persisted in the primary auditory cortex (PAC), but vanished in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and premotor areas in deep sedation. For connectivity analysis, seed regions representing sensory and high-order processing of the memory task were identified in the PAC and IFG. Propofol disrupted connections from the PAC seed to the frontal regions and thalamus, but not the connections from the IFG seed to a set of widely distributed brain regions in the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes (with exception of the PAC). These later regions have been implicated in mediating verbal comprehension and memory. These results suggest that propofol disrupts cognition by blocking the projection of sensory information to high-order processing networks and thus preventing information integration. Such findings contribute to our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms as related to information and integration in the brain. PMID:21932265

  14. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 breaks the association between declarative long-term memory and memory-based orienting of spatial attention in middle-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; McCloud, Tayla; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 genotype has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The memory system is mostly involved in AD, and memory deficits represent its key feature. A growing body of studies has focused on the earlier identification of cognitive dysfunctions in younger and older APOE ɛ4 carriers, but investigation on middle-aged individuals remains rare. Here we sought to investigate if the APOE ɛ4 genotype modulates declarative memory and its influences on perception in the middle of the life span. We tested 60 middle-aged individuals recruited according to their APOE allele variants (ɛ3/ɛ3, ɛ3/ɛ4, ɛ4/ɛ4) on a long-term memory-based orienting of attention task. Results showed that the APOE ɛ4 genotype impaired neither explicit memory nor memory-based orienting of spatial attention. Interestingly, however, we found that the possession of the ɛ4 allele broke the relationship between declarative long-term memory and memory-guided orienting of visuo-spatial attention, suggesting an earlier modulation exerted by pure genetic characteristics on cognition. These findings are discussed in light of possible accelerated brain ageing in middle-aged ɛ4-carriers, and earlier structural changes in the brain occurring at this stage of the lifespan. PMID:27395443

  15. Verbal, Visual, and Spatio-Sequential Short-Term Memory: Assessment of the Storage Capacities of Children and Teenagers with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, S.; Bourdin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that individuals with Down's syndrome have a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory. On the other hand, non-verbal short-term memory seems to be preserved or even be a strong point for these persons. Nevertheless, the extent and specificity of the deficit must be determined. To do so, we carried out a research…

  16. Ceramides predict verbal memory performance in coronary artery disease patients undertaking exercise: a prospective cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with verbal memory decline, although deterioration may be mitigated in individuals undertaking exercise interventions. Ceramide sphingolipids, suggested to play a role in pathological neurodegeneration, have been associated with the development and progression of CAD but their relationship with cognitive response to exercise has not been assessed. In this study, concentrations of very long chain ceramides (C22:0 and C24:0) were assessed as predictors of changes in verbal memory performance over 1 year in subjects with CAD undertaking cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods Verbal memory was measured using the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd Ed. (CVLT-II), from which Z-scores were calculated based on age, gender and education matched norms. Baseline plasma C22:0 and C24:0 ceramide concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Repeated measures general linear models were used to determine the association between baseline plasma ceramides and the change in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). Results In patients with CAD (n = 33, mean age = 62 ± 9 years, 84.8% male, years of education = 17 ± 3 years), higher baseline plasma C22:0 (F1, 29 = 5.30, p = 0.03) and C24:0 (F1, 29 = 4.04, p = 0.05) concentrations significantly predicted less improvement in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions Plasma ceramide concentrations should be further examined as potential predictors of cognitive response to exercise and worse cognitive outcomes in patients with CAD. Trial registration NCT01625754 PMID:24330446

  17. Non-Verbal Episodic Memory Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasias are Highly Predictive of Underlying Amyloid Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Flanagan, Emma; Leyton, Cristian E; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic distinction of primary progressive aphasias (PPA) remains challenging, in particular for the logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (naPPA) variants. Recent findings highlight that episodic memory deficits appear to discriminate these PPA variants from each other, as only lvPPA perform poorly on these tasks while having underlying amyloid pathology similar to that seen in amnestic dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most memory tests are, however, language based and thus potentially confounded by the prevalent language deficits in PPA. The current study investigated this issue across PPA variants by contrasting verbal and non-verbal episodic memory measures while controlling for their performance on a language subtest of a general cognitive screen. A total of 203 participants were included (25 lvPPA; 29 naPPA; 59 AD; 90 controls) and underwent extensive verbal and non-verbal episodic memory testing, with a subset of patients (n = 45) with confirmed amyloid profiles as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B and PET. The most powerful discriminator between naPPA and lvPPA patients was a non-verbal recall measure (Rey Complex Figure delayed recall), with 81% of PPA patients classified correctly at presentation. Importantly, AD and lvPPA patients performed comparably on this measure, further highlighting the importance of underlying amyloid pathology in episodic memory profiles. The findings demonstrate that non-verbal recall emerges as the best discriminator of lvPPA and naPPA when controlling for language deficits in high load amyloid PPA cases. PMID:26890745

  18. Twisting tongues and memories: Explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister or control materials used in four tasks: reading aloud, immediate spoken recall, immediate typed recall, and serial recognition. Dependent measures from working memory (recall accuracy) and language production (speech errors) fields were used. Even though lists were identical except for item order, robust effects of tongue twisters were observed. Speech error analyses showed that errors were better described as phoneme rather than item ordering errors. The distribution of speech errors was comparable across all experiments and exhibited syllable-position effects, suggesting an important role for production processes. Implications for working memory and language production are discussed. PMID:21165150

  19. Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops

    PubMed Central

    Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the structure devoted to the maintenance of information at short term during concurrent processing activities. In this respect, the question regarding the nature of the mechanisms and systems fulfilling this maintenance function is of particular importance and has received various responses in the recent past. In the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, we suggest that only two systems sustain the maintenance of information at the short term, counteracting the deleterious effect of temporal decay and interference. A non-attentional mechanism of verbal rehearsal, similar to the one described by Baddeley in the phonological loop model, uses language processes to reactivate phonological memory traces. Besides this domain-specific mechanism, an executive loop allows the reconstruction of memory traces through an attention-based mechanism of refreshing. The present paper reviews evidence of the involvement of these two independent systems in the maintenance of verbal memory items. PMID:25426049

  20. Semantic Memory and Verbal Working Memory Correlates of N400 to Subordinate Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    N400 is an event-related brain potential that indexes operations in semantic memory conceptual space, whether elicited by language or some other representation (e.g., drawings). Language models typically propose three stages: lexical access or orthographic- and phonological-level analysis; lexical selection or word-level meaning and associate…

  1. Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…

  2. [Multiple sclerosis and verbal episodic memory: Critical review of cognitive processes and their assessment].

    PubMed

    Saenz, A; Bakchine, S; Jonin, P-Y; Ehrlé, N

    2015-09-01

    Memory impairment, especially verbal episodic memory (VEM), represents a common ground for cognitive complaint in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Beyond the difficulty caused in daily life, these deficits may impact on occupational activities. Neuropsychological assessment of these patients has to include VEM tests, to describe the level of dysfunction of the different processes contributing to VEM and, if required, to guide adapted cognitive rehabilitation. The objective of the present paper is to propose a critique review of the literature on VEM abilities in MS. This review will present the conceptual references and the psychometric characteristics of the main VEM tests applied in MS (isolated tests or included within more general batteries developed specifically for MS). In a second phase, we propose an inventory of work on MS presented as a function of the cognitive processes involved. This approach provides an approach to the limitations of each conception and possible terminological ambiguities. Contributions to knowledge of MS memory impairments will be clarified, as well as the impact of the disease characteristics (MS forms, disease duration, EDSS). PMID:25983192

  3. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. PMID:25156204

  4. Menopause Effects on Verbal Memory: Findings From a Longitudinal Community Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sammel, Mary D.; Freeman, Ellen W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although cognitive complaints are common among menopausal women, it is debatable whether there is an objective decline in cognition with menopause that exceeds what is expected with normal aging. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether reproductive senescence is associated with an age-independent decline in verbal memory. Design and Setting: The study was a 14-year, longitudinal, population-based cohort study of women who underwent yearly endocrine, behavioral, and cognitive assessments from pre- to postmenopause. Participants: Caucasian and African American premenopausal women (n = 403), who were enrolled in the Penn Ovarian Aging Study, participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Buschke Selective Reminding Test (immediate and delayed verbal recall), the digit symbol substitution task, and the symbol copy task were used to measure outcomes. Results: A total of 3958 assessments were conducted in this sample of 403 women. In models that were adjusted for age and important cofactors, immediate (P = .03) and delayed (P = .03) recall on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test declined from the pre- to postmenopausal stages. Further evaluation identified a significant decline (P < .002) in delayed recall early in the transition and immediate recall (P = .04) late in the transition. Race was a significant factor in performance on all tasks (all P < .0001) except the delayed verbal recall task (P = .06) in adjusted models. Endocrine measures were significantly associated with cognitive performance in unadjusted models. Conclusions: Certain cognitive domains are sensitive to the physiological changes of reproductive senescence independent of age. The differences in cognitive performance between African American and Caucasian women were not explained by factors examined in this study but are of important public health concern that warrants further investigation. PMID:23836935

  5. The development of verbal and visual working memory processes: a latent variable approach.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2012-03-01

    Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and visual processing in order to investigate WM development. We investigated recall performance under different task conditions in a sample of 5- to 13-year-olds, applying latent class regression analysis. In this analysis, we examined latent classes (subgroups) within the sample that differed in terms of processing type. The interpretations of the latent classes were validated internally using characteristics of the latent classes and externally using recall performance of words and figures. The results showed that children of different developmental stages used the same type of processing under the same conditions. However, due to developmental differences, their overall performances differed, showing groups of children who were successful in verbal or visual processing and groups of children who were not. This study shows and discusses the importance of disentangling the influence of task conditions from the influence of WM development when interpreting recall performance in children. PMID:22093922

  6. Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

    2014-08-01

    Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

  7. Articulation Rate, Naming Speed, Verbal Short-Term Memory, and Phonological Awareness: Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.; McQuarrie, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how measures of articulation rate, verbal short-term memory (STM), naming speed, and phonological awareness tasks administered in kindergarten and again in Grade 1 jointly and uniquely predict word reading and passage comprehension variance in Grades 1, 2, and 3. Results from regression and commonality analyses indicated that…

  8. Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Heather L.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Johnson, Shannon A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's…

  9. The Impact of Semantic Impairment on Verbal Short-Term Memory in Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…

  10. From Storage to Manipulation: How the Neural Correlates of Verbal Working Memory Reflect Varying Demands on Inner Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Desmond, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both…

  11. Neural Substrates for Verbal Working Memory in Deaf Signers: fMRI Study and Lesion Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley; Pickell, Bert; Love, Tracy; Hatrak, Marla; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the representations maintained in verbal working memory is a topic of debate. Some authors argue for a modality-dependent code, tied to particular sensory or motor systems. Others argue for a modality-neutral code. Sign language affords a unique perspective because it factors out the effects of modality. In an fMRI experiment, deaf…

  12. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  13. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  14. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

  15. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  16. The Role of Verbal Working Memory in Second Language Reading Fluency and Comprehension: A Comparison of English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the respective contribution of verbal working memory, which was operationalized as immediate digit and sentence recall, to bilingual children's reading fluency and comprehension in the first language (L1) and second language (L2). Fifty children from two international sites took part in this study: One group was English-Korean…

  17. Brain systems for encoding and retrieval of auditory-verbal memory. An in vivo study in humans.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, P C; Frith, C D; Grasby, P M; Shallice, T; Frackowiak, R S; Dolan, R J

    1995-04-01

    Long-term auditory-verbal memory comprises, at a neuropsychological level, a number of distinct cognitive processes. In the present study we determined the brain systems engaged during encoding (experiment 1) and retrieval (experiment 2) of episodic auditory-verbal material. In the separate experiments, PET measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), an index of neural activity, were performed in normal volunteers during either the encoding or the retrieval of paired word associates. In experiment 1, a dual task interference paradigm was used to isolate areas involved in episodic encoding from those which would be concurrently activated by other cognitive processes associated with the presentation of paired associates, notably priming. In experiment 2, we used the cued retrieval of paired associates from episodic or from semantic memory in order to isolate the neural correlates of episodic memories. Encoding of episodic memory was associated with activation of the left prefrontal cortex and the retrosplenial area of the cingulate cortex, while retrieval from episodic memory was associated with activation of the precuneus bilaterally and of the right prefrontal cortex. These results are compatible with the patterns of activation reported in a previous PET memory experiment in which encoding and retrieval were studied concurrently. They also indicate that separate brain systems are engaged during the encoding and retrieval phases of episodic auditory-verbal memory. Retrieval from episodic memory engages a different, but overlapping, system to that engaged by retrieval from semantic memory, a finding that lends functional anatomical support to this neuropsychological distinction. PMID:7735882

  18. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  19. MODALITY SPECIFIC CEREBRO-CEREBELLAR ACTIVATIONS IN VERBAL WORKING MEMORY: AN FMRI STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Annabel Chen, S. H.; Desmond, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load. PMID:20714061

  20. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  1. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. PMID:26340756

  2. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function

  3. Not all declarative memories are created equal: Fast Mapping as a direct route to cortical declarative representations.

    PubMed

    Merhav, Maayan; Karni, Avi; Gilboa, Asaf

    2015-08-15

    Memory formation for newly acquired associations typically depends on hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Through the process of system-consolidation, the mnemonic binding role of the hippocampus is subsequently replaced by cortical hubs, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) or the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Here, using BOLD-fMRI, we compared retrieval of semantic associations acquired through Fast Mapping (FM), an incidental, exclusion-based learning procedure, to retrieval of similar associations that were intentionally acquired through Explicit Encoding (EE). Despite an identical retrieval task, the encoding histories of the retrieved semantic associations (FM vs. EE) induced distinct neural substrates and disparate related neural dynamics in time. Retrieval of associations acquired through EE engaged the expected hippocampal and vmPFC related networks. Furthermore, retrieval intentionally encoded associations gave rise to a typical overnight increase in engagement of the vmPFC and increased vmPFC-hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. On the other hand, retrieval of associations acquired through FM immediately engaged an ATL related network that typically supports well-established semantic knowledge, a network that did not engage the hippocampus and the vmPFC. Moreover, FM learning was associated with minimal overnight changes in the BOLD responses and in the functional connectivity. Our findings indicate that FM may induce a direct, ATL-mediated acquisition and retention of novel arbitrary associations, bypassing the initial hippocampal-cortical representation phase. A direct, ATL-mediated vocabulary acquisition through FM could support the learning and retention of new associations in young children with presumably an immature hippocampal system, and possibly even in amnesic adults with hippocampal lesions. PMID:25988227

  4. Rapid Eye Movement and Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Contributions in Memory Consolidation and Resistance to Retroactive Interference for Verbal Material

    PubMed Central

    Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Neu, Daniel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep contributes to the consolidation of new memories, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to the prevention of retroactive interference. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Two sessions of either a morning nap or wakefulness. Participants: Twenty-five healthy young adults. Interventions: Declarative learning of word pairs followed by a nap or a wake interval, then learning of interfering word pairs and delayed recall of list A. Measurements and Results: After a restricted night (24:00-06:00), participants learned a list of word pairs (list A). They were then required to either take a nap or stay awake during 45 min, after which they learned a second list of word pairs (list B) and then had to recall list A. Fifty percent of word pairs in list B shared the first word with list A, resulting in interference. Ten subjects exhibited REM sleep whereas 13 subjects exhibited NREM stage 3 (N3) sleep. An interference effect was observed in the nap but not in the wake condition. In post-learning naps, N3 sleep was associated with a reduced interference effect, which was not the case for REM sleep. Moreover, participants exhibiting N3 sleep in the post-learning nap condition also showed a reduced interference effect in the wake condition, suggesting a higher protection ability against interference. Conclusion: Our results partly support the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep contributes in protecting novel memories against interference. However, rapid eye movement sleep-related consolidation is not evidenced. Citation: Deliens G; Leproult R; Neu D; Peigneux P. Rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep contributions in memory consolidation and resistance to retroactive interference for verbal material. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1875-1883. PMID:24293762

  5. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings. PMID:26301905

  6. Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children’s mathematical abilities

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306

  7. Encoding: the keystone to efficient functioning of verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Barry, Johanna G; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D; Brauer, Jens

    2011-11-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like 'blonterstaping'. The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of the neural architecture mediating VSTM. Hypotheses were stated within Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) multicomponent model of VSTM, with respect to regions of the brain known to be active during tasks tapping into VSTM. We were specifically interested in activations associated with the posterior planum temporale (Spt) which emerge during rehearsal since this region is hypothesized to be central to VTSM (Buchsbaum, Olsen, Koch, & Berman, 2005a). Participants performed a delayed reaction time task in the scanner which explicitly mimicked the three main stages of information-processing involved in VSTM (encoding, rehearsal, recall (here recognition)). The data for each stage were then convolved with scores from a separately measured nonword repetition task. Rather than observing a pattern of individual differences located to specific regions specialized for supporting VSTM, a dissociation in direction of correlation in overlapping regions of the brain was observed during encoding and recognition. Larger hemodynamic responses during encoding were associated with better nonword repetition, and vice versa during recognition. There was little evidence for a network of activations specialized for VSTM. Instead, the main correlations were observed in regions also known to be involved in long-term memory. It seems that individuals who are better at nonword repetition and hence at language learning, activate these regions more efficiently than poorer nonword-repeaters early after stimulus input. These observations are discussed with respect to various models proposed for explaining the phenomenon of VSTM. PMID:21958650

  8. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  9. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to

  10. The representation of order information in auditory-verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2014-05-14

    Here we investigate how order information is represented in auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM). We used fMRI and a serial recall task to dissociate neural activity patterns representing the phonological properties of the items stored in STM from the patterns representing their order. For this purpose, we analyzed fMRI activity patterns elicited by different item sets and different orderings of those items. These fMRI activity patterns were compared with the predictions made by positional and chaining models of serial order. The positional models encode associations between items and their positions in a sequence, whereas the chaining models encode associations between successive items and retain no position information. We show that a set of brain areas in the postero-dorsal stream of auditory processing store associations between items and order as predicted by a positional model. The chaining model of order representation generates a different pattern similarity prediction, which was shown to be inconsistent with the fMRI data. Our results thus favor a neural model of order representation that stores item codes, position codes, and the mapping between them. This study provides the first fMRI evidence for a specific model of order representation in the human brain. PMID:24828642

  11. Noninvasive optical evaluation of low frequency oscillations in prefrontal cortex hemodynamics during verbal working memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Li, Kai; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-03-01

    The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: △[oxy-Hb]/ △[deoxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of △[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of △[oxy-Hb] and △[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between △[deoxy-Hb] and △[oxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.

  12. Cognitive reserve modulates ERPs associated with verbal working memory in healthy younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Megan E.; Soldan, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Although many epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial effects of higher cognitive reserve (CR) in reducing age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk, the neural basis of CR is poorly understood. To our knowledge, the current study represents the first electrophysiological investigation of the relationship between CR and neural reserve (i.e., neural efficiency and capacity). Specifically, we examined whether CR modulates event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with performance on a verbal recognition memory task with three set sizes (1, 4, or 7 letters) in healthy younger and older adults. Neural data showed that as task difficulty increased, the amplitude of the parietal P3b component during the probe phase decreased and its latency increased. Notably, the degree of these neural changes was negatively correlated with CR in both age groups, such that individuals with higher CR showed smaller changes in P3b amplitude and less slowing in P3b latency (i.e., smaller changes in the speed of neural processing) with increasing task difficulty, suggesting greater neural efficiency. These CR-related differences in neural efficiency may underlie reserve against neuropathology and age-related burden. PMID:25619663

  13. The deaf utilize phonological representations in visually presented verbal memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Kanaka, Noriko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Katsumi; Namatame, Miki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The phonological abilities of congenitally deaf individuals are inferior to those of people who can hear. However, deaf individuals can acquire spoken languages by utilizing orthography and lip-reading. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that deaf individuals utilize phonological representations via a mnemonic process. We compared the brain activation of deaf and hearing participants while they memorized serially visually presented Japanese kana letters (Kana), finger alphabets (Finger), and Arabic letters (Arabic). Hearing participants did not know which finger alphabets corresponded to which language sounds, whereas deaf participants did. All of the participants understood the correspondence between Kana and their language sounds. None of the participants knew the correspondence between Arabic and their language sounds, so this condition was used as a baseline. We found that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was activated by phonological representations in the deaf group when memorizing both Kana and Finger. Additionally, the brain areas associated with phonological representations for Finger in the deaf group were the same as the areas for Kana in the hearing group. Overall, despite the fact that they are superior in visual information processing, deaf individuals utilize phonological rather than visual representations in visually presented verbal memory. PMID:25498951

  14. Age differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory updating: evidence from analysis of serial position curves.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Felicia; Borella, Erika; Mammarella, Irene C; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    Memory updating is the ability to select and update relevant information and suppress no-longer-relevant data. The few studies in this area, targeting mainly the verbal domain, have investigated and confirmed an age-related decline in working memory updating ability (De Beni & Palladino, 2004; Van der Linden, Bredart, & Beerten, 1994). The present research examines the ability of younger and older adults to update information in verbal and visuo-spatial running memory tasks. Results showed that the participants' performance was higher in the verbal than in the visuo-spatial task. Nonetheless, independently of the task domain, an age-related decline in updating performance was found. Moreover, analysis of serial positions suggested that, in the updating procedure, the participants were not attempting to actively maintain items, preferring to adopt a low-effort, "recency-based" strategy. The use of this type of strategy is more evident in older participants, as shown in both the accuracy performance and the proportion of intrusion errors. PMID:22133192

  15. Different effects of anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy on verbal memory performance of patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The advantage of selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) over anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains controversial. Because ATL is more extensive and involves the lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe, it may be predicted that its impact on memory is more important than SAH, which involves resection of medial temporal structures only. However, several studies do not support this assumption. Possible explanations include task-specific factors such as the extent of semantic and syntactic information to be memorized and failure to control for main confounders. We compared preoperative vs. postoperative memory performance in 13 patients with SAH with 26 patients who underwent ATL matched on side of surgery, IQ, age at seizure onset, and age at surgery. Memory function was assessed using the Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales - 3rd edition (LM-WMS), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed opposite effects of SAH and ATL on the two verbal learning memory tests. On the immediate recall trial of the LM-WMS, performance deteriorated after ATL in comparison with that after SAH. By contrast, on the delayed recognition trial of the RAVLT, performance deteriorated after SAH compared with that after ATL. However, additional analyses revealed that the latter finding was only observed when surgery was conducted in the right hemisphere. No interaction effects were found on other memory outcomes. The results are congruent with the view that tasks involving rich semantic content and syntactical structure are more sensitive to the effects of lateral temporal cortex resection as compared with mesiotemporal resection. The findings highlight the importance of task selection in the assessment of memory in patients undergoing TLE surgery. PMID

  16. Cluster subtypes of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Campos-Magdaleno, María; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Braña, Teresa; Pereiro, Arturo Xosé

    2014-01-01

    We examined subtypes of learning and memory by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) to a sample of adults with memory complaints that included a subsample of healthy controls and another of participants with amnesic mild cognitive impairment. We performed two-stage cluster analyses for CVLT variables representing three main factors-General Verbal Learning, Inaccurate Memory, and Serial Effect. Four, three, and two reliable subtypes were differentiated in the total sample and in the two subsamples, respectively. Gender, age, education, reading habits, vocabulary, memory complaints, and general cognitive performance were meaningfully related to variability in the performance of the subtypes. PMID:24597836

  17. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children. PMID:26092393

  18. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood. PMID:23137723

  19. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  20. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  1. The Specific Involvement of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Cacciamani, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Many models have hypothesized that multimedia comprehension requires the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information by limited information processing systems. However, in spite of the emphasis devoted to the concurrent processing of verbal and visuospatial information, little research has so far investigated the specific role…

  2. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement. PMID:25595984

  3. Contribution of working memory in multiplication fact network in children may shift from verbal to visuo-spatial: a longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Soltanlou, Mojtaba; Pixner, Silvia; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Number facts are commonly assumed to be verbally stored in an associative multiplication fact retrieval network. Prominent evidence for this assumption comes from so-called operand-related errors (e.g., 4 × 6 = 28). However, little is known about the development of this network in children and its relation to verbal and non-verbal memories. In a longitudinal design, we explored elementary school children from grades 3 and 4 in a multiplication verification task with the operand-related and -unrelated distractors. We examined the contribution of multiplicative fact retrieval by verbal and visuo-spatial short-term and working memory (WM). Children in grade 4 showed smaller reaction times in all conditions. However, there was no significant difference in errors between grades. Contribution of verbal and visuo-spatial WM also changed with grade. Multiplication correlated with verbal WM and performance in grade 3 but with visuo-spatial WM and performance in grade 4. We suggest that the relation to verbal WM in grade 3 indicates primary linguistic learning of and access to multiplication in grade 3 which is probably based on verbal repetition of the multiplication table heavily practiced in grades 2 and 3. However, the relation to visuo-spatial semantic WM in grade 4 suggests that there is a shift from verbal to visual and semantic learning in grade 4. This shifting may be induced because later in elementary school, multiplication problems are rather carried out via more written, i.e., visual tasks, which also involve executive functions. More generally, the current data indicates that mathematical development is not generally characterized by a steady progress in performance; rather verbal and non-verbal memory contributions of performance shift over time, probably due to different learning contents. PMID:26257701

  4. Effect of verbal encoding and motor memory on test performance in the Rey Visual Design Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, P; Maathuis, I; Matzner, M

    2011-01-01

    This study offers new evidence for the validity of the interpretation of the Rey Visual Design Learning Test (RVDLT) test score. The RVDLT is a design memory test that requires constructive output (drawings of memorized test items) in the recall phase. We mainly focused on response processes and tested the effect of a verbal and a motor memory strategy on test performance. Strategies were only explained and participants (12- to 15-year-olds) were stimulated to use them in a subsequent test session. In the verbal encoding condition, participants were instructed to name the test items of the RVDLT. In the copy condition, participants copied test items with an empty pen concurrent with test item presentation (rehearsal of motor sequences). Test performances were compared to a control group. No significant difference in RVDLT test score was detected between the verbal encoding group and the control group. However, the copy group scored significantly lower than the other two groups. Results are discussed in light of the validity of the test interpretation. PMID:21390901

  5. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  6. Dissociation of Cross-Sectional Trajectories for Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Development in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Waite, Jane; Beck, Sarah R; Heald, Mary; Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments might amplify behavioural difference in genetic syndromes. Murine models of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) evidence memory impairments but there is limited research on memory in RTS. Individuals with RTS and typically developing children completed WM tasks, with participants with RTS completing an IQ assessment and parents/carers completing the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. A cross-sectional trajectory analysis was conducted. There were significant WM span deficits in RTS relative to mental age. Verbal WM span was positively associated with mental age; however, this was not observed for visuo-spatial span. There is a dissociation between WM domains in RTS. Individuals may have difficulties with tasks relying on WM span, above difficulties predicted by overall ability. PMID:27011324

  7. Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…

  8. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  9. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Sublexical Organization of the Phonological Language Network: Evidence from an Incidental Phonotactic Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden; Martial; Mulder, Ludivine; Meulemans, Thierry; Peters, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    The nonword phonotactic frequency effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) is characterized by superior recall for nonwords containing familiar as opposed to less familiar phoneme associations. This effect is supposed to reflect the intervention of phonological long-term memory (LTM) in STM. However the lexical or sublexical nature of this LTM…

  10. Sentence Comprehension in Adolescents with down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children: Role of Sentence Voice, Visual Context, and Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miolo, Giuliana; Chapman, Robins S.; Sindberg, Heidi A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the roles of auditory-verbal short-term memory, visual short-term memory, and group membership in predicting language comprehension, as measured by an experimental sentence comprehension task (SCT) and the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language--Third Edition (TACL-3; E. Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) in 38 participants: 19 with…

  11. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  12. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  13. Prefrontal cortical volume loss is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Meyer, Vanessa J; J Conant, Rhoda; Sundermann, Erin E; Wu, Minjie; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in verbal learning and memory are a prominent feature of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected women, and are associated with high levels of perceived stress. To understand the neurobiological factors contributing to this stress-related memory impairment, we examined the association between stress, verbal memory, and brain volumes in HIV-infected women. Participants included 38 HIV-infected women (Mean age=43.9years) from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10; PSS-10). Brain volumes were evaluated in a priori regions of interest, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared to HIV-infected women with lower stress (PSS-10 scores in lower two tertiles), HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in the top tertile), performed worse on measures of verbal learning and memory and showed smaller volumes bilaterally in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus (p's<0.05). Reduced volumes in the inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (all right hemisphere) were negatively associated with verbal learning and memory performance. Prefrontal cortical atrophy is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women. The time course of these volume losses in relation to memory deficits has yet to be elucidated, but the magnitude of the volumetric differences between women with higher versus lower stress suggests a prolonged vulnerability due to chronic stress and/or early life trauma. PMID:26408051

  14. Verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptors in healthy volunteers - A PET study with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2016-03-01

    The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man. PMID:26775837

  15. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  16. Verbal Reports as Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, K. Anders; Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    Accounting for verbal reports requires explication of the mechanisms by which the reports are generated and influenced by experimental factors. We discuss different cognitive processes underlying verbalization and present a model of how subjects, when asked to think aloud, verbalize information from their short-term memory. (Author/GDC)

  17. The Magnitude, Generality, and Determinants of Flynn Effects on Forms of Declarative Memory and Visuospatial Ability: Time-Sequential Analyses of Data from a Swedish Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2008-01-01

    To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarative memory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35-80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions,…

  18. Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Conway, Martin A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of photographs. SenseCam differs considerably from other prospective methods of generating retrieval cues because it does not disrupt the ongoing experience. This allowed us to control for potential gender differences in emotional processing and elaborative rehearsal, while manipulating how the AMs were elicited. We predicted that males would retrieve more richly experienced AMs elicited by the SenseCam images vs the verbal cues, whereas females would show equal sensitivity to both cues. The behavioural results indicated that there were no gender differences in subjective ratings of reliving, importance, vividness, emotion, and uniqueness, suggesting that gender differences in brain activity were not due to differences in these measures of phenomenological experience. Consistent with our predictions, the fMRI results revealed that males showed a greater difference in functional activity associated with the rich experience of SenseCam vs verbal cues, than did females. PMID:20981611

  19. The influence of verbal and spatial working memory load on the time course of the Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Clouter, Andrew; Wilson, Ryan; Allen, Stefan; Klein, Raymond M; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-04-01

    The Simon effect refers to the relatively poorer response times and accuracy when responding to targets that appear in a task-irrelevant spatial location that is incongruent with the location of the correct response key, compared with targets that appear in spatially congruent locations. Like Stroop and flanker effects, the Simon effect is thought to result from conflict between an irrelevant response tendency and an intended response. Because attentional control has been linked to conflict resolution, the Simon task has been proffered as a possible tool for measuring the efficacy of executive control mechanisms. These mechanisms are also involved in working memory (WM) processes, and are thought to be responsible for maintaining information in the presence of continued processing or distraction. The present study investigated the interface between WM and attention by examining the time course of the Simon effect over the response time distributions under varying WM load conditions. Participants completed verbal 0-back, spatial 0-back, verbal 2-back, and spatial 2-back tasks. Results show that the Simon effect is diminished in high WM load tasks compared with low-load tasks, and that the Simon effect interacts with the spatial task domain such that the effect persists across the distribution of response times. In contrast, the Simon effect peaks and decays in verbal tasks. The results demonstrate that the Simon effect interacts with WM load and task domain. The results suggest that the effect is more modifiable than expected, and support a complex interface between WM and attentional control. PMID:25621577

  20. Flexibility within working memory and the focus of attention for sequential verbal information does not depend on active maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sandry, Joshua; Schwark, Jeremy D; MacDonald, Justin

    2014-10-01

    The focus of attention seems to be a static element within working memory when verbal information is serially presented, unless additional time is available for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 1 manipulated the reward associated with early and medial list positions in a probe recognition paradigm and found evidence that these nonterminal list positions could be retrieved faster and more accurately if participants were appropriately motivated-without additional time for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 2 used articulatory suppression and demonstrated that the underlying maintenance mechanism cannot be attributed to rehearsal, leaving attentional refreshing as the more likely mechanism. These findings suggest that the focus of attention within working memory can flexibly maintain nonterminal early and medial list representations at the expense of other list representations even when there is not additional time for processing or active maintenance. Maintenance seems to be accomplished through an attentional refreshing mechanism. PMID:24879637

  1. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D’Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men’s superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  2. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men's superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  3. There are Multiple Contributors to the Verbal Short-term Memory Deficit in Children with Developmental Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has put forth at least four possible contributors to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities (RD): poor phonological awareness which affects phonological coding into VSTM, a less effective phonological store, slow articulation rate, and fewer/poorer quality long-term memory (LTM) representations. This project is among the first to test the four suppositions in one study. Participants included 18 children with RD and 18 controls. VSTM was assessed using Baddeley’s model of the phonological loop. Findings suggest all four suppositions are correct, depending upon the type of material utilized. Children with RD performed comparably to controls in VSTM for common words but worse for less frequent words and nonwords. Furthermore, only articulation rate predicted VSTM for common words, whereas Verbal IQ and articulation rate predicted VSTM for less frequent words, and phonological awareness and articulation rate predicted VSTM for nonwords. Overall, findings suggest that the mechanism(s) used to code and store items by their meaning is intact in RD, and the deficit in VSTM for less frequent words may be a result of fewer/poorer quality LTM representations for these words. In contrast, phonological awareness and the phonological store are impaired, affecting VSTM for items that are coded phonetically. Slow articulation rate likely affects VSTM for most material when present. When assessing reading performance, VSTM predicted decoding skill but not word identification after controlling Verbal IQ and phonological awareness. Thus, VSTM likely contributes to reading ability when words are novel and must be decoded. PMID:19255881

  4. The Differential Relations between Verbal, Numerical and Spatial Working Memory Abilities and Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…

  5. Subtypes and comorbidity in mathematical learning disabilities: Multidimensional study of verbal and visual memory processes is key to understanding.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, D

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that mathematical learning disability (MLD) is related to working memory impairment. Here, I organize part of this literature through a meta-analysis of 36 studies with 665 MLD and 1049 control participants. I demonstrate that one subtype of MLD is associated with reading problems and weak verbal short-term and working memory. Another subtype of MLD does not have associated reading problems and is linked to weak visuospatial short-term and working memory. In order to better understand MLD we need to precisely define potentially modality-specific memory subprocesses and supporting executive functions, relevant for mathematical learning. This can be achieved by taking a multidimensional parametric approach systematically probing an extended network of cognitive functions. Rather than creating arbitrary subgroups and/or focus on a single factor, highly powered studies need to position individuals in a multidimensional parametric space. This will allow us to understand the multidimensional structure of cognitive functions and their relationship to mathematical performance. PMID:27339016

  6. The Timing of Learning before Night-Time Sleep Differentially Affects Declarative and Procedural Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16–17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation. PMID:22808287

  7. A Neural Dissociation within Language: Evidence that the Mental Dictionary Is Part of Declarative Memory, and that Grammatical Rules Are Processed by the Procedural System.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T; Corkin, S; Coppola, M; Hickok, G; Growdon, J H; Koroshetz, W J; Pinker, S

    1997-03-01

    Language comprises a lexicon for storing words and a grammar for generating rule-governed forms. Evidence is presented that the lexicon is part of a temporal-parietalhnedial-temporal "declarative memory" system and that granlmatical rules are processed by a frontamasal-ganglia "procedural" system. Patients produced past tenses of regular and novel verbs (looked and plagged), which require an -ed-suffixation rule, and irregular verbs (dug), which are retrieved from memory. Word-finding difficulties in posterior aphasia, and the general declarative memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease, led to more errors with irregular than regular and novel verbs. Grammatical difficulties in anterior aphasia, and the general impairment of procedures in Parkinson's disease, led to the opposite pattern. In contrast to the Parkinson's patients, who showed sup pressed motor activity and rule use, Huntington's disease patients showed excess motor activity and rule use, underscoring a role for the basal ganglia in grammatical processing. PMID:23962016

  8. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior insular cortex—a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions—is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. PMID:27365876

  9. The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

  10. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. PMID:26783694

  11. Verbal Working Memory Performance Correlates with Regional White Matter Structures in the Frontoparietal Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working…

  12. Verbal Recall in Learning Disabled Children with Memory Dysfunctions: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anderson J.; Frumkin, Yvette J.

    In this pilot study, the effect of experimenter cuing on recall and organization of response was analyzed and compared between subjects identified as learning disabled with an isolated memory impairment (LDMI), learning disabled without an isolated memory impairment (LDO), and normal controls (N). Six subjects were selected for each group after…

  13. Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

  14. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  15. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  16. The ecology of self-monitoring effects on memory of verbal productions: Does speaking to someone make a difference?

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Alexis; Boucher, Victor J

    2015-11-01

    Experiments involving verbal self-monitoring show that memory for spoken words varies with types of sensory feedback: memory is better when words are spoken aloud than when they are lip-synched or covertly produced. Such effects can be explained by the Central Monitoring Theory (CMT) via a process that matches a forward model reflecting expected sensory effects of practiced forms and sensory information during speech. But CMT oversees factors of shared attention as achieved by speaker-listener gaze, and implies that sensory feedback may not affect the learning of unpracticed forms (non-words). These aspects of CMT were examined in two experiments of self-monitoring focusing on oro-sensory feedback. In Experiment 1 we show that varying feedback creates differential effects on memory for spoken words and that speaker-listener gaze alters these effects. Using non-words, Experiment 2 shows the absence of differential feedback effects. The results confirm CMT but suggest the need to refine the theory in terms of processes that mediate attention. PMID:26141662

  17. Training of Verbal Creativity Modulates Brain Activity in Regions Associated with language- and memory-Related Demands

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. PMID:26178653

  18. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    PubMed

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. PMID:26178653

  19. Successful computer-based visual training specifically predicts visual memory enhancement over verbal memory improvement in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Surti, Toral S; Corbera, Silvia; Bell, Morris D; Wexler, Bruce E

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether improved early visual processing on cognitive remediation (CR) exercises generalizes to visual and auditory learning and information manipulation in schizophrenia. Fourteen participants received neuropsychological testing before and after CR consisting of visual, auditory and cognitive control training. Achievement on visual training exercises was strongly and significantly correlated with improved visual learning, but not improved verbal learning or increased ability to manipulate visual information. Improvement in training, not training time, predicted cognitive gain. Implications for improving cognitive outcomes from CR include ensuring the trained task is learned and providing exercises of multiple modalities. PMID:21795025

  20. Vividness of Visual Imagery and Incidental Recall of Verbal Cues, When Phenomenological Availability Reflects Long-Term Memory Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30 min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories. PMID:23382719

  1. Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

  2. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  3. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  4. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

  5. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer's disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for "cognitively healthy" (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26025231

  6. Gender-specific hemodynamics in prefrontal cortex during a verbal working memory task by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2010-05-01

    The presence or absence of gender differences in working memory, localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), has been debated in a few fMRI studies. However, the hypothesis of gender differences in PFC function has not been elaborated, and comparisons among hemodynamic parameters designed to test for gender differences are scarce. We utilized near-infrared spectroscopy during verbal N-back tasks on 26 male and 24 female healthy volunteers. Changes in the concentrations of oxy- (Delta[oxy-Hb]), deoxy- (Delta[deoxy-Hb]) and total hemoglobin (Delta[tot-Hb]) were recorded simultaneously. Delta[oxy-Hb] and Delta[tot-Hb] exhibited obvious gender differences, but Delta[deoxy-Hb] did not. Males showed bilateral activation with slight left-side dominance, whereas females showed left activation. The activation in males was more wide-spread and stronger than in females. Furthermore, females required a lower hemodynamic supply than males to obtain comparable performance, and only females exhibited positive correlations between hemodynamic parameters and behavioral performance. The results reinforce the existence of a gender effect in hemodynamic-based functional imaging studies. Our findings suggest that females possess more efficient hemodynamics in the PFC during working memory and emphasize the importance of studying the PFC to further a scientific understanding of gender differences. PMID:20117145

  7. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    PubMed Central

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with their mothers, children's narrative behavior was regulated best by maternal use of specific elaborative components, such as affirmations. In contrast, in children's independent recall, affective and behavioral qualities of maternal support were related to children's memory performance. Specifically, during free-recall, the dimensions of quality of instruction and respect for autonomy were significant predictors of children's narratives. In the context of prompted recall (supported by wh-questions), respect for autonomy was the only significant predictor of children's involvement in the conversations and of the amount of unique content they provided. The findings suggest that different aspects of maternal behavior facilitate different components of children's reminiscing skills, which children might apply depending on demands of the autobiographical memory conversation. PMID:21076657

  8. Memantine Effects on Verbal Memory in Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS): a Double-Blind Brain Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Niu, Yu-Qiong; Simon, Christa; Seritan, Andreea L; Chen, Lawrence; Schneider, Andrea; Moghaddam, Shayan T; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J; Olichney, John M

    2014-01-01

    Older FMR1 premutation carriers may develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting cognitive deficits that often subsequently progress to dementia. To date, there is no specific treatment available for FXTAS. Studies have demonstrated the premutation-associated overactivation of glutamatergic receptors in neurons. Memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, thus was tested in the first placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in FXTAS. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in FXTAS found reduced N400 repetition effect, a glutamate-related electrophysiological marker of semantic priming, and verbal memory processes. This substudy of the randomized clinical trial of memantine in FXTAS sought to use the N400 repetition effect to evaluate effects of chronic memantine treatment on verbal memory. Subsequent recall and recognition memory tests for the experimental stimuli were administered to characterize verbal memory. Data from 41 patients who completed the 1-year memantine trial (21 on memantine) and also completed longitudinal ERP studies were analyzed. Results showed treatment-associated benefits on both cued-recall memory and N400 repetition effect amplitude. Importantly, improvement in cued recall was positively correlated with amplitude increase of the N400 repetition effect. The placebo group, in contrast, displayed a significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect after 1 year. These results suggest that memantine treatment may have beneficial effects on verbal memory in FXTAS. Additional studies of memantine, perhaps in combination with other therapeutic agents, appear warranted, as symptomatic treatments and neuroprotective treatments are both needed for this recently recognized neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24871547

  9. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  10. Morphometry and Connectivity of the Fronto-Parietal Verbal Working Memory Network in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2011-01-01

    Two distinctly different maturational processes--cortical thinning and white matter maturation--take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of…

  11. Nonword Repetition and Serial Recall: Equivalent Measures of Verbal Short-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn language are very closely related to one another has led to widespread interest in the cognitive processes underlying nonword repetition. One suggestion is that nonword repetition is a relatively pure measure of phonological short-term memory closely associated with other measures of…

  12. Is the Hippocampus Necessary for Visual and Verbal Binding in Working Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, Alan; Allen, Richard; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…

  13. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  14. The role of working memory and verbal fluency in autobiographical memory in early Alzheimer's disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Maxwell J; Cifelli, Alberto; Garrard, Peter; Caine, Diana; Jones, Fergal W

    2015-11-01

    Retrieval of autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for "sense of self". Previous research and theoretical accounts suggest that working memory (WM) and semantic and phonemic fluency abilities facilitate the hierarchical search for, and reliving of past, personal events in the mind's eye. However, there remains a lack of consensus as to the nature of the relationships between these cognitive functions and the truly episodic aspects of AM. The present study therefore aimed to explore the associations between these variables in a sample with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The study incorporated a between-groups component, and a correlational component with multiple regression. Participants with Alzheimer's disease (n=10) and matched healthy controls (n=10) were assessed on measures of semantic and episodic AM search and retrieval, auditory and spatial WM, and semantic and phonemic fluency. The AD group produced less episodic AM content compared to controls. Semantic fluency predicted episodic AM retrieval independent of age effects but there were no significant relationships between measures of phonemic fluency, WM and episodic AM. The results suggest that the ability to maintain hierarchical search of the semantic knowledge-base is important for truly episodic reliving, and interventions for people with AM impairment might therefore benefit from incorporating structured, individualised external memory-aids to facilitate AM search and retrieval. PMID:26443928

  15. Treadmill walking during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moderate physical activity improves various cognitive functions, particularly when it is applied simultaneously to the cognitive task. In two psychoneuroendocrinological within-subject experiments, we investigated whether very low-intensity motor activity, i.e. walking, during foreign-language vocabulary encoding improves subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and salivary cortisol. Previous research has associated both substances with memory performance. In both experiments, subjects performed better when they were motorically active during encoding compared to being sedentary. BDNF in serum was unrelated to memory performance. In contrast we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the number of correctly recalled items. In summary, even very light physical activity during encoding is beneficial for subsequent recall. PMID:25015595

  16. Input to verbal working memory: Preattentive construction of the central speech representation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2004-01-01

    Working memory uses central sound representations as an informational basis. The central sound representation is the temporally and feature-integrated mental representation that corresponds to phenomenal perception. It is used in (higher-order) mental operations and stored in long-term memory. In the bottom-up processing path, the central sound representation can be probed at the level of auditory sensory memory with the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the event-related potential. The present paper reviews a newly developed MMN paradigm to tap into the processing of speech sound representations. Preattentive vowel categorization based on F1-F2 formant information occurs in speech sounds and complex tones even under conditions of high variability of the auditory input. However, an additional experiment demonstrated the limits of the preattentive categorization of language-relevant information. It tested whether the system categorizes complex tones containing the F1 and F2 formant components of the vowel /a/ differently than six sounds with nonlanguage-like F1-F2 combinations. From the absence of an MMN in this experiment, it is concluded that no adequate vowel representation was constructed. This shows limitations of the capability of preattentive vowel categorization. PMID:15620224

  17. Changes in verbal learning and memory in schizophrenia and non-psychotic controls in midlife: A nine-year follow-up in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort study 1966.

    PubMed

    Rannikko, Irina; Haapea, Marianne; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K; Barnett, Jennifer H; Husa, Anja P; Jones, Peter B; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika

    2015-08-30

    Findings on longitudinal change of cognitive performance in schizophrenia are extremely variable in the case of verbal learning and memory, and it is still unclear which dimensions of verbal learning and memory exhibit possible deterioration over the long-term. Our aim was to compare the change in verbal learning and memory in individuals with schizophrenia 10-20 years after the illness onset and healthy controls during a nine-year follow-up in a general population sample. Our sample included 41 schizophrenia spectrum subjects and 73 controls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort study 1966. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was used to estimate the degree of change in verbal learning and memory during a nine-year follow-up from age 34-years to 43- years. Both cases and controls deteriorated. There was statistically significant decline in two out of 20 CVLT items among cases and in 13 out of 20 CVLT items among controls. With the exception of two variables, the decline in verbal learning and memory over nine years was not significantly larger in cases. We conclude that during midlife verbal learning and memory in schizophrenia mostly declines in a normative fashion with aging at the same rate as the general population. PMID:26168931

  18. Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

  19. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  20. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  1. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40–78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  2. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40-78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  3. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory scores (p < 0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV. PMID:26404435

  4. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women

    PubMed Central

    Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A.; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV−) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV− women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17 % HIV+, 16 % HIV−; p=0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p<0.01) and memory scores (p<0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p<0.01) and memory (p<0.01) and psychomotor speed (p<0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p= 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV− women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p=0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p= 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV. PMID:26404435

  5. Integration of verbal and visual information as evidenced by distortions in picture memory.

    PubMed

    Gentner, D; Loftus, E F

    1979-06-01

    Subjects were presented with a series of pictures, some of which were general (girl walking down the path) and others specific (girl hiking down the path). These pictures were matched with sentences which were either general or specific ("The girl is walking [hiking] down the path.") Subsequently, a forced-choice picture recognition test was administered in which subjects saw pairs of pictures and indicated which member of each pair they had seen before. It was found that labelling the picture with a sentence containing a specific verb substantially increased the likelihood that the specific picture corresponding to that verb would subsequently be falsely recognized. The results are discussed in terms of current theories of memorial representation. PMID:474837

  6. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  7. The interrelations between verbal working memory and visual selection of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Soto, David; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Humphreys, Glyn W; Rotshtein, Pia

    2010-06-01

    Working memory (WM) and visual selection processes interact in a reciprocal fashion based on overlapping representations abstracted from the physical characteristics of stimuli. Here, we assessed the neural basis of this interaction using facial expressions that conveyed emotion information. Participants memorized an emotional word for a later recognition test and then searched for a face of a particular gender presented in a display with two faces that differed in gender and expression. The relation between the emotional word and the expressions of the target and distractor faces was varied. RTs for the memory test were faster when the target face matched the emotional word held in WM (on valid trials) relative to when the emotional word matched the expression of the distractor (on invalid trials). There was also enhanced activation on valid compared with invalid trials in the lateral orbital gyrus, superior frontal polar (BA 10), lateral occipital sulcus, and pulvinar. Re-presentation of the WM stimulus in the search display led to an earlier onset of activity in the superior and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior hippocampus irrespective of the search validity of the re-presented stimulus. The data indicate that the middle temporal and prefrontal cortices are sensitive to the reappearance of stimuli that are held in WM, whereas a fronto-thalamic occipital network is sensitive to the behavioral significance of the match between WM and targets for selection. We conclude that these networks are modulated by high-level matches between the contents of WM, behavioral goals, and current sensory input. PMID:19445604

  8. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Strong, Judith A.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Method Data were collected from 116 young adults (18–25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. Results MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy’s impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption. PMID:26231032

  9. Two Modality Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Sentence Recall

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Martin, Randi C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms underlying the standard modality effect (i.e., better recall performance for auditorily presented than for visually presented materials), and the modality congruency effect (i.e., better memory performance if the mode of recall and presentation are congruent rather than incongruent, Rummer, Schweppe, & Martin, 2009). We tested the assumption that the standard modality effect is restricted to the most recent word(s) of the sentences but occurs in both verbatim and gist recall (Experiments 1 and 2), whereas the modality congruency effect should be evident for the rest of the sentence when using verbatim recall (Experiment 3) but not when using gist recall (Experiment 4). All experiments used the Potter-Lombardi intrusion paradigm (Potter & Lombardi, 1990). When the target word was the most recent word of the sentence, a standard modality effect was found with both verbatim recall and gist recall. When the target word was included in the middle of the sentences, a modality congruency effect was found with verbatim recall but not with gist recall. PMID:23894695

  10. How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

  11. Brain imaging correlates of verbal working memory in children following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Newsome, Mary R; Bigler, Erin D; Pertab, Jon; Merkley, Tricia L; Hanten, Gerri; Scheibel, Randall S; Li, Xiaoqi; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-10-01

    Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a subset of children. Confirming previous findings, children with TBI had decreased cortical thickness and volume as compared to the OI group. Although the findings did not confirm the predicted relation of decreased frontal lobe cortical thickness and volume to SIRT performance, left parietal volume was negatively related to reaction time (RT). In contrast, cortical thickness was positively related to SIRT accuracy and RT in the OI group, particularly in aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, but these relationships were less robust in the TBI group. We attribute these findings to disrupted fronto-parietal functioning in attention and WM. fMRI results from a subsample demonstrated fronto-temporal activation in the OI group, and parietal activation in the TBI group, and DTI findings reflected multiple differences in white matter tracts that engage fronto-parietal networks. Diminished white matter integrity of the frontal lobes and cingulum bundle as measured by DTI was associated with longer RT on the SIRT. Across modalities, the cingulate emerged as a common structure related to performance after TBI. These results are discussed in terms of how different imaging modalities tap different types of pathologic correlates of brain injury and their relationship with WM. PMID:21565227

  12. Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficits in Chinese Children with Dyslexia may not be a Problem with the Activation of Phonological Representations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Song, Yao-Wu; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Twenty-four children with dyslexia and 28 age-matched normal readers participated in the study. They were required to memorize a visually presented series of six Chinese characters and identify them from a list also including code-specific distracters and non-code-specific distracters. Error rates were recorded and were higher for code-specific distracters in all three conditions, revealing phonological, visual, and semantic similarity effects respectively. Group comparisons showed a stronger phonological similarity effect in dyslexic group, suggesting intact activation of phonological representations of target characters. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a greater semantic similarity effect, revealing stronger activation of semantic representations, while visual similarity effects were equivalent to controls. These results suggest that the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese dyslexics might not stem from insufficient activation of phonological information. Based the semantic activation of target characters in dyslexics is greater than in controls, it is possible that the memory deficit of dyslexia is related with deficient inhibition of target semantic representations in short-term memory. PMID:26437073

  13. Deficits in Verbal Working Memory among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Traits: An Event-related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seulki; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated verbal working memory in college students with traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related potentials and the 2-back task. Methods Based on scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale, participants were assigned to the normal control (n=28) or ADHD-trait (n=29) group. The 2-back task, which was administered to evaluate working memory, consists of a congruent condition, under which the current stimulus is the same as the one presented two trials earlier, and an incongruent condition, under which the current stimulus is not the same as the one presented two trials earlier. The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used as stimuli. Results On the 2-back task, the ADHD-trait group committed significantly more errors in response to congruent stimuli and showed a smaller P300 amplitude than did the control group. Conclusion These results indicate that college students with ADHD traits have deficits in verbal working memory, possibly due to difficulties in memory updating or attentional allocation. PMID:26792042

  14. Reduced hippocampal volume and verbal memory performance associated with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli; Janelsins, Michelle; Koovakkattu, Della; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Many survivors of breast cancer show significant cognitive impairments, including memory deficits. Inflammation induced by chemotherapy may contribute to hippocampal changes that underlie these deficits. In this cross-sectional study, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes from high-resolution magnetic resonance images in 42 chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and 35 healthy female controls. Patients with breast cancer were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.4 years off-therapy. In a subset of these participants (20 breast cancer, 23 controls), we quantified serum cytokine levels. Left hippocampal volumes and memory performance were significantly reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to controls. In the breast cancer group, lower left hippocampal volume was associated with higher levels of TNFα and lower levels of IL-6 with a significant interaction between these two cytokines suggesting a potential modulatory effect of IL-6 on TNFα. Verbal memory performance was associated with cytokine levels and left hippocampal volume in both groups. These findings provide evidence of altered hippocampal volume and verbal memory difficulties following breast cancer chemotherapy that may be mediated by TNFα and IL-6. PMID:22698992

  15. Posterior cingulum white matter disruption and its associations with verbal memory and stroke risk in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Delano-Wood, Lisa; Stricker, Nikki H; Sorg, Scott F; Nation, Daniel A; Jak, Amy J; Woods, Steven P; Libon, David J; Delis, Dean C; Frank, Lawrence R; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe and temporoparietal brain regions are among the earliest neocortical sites to undergo pathophysiologic alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying white matter changes in these regions is less well known. We employed diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate early alterations in regional white matter integrity in participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The following regions of interests (ROIs) were examined: 1) anterior cingulum (AC); 2) posterior cingulum (PC); 3) genu of the corpus callosum; 4) splenium of the corpus callosum; and 5) as a control site for comparison, posterior limb of the internal capsule. Forty nondemented participants were divided into demographically-similar groups based on cognitive status (MCI: n = 20; normal control: n = 20), and fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of each ROI were obtained. MCI participants showed greater posterior white matter (i.e., PC, splenium) but not anterior white matter (i.e., AC, genu) changes, after adjusting for age, stroke risk, and whole brain volume. FA differences of the posterior white matter were best accounted for by changes in radial but not axial diffusivity. PC FA was also significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume as well as with performance on tests of verbal memory, whereas stroke risk was significantly correlated with genu FA and was unrelated to PC FA. When investigating subtypes of our MCI population, amnestic MCI participants showed lower PC white matter integrity relative to those with non-amnestic MCI. Findings implicate involvement of posterior microstructural white matter degeneration in the development of MCI-related cognitive changes and suggest that reduced FA of the PC may be a candidate neuroimaging marker of AD risk. PMID:22466061

  16. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (ρ = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  17. Serial recall of visuospatial and verbal information with and without material-specific interference: implications for contemporary models of working memory.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lynne C; Rane, Shruti; Hiscock, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    A longstanding question in working memory (WM) research concerns the fractionation of verbal and nonverbal processing. Although some contemporary models include both domain-specific and general-purpose mechanisms, the necessity to postulate differential processing of verbal and nonverbal material remains unclear. In the present two-experiment series we revisit the order reconstruction paradigm that Jones, Farrand, Stuart, and Morris (1995) used to support a unitary model of WM. Goals were to assess (1) whether serial position curves for dot positions differ from curves for letter names; and (2) whether selective interference can be demonstrated. Although we replicated Jones et al.'s finding of similar serial position curves for the two tasks, this similarity could reflect the demands of the order reconstruction paradigm rather than undifferentiated processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Both generalised and material-specific interference was found, which can be attributed to competition between primary and secondary tasks for attentional resources. As performance levels for the combined primary and secondary tasks exceed active WM capacity limits, primary task items apparently are removed from active memory during processing of the secondary list and held temporarily in maintenance storage. We conclude that active WM is multimodal but maintenance stores may be domain specific. PMID:23311456

  18. Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: Declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maheu, Françoise S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Schroth, Elizabeth A.; Keil, Margaret F.; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2008-01-01

    Summary Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effect of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12 to 14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30 minutes after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p < 0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p’s >0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

  19. Selective interference with verbal short-term memory for serial order information: a new paradigm and tests of a timing-signal hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Henson, Richard; Hartley, Tom; Burgess, Neil; Hitch, Graham; Flude, Brenda

    2003-11-01

    Many recent computational models of verbal short-term memory postulate a separation between processes supporting memory for the identity of items and processes supporting memory for their serial order. Furthermore, some of these models assume that memory for serial order is supported by a timing signal. We report an attempt to find evidence for such a timing signal by comparing an item probe task, requiring memory for items, with a list probe task, requiring memory for serial order. Four experiments investigated effects of irrelevant speech, articulatory suppression, temporal grouping, and paced finger tapping on these two tasks. In Experiments 1 and 2, irrelevant speech and articulatory suppression had a greater detrimental effect on the list probe task than on the item probe task. Reaction time data indicated that the list probe task, but not the item probe task, induced serial rehearsal of items. Phonological similarity effects confirmed that both probe tasks induced phonological recoding of visual inputs. Experiment 3 showed that temporal grouping of items during list presentation improved performance on the list probe task more than on the item probe task. In Experiment 4, paced tapping had a greater detrimental effect on the list probe task than on the item probe task. However, there was no differential effect of whether tapping was to a simple or a complex rhythm. Overall, the data illustrate the utility of the item probe/list probe paradigm and provide support for models that assume memory for serial order and memory for items involve separate processes. Results are generally consistent with the timing-signal hypothesis but suggest further factors that need to be explored to distinguish it from other accounts. PMID:14578087

  20. Reduced Theta-Band Power and Phase Synchrony during Explicit Verbal Memory Tasks in Female, Non-Clinical Individuals with Schizotypal Traits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The study of non-clinical individuals with schizotypal traits has been considered to provide a promising endophenotypic approach to understanding schizophrenia, because schizophrenia is highly heterogeneous, and a number of confounding factors may affect neuropsychological performance. Here, we investigated whether deficits in explicit verbal memory in individuals with schizotypal traits are associated with abnormalities in the local and inter-regional synchrony of brain activity. Memory deficits have been recognized as a core problem in schizophrenia, and previous studies have consistently shown explicit verbal memory impairment in schizophrenic patients. However, the mechanism of this impairment has not been fully revealed. Seventeen individuals with schizotypal traits and 17 age-matched, normal controls participated. Multichannel event-related electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while the subjects performed a continuous recognition task. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) and inter-regional theta-band phase locking values (TPLVs) were investigated to determine the differences in local and global neural synchrony between the two subject groups. Additionally, the connection patterns of the TPLVs were quantitatively analyzed using graph theory measures. An old/new effect was found in the induced theta-band ERSP in both groups. However, the difference between the old and new was larger in normal controls than in schizotypal trait group. The tendency of elevated old/new effect in normal controls was observed in anterior-posterior theta-band phase synchrony as well. Our results suggest that explicit memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients can also be found in non-clinical individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypal traits. PMID:26840071

  1. Reduced Theta-Band Power and Phase Synchrony during Explicit Verbal Memory Tasks in Female, Non-Clinical Individuals with Schizotypal Traits.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The study of non-clinical individuals with schizotypal traits has been considered to provide a promising endophenotypic approach to understanding schizophrenia, because schizophrenia is highly heterogeneous, and a number of confounding factors may affect neuropsychological performance. Here, we investigated whether deficits in explicit verbal memory in individuals with schizotypal traits are associated with abnormalities in the local and inter-regional synchrony of brain activity. Memory deficits have been recognized as a core problem in schizophrenia, and previous studies have consistently shown explicit verbal memory impairment in schizophrenic patients. However, the mechanism of this impairment has not been fully revealed. Seventeen individuals with schizotypal traits and 17 age-matched, normal controls participated. Multichannel event-related electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while the subjects performed a continuous recognition task. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) and inter-regional theta-band phase locking values (TPLVs) were investigated to determine the differences in local and global neural synchrony between the two subject groups. Additionally, the connection patterns of the TPLVs were quantitatively analyzed using graph theory measures. An old/new effect was found in the induced theta-band ERSP in both groups. However, the difference between the old and new was larger in normal controls than in schizotypal trait group. The tendency of elevated old/new effect in normal controls was observed in anterior-posterior theta-band phase synchrony as well. Our results suggest that explicit memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients can also be found in non-clinical individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypal traits. PMID:26840071

  2. Declarative and procedural learning in children and adolescents with posterior fossa tumours

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Gallego, Eliana A; Gómez, Carlos M; Casares, Encarnación Vaquero; Márquez, Javier; Pérez-Santamaría, Fco Javier

    2006-01-01

    Background This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma), given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. Methods We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects) and one control (twelve subjects). The learning types in these groups were assessed by two experimental tasks evaluating procedural-implicit and declarative memory. A Serial Reaction-Time Task was used to measure procedural sequence learning, and the Spanish version [1] of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version- CVLT- [2] to measure declarative-explicit learning. The learning capacity was assessed considering only the blocks that represent learning, and were compared with MANOVA in clinical and normal subjects. The Raven, simple reaction-time, finger-tapping test, and grooved pegboard tests were used to assess the overall functioning of subjects. The results were compared with those from a control group of the same age, and with Spanish norm-referenced tools where available Results The results indicate the absence of procedural-implicit learning in both clinical groups, whereas declarative-explicit learning is maintained in both groups. Conclusion The clinical groups showed a conservation of declarative learning and a clear impairment of procedural learning. The results support the role of the cerebellum in the early phase of procedural learning. PMID:16539720

  3. Oscillating square wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered during slow wave sleep does not improve declarative memory more than sham: A randomized sham controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Badran, Bashar W.; Halford, Jonathan J.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; George, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current wave form (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Objective/Hypothesis Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Methods Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517mA/CM2, and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with one-minute inter-block intervals (25 minutes total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. Results There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1±3.0SD more associations) (sham = 3.8±3.1S.D more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6±2.7 S.D. correctly typed sequences) compared to

  4. Relationships among selected physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers and four variables: Formal reasoning ability, working memory capacity, verbal intelligence, and field dependence/independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Leslie Little

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions

  5. Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

  6. Long-Term Effects of Physical Exercise on Verbal Learning and Memory in Middle-Aged Adults: Results of a One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197

  7. Identifying learning disabilities through a cognitive deficit framework: can verbal memory deficits explain similarities between learning disabled and low achieving students?

    PubMed

    Callinan, Sarah; Theiler, Stephen; Cunningham, Everarda

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, students with learning disabilities (LD) have been identified using an aptitude-achievement discrepancy or response to intervention approach. As profiles of the cognitive deficits of discrepancy-defined students with LD have already been developed using these approaches, these deficits can in turn be used to identify LD using the discrepancy approach as a benchmark for convergent validity. Australian Grade 3 (N = 172) students were administered cognitive processing tests to ascertain whether scores in these tests could accurately allocate students into discrepancy-defined groups using discriminant function analysis. Results showed that 77% to 82% of students could be correctly allocated into LD, low achievement, and regular achievement groups using only measures of phonological processing, rapid naming, and verbal memory. Furthermore, verbal memory deficits were found, along with phonological processing and rapid naming deficits, in students that would be designated as low achieving by the discrepancy method. Because a significant discrepancy or lack of response to intervention is a result of cognitive deficits rather than the other way around, it is argued that LD should be identified via cognitive deficits. PMID:23886581

  8. Increased BOLD activation in the left parahippocampal cortex after 1 year of medical school: an association with cumulative verbal memory learning.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michaël; Gauvreau, Claudie; Theriault, Denis; Madrolle, Stéphanie; Lepage, Jean-François; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have shown left-right hippocampus asymmetry during learning, it is unclear whether such asymmetry also exists for the parahippocampal cortex, a structure within the limbic system that is also involved in memory and learning. Using a common mental navigation task known to activate the bilateral parahippocampal cortex, this study aimed at determining how BOLD activation in these two areas changes after 1 year of medical school, a program characterized by intensive verbal learning. Fifteen first-year medical students participated in this study and underwent two sessions of functional MRI, at a 1-year interval. In the first session, we observed marginal differences between left and right parahippocampal cortex activity. However, 1 year later, left parahippocampal activation significantly increased (+4.7%), whereas the right remained stable. These results bring new information as to how intensive learning can modify regional metabolism in the human brain and how the left parahippocampal region is particularly important for cumulative verbal memory. PMID:26606418

  9. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  10. The Role of Maternal Verbal, Affective, and Behavioral Support in Preschool Children's Independent and Collaborative Autobiographical Memory Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the individual and relative contributions of different aspects of maternal support (i.e., verbal, affective, and behavioral) in relation to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Four-year-old children discussed personal past experiences with their mothers and with a researcher. In collaborative recall with…

  11. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  12. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia. PMID:26941679

  13. The Episodicity of Verbal Reports of Personally Significant Autobiographical Memories: Vividness Correlates with Narrative Text Quality More than with Detailedness or Memory Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  14. The episodicity of verbal reports of personally significant autobiographical memories: vividness correlates with narrative text quality more than with detailedness or memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  15. Increased Resting-State Perfusion after Repeated Encoding Is Related to Later Retrieval of Declarative Associative Memories

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Georg; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Jonas, Christina; Roebling, Robert; Spitzer, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2) and after (Post) extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR). Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1) no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly contribute to the long

  16. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  17. Evidence for Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Commentary on Berman, Jonides, and Lewis (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    M. G. Berman, J. Jonides, and R. L. Lewis (2009) adapted the recent-probes task to investigate the causes of forgetting in short-term memory. In 7 experiments, they studied the persistence of memory traces by assessing the level of proactive interference generated by previous-trial items over a range of intertrial intervals. None of the…

  18. The Importance of Encoding-Related Neural Dynamics in the Prediction of Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve; Salmon, Eric; Attout, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of brain-behaviour interactions in the field of working memory (WM) have associated WM success with activation of a fronto-parietal network during the maintenance stage, and this mainly for visuo-spatial WM. Using an inter-individual differences approach, we demonstrate here the equal importance of neural dynamics during the encoding stage, and this in the context of verbal WM tasks which are characterized by encoding phases of long duration and sustained attentional demands. Participants encoded and maintained 5-word lists, half of them containing an unexpected word intended to disturb WM encoding and associated task-related attention processes. We observed that inter-individual differences in WM performance for lists containing disturbing stimuli were related to activation levels in a region previously associated with task-related attentional processing, the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and this during stimulus encoding but not maintenance; functional connectivity strength between the left IPS and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) further predicted WM performance. This study highlights the critical role, during WM encoding, of neural substrates involved in task-related attentional processes for predicting inter-individual differences in verbal WM performance, and, more generally, provides support for attention-based models of WM. PMID:23874935

  19. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

  20. Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Congenital Articulatory Disorders: New Empirical Data and Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, G. A.; Galloni, F.; Bonanni, R.; Sabbadini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To investigate the nature of the articulatory rehearsal mechanism of the Articulatory Loop in Baddeley's Working Memory model, it seems particularly important to study individuals who developed a deficit (dysarthria) or total abolition (anarthria) of the ability to articulate language following a cerebral lesion. Method: In this study,…

  1. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  2. A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

  3. Striatal Iron Content Predicts Its Shrinkage and Changes in Verbal Working Memory after Two Years in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of non-heme iron in the brain has been proposed as a harbinger of neural and cognitive decline in aging and neurodegenerative disease, but support for this proposal has been drawn from cross-sectional studies, which do not provide valid estimates of change. Here, we present longitudinal evidence of subcortical iron accumulation in healthy human adults (age 19–77 at baseline). We used R2* relaxometry to estimate regional iron content twice within a 2 year period, measured volumes of the striatum and the hippocampus by manual segmentation, and assessed cognitive performance by working memory tasks. Two-year change and individual differences in the change of regional volumes, regional iron content, and working memory were examined by latent change score models while taking into account the age at baseline and metabolic risk indicators. Over the examined period, volume reduction occurred in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, but iron content increased only in the striatum, where it explained shrinkage. Higher iron content in the caudate nucleus at baseline predicted lesser improvement in working memory after repeat testing. Although advanced age and elevated metabolic syndrome risk were associated with greater iron content in the putamen at baseline, neither age nor metabolic risk influenced change in any variable. Thus, longitudinal evidence supports the notion that accumulation of subcortical iron is a risk factor for neural and cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:25926451

  4. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  5. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lippelt, D. P.; van der Kint, S.; van Herk, K.; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0–2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  6. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    PubMed

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  7. Alterations in the functional connectivity of a verbal working memory-related brain network in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Huang, Donghong; Chen, Zirong; Ye, Wei; Lv, Zongxia; Diao, Limei; Zheng, Jinou

    2015-08-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations in a verbal working memory (VWM)-related network in left temporal lobe epilepsy (lTLE) at rest. We evaluated 14 patients with lTLE and 14 control subjects by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). The region of interest was defined by the voxel with the highest Z-score during a VWM task according to functional magnetic resonance imaging in 16 healthy volunteers. Our study revealed that the network of RSFC was similar to the task-induced network in the healthy volunteers. Moreover, the patients with lTLE exhibited significantly decreased RSFC in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule at rest compared to the control subjects. We found no significant correlation between the mean reaction time of the accurate responses in a 2-back task and the mean z-values within the regions that exhibited significant differences in RSFC at the individual level. The alterations in FCs of VWM-related network in lTLE suggested that epileptiform discharges can damage the brain regions, both local focus and remote areas and that the alterations were not associated with VWM performance. PMID:26101832

  8. Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H.; Townsley, Sarah; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions. PMID:25202255

  9. Declarative Strategies Persist Under Increased Cognitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Matthew J.; Paul, Erick J.; Roeder, Jessica L.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When humans simultaneously execute multiple tasks, performance on individual tasks suffers. Complementing existing theories, this article poses a novel question to investigate interactions between memory systems supporting multi-tasking performance: When a primary and dual task both recruit declarative learning and memory systems, does simultaneous performance of both tasks impair primary-task performance because learning in the declarative system is reduced, or because control of the primary task is passed to slower procedural systems? To address this question, participants were trained on either a perceptual categorization task believed to rely on procedural learning or one of three different categorization tasks believed to rely on declarative learning. Task performance was examined with and without a simultaneous dual task thought to recruit working memory and executive attention. To test whether the categories were learned procedurally or declaratively, the response keys were switched after a learning criterion had been reached. Large impairments in performance after switching the response keys are taken to indicate procedural learning, and small impairments are taken to indicate declarative learning. Our results suggest that the declarative memory categorization tasks (regardless of task difficulty) were learned by declarative systems, regardless of whether they were learned under dual-task conditions. PMID:26160426

  10. Declarative strategies persist under increased cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Matthew J; Paul, Erick J; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-02-01

    When humans simultaneously execute multiple tasks, performance on individual tasks suffers. Complementing existing theories, this article poses a novel question to investigate interactions between memory systems supporting multi-tasking performance: When a primary and dual task both recruit declarative learning and memory systems, does simultaneous performance of both tasks impair primary task performance because learning in the declarative system is reduced, or because control of the primary task is passed to slower procedural systems? To address this question, participants were trained on either a perceptual categorization task believed to rely on procedural learning or one of three different categorization tasks believed to rely on declarative learning. Task performance was examined with and without a simultaneous dual task thought to recruit working memory and executive attention. To test whether the categories were learned procedurally or declaratively, the response keys were switched after a learning criterion had been reached. Large impairments in performance after switching the response keys are taken to indicate procedural learning, and small impairments are taken to indicate declarative learning. Our results suggest that the declarative memory categorization tasks (regardless of task difficulty) were learned by declarative systems, regardless of whether they were learned under dual-task conditions. PMID:26160426

  11. Preclinical memory profile in Alzheimer patients with and without allele APOE-epsilon4.

    PubMed

    Estévez-González, Armando; García-Sánchez, Carmen; Boltes, Anunciación; Otermín, Pilar; Baiget, Montserrat; Escartín, Antonio; del Rio, Elisabeth; Gironell, Alex; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the association between APOE-epsilon4 allele and memory phenotype in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared an extensive preclinical memory profile at the baseline evaluation of 2 AD genotype groups: APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers and patients with APOE-epsilon3 homozygosity. Baseline memory performance was carried out at least 2 years (interval of 27.7 +/- 4 months) before AD diagnosis was established, and analysis included different modalities of working memory (visuoperceptive, visuospatial, digit span and processing speed), of declarative memory (recent, verbal learning, prospective and semantic) and of nondeclarative memory (procedural, incidental and priming). We found no significant differences: memory performance was similar in both genotype groups. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele does not seem to be sufficient to cause a distinctive preclinical memory phenotype in AD patients. PMID:15159600

  12. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  13. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  14. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  15. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  16. The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron &…

  17. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  18. Errors on interrupter tasks presented during spatial and verbal working memory performance are linearly linked to large-scale functional network connectivity in high temporal resolution resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew Evan; Thompson, Garth John; Schwarb, Hillary; Pan, Wen-Ju; McKinley, Andy; Schumacher, Eric H; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2015-12-01

    The brain is organized into networks composed of spatially separated anatomical regions exhibiting coherent functional activity over time. Two of these networks (the default mode network, DMN, and the task positive network, TPN) have been implicated in the performance of a number of cognitive tasks. To directly examine the stable relationship between network connectivity and behavioral performance, high temporal resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during the resting state, and behavioral data were collected from 15 subjects on different days, exploring verbal working memory, spatial working memory, and fluid intelligence. Sustained attention performance was also evaluated in a task interleaved between resting state scans. Functional connectivity within and between the DMN and TPN was related to performance on these tasks. Decreased TPN resting state connectivity was found to significantly correlate with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a spatial working memory paradigm and decreased DMN/TPN anti-correlation was significantly correlated with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a verbal working memory paradigm. A trend for increased DMN resting state connectivity to correlate to measures of fluid intelligence was also observed. These results provide additional evidence of the relationship between resting state networks and behavioral performance, and show that such results can be observed with high temporal resolution fMRI. Because cognitive scores and functional connectivity were collected on nonconsecutive days, these results highlight the stability of functional connectivity/cognitive performance coupling. PMID:25563228

  19. Integrating Clinical Assessment with Cognitive Neuroscience: Construct Validation of the California Verbal Learning Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delis, Dean C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored validity of new clinical test of verbal memory incorporating constructs from normal and pathological memory research, to quantify the ways examinees learn verbal material. Factor analyses of normal subjects and neurological patients indicated that verbal memory consisted of a number of component factors, reflecting learning strategy,…

  20. Superiority of pictorial versus verbal presentation and initial exposure in the P300-based, complex trial protocol for concealed memory detection.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Thai, Michelle; Labkovsky, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Two mock guilty groups had either pictorial or verbal initial exposure to crime items (probes) on which they were told they would later be tested. Then each subject was tested in two sessions on two successive days with both verbal and pictorial presentation, one test modality per session/day. The three dependent variables analyzed were three different estimates of the same basic measurement: the difference between P300s evoked by key (probe) and irrelevant stimuli. All three indexes were significantly increased more by both initial pictorial exposure, as well as by pictorial presentation modality, than by verbal exposure and presentation. We saw no main effect of exposure-presentation modality congruence, as congruence interacted with exposure: The largest probe-irrelevant differences were evoked by congruent pictorial exposure and presentation modality, and the smallest by congruent verbal exposure and presentation modality. PMID:25772317

  1. Nonspecific Verbal Cues Alleviate Forgetting by Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kirstie; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Verbal reminders play a pervasive role in memory retrieval by human adults. In fact, relatively nonspecific verbal information (e.g. "Remember the last time we ate at that restaurant?") will often cue vivid recollections of a past event even when presented outside the original encoding context. Although research has shown that memory retrieval by…

  2. Rethinking the Talloires Declaration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlong, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critique constructively and complement the Talloires Declaration with a focus on social and cultural elements that shape action. These elements are important to achieving the needed response to the environmental issues that the Talloires Declaration highlights. While the Talloires Declaration has been…

  3. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  4. Short-Term Visual Memory: Comparative Effects of Two Types of Distraction on the Recall of Visually Presented Verbal and Nonverbal Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meudell, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results showed that recall of verbal material hardly was affected by the eye-movement task but was much affected by backward counting, while nonverbal material was recalled with the same efficiency irrespective of type of distractor, suggesting different types of storage for the two types of material. (Author)

  5. Learning of Aurally Received Verbal Material. Including Comparisons with Learning and Memory Under Visual Conditions of Reception as a Function of Meaningfulness, Abstractness or Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Rudolph W.

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the variables that influence the learning of verbal material received by subjects via the aural modality, (2) how learning under conditions of aural reception compare with learning of the same materials under appropriately equivalent visual conditions, and (3) in what combinations learning is…

  6. Reading Aloud and Solving Simple Arithmetic Calculation Intervention (Learning Therapy) Improves Inhibition, Verbal Episodic Memory, Focus Attention and Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called “learning therapy”, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Methods: We used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL). Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods. Results: Compared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88) vs. WL (Mean = 1.22), adjusted p = 0.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22) vs. WL (Mean = 1.59), adjusted p = 0.015), verbal episodic memory (Logical Memory (LM): LT (Mean = 4.59) vs. WL (Mean = 2.47), adjusted p = 0.015), focus attention (D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09) vs. WL (Mean = −0.59), adjusted p = 0.010) and processing speed compared to the WL control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00) vs. WL (Mean = 1.13), adjusted p = 0.015 and Symbol Search (SS): LT (Mean = 3.47) vs. WL (Mean = 1.81), adjusted p = 0.014). Discussion: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be showed the benefit of LT on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis. PMID:27242481

  7. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  8. Memory performance is related to the cortisol awakening response in older people, but not to the diurnal cortisol slope.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matias M; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning has been suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the diurnal cortisol cycle, measured as the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and the memory performance of healthy older people. To do so, we assessed the verbal, visual, and working memory performance of 64 participants (32 men) from 57 to 76 years old who also provided 14 saliva samples on two consecutive weekdays to determine their diurnal cortisol cycle. The CAR was linearly and negatively associated with verbal (significantly) and visual (marginally) memory domains, but not with working memory. Sex did not moderate these relationships. Furthermore, no associations were found between the DCS and any of the three memory domains assessed. Our results indicate that the two components of the diurnal cortisol cycle have different relationships with memory performance, with the CAR being more relevant than DCS in understanding the link from HPA-axis activity and regulation to different types of memory. These results suggest that the CAR is related to memory domains dependent on hippocampal functioning (i.e., declarative memory), but not to those that are more dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning (i.e., working memory). PMID:27266967

  9. Slave to the Rhythm: Experimental Tests of a Model for Verbal Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Sequence Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitch, Graham J.; Flude, Brenda; Burgess, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. "Psychological…

  10. Memory Reactivation and Consolidation during Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paller, Ken A.; Voss, Joel L.

    2004-01-01

    Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes a fundamental characteristic of declarative memories. In general, declarative memories change due to retrieval events at various times after initial learning and…

  11. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  12. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners’ auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding. PMID:26441769

  13. Dream actors in the theatre of memory: their role in the psychoanalytic process.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Mauro

    2003-08-01

    The author notes that neuropsychological research has discovered the existence of two long-term memory systems, namely declarative or explicit memory, which is conscious and autobiographical, and non-declarative or implicit memory, which is neither conscious nor verbalisable. It is suggested that pre-verbal and pre-symbolic experience in the child's primary relations is stored in implicit memory, where it constitutes an unconscious nucleus of the self which is not repressed and which influences the person's affective, emotional, cognitive and sexual life even as an adult. In the analytic relationship this unconscious part can emerge essentially through certain modes of communication (tone of voice, rhythm and prosody of the voice, and structure and tempo of speech), which could be called the 'musical dimension' of the transference, and through dream representations. Besides work on the transference, the critical component of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis is stated to consist in work on dreams as pictographic and symbolic representations of implicit pre-symbolic and pre-verbal experiences. A case history is presented in which dream interpretation allowed some of a patient's early unconscious, non-repressed experiences to be emotionally reconstructed and made thinkable even though they were not actually remembered. PMID:13678499

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children with Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis…

  15. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  16. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  17. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep. PMID:24962994

  18. Behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of episodic coding, proactive interference, and list length effects in a running span verbal working memory task.

    PubMed

    Postle, B R; Berger, J S; Goldstein, J H; Curtis, C E; D'Esposito, M

    2001-03-01

    Updating refers to (1) discarding items from, (2) repositioning items in, and (3) adding items to a running working memory span. Our behavioral and fMRI experiments varied three factors: trial length, proactive interference (PI), and group integrity. Group integrity reflected whether the grouping of items at the encoding stage was violated at discarding. Behavioral results were consistent with the idea that updating processes have a relatively short refractory period and may not fatigue, and they revealed that episodic information about group context is encoded automatically in working memory stimulus representations. The fMRI results did not show evidence that updating requirements in a task recruit executive control processes other than those supporting performance on nonupdating trials. They did reveal an item-accumulation effect, in which signal increased monotonically with the number of items presented during the trial, despite the insensitivity of behavioral measures to this factor. Behavioral and fMRI correlates of PI extended previous results and rejected an alternative explanation of PI effects in working memory. PMID:12467100

  19. Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AuBuchon, Angela M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report how "verbal rehearsal speed" (VRS), a form of covert speech used to maintain verbal information in working memory, and another verbal processing speed measure, perceptual encoding speed, are related to 3 domains of executive function (EF) at risk in cochlear implant (CI) users: verbal…

  20. Verbal memory in brain damaged patients under different conditions of retrieval aids: a study of frontal, temporal, and diencephalic damaged subjects.

    PubMed

    Vogel, C C; Markowitsch, H J; Hempel, U; Hackenberg, P

    1987-04-01

    The performance of 36 patients, divided into six groups, and 13 control subjects was investigated in paired-associate learning. The patients had right or left prefrontal, right or left anterior lateral temporopolar or medial temporal lobe damage, or lesions restricted to diencephalic areas. As tasks, two lists of paired words had to be learned, with the first list presenting only the word pairs, and the second one embedding the word pairs in sentences of a highly imaginable content. Recall consisted of immediate or delayed (48 hrs) free recall of the first list (condition I), of immediate or delayed recall of the second list (with visual imagery as a learning aid; condition II), and of cued recall (in which the sentence form was presented with a blank space where the word to be recalled had been previously; condition III). Control subjects clearly performed best under all conditions, manifesting a ceiling effect for the second and third ones under immediate recall. Among the brain-damaged groups the diencephalic subjects were poorest and gained only little from the aids given for learning and recall. Of the four patients with medial temporal lobe damage, those two with bilateral lesions were nearly as bad as the diencephalic lesioned subjects. The other patients were markedly inferior to the control subjects, but gained considerably under conditions II and III. These statements hold for immediate and delayed recall, though for the delayed recall conditions all groups showed a reduction in performance which amounted to roughly half of the values they had had under immediate recall. It is concluded that increasing the possibilities for depth of information processing assists brain damaged (as well as normal) subjects in verbal learning, but that the advantage of aiding them at the moment of encoding and retrieval is highest for patients with restricted lesions and/or with lesions not invading the two regions most regularly implicated in long-term information

  1. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  2. Examining Visual-Verbal Associations in Children with and without Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Lauren M.; Klein, Evelyn R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal working memory processing both before and after providing semantically elaborated training sentences designed to enhance memory for symbol-word (visual-verbal) pairs. Abilities of 20 children diagnosed with Reading Disorder (RD) and 20 age-matched peers who were normally achieving in reading (NA)…

  3. Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecas, Jean-Francois; Mazaud, Anne-Marie; Reibel, Esther; Rey, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that children with Down syndrome have deficits in verbal short-term memory while having relatively good performance in visual short-term memory tasks. Such verbal deficits have a detrimental effect on various high-level cognitive processes, most notably language comprehension. In this study, we report the case of an…

  4. Does strategy knowledge influence working memory in children with mathematical disabilities?

    PubMed

    Keeler, M L; Swanson, H L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge, verbal WM, and visual-spatial WM in children with MD as a function of initial, gain, and maintenance conditions. The results showed that after partialing the influence of reading, stable strategy choices rather than specific strategy knowledge was related to verbal and visual-spatial WM span in high demand (maintenance) conditions. Experiment 2 compared children with MD to a group of chronological age-matched children and a group of math ability-matched children on the same conditions as Experiment 1. Age-matched children's verbal and visual-spatial WM performance was superior to that of children with MD, whereas WM performance was statistically comparable between children with MD and younger children matched on math ability. The selection of expert strategies was related to high WM span scores in the initial conditions. After controlling for reading achievement in a regression analysis, verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed independent variance to math achievement. Overall, these results suggest that WM and math achievement are related to strategy knowledge. PMID:15503591

  5. Working Memory Capacity and Resistance to Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lange, Elke; Engle, Randall W.

    2004-01-01

    Single-task and dual-task versions of verbal and spatial serial order memory tasks were administered to 120 students tested for working memory capacity with four previously validated measures. In the dual-task versions, similarity between the memory material and the material of the secondary processing task was varied. With verbal material, three…

  6. The Impact of Visual Memory Deficits on Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Jessica Maria

    2011-01-01

    Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…

  7. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  8. Subcortical hyperintensity volumetrics in Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly in the Sunnybrook Dementia Study: correlations with atrophy, executive function, mental processing speed, and verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subcortical hyperintensities (SHs) are radiological entities commonly observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal elderly controls. Although the presence of SH is believed to indicate some form of subcortical vasculopathy, pathological heterogeneity, methodological differences, and the contribution of brain atrophy associated with AD pathology have yielded inconsistent results in the literature. Methods Using the Lesion Explorer (LE) MRI processing pipeline for SH quantification and brain atrophy, this study examined SH volumes of interest and cognitive function in a sample of patients with AD (n = 265) and normal elderly controls (n = 100) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with AD were found to have less gray matter, less white matter, and more sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (all significant, P <0.0001). Additionally, patients with AD had greater volumes of whole-brain SH (P <0.01), periventricular SH (pvSH) (P <0.01), deep white SH (dwSH) (P <0.05), and lacunar lesions (P <0.0001). In patients with AD, regression analyses revealed a significant association between global atrophy and pvSH (P = 0.02) and ventricular atrophy with whole-brain SH (P <0.0001). Regional volumes of interest revealed significant correlations with medial middle frontal SH volume and executive function (P <0.001) in normal controls but not in patients with AD, global pvSH volume and mental processing speed (P <0.01) in patients with AD, and left temporal SH volume and memory (P <0.01) in patients with AD. Conclusions These brain-behavior relationships and correlations with brain atrophy suggest that subtle, yet measurable, signs of small vessel disease may have potential clinical relevance as targets for treatment in Alzheimer’s dementia. PMID:25478020

  9. UNESCO's Mass Media Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Communication, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents the text of the declaration of fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, promoting human rights, and countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war. Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in November 1978. (JMF)

  10. Erasure declaring Viterbi decoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods for realizing erasure declaring Viterbi decoders for the (7,1/2) NASA code are discussed. Only bit oriented algorithms are considered. When such decoders are used in a concatenated system with a (255,223) Reed-Solomon decoder, improvements on the probability of word error of at most 0.1 dB were obtained.

  11. Memory factors in Rey AVLT: Implications for early staging of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Ostberg, Per; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hellström, Ake

    2014-12-01

    Supraspan verbal list learning is widely used to assess dementia and related cognitive disorders where declarative memory deficits are a major clinical sign. While the overall learning rate is important for diagnosis, serial position patterns may give insight into more specific memory processes in patients with cognitive impairment. This study explored these patterns in a memory clinic clientele. One hundred eighty three participants took the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The major groups were patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) as well as healthy controls (HC). Raw scores for the five trials and five serial partitions were factor analysed. Three memory factors were found and interpreted as Primacy, Recency, and Resistance to Interference. AD and MCI patients had impaired scores in all factors. SCI patients were significantly impaired in the Resistance to Interference factor, and in the Recency factor at the first trial. The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment. PMID:25112600

  12. Listening is behaving verbally.

    PubMed

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons" (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  13. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  14. Memory for Faces Dissociates from Memory for Location Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Glosser, Guila

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the right and left mesial temporal lobes are specialized for processing different types of information for long-term memory (LTM). Although findings have been consistent in regard to the dominant role of the left mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in verbal memory, the role of the right MTL in non-verbal memory remains…

  15. Darwin and the Declaration.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676

  16. A neurocognitive perspective on language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T

    2001-10-01

    What are the psychological, computational and neural underpinnings of language? Are these neurocognitive correlates dedicated to language? Do different parts of language depend on distinct neurocognitive systems? Here I address these and other issues that are crucial for our understanding of two fundamental language capacities: the memorization of words in the mental lexicon, and the rule-governed combination of words by the mental grammar. According to the declarative/procedural model, the mental lexicon depends on declarative memory and is rooted in the temporal lobe, whereas the mental grammar involves procedural memory and is rooted in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. I argue that the declarative/procedural model provides a new framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:11584309

  17. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of verbal learning and memory (California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT). One hundred seventy-two neurologically intact individuals ages 5 years through 50 years were administered the VLMT and the CVLT. Normative data were collected and the results suggested that the VLMT is a reliable and valid new measure of visual learning and memory. The aim of Study II was to examine possible dissociations between verbal and visual learning and memory performances in individuals with cystinosis as well as to assess changes in performance as individuals with the disorder age. Thirty-seven individuals with cystinosis and 37 matched controls were administered a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Individuals with cystinosis performed at a lower level than controls on almost all indices of visual learning and memory while no differences were found between the groups on the verbal measure. Examination of the results on the VLMT indicated that the visual learning and memory impairment in cystinosis may result from difficulty with processing visual information quickly. Study III aimed to remediate the observed visual learning and memory deficit by implementing an intervention that increased the exposure time for visual stimuli. Fifteen individuals with cystinosis were administered a version of the VLMT in which the stimuli were exposed for 3-seconds rather than 1-second. Fifteen matched controls were administered the 1-second version of the VLMT. The results of Study III indicated that by increasing the exposure time for each visual stimulus, individuals with

  18. Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    1982-01-01

    The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of…

  19. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  20. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  1. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  2. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  3. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  4. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  5. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  6. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  7. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  8. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4). ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining...

  9. Memory and Violent Crime among Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, June M.

    1982-01-01

    Studied whether good memory, attributed to the psychopathic personality, also appears in juvenile offenders and whether such memory was long- or short-term. Compared Digit Span scores against Verbal IQ scores. Found Digit Span scores surpassed Verbal IQ scores. Effect was nonsignificantly more pronounced among more violent offenders. (JAC)

  10. Are Working Memory Measures Free of Socioeconomic Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Santos, Flavia Heloisa; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of socioeconomic factors on children's performance on tests of working memory and vocabulary. Method: Twenty Brazilian children, aged 6 and 7 years, from low-income families, completed tests of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span) and vocabulary (expressive and receptive). A…

  11. Spatial Working Memory and Gender Differences in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, John F.; Litwiller, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    One reason for the lack of female participation in science could be due to cognitive differences between males and females. The present study measured verbal and spatial working memory for 15 males and 48 females. Males were found to have both a larger verbal memory and a larger spatial memory. Participants then read texts that either presented…

  12. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  13. An example of exceptional practice effects in the verbal domain.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, Jacob; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders

    2015-01-01

    XY, a 20-year-old mnemonist (current world ranking within the top 50) was tested with standard neuropsychological tests. XY recalled all words on all trials on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 15 words) and scored above the 99.9th percentile on the Wechsler Memory Scales R, Logical Memory (WLM, 2 short stories, 25 units per story, 50 units total). XY had not been previously tested with neuropsychological tests, but had trained memory techniques for approximately 8 years. We suggest that training on similar tasks resulted in substantial practice effects in the verbal memory domain, with no measurable transfer effects to the visual domain. In addition to previous findings, we present a practice effect on RAVLT and WLM exceeding previously documented test-retest effects by 2-3 standard deviations. PMID:24460464

  14. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model.

    PubMed

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief Aphasia Evaluation was used. A sample of 65 patients with left cerebral lesions, and two supplementary samples comprising 35 patients with right cerebral lesions and 30 healthy participants were studied. A model encompassing an all inclusive verbal organizer and two successive organizers was validated. The two last organizers were: three factors of comprehension, expression and a "complementary" verbal factor which included praxia, attention, and memory; followed by the individual (and correlated) factors of auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, speech, reading, writing, and the "complementary" factor. By following this approach all the patients fall inside the classification system; consequently, theoretical improvement is guaranteed. PMID:25168953

  15. Memory ability and hippocampal volume in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Tracy; Cacic, Kelsey; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Scaletti, Laura A; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on memory performance and supporting brain structures (i.e., hippocampus) during adolescence. To achieve this goal, declarative memory ability and hippocampal volume were examined in a well-characterized sample of 138 adolescents (76 with a history of PDE and 62 from a non-exposed comparison group recruited from the same community, mean age=14 years). Analyses were adjusted for: age at time of the assessments, gender, IQ, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, and indices of early childhood environment (i.e., caregiver depression, potential for child abuse, and number of caregiver changes through 7 years of age). Results revealed that adolescents with a history of PDE performed worse on the California Verbal Learning Test-Child Version (CVLT-C), and story recall from the Children's Memory Scale (CMS), and had larger hippocampal volumes, even after covariate adjustment. Hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with memory performance on the CVLT-C, with lower memory scores associated with larger volumes. These findings provide support for long-term effects of PDE on memory function and point to neural mechanisms that may underlie these outcomes. PMID:22652523

  16. Memory and ventricular size in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Acker, C; Jacobson, R R; Lishman, W A

    1987-05-01

    The relationship between memory performance and CT scan measures of ventricular size was investigated in a sample of 39 chronic alcoholics and 39 controls. Measures of verbal, non-verbal, recognition and recall memory were derived from the tests administered and were viewed in relation to the lateral ventricle and third ventricular size measurements. The results showed that the memory performance of male alcoholics was significantly related to measures of third ventricular size, but probably not to measures of the lateral ventricles. An association between verbal memory performance and CT scan measures was found in the male controls. PMID:3602226

  17. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  18. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  19. Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Ken A.; Voss, Joel L.

    2004-01-01

    Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes a fundamental characteristic of declarative memories. In general, declarative memories change due to retrieval events at various times after initial learning and due to the formation and elaboration of associations with other memories, including memories formed after the initial learning episode. We propose that declarative memories change both during waking and during sleep, and that such change contributes to enhancing binding of the distinct representational components of some memories, and thus to a gradual process of cross-cortical consolidation. As a result of this special form of consolidation, declarative memories can become more cohesive and also more thoroughly integrated with other stored information. Further benefits of this memory reprocessing can include developing complex networks of interrelated memories, aligning memories with long-term strategies and goals, and generating insights based on novel combinations of memory fragments. A variety of research findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cross-cortical consolidation can progress during sleep, although further support is needed, and we suggest some potentially fruitful research directions. Determining how processing during sleep can facilitate memory storage will be an exciting focus of research in the coming years. PMID:15576883

  20. Verbal dyspraxia and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Amy Leigh; Singh, Rani H; Kennedy, Mary Jane; Elsas, Louis J

    2003-03-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from deficient galactose-1-phosphateuridyl transferase (GALT) activity. Verbal dyspraxia is an unusual outcome in galactosemia. Here we validated a simplified breath test of total body galactose oxidation against genotype and evaluated five potential biochemical risk indicators for verbal dyspraxia in galactosemia: cumulative percentage dose (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in breath, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, highest erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, mean urinary galactitol, and erythrocyte GALT activity. Thirteen controls and 42 patients with galactosemia took a (13)C-galactose bolus, and the (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in expired air was determined. Patients with <5% CUMPCD had mutant alleles that severely impaired human GALT enzyme catalysis. Patients with > or =5% CUMPCD had milder mutant human GALT alleles. Twenty-four patients consented to formal speech evaluation; 15 (63%) had verbal dyspraxia. Dyspraxic patients had significantly lower CUMPCD values (2.84 +/- 5.76% versus 11.51 +/- 7.67%; p < 0.008) and significantly higher mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate (3.38 +/- 0.922 mg/dL versus 1.92 +/- 1.28 mg/dL; p = 0.019) and mean urinary galactitol concentrations (192.4 +/- 75.8 mmol/mol creatinine versus 122.0 +/- 56.4; p = 0.048) than patients with normal speech. CUMPCD values <5%, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate levels >2.7 mg/dL, and mean urinary galactitol levels >135 mmol/mol creatinine were associated with dyspraxic outcome with odds ratios of 21, 13, and 5, respectively. We conclude that total body oxidation of galactose to CO(2) in expired air reflects genotype and that this breath test is a sensitive predictor of verbal dyspraxia in patients with galactosemia. PMID:12595586